Historical Collections of Ohio pgs 847-855
Historical Collections of Ohio: Pages 847-855
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~ pg. 847 ~

The German Element In Cincinnati.

The German element comprises one-third of the population of Cincinnati.  It has had a surprising influence upon its art development—as music, painting and sculpture—also upon its politics and business.  It has given some highly prominent men to the community.

The first mayor of Cincinnati was Major DAVID ZIEGLER, a German from Heidelburg, elsewhere noticed.  Another eminent man was MARTIN BAUM.  He was of high Dutch parentage; his father was from Strasburg, his mother of the KERSHNER family, but he was born at Hagerstown, Md., June 14, 1765, In 1795, at the age of thirty, he came to Cincinnati, engaged in merchandising, and became its most wealthy and influential business citizen.  In 1804 he married Miss Anna Somerville WALLACE.  In 1803 he founded the first bank in the West, the Miami Exporting Company.  This company at the same time carried on a great transportation business, and became one of the most important promoters and improvers of the navigation of the West.  he called into life the first sugar-refinery, the first iron-foundry, emigrants from ships at Philadelphia—as Zachariah ERNEST, the STABLERS, SCHNETZ, Simon OELER, SCHENEBERGERS, HOFFNER, etc.  Moreover, had the first ornamental garden, the first vineyard, and was active in founding the first public library (1802); of the Western Museum (1817); the first agricultural society (1818) etc., he was a leader in establishing schools, markets and churches; personally was one of the main pillars of the first Presbyterian church.  He eventually purchased that extensive tract from Pike street to the top of Mount Adams and bounded by Congress and Fifth streets.  Here he built the elegant residence, later occupied by Nicholas LONGWORTH, and now by David SINTON.  His hospitable home was open to all intellectually great men who visited Cincinnati, and German literary men were especially welcome.  This great and useful man died December 14, 1831, of epidemic influenza, now known as “La Grippe.”

CHRISTIAN BURKHALTER, formerly secretary to Prince Blucher, in 1837 founded a German Whig newspaper, the Weslicher Merkur.  In 1836 he joined James G.


BIRNEY in the publication of the Philanthropist, an Abolitions newspaper, which was destroyed by a mob.  ALBERT VON STEIN came to Cincinnati in 1817, and gained eminence as a civil engineer.  He was builder of the Cincinnati water-works, the first in the country to be worked by pumps; made drawings for “Wilson’s Ornithology;” built the Appomatox canal, and water-works for Richmond, Lynchburg, Petersburg, New Orleans, Nashville and Mobile.  He died in 1876, aged 84.  Dr. FREDRICH REESE, a very leaned man in (1825), was the first German Catholic priest Cincinnati, later was bishop of  Detroit; he was the founder of the Scientific School and of the Athenæum—the nucleus from which sprang St. Xavier College.  DR. WILHELM NAST, born in 1807, studied theology and philosophy with David Strauss in the celebrated Turbingen Institute; emigrated in 1828; in 1831 and 1832 went over to the Methodist church, and is considered as the father of German Methodism in America.  He founded here two German Methodist newspapers.  His theological works are very numerous, and he “has persuaded many to study in German universities, although he must have been aware that they would change their narrow religious views for wider and riper ones?”  In 1826 appeared the first German newspaper, Die Ohio Chronik.  In 1834 the Germans formed a German society, that they might aid each other to assure a better future, and to secure generally those charitable aims which are “impossible to the single individual.”  Among those who formed this was HEINRICH RODTER, journalist and lawyer.  He was editor of the Volksblatt, founded in 1836 as the organ of the Democrats.  In 1847—48, as a member of the Ohio Legislature, he had passed the law which secures workingmen a lien on houses built by them, and also a law reducing the cost of naturalization to foreigners.  Although a Democrat, he voted against the black laws and was anti-slavery in his sentiments; at one time was a lawyer partner with the eminent J. B. STALLO.  He died in 1857.  KARL GUSTAVE REEMELIN was born in Wurtemburg in 1814, and at the age of 18 years arrived in this country.  This was on the eve of the election of Andrew JACKSON, when he became attached to the Democratic party, to which he has always adhered.  “His studies and experience at home had already given him an enthusiasm for free trade and a prejudice against paper money and a banking system; and he though he was in the Whig party an inclination toward Puritanism which was naturally repugnant to the genuine German nature.  The name Democracy had a certain charm for the Germans; and as the wealthy classes most belonged to the Whig party they classed them with the European aristocracy.  REEMELIN became one of the founders of the Volksblatt, studied law but never practised, and entered into politics.  As a member of the Ohio Legislature he criticized very sharply the then defective method of taxation, and evinced a thorough study of political economy.”  He was a leading member of the Constitutional Convention in 1850—51; the article in the constitution is due to his exertions which prevents the legislature from making arbitrary division in the electoral districts.  Through this great abuses had arisen, minorities at times having gained a majority in the legislature.  He visited the reform schools in Europe, and guided by his report the legislature established the Reform School at Lancaster.  Becoming tired of politics he eventually retired to his beautiful farm and vineyard near Cincinnati, where he has written much for agricultural journals—one upon “The Climate of Ohio” He has published “The Vine Dresser’s Manual,” “The Wine Maker’s Manual,” and “Politics as a Science.”

The fact that Cincinnati owns the finest zoölogical garden in the country is due to another German gentleman, MR. ANDRED ERKENBRECHER, lately deceased.  It was his original conception and was pushed to consummation with characteristic energy.  He was born in Bavaria in 1822, and came to this country in his fourteenth year.

EMIL KLAUPRECHT, born at Mainz, in 1815 first carried on lithography in Cincinnati and then turned to journalism.  In 1843 he published the first belles-lettres periodical, the Filegende Blatter, with lithographic illustrations, the first German illustrated paper in the United States.  He was at one time United States consul for Stuttgart.  He edited a Whig paper, the Republicaner, which for ten years was the principal organ of his party in the Western States.  He wrote several novels and an historical work, “Deutche Chronik in der Geschichte des OhioThales.”  The Germans have supplied to Cincinnati other literary men of marked ability as HEINRICK VON MARTELS, DR. JOSEPH H. PULTE, founder of the Putle Homœpathic College; HEINRICH A. RATTERMANN, founder of the German Mutual Insurance Company.  “Mr. RATTERMANN has written poetry in both the German and English; has worked with especial industry in the history of civilization, and has taken upon himself to vindicate a just estimate of German emigration, and showing therein a sharp and critical judgment.”  The names of others connected with editorship or education can be mentioned, but we have no room for details, as DR. Friedrich ROELKER, August RENZ, Joseph Anon HERMANN, Stephen MOLITOR,  Nikolaus HOFER, Rev. Geo. WALKER, Ludwig REHFUSS, founder of the Lafayette Guard in 1836, the first German military company, Pastor August KROLL,etc.

In art the Germans have been especially prominent, as the names of many Cincinnati artist testify.  As early as 1826 Gottfried SCHADOW founded here a Academy of Fine Arts, and had for a pupil Hiram POWERS.  He died of cholera and with him perished his academy.  He made busts of Governor MORROW and President HARRISON, the first of which is now in the State library.


Even away back to 1823 existed here a German musical society.  In 1849 the first great German musical festival of the United States was held in this city.  Then was founded the first German Saengerbund of North America, whose musical festivals have now gained a world-wide reputation, and prepared the way for the foundation of the Grand Music Hall and College of Music.

The great lithographic business of the city is almost entirely the work of Germans, and the largest furniture factory of the world employing 1500 hands, that of MITCHEL and RAMMELSBURG, owes its foundation mainly to Frederick RAMMELSBURG, a Hanoverian, who died in 1863.  In 1831 Mathias SCHWAB started here the first organ factory in the west, if not in the Union.

The most remarkable man among the German lawyers of Ohio, “a man of whom all the Germans in the United States should be especially proud is JOHANN BERNHARD STALLO.”  He came from a race of school-masters, and was born in 1823, in the Grand Dukedom of Oldenburg, and came to Cincinnati in 1839, where he was first a teacher in a private school when he compiled a German A, B, C, spelling-book, a great want, the superior merits of which led the directors of the newly founded Catholic St Xavier’s College to appointed him a teacher in that institution.  The study of higher mathematics led him to German philosophy, and in 1848 appeared his “General Principles of the Philosophy of Nature,” and in 1882 his “Concepts and Theories of Modern Physics.”  Mr. STALLO adopted the profession of law, and from 1853 to 1855 was Judge of the Court of Common Pleas.  Returning to practice he gained a most brilliant reputation by an argument before the Superior Court of Cincinnati against the retention of Bible reading and religious instruction in public schools.  Although the Cincinnati Court decided adversely, the Supreme Court of Ohio reversed their decisions and sustained the views of STALLO and the liberals.  It was on the ground that religion is wholly a matter of individual freedom, over which the State by its Constitution has no power.  This celebrated speech was regarded as a wonderful illustration of striking logic, wealth of philosophical truth and historical illustration.  He was appointed minister to Italy in 1855, Mr. STALLO possesses a strikingly refined, scholarly presence, and is of the light hair, blue-eyed German type.

SAMUEL N. PIKE the builder of the magnificent opera houses in Cincinnati and New York, was of Jewish parentage.  The family name was HECHT, the German for PIKE.  He was born near Heidelberg, and in 1827, when five years of age, came to American, and in 1844 to Cincinnati.  He gained colossal wealth in the liquor business, and having been an great admirer of Jenny Lind he built for the Muse of Song a temple which he said should do honor to Cincinnati.  On February 22, 1859 the opera house, the largest and most beautiful in America, was opened with song.  It was burnt in 1866, and later rebuilt.  He was a silent, calm man, and while it was building none knew his object, when from the roof of the Burnet House he saw the structure of his pride and ambition vanishing in the flames, he quietly smoked his cigar as unruffled as the most indifferent spectator, and while thus standing gazing in this calm contemplative attitude, one of the light-fingered gentry as calmly relieved him of his watch, of course, a first-class timekeeper.

The Grand Opera House in New York was begun at this time.  He sold it to James Fisk, Jr. for $850,000.  A gigantic speculation in land, reclaiming the Jersey marshes, near New York, brought him immense profits, so that at his death, in 1875, his fortune was well up in the millions.  He used to say he “could not see why he should make money—he never fretted himself—he couldn’t help it.”

In the war of the rebellion the Germans took a very active part.  Familiar with the conflict of arms in the old country they saw sooner than the native Americans that was inevitable, and were therefore very early in the field.  Three general officers of the Union army were supplied by Germans of Cincinnati.  Gen. August MOOR, born in Leipic in 1814, who had been captain in the Mexican war, started as Colonel of the 28th Ohio Volunteer or 2d German regiment; the 1st German regiment or 9th Ohio was under Robert MC COOK.  MOOR gained a high reputation.  Gen. AUGUST V. KAUTZ, born in Baden in 1828, was a private in the Mexican war, later a lieutenant in the regular army.  He is the author of several small military treaties.  Gen. GOTTFRIED WEITZEL, born at Winzlen in 1832, came to this country in early childhood, graduated high in his class at West Point, and was assigned to the engineer corps.  While in command of a division in the operations against Petersburg, he greatly distinguished himself, the taking of which led to the fall of Richmond.  “He was the first one who, at the head of his command, entered Richmond by the side of President LINCOLN.  Strange coincidence!  The German General SCHIMMELPFENNING was the first to lead a brigade into Charleston, and another German General was the first to carry the flag of the Union into Vicksburg.”  The first bayonet charge of the war was made in the Union victory at Mill Spring by the 1st German regiment (9th Ohio), composed mainly of the Cincinnati Turner Society, and commanded by Col. Robert Mc COOK, later murdered by guerillas.  A portrait and sketch of him is in Vol. i,* page 367.

LEOPOLD MARKBREIT, a native of Vienna, came to Cincinnati with his parents in 1848, when six years of age.  He studied law with his half-brother, the talented Fred.  HASAUREK; became a law partner with Rutherford B. HAYES; then went into the Union army, where he eventually attained the rank of colonel; from 1868 to 1873 was U.S

Minister to Bolivia and now edits the Volksblatt.

In the war period he was taken prisoner, and sent to Libby Prison in Richmond.  Through the story of his sufferings there he attained a sad celebrity.

After five months of ordinary imprison-ment, he and three other victims were select-ed as hostages and placed in close confinement, to prevent the execution of four rebels, who were charged with recruiting within the Union lines in Kentucky (which charge was of a rather doubtful nature, as that part of Kentucky would be considered as disputed ground), and had been sentenced to death as spies by a military court convened by Gen. BURNSIDE.  The four hostages were placed in a subterranean dungeon of the Libby, where they had hardly room enough to lie down at night.  For months they were lying buried in this hole, and received only one meal a day.  Even this meal was insufficient to appease their hunger, for it consisted gen-erally only of a handful of corn meal (into which the cobs had been ground), a little of rotten bacon and some rice or beans.  This food was not enough for life, and too much for absolute starvation.  The unfortu-nate men were soon reduced to skeletons, and would, doubtless, have died, if the negroes employed in the Libby prison had not, from time to time, smuggled in some food to them.  The rats, which the prisoners killed with pieces of wood in their dungeon, were cooked for them by the kind-hearted negroes, and taken back to their cells.  The sufferings the poor prisoners had to endure were beyond all comprehension and only when they were transported to Salisbury, N. C., a change for the better took place.  From Salisbury, Col. MARKBREIT was taken to Danville, Va., and from there back to Libby, till at last, in February, 1865, his half-brother, F. HASSAUREK, succeeded in having him liberated.  He had been imprisoned for more than thir-teen months.  His health had been so in-jured by these sufferings that he never fully recovered.”  Mr. MARKBREIT is tall in person, and dignified and courteous in manner.  In his South American experience he was an eye-witness to several bloody revolutions, and at the risk of his own life often protected the lives of the members of overthrown governments who sought refuge with the United States legation.

Allusion has been made in the foregoing to Mr. HASSAUREK.  Appleton’s “Cyclo-pedia of American Biography’’ gives his outline of his career: “FRIEDRICH HASSAUREK, journalist.  was born in Vienna, Austria, 9th October 1832; died in Paris, France, 1st October 1885, He served in the German revolution of 1848, and was twice wounded.  He came to the United States in 1848, set-tled in Cincinnati, Ohio, and engaged in journalism, politics, and the practice of law.  He was U. S. minister to Ecuador in 1861—5, and during the latter year became editor of the Volksblatt.  He published “Four Years among the Spanish Americans.”

JOHN CLEVES SYMMES was born on Long Island in 1742.  Removed to New Jersey, and was prominent during the Revolution as colonel of a militia regiment in active field service.  He was one year Lieutenant-Governor of New Jersey; six years a member of the Council; two years a member of the Continental Congress, and twelve years a judge of the Supreme Court of New Jersey.  In August, 1787, Judge SYMMES, encouraged by the success of the Ohio Company, obtained from Congress a grant for a purchase of a tract, of land fronting on the Ohio river between the two Miamis, and extending north to the tenth township.  Having been unable to pay for the whole, after much negotiation, he closed a contract in 1792, for 1,000,000 acres.  The continued rise in government securities made it impossible to pay for this, and in 1794, a patent was granted him for between 300,000 and 400,000 acres, including the front on the Ohio river and extending back to the third township.  He was appointed one of the judges of the North-west Territory, 1788.  He died, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1814.  Judge SYMMES was three times married.  He left two daughters—one, Maria married Major Payton SHORT; one, Anna, became the wife of William Henry HARRISON, afterward, President of the United States.  (See “McBride’s Pioneer Biography.”)

The name T. BUCHANAN READ is identified with the war period at Cincinnati.  He was born in Chester county, Pa., March 12, 1822.  His mother, then a widow, apprenticed  him to a tailor, but be ran away to Philadelphia, learned to make cigars, and at fifteen years of age came to Cincinnati, found here a home with the sculptor CLEVENGER, painted signs, and at intervals went to school.  Through the liberality of Nicholas LONGWORTH he was enabled to open a studio and painted portraits.  Not finding many sitters, after a little he led a wandering life, by turns painting portraits, painting signs and making cigars.  At nineteen he went East to New York and Boston, and at the age of twenty-one published several


lyric poems.  In 1843 he first visited Europe and again in 1853, where he passed five years as a painter in Florence.  He afterwards passed much time in Philadelphia and Cincinnati, but in the last years of his life made Rome his principal residence; but He regarded Cincinnati as more especially his home, where he is pleasantly remembered as a gentleman, small in person, delicate and refined in aspect.  During the civil war he gave public readings for the benefit of the soldiers, and recited his war songs.  The most famous of these was “Sheridan’s Ride,” which was written in Cincinnati the details of its production are given under the head of Perry county.  He died in New York city, May 11, 1872, aged fifty years.  His “Complete Poetical Works” were published in Boston in 1860.  Later he wrote his “Wagoner of the Alleghenies,” and in 1865—1867 were issued at Philadelphia a quite full edition of his poetical works in three volumes.

“His paintings, most of which deal with allegorical and mythological sub-jects, are full of poetic and graceful fancies, but the technical treatment betrays his lack of early training.  He possessed a much more thorough mastery in the art of poetry than in painting.  His poems express fervent patriotism and artistic power, with a delicate fancy for the scenes of nature.”  Nothing can be more pathetically sweet than these lines:


Fair dweller by the dusty way.
 Bright saint within a mossy shrine,
The tribute of a heart to-day,
Weary and worn, is thine.

The earliest blossoms of the year,
The sweetbrier arid the violet,
The pious hand of spring has here
Upon thy altar set.

And not to thee alone is given
The homage of the pilgrim’s knee
But oft the sweetest birds of heaven
Glide down and sing to thee.

Here daily from his beechen cell
The hermit squirrel steals to drink
And flocks, which cluster to their bell,
Recline along thy brink.

And here the wagoner blocks his wheels,
 To quaff the cool and generous boon:
Here, from the sultry harvest fields,
   The reapers rest at noon.

And oft the beggar masked with tan,
   In rusty garments gray with dust,
Here sips and dips his little can,
  And breaks his scanty crust.

And lulled beside thy whispering stream,
   Oft drops to slumber unawares,
And sees the angels of his dream
   Upon celestial stairs.

Dear dweller by the dusty way.
  Thou saint within a mossy shrine,
The tribute of a heart to-day,
  Weary and worn, is thine.

A prominent and most useful man to Cincinnati and the State in the war-period was Col. LEONARD A. HARRIS, who was born there in 1824 and died there in July, 1890.  He was a captain at the first battle of Bull Run, and later was Colonel of the Second Ohio Infantry.  At Perrysville he commanded a division, and behaved with singular bravery and skill.  Breaking down from disease he was obliged to resign and returned to Cincinnati.  The year 1863 had troublous times, and the office of mayor required a firm and cool head; the public eye was


fixed on  Col. HARRIS as just the man; and he was elected.  In the fall came on the Vallandigham campaign, and there were several outbreaks of the riotous ele-ments in the city, which he squelched with an iron hand.

His great distinguishing work was in drafting the famous “hundred day-men law, Governor BROUGH having taken him into his counsel for that purpose.  By this law Ohio sent 43,000 men, National Guard, into the field as her quota; and these, uniting with the avalanche from other States under Lincoln’s call, led to the overwhelming of the exhausted South.

In 1865 he was re-elected mayor by 8,000 majority, his personal popularity having been great.  He was the principal founder of the famed Cuvier Club, and for years, by appointment from Congress, one of the managers of the Soldiers’ Homes.  His qualities were kindness, generosity, modesty, courage, power of intellect and executive capacity.  Rarely has any public man in the city been so personally popular.

HENRY VAN-NESS BOYNTON—soldier and author—was born in West Stockbridge, Mass., 22d July, 1835.  He removed with his father, a distinguished minister, to Ohio, when quite young and graduated at the Woodward High School, Cincinnati, in June, 1855.  Wishing to become a civil engineer he entered the Kentucky Military School, and received through its training and in-struction all that could have been given him at West Point.  When the late civil war broke out he volunteered, and was elected and commissioned  Major of the Thirty-fifth Ohio Infantry, 27th July, 1861.  He was promoted Lieut.-Colonel 19th July, 1863, and commanded the regiment during the Tennessee campaigns, and was brevetted Brigadier for gallant conduct at the battles of Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge.  At the last-named fight he fell, badly wounded, as he led his regiment up that famous height.  General BOYTON was regarded by his men, brother and superior officers, as the bravest of the brave.  To this courage he added a soldierly turn of mind that would have made him invaluable in an independent command where such quality is called for.  As it is, his fine mind and vast stores of information make him a great critic on war matters, his comments on W. T. Sherman’s “Memoirs” created a wide excitement and interest in war circles.  Of like sort is his valuable contribution to history in his famous papers on the Chickamauga campaign and battle.

On leaving the army at the end of the war, General BOYNTON entered journalism, and almost immediately became the Washington correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette.  His keen, incisive efforts in that line gave his journal a national reputation.  He was soon put at the head of the Washington Bureau, in which a syndi-cate of several leading papers was formed, and to-day he is regarded as at the front in his profession; one of the most noted, loved, feared and respected of journalists.  General BOYNTON’S great quality in the army was his high courage, that was animated by the purest and deepest patriotism.

His distinguishing characteristic as a journalist is his sterling integrity, inspired by a sense justice, that can be appealed to at all times.  He is feared by knaves of all sorts, for his singularly incisive style, backed by his courage, makes him terrible in his assaults on wrong.  He has driven some of the worst lobbyists from Washington, and is feared as no other man ever was by the entire lobby.  General BOYNTON’S latest achievement was the selection and dedication of the Chickamauga battle-field as a public park.  He was greatly assisted in this by General Henry M. CIST, of Cincinnati; but General CIST, with the frankness of a true soldier, gives General BOYNTON full credit for this great work.  The post-office nearest the battle-field has been called BOYNTON, and ere long a bronze bust will mark the place where he so gallantly fought, in token of the affectionate feelings and admi-ration of his brother soldiers.


Originally an officer under Frederick the Great and then of the army of the American Revolution, Commandant of Fort Washington and the first President or Mayor of Cincinnati.—Written for this work by MARY D. STEELE, Dayton.

“In the Indian border warfare between 1788 and 1795,’’ says ROSENGARTEN, in his  ‘German Soldier in the Wars of the United States’ “a leading figure was that of DAVID ZEIGLER, whose story is typical of that of many of our early German soldiers.”  He also “won great praise” for courage and military ability during the Revolution, and took much pride in having the best drilled company in the regiment.  He began his military career as an officer in Frederick the Great’s army, and also served in the Russian army in the reign of Catherine Second, during the campaign against the Turks, which ended with the cession of the Crimea to Russia.  Major DENNY states, in his “Military Journal,” that ZEIGLER was also at one time in the Saxon service.

DAVID ZEIGLER was born at Heidelberg in 1748.  He emigrated to American in 1775, for the purpose of entering the Revolutionary army.  In June, 1775 he was commissioned third lieutenant in Captain Ross’s Company, which was recruited in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and immediately sent to escort a supply of powder, of which Washington’s army was desperately in need to Cambridge.  On the 25th of June, 1775, ZEIGLER was promoted first lieutenant and adjutant of Col. William THOMPSON’S battalion of riflemen.  This regiment was more than half made up of Germans, and was “the second in Pennsylvanian to enlist for the war under Washington.”  January 16, 1777, ZEIGLER was commissioned first lieutenant of a company in the First Pennsylvania Continental Infantry, and December 8, 1778, was promoted captain.  From his promotion till the end of the Revolution he served as senior captain in the famous regiment, which General WAYNE said, “always stepped the first to glory.”  It distinguished itself in the battles of Long Island, Brandywine, Monmouth, and Bergen’s Point.  The same day that he was commissioned, Captain ZEIGLER was made Brigade Inspector of the Pennsylvania brigade Department of the South.

Once during the Revolutionary war he was taken prisoner.  The following account of the adventure is given by the American Pioneer: General Samuel FINDLEY, Major ZEIGLER, late of Cincinnati, the first marshal of Ohio and Major Thomas MARTIN, were captured by the British and imprisoned in Philadelphia.  They made their escape, MARTIN killing the British officer in pursuit with a club.  Reaching a Dutchman’s house, Major MARTIN passed ZEIGLER—who was a Prussian—for a Dutch doctor, who, by making pills of a bread mixed with a little spittle, cured the landlady and escaped a bill of charges.  A niece of the major often related this story, but she said that he cured the landlady with hair power, shaken from a powder-puff which he carried in a box in his pocket.  His power-puff figured in many a joke at a later date.  He was very witty and fond of a good story, and numerous humorous anecdotes about him used to be in circulation among his old friends.

In 1780, just before the mutiny of the troops at Morristown, when an effort was at last being made to satisfy their just demands, ZEIGLER was appointed by Pennsylvania State clothier and issuing commissary of State stores, and was sent to President REED with an estimate of the clothing needed for the troops by WAYNE, who ended his letter with the words: “Captain ZEIGLER will be able to inform your excellency of matters I don’t choose to commit to paper.”

After the mutiny the First Pennsylvania, of which JARMAR was now colonel, was sent to Virginia, where it distinguished itself at Yorktown.  January 4, 1782, it joined Greene in South Carolina, remaining a year and a half, and being present at the investment and surrender of Charleston.

In June, 1783, it returned by sea to Philadelphia.  Major ZEIGLER was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati; an honor which he valued highly.  In a beautiful miniature in our possession, painted on ivory by Pine, at Philadelphia in 1799, he wears the Continental uniform, and the gold eagle badge of the Society, fastened by its blue ribbon to the breast of his coat.

After the disbandment of the Continental army Congress raised a new regiment of which HARMAR was made colonel and ZEIGLER was commissioned captain of one of the four Pennsylvania companies, August 12, 1784.  In September the four companies marched for Fort McIntosh, twenty-nine miles below Pittsburg, where they remained till the fall of 1785, when the regiment was reorganized and ZEIGLER went to Pennsylvania to recruit.  He returned in November with his company to McIntosh, leaving there in the spring for Fort Finney, at the mouth of the great Miami.  A high flood led to the abandonment of this fort, and another of the same name was built at the Rapids of the Ohio in July, where ZEIGLER remained till winter.  In January, 1787, his company and two others were at Fort Harmar—“officers and men in close quarters.”

In the summer of 1787 ZEIGLER accompanied HARMAR on his Western expedition for the purpose of treating with Indians and deciding difficulties among settlers about public


and private property.  They went by water from what is now Louisville to Port St. Vin-cent or Vincennes, Indiana, ZEIGLER’S com-pany returned on foot through the woods to Fort Finney near Louisville.  Here, October 28, HARMAR received his commission as brig-adier-general, and the troops left at once by water for Fort Harmer, where they spent the winter.  The regiment was only enlisted for a year, and in the spring ZEIGLER went East to recruit.  He returned to Harmar Septem-ber 9, escorting from Fort Pitt Gen. BUTLER, Capt. O’HARA, and the friendly chief, CORNPLANTER, with about fifty Seneca Indians, who came to negotiate a treaty with the United States Government.  Major DENNY says that ZEIGLER and his party were received with a salute of three rounds of cannon and the music;” and BUEL says, “We saluted them with our field-pieces, which they returned with a running fire from their rifles.’’

Soon after we left the Point,” Dr. CUTTLER writes in his ‘Journal,’ “saw the soldiers and a number  of Indians, expected from Fort Pitt, coming down on the other side of Kerr’s Island.  We crossed the river and met them.  Captain ZEIGLER commanded the company of new levies of fifty-five men.  There were about fifty Indians in canoes lashed together.  The soldiers were  paraded in a very large boat, stood up on a platform, and were prop-erly paraded, with the American flag in the stern.  Just as we got up to them they be-gun to fire by platoons.  After they had fired, the Indians fired from their canoes singly or rather confusedly.  The Indians had two small flags of thirteen stripes.  They were answered from the garrison by train, who fired three field-pieces, flag hoisted.”

ZEIGLER was noted as a drill-master arid dis-ciplinarian, as well as for personal bravery.  Major DENNY says in his “Military Journal:”  “ZEIGLER is a German, and has been in the Saxon service previous to our late war with England.  Takes pride in having the handsomest company in the regiment to do him justice, his company has been always con-sidered the first in point of discipline and ap-pearance.  Four-fifths of the company have been Germans.  Majority of the present are men who served in Germany.’’  In fierce and cruel engagements with Indians, in which half the army was killed, he exhibited the coolness and courage which were character-istic of him.  On one occasion, duty obliging him to remain for some time stationary on a spot exposed from every direction to the bullets and tomahawks of the savages, he seated himself on the stump of a tree, took out his pipe, filled and tranquilly smoked it, apparently utterly fearless of danger and oblivious of the harrowing sights around him.

In December, 1789, General HARMAR left Marietta for Fort Washington with three hundred men, leaving Captain ZEIGLER at Fort Harmar with twenty soldiers.  Those who remained received their pay the day before Christmas, as is shown by Captain David ZEIGLER’S receipt, dated December 24, for the $859.45 paid himself and his company, which is still preserved.  In September, 1790, HARMAR undertook the expedition against the Indian villages, near the present city of Fort Wayne, which ended in a retreat to Fort Washington.  The real object of the cam-paign was however accomplished by a party of 600 militia, under Col. HARDEN, including fifty regulars commanded by Captain ZEIGLER.  They burned the deserted villages, destroyed corn, fruit trees, provisions, and all time property of the Indians.  After disbanding his army, HARMAR resigned his commission and demanded a court of inquiry, which met at Fort Washington, September 15, 1791.  Capt. ZEIGLER was one of the principal witnesses.  He attributed the defeat to the insubordina-tion of the militia.  HARMAR and ZEIGLER were warm friends through life.

At the close of this campaign ZEIGLER was ordered back to Harmar, where he remained in command till St. CLAIR’S expedition was organized.  After his disastrous defeat St. CLAIR went to Philadelphia, leaving Major ZEIGLER, promoted December 29, 1791, at Fort Washington, where he continued in command of the United States army for about six weeks.  In January, 1792, a Congres-sional Committee was appointed to inquire into the causes of St. CLAIR’S defeat.  Major ZEIGLER was summoned as a witness, and in his testimony shifted the blame of the disas-ter from St. CLAIR’S to the inefficient quartermaster’s shoulders.  In 1792, probably while in Philadelphia as a witness for St. CLAIR, ZEIGLER resigned his commission in the army.

He settled at Cincinnati, opening a store, where, according to a bill that has been preserved, he sold muslin, hardware, groceries, etc.’’ He was a successful merchant, and made what at that day was considered a for-tune.  He owned two shares in the funds of the Ohio Company and many acres of mili-tary bounty land; but these wild lands were of little value, and his income was principally derived from his Cincinnati speculations.  The territorial legislature incorporated the town of Cincinnati, January 2, 1802, and Major ZEIGLER was appointed president of the village.  In 1804 he was appointed  by President JEFFERSON the first marshal of the Ohio district.  From 1809-1811 he was surveyor of the port of Cincinnati.  In politics he was Democrat.  Judge BURNET says in his “Note:” ‘Only four individuals Cincinnati are now remembered who then (1800) advocated the election of Mr. JEFFERSON against Mr. ADAMS.  These were Major David ZEIGLER, William Henry HARRISON, William MC MILLIAN and John SMITH.”

In the spring of 1789 Captain ZEIGLER, then stationed at Fort Harmar, married, at Marietta, Lucy, youngest child of Benjamin and Hannah COGGESHALL SHEFFIELD.  She was a native of Jamestown, R.I., and came to Marietta, Dec. 17, 1788, with her mother, then a widow, Mrs. SHEFFIELD owned four shares in the funds of the Ohio Company.  Judging from tradition and the printed testimony of friends, few pioneer women were more highly esteemed and influential than


Mrs. ZEIGLER.  Mrs. LUDLOW writes from Cin-cinnati: ‘‘Major ZEIGLER said to me, on his first visit (April 1797): Our ladies are not gay, but they are extremely affectionate one to the other.’  I believe he spoke the truth.  Perfect harmony and good-will appear to exist in all their intercourse.”  Certainly this could have been truly said of Mrs. ZEIGLER.

Visitors to Cincinnati, when it was a mere village, were surprised by the luxurious manners of living, and the generous hospitality of the merchants and retired army officers who lived there.  Major ZEIGLER shared the pre-vailing tastes and habits, and loved to enter-tain both friends and guests from abroad.  A letter, written from Cincinnati in the fall of 1806, says, “The girls had a variety of amusements—plays, balls and tea-parties.’’  A curious old ball ticket, addressed to one of these girls, dated Cincinnati, Feb. 17, 1809, and printed, as was then the fashion, on the back of a playing card (the queen of hearts) is still preserved.  The ball was given “in commemoration of Washington’s birthday, at the Columbian Inn, on Wednesday evening, the twenty-second, at six o’clock.  William RUFFIN, E. H. STALL, J. BAYMILLER, J. W. SLOAN, managers.”  Mrs. LUDLOW, describing Cincinnati in 1797, says “that it was then a village of wooden buildings, with a garrison of soldiers.  The society consisted of a small number of ladies, united by the most perfect good-will and desire for mutual happiness.  ‘The gentlemen were social and intelligent.”  For several of the gentlemen, among whom she mentions Major ZEIGLER, she felt  “an al-most fraternal regard;”  a regard which others whom the kindly major, at that or a later day, welcomed with cordial and genial hospitality, shared with her.

Major Zeigler died at Cincinnati, Decem-ber, 1811, aged sixty-three years.

Page 368 Carroll County section:

Robert Latimer MC COOK, born at New Lisbon, Ohio, December 28, 1827.  He studied law in the office Stanton & McCook, at Steubenville, then removed to Cincinnati, and in connection with Judge J. B. STALLO secured a large practice.  When the news reached Cincinnati that Fort Sumter had been fired upon he organized and was commissioned colonel of the Ninth Ohio regiment, among the Germans, enlisting a thousand men in less than two days.  He was ordered to West Virginia, put in command of a brigade, and made the decisive campaign there under McClellan.  His brigade was then transferred to the Army of the Ohio, and took a most active part in the battle of Mills Spring, in Kentucky, where he was severely wounded.  The rebel forces were driven from their lines by a bayonet charge of Gen. MC COOK’S brigade and so closely pursued that their organization as an army was completely destroyed.  Gen. McCook rejoined his brigade before his wound had healed, and continued to command it when he was unable to mount a horse.  His remarkable soldierly qualities procured him the rand of major-general and command of a division.

He met his death August 6, 1862, while on the march near Salem, Alabama.  He had been completely prostrated by his open wound and a severe attack of dysentery, and was lying in an ambulance which was driven along in the interval between two regiments of his division.  A small band of mounted local guerillas, commanded by Frank Gurley, dashed out of ambush, surrounded the ambulance, and discovered that it contained an officer of rank, who was lying on the bed undressed and unable to rise….shot him as he lay and made their escape…The murdered commander was buried at Spring Grove

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