G. Washington's Diary, 1868

The Diaries of George Washington

The following extracts from the Diaries of a Hampshire County farmer were provided by his descendants. Additional information might be available from the owner [email protected]

The format of the diaries was to label the first page of the month with the name of the month, then use the date for each day of the month, followed by the temperature for that day and the day of the week.

There will be an edited version later, but we wanted to make this resource available as soon as possible so the conversation of the degree sign from the question-mark was postponed. You will find an index at the end.

This is the edited version promised when we uploaded this earlier this week. Enjoy!


Transcribed by Walter & Roberta McJilton
                                                    & Mrs. Carol J. Guth

February 1999

George W. Washington (1809-1876) was a farmer in Hampshire County, VA/WV from 1834 until 1876. His home, named Ridgedale, was located in a large meander of the South Branch of the Potomac River five miles north of the town of Romney. Mr. Washington kept a daily journal while living at Ridgedale. One year of his journal is transcribed here. Xerox copies of the original diaries for the years 1868 and 1869 were found in the Romney Library.

You may wish to view a sample page of the diary.

We have endeavored to copy the diary verbatim, but have found it advisable to add obvious punctuation that was possibly lost in the duplication process. It is very probable that we have misread some words and phrases. The names of people might have been wrongly interpreted. The diaries were written by Mr. Washington as a daily account of his farm and social activities. The diaries contain an accounting of monies owed to him and by him, and were meant to be personal not public records. The reason for our interest in this record is that our ancestor Samuel Alexander McJilton was indentured through the House of Refuge, an orphanage in Baltimore City, to Mr. Washington during this period. Samuel is referred to as "Sam" and we believe is included in the term "Boys" throughout the diaries. The list of occupants of Ridgedale was taken from the 1870 census, and their ages are adjusted for 1868.

Washington,     George W.       60
        Sarah           58   also called Sally
        Ettie           24
        George          19
        Robert M.       16
        Sallie          14
Williams, Clark                 15
McJilton, Samuel                15
O'Connor, Patrick               15
Norwood, James                  12
Mathews, Margaret               48  (black)  Cook
    James                        8  (mulatto)
    Elizabeth                    1  (mulatto)
Woods, Ellen                    36  (black)  Laundress
  Esther                        11  (black) 
  Oscar                          8  (black)
  Wilson                    Infant  (black)
  Boyd                           "  (black)  

A second boy from the Baltimore House of Refuge living with G. W. Washington was August Lefner. August is referred to as Gus and is also included as one of the Boys. August arrived by train on 14 March 1868 but is not listed in the 1870 census. We believe that he ran away from the Washington farm in 1869.

At the end of the diaries we have made a list of the people mentioned by Mr. Washington throughout the year. Although the spelling of the names has been checked with the 1870 WV census, misspellings are quite possible. The number references following each name refer to the month and day that person was mentioned in the journals. We have added footnotes at the end of some entries to provide additional information, which are inserted at the end that day's entry.



1st, 22°, Wednesday: Still snowing, raining & hailing. Stopped about 10 o'clock. The young folks go to Romney, none at home, but Mrs. Washington and myself. Robert and Jno. go still* hunting. James Gibson returned with the children and spent the night with us - they have to return tomorrow as Dr. Hamelshimer did not get through with them both. *(still hunting refers to hunting deer without hounds while alternately moving and standing).

2nd, 30°, Thursday: Still cloudy and a prospect for more falling weather. The young folks return to Romney. Set Jno. and Dan to cutting wood. Bro. Butt rode down to Springfield for the mail. No school today. Jno. got one plug tobacco, continued raining about 1 o'clock.

3rd, 28°, Friday: Fair, set the boys to hauling wood from the mountain. Nothing of interest occurred. The day warm and pleasant.

4th, 30°, Saturday: Clear, high NW wind moving rapidly. Jno. Inskeep spent the evening and night with George.

5th, 30° Sunday: Clear and warm. Family all at home except George who rode to Romney for the doctor. Sallie is quite sick with sore throat. We fear it is diphtheria. The doctor comes, thinks our fears groundless. Says she will be well in a few days.

6th, 25°, Monday: Snowing and raining. After the boys finished feeding made them shuck corn in the Barn. Jno. went to Mr. Nelson's to get his boots fixed. Let Dan have a cow to milk. The doctor thinks Sallie better today.

7th, 30°, Tuesday: Still cloudy, all hands shucking corn in the barn. The river raising. The ground in a perfect slush. {Dan 2 Bushels Meal}. *(brackets are used in this transcription to highlight phrases which the author emphasized by enclosing with a circle or bubble).

8th, 26°, Wednesday: Snow flying, high NW winds, turning quite cold. All hands go at the corn, an exceedingly cold disagreeable day, freezing all day. {Jno. 1 Plug Tobacco}.

9th, 12°, Thursday: Still high wind. All hands at the corn again, a pretty cold bitter day.

10th, 14°, Friday: Another cold day, still at the corn. I am anxious to get it out of the way. Jno. Inskeep came down for Miss Ellen to attend Dr. Foot's meeting.

11th, 18°, Saturday: Rather more pleasant. Send Mr. Nelson a load of hay. Haul up some for ourselves, then crib what corn we have shucked. George rode to Springfield for the Mail, brought me a letter from L.F. Allen informing me the eighth volume of the H. book is ready for delivery.

12th, 6°, Sunday: Keen cutting air; if the wind blew as it has been doing for the last few days, it would be an awful morning. The family at home.

13th, 10°, Monday: Cloudy. {John Louis} went to his old home yesterday and has not returned. George, Dan & myself shucking corn. Moderated during the day, fixing for another storm.

14th, 14°, Tuesday: Snowing rapidly. {Jno. not} yet returned. Still shucking corn. A day of incessant snow.

15th, 16°, Wednesday: Send George to Gibson's mill. Dan & myself shucking corn. Mr. Butt & the young ladies spend the evening with Mrs. Foreman Inskeep. Jno. Inskeep returned with them. {Jno. not} got home yet.

16th, 10°, Thursday: George sick, Dan & myself shucking corn. The day an exceedingly cold one. {Jno. not come}.

17th, 16°, Friday: Clear and cold. George still complaining. Edward & Sue come. Dan & myself shucking {Jno. returned to supper}. Lost five days.

18th, 14°, Saturday: Clear & cold air. Set Dan & Jno. to hauling hay, the little boys and myself finished shucking the corn in the barn. {Jno. 1/2 Plug Tobacco}.

19th, 20°, Sunday: Clear & cold with a prospect of a pretty day. We all go to Springfield to hear Bro. Butt. He gave us a good sermon. Heard of the death of old Mrs. Connilley. She died very suddenly.

20th, 26°, Monday: Trying to snow again! Make the boys clean out the ice house preparatory to filling it. Edward & Sue leave for home, Bet accompanying them. Sue gave me $20 to buy her a calf. Commenced hauling ice after dinner.

21st, 24°, Tuesday: Snowing briskly. Cut & haul ice all day. John Inskeep comes to get George to go with him to Hardy. {Jno. 1 plug of tobacco}.

22nd, 8°, Wednesday: Clear & cold, all hands at the ice. Dan Parsons, Mrs. Isaac Inskeep, Jr., Suda called & set a few minutes. Misses Ellen & Ettie go to set up with Mrs. Susan Inskeep who we learn is quite sick.

23rd, 14°, Thursday: Cloudy, raining, and sleeting, hauling ice all day. Turning quite warm it thawed considerably. Fear it might be injurious to the ice.

24th, 26°, Friday: Clear & pleasant. Edward came home, left all well. The river some swollen, the boys getting wood. Received from R.D. Johnson 8 bundles of sacks, supposed to be 150 that Edward had sent me to send off some of my corn.

25th, 18°, Saturday: Clear & calm. Make the boys get a few more loads of ice. Edward left for home. After dinner set them to cribbing corn.

26th, 28°, Sunday: Cloudy & threatening. Another fall. The family at home.

27th, 30°, Monday: Raining & snowing. After the boys finish feeding, set them to hauling corn from the barn. George rode to Springfield for the mail, and his saddle. On his return started to Hardy. Archibald Young came over and we entered into Articles of Agreement for a portion of my Ridge Land, which I rented him. After dinner we rode to the Ridge.

28th, 22°, Tuesday: Snowing. Set the boys to hauling corn from the bottom to the upland. Capt. Scott & Mr. Welton from Hardy spent the night with me. Joseph Tasker called & sat a while.

29th, 26°, Wednesday: Snowing. The gentlemen left after breakfast. Kept the boys hauling corn from the bottom. Bro. Fitzpatrick spent the day with us, the day quite cold. Snowing & blowing.

30th, 12°, Thursday: Clear & higher wind, a stinging cold morning. Let Dan have the day to haul himself wood. Jno. helping him. The day cold and disagreeable.

31st, 20°, Friday: Clear & high wind. Make the boys finish hauling the corn from the bottom and then haul wood. I walked over to James Inskeep for a set on the location for the fence between us as a permanent line; he to make and keep up one half & I the other. Bro. Butt left for the quarterly meeting at Frankford. Sent for the Doctor to see Ellen who gave birth to twins.


1st, 12°, Saturday: Clear & calm, a cold keen air. After feeding put the boys to shelling corn, shelled & loaded up 70 bushels preparatory to hauling on Monday. Sent Robert to the mill. Edward & Bet got home, left all well at the Ponds. {Jno. 1 plug tobacco}, {Dan 3 bushels of corn}.

2nd, 8°, Sunday: Cloudy, the young folks go to Springfield to church, Mrs. W. and myself at home.

3rd, 8°, Monday: A stinging cold morning. Start to the depot with a load of corn; I accompanied Dan. Had 67 B., 17 BLS. Left the other hands shelling--George returned, engaged some 5 or 6 machines.

4th, 12°, Tuesday: Another cold morning, sent George with the wagon. I stayed and had another load shelled. Edward stayed and helped us. Had 68 B.

5th, 18°, Wednesday: Start the wagon again. Still shelling corn. George gone with Dan, Ed helping us. Had 67 bushels. The ladies from Hardy______Ann, Jane, and Rose came. Snowed all day.

6th, 22°, Thursday: More moderate. The wind rising. Start the wagon again. Ephraim Green came to get some hay. Let him have a stack. The wind got to the northwest, and blew up awful cold. Cherry got a big load of hay. I gave him one B. of corn, $1. The young folks from Mrs. Fox's spent the day with us.

7th, 12°, Friday: Another cold morning. Start the wagon with the last load of corn. George didn't return last night, stayed with Dan Parker. He brought me a letter from R.W. Parker & Dr. Moore. Had in all 338 bushels. He brought me $25 from Donnelson and $2 from Isaac Hady. Archibald Young came to get permission to deposit the goods in the house till Hanson could get out. James Poland came and spent the night with us.

8th, 11°, Saturday: Another stinging morning. Make the boys cover the ice. Wrote to Dr. Moore, R.D. Johnson, and L.F. Allen. Sent Dr. Moore $2. L.F. Allen $10. After finishing the ice, make the boys get some pine wood for kindling. The day giving a damp air.

9th, 28°, Sunday: Snowed some during the night. Raining now lightly. Edward & George start to the Ponds. The air very damp. The balance of the family at home, a day of rain. The boys will have a disagreeable time.

10th, 18°, Monday: Clear. The earth a glaze of ice. Set the boys to cutting and hauling the wood on the Pike. Chester came to get a horse. I had none for him. The ice broke up in the river. Hope it will not do any injury to my land. Henry White came for some fodder. Gave him a load. Clouding up, and has the appearance of snow. Separated my ewes and lambs. The day quite cold.

11th, 20°, Tuesday: Clear & windy. The boys hauling wood. George did not return last night. Bro. Butts came. The river still out of ride. Mr. Cookus came to see if he could get some hay for Sheets & Kuykendall & himself. I promised him some. George came to the hill opposite the house & hollered over to let us know he was safe. The river too high to ride.

12th, 10°, Wednesday: A keen morning. Keep after the boys hauling wood. Jno. Blue passed through the place. I congratulated him. He looks pleased with himself and everyone also. Received a note from Gilkinson & Tallie asking for some hay, also informing me Sheets & Cookus would like the stack of hay Cookus looked at yesterday at $40. I wrote to Gilkinson. They could have what hay they wanted, paid Sheets' wagoner for bringing us up some empty sacks from the depot 25 cents.

13th, 20°, Thursday: Inclose the hay in the meadow in back of the sheds. The teams came for hay again. Mr. Gilkinson sent a 3-horse team for hay, the day warm and pleasant. This is the day for the Darby fair. Paid {Jno. Louis $5}. Let he & Dan stop a while before night to go to Romney.

14th, 24°, Friday: Finish enclosing the stacks & fix a shed for the sheep. Ettie and Robert go to New Creek. Gave Robert $5.30. Jno. Inskeep called and sat a few minutes. George went for his machines to Green Spring. He paid Mr. Gushwin $200 I borrowed from him. $15 to Hamelshimer, the balance due him for work done for the children. Sent $10 to L.F. Allen for me, paid for his sewing machines $77, and paid me $38.05 due. He collected from R.D. Johnson $342. Paid for stamps $2.50

15th, 24°, Saturday: Cloudy and threatening snow. Finished the sheep shed. Mr. Cookus sent for a bag of hay for some other party. Requested me to judge the quantity; being a poor judge, I submitted it to his decision. I have a thought there was between 10 and 1800 lbs. not paid for.

16th, 30°, Sunday: A lovely morning. The young folks go to Springfield to church. Bro. Butt preached his last sermon.

17th, 20°, Monday: Cloudy and threatening snow. It did snow a little through the night. Sent Fisher 11 1/2 bushels of corn, shelled. Bro. Fitzpatrick 10 barrels in the year, paid Mr. House $.50 for a bolt. Mr. Frank Allen brought Mrs. Mary Foot to see the Lady. Miss Suda Parsons, Mr. James Gibson also spent the evening and night with us. {Jno Louis 1 Plug Tobacco}.

18th, 22°, Tuesday: Clear & windy. Snowed during the night, the ground covered. Sent Jno. and Dan to help old Hansen fix a house to move in. The young folks except Miss Suda Parsons left. Mr. Dan Parsons came. He and Miss Suda leave after dinner. Frank Carter's man Bill, brought a letter from London. All well. He came for Henson and Jimmy.

19th, 30°, Wednesday: Clear & windy. Set the boys to hauling out timothy hay on the Little Meadow in front of the house. Mrs. Anna Snyder came to spend a few days with the young folks. The sun shines as warm almost as May.

20th, 22°, Thursday: An unusually heavy frost. Continued to haul out manure & hay. Mr. E. Green came with two teams to haul his hay I let him have. He says he will pay me soon. Mr. Nelson came to get some hay, promised to haul him this evening. Ettie rode to Springfield. The day almost like summer. Thought I heard wild geese, if so it is unusually early for them to be moving. A letter from H.R. Hoffman inviting me to attend conference.

21st, 32°, Friday: Clear & calm, a real spring morning. Set the boys to shucking corn. I rode to the Ridge. George returned. Sold out his sewing machines. Bro. Butt got home, had an interesting meeting in Frankford, 6 accessions to the church. After dinner the young folks ride to Mrs. Inskeep's to return Miss Lizzy's cow. A letter from R.D. Johnson with an acct. of $7.75 for freight in sacks and corn from Green Spring. From George's statement he is evidently under a mistake. Instead of my owing him, he owes me $11.90.

22nd, 28°, Saturday: Froze slightly. The boys shucking corn. Robert went to Mr. David Holt's for a woman for his sister Beck. George & Bro. Butt rode to Springfield. George paid me back the $77.75 he borrowed. Robert returned without the woman, she having declined going to Beck's. A letter from Beck, as well as usual. Jno. Inskeep spent the night with George.

23rd, 20°, Sunday: Quite a raw cold morning, family all at home. Let Jno. have a horse to go to McGrookling's. The day cold, little or no thawing throughout the day. Jno. didn't get back.

24th, 18°, Monday: Morning cold, raw, damp air. About 9 it commenced hailing, raining & snowing, and kept it up pretty much all day. Sent Dan to Springfield for the wagon {Jno came home about the middle of the day}. After dinner shelled some corn preparatory to going to the mill. {Dan got three bushels}. Bro. Butt got home.

25th, 24°, Tuesday: Still cloudy and damp, sleeting pretty much all day. George went to the mill.

26th, 26°, Wednesday: Set the boys to hauling wood. Robert to Springfield. Miss Ellen sick, consequently no school. Still cloudy & damp. What little mist falls, freezes as fast as it falls. A letter from R.W. Parker.

27th, 28°. Thursday: Still cloudy and damp, the boys hauling wood. Bro. Fitzpatrick spent the day with us. Miss Sue Allen and brother called on Miss Rose. I wrote to Mr. Lincoln of Baltimore, H.R. Hoffman and R.W. Carter. See from the Baltimore Gazette they are having an exciting time in Washington.

28th, 24°, Friday: Quite cold & blustering snow flying. The boys hauling manure. Bro. Butt and George rode to Romney. {Jno. got a plug tobacco}. No news of interest.

29th, Leap Year, 18°, Saturday: High NW winds and snow squalls flying, a real March morning. George goes to Green Spring for his sewing machines and to take the large baggage preparatory to their going to Baltimore and Parkersburg on Monday. The boys hauling manure. Robert and Sam cutting corn stalks. (This is the first mention of Sam by name). Jno. Inskeep and Branson Wood spent the evening with the young folks. Paid Jno. Louis $10.

MARCH, 1868

1st, 18°, Sunday: Cold, damp air. Think we will have snow fall. The young folks all go to Springfield to hear the funeral ceremony of Mrs. Adams. A large turnout. Bro. Fitz gave us a good sermon. Bet stayed in Springfield so as to get an early start to the depot in the morning for the Carrs.

2nd, 28°, Monday: Snowed during the night. The ladies leave for the depot and Parkersburg. Gave Mrs. Washington and the girls $115. Paid Robert in full what I owed him, $1. {Jno. Louis} went away yesterday and has not yet returned, 1 o'clock. Commenced snowing about the middle of the day and is putting it down rapidly. I fear Cousins Ann & Jane will get wet. George returned in good time. Got them down in safety. They didn't get wet.

3rd, 2°, Tuesday: One of the coldest mornings of the winter. Dan hauling manure {Jno. not come yet}. George goes to the Creek to see if he can sell some of his machines. I am fearful I shall lose all my lambs, the ewes do not give milk enough for them.

4th, 16°, Wednesday: Clear and windy. Edward & family left for home. Set Dan & Sam to hauling hay {Jno. not returned. The day pleasant.

5th, 8°, Thursday: A lovely morning. Ettie rode to Romney, kept the boys hauling hay. Old Mr. Nelson came to see if I could let him have some corn. I promised to let him have some, but don't know when I can bale it for him. He gave me an acct. against {Jno. Louis} for fifty cents which I am to save for him if Jno. returns to work for me. Edward returning from New Creek, left his sister well. Jno. Inskeep came with him and stayed all night.

6th, 28°, Friday: Cloudy and threatening again. Jno. Inskeep left after breakfast. After Dan finished feeding, set him to fencing the haystack in the bottom. George talks of going to Baltimore this evening.

7th, 36°, Saturday: A lovely morning. Some few clouds. The birds singing as merrily as if it was a May day. If we can get over the river will go for old Hensen & Jenny--they are going to London but I will have to take them to the depot. Jno. Inskeep called and sat a few minutes. Miss Ellen went to see her sister, didn't get back.

8th, 50°, Sunday: Close & sultry, air damp, family all at home except Miss Ellen who didn't return last evening. Clouded up about 10, the wind raising,-growing cooler.

9th, 36°, Monday: Cloudy, Mrs. Washington starts to New Creek. Robert accompanied her. Sent Dan with Old Hens & Jenny to the depot. James Parsons came to see if he could get some corn. Promised him some. Jake Horn thrashed flax seed for me. Mr. Brown of sheep notoriety called to see me, let him have a horse to go to Romney. Dan didn't get home last night.

10th, 36°, Tuesday: Mostly clear. Dan got home this morning, having stayed at his cousin's last night. Set Dan & Sam to shucking corn. Robert returned from New Creek. They got over safe, found all well. The day oppressively warm, like a June day, thermometer climbing to 64°.

11th, 52° Wednesday: A lovely morning, calm and warm, the birds all singing as merrily as a spring morning. Dan & Sam hang the meat & then go to shucking corn. Messrs. Jno. Jacob, Rob't. Morehead, and Mr. Brown of Pennsylvania, dined with me. They come to look at my sheep. Brown is about to institute a pro cap against the Chaineys who got some of his sheep last fall and has lost the most of them and Brown understood he was about putting his property out of his hands to avoid paying for them. Robert took 9 cane bottom chairs to Romney to Miller to bottom for Mrs. W. He is to do it for 75 cents per chair.

12th, 46°, Thursday: Cloudy and damp and east wind. Think we will have falling weather, the boys shucking corn, Mrs. Watkins came to get some grain for work. Mrs. Washington being away from home I didn't know that she wanted to put out any work.

13th, 44°, Friday: A lovely morning, the boys still shucking corn, the after part of the day oppressively warm, nothing of interest.

14th, 44°, Saturday: Cloudy and damp. Haul in corn today. Brother Butt got home, brought me another boy* from the House of Refuge. George did not come with them, he having gone over into Loudon County. *(Believe that this refers to August Lefner)

15th, 54°, Sunday: Close & sultry, the most remarkable March weather I ever saw. Feeling uneasy about Beck. Have concluded to ride up to New Creek and see how she is. Got to Isaac's about 5 o'clock, found all as well as could be expected. On Friday Night the 13th, Beck gave birth to a fine daughter, both mother and child are doing well. Mrs. Washington complaining, though not seriously, more fatigue & anxiety then anything else I reason.

16th, 48°, Monday: Another lovely morning. A thunder cloud raised, and I feared it was going to be cold, but continues to be unusually warm. I left for home. My time being out at the upper gate, paid Mrs. Crawford $1 for six months more (this must be a toll gate). Called to see the doctor to let him know how Beck was. Arrived at home about 4, found all well. George got home yesterday, a few minutes after I left. The boys finished shucking & hauling corn from the bull lot.

17th, 50°, Tuesday: Cloudy & damp, trimmed the pigs. Sent George to Springfield to get some harness fixed. Start Dan to plowing in the sod. Old {Dr. Wash} came to hire, I employed him for 1 month at $6 per month. If I find he is worth anything will continue him as he says he wants to work. Set him & the two little boys to taking the brush and wood out of the way of the plow, next the river. Mr. Brown stayed all night with me.

18th, 52°, Wednesday: Another lovely morning, Dan plowing after feeding. Set Sam & the Dr. to scattering manure in the little meadow. Mr. Brown left to see Mr. Chainey and try and make some compromise of their difficulty, Chainey having conveyed his property as Brown thinks fraudulently.

19th, 32°, Thursday: Quite a frost, the first for several weeks-- Same routine of business as yesterday. Mr. Brown returned. Let him have a horse to go to Romney. He returned after dark, brought his sheep from Morehead's. I am to keep them till he can make some disposition of them. Strong south wind. Think we will have falling weather. A letter from Bet is rec'd. {Sultana 3 a heifer calf}.

20th, 40°, Friday: Sprinkling rain, turning to snow. George commenced plowing & harrowing his ground. The boys finished scattering manure, then put them to threshing off the seed from the flax. Mr. Brown left. He requested to try to get a place for the sheep he left here, authorized to take my pick of one for the one that died last fall, it being injured when I got the sheep. There are 49 head. He authorized me to throw in two which will leave 46 for the person who takes them to account for. A day of snow and storm.

21st, 36°, Saturday: High northwest wind, getting quite cool. Start two plows, Robert rides to New Creek to see how they all are. After feeding make Wash & the little boys clean up the flax seed. The day cold & disagreeable.

22nd, 26°, Sunday: A bright morning, wind still quite high and blustering. Think after the morning passes it will be more pleasant. Robert returned from New Creek, left all well as could be expected. Jno. Inskeep called and sat a few minutes.

23rd, 30°, Monday: Frost, calm and fine. Wrote to Balto. Two plows running, two others cutting corn stalks, & {James Parsons} got 10 barrels of corn at $1.75 per barrel to be charged to Miss Bettie Corbett $17.50. Ray come for Polly. l gave them a side of bacon, also a hog grist of corn and some half dozen fowls. Had the sad intelligence of the death of Joseph Parker's wife, she died very suddenly.

24th, 46°, Tuesday: Cloudy and damp, sultry. Brother Butt & I go to the funeral of Mrs. Parker, dined with Jno. Daily. The funeral was not late; 5 in the evening, quite a large turnout. Set the doctor and the little boys to setting flax. During the night there was a severe thunder storm.

25th, 40°, Wednesday: Raining. Send Dan to Springfield for plow irons. The Doctor works the day. A day of incessant rain. High water no doubt will follow, still raining. George rode to Romney, didn't return.

26th, 38°, Thursday: Snowing quite hard, the river over the island and rising. George returned, Jno. Inskeep and James Loab accompanying him. A letter from Mr. E. S. Lacy of Martinsburg, asking if I had any full-blooded Durham cows for sale. Too bad for the boys to be out. Set them to shucking corn. A day of incessant snow. It melts however nearly as fast as it falls on the bottom, the mountains are quite white. In the evening the river, greatly to my relief, commenced falling.

27th, 36°, Friday: Still snowing. The river has fallen considerably. I fear however it will soon be up again. Set the boys to spreading flax between showers. I have never seen the ground fuller of water. The whole face of the earth in a sluice. I wrote to Mr. E. S. Lacy of Martinsburg.

28th, 38°, Saturday: Still cloudy & damp--make the boys finish spreading the flax. George heard Charley Harmisson had been cleared. Jno. helped spread flax. Let them have the balance of the day after finishing the flax.

29th, 40°, Sunday: Heavy fog, cleared off about 10 o'clock. Robert & August walked to Springfield to church & to get the mail. Received a letter from Mr. Wright.

30th, 20°, Monday: Heavy frost, George takes some corn to the mill. I ride to Romney. Dan gave me $5 and requested me to get him $2 worth of flour which I did. Returned him $3. Mr. French returned to dinner with me. George, on his return, brought me $27 from Mr. Cookus for hay.

31st, 30°, Tuesday: Another heavy frost. Start the plows again after feeding. Send Dan a load of fodder. Set the Doctor to shucking white corn, Sam to hauling the poles from the bottom where the haystack stood. I was agreeably surprised on receiving a visit from an old friend from Fauquier Co., Mr. R. W. Carter.

APRIL 1868

April 1st, 32°, Wednesday: Another frost. After breakfast Mr. Carter left for Clarksburg. The wind getting quite high. Mrs. Maranda Taylor came to spend with Ettie. Set the small boys to cutting corn stalks on the island. Dr. & Sam hauling in white corn. Two plows running, think they will finish the bottom today.

2nd, 40°, Thursday: Cloudy and damp. Think we will have more falling weather. Send to the mill and for the oats. After feeding put all hands to setting out onions. I wrote to Mr. Jacobs. George brought me 25 bushels of oats from Sheets & Kuykendall.

3rd, 32° Friday: Quite a freeze. Mr. Jacob sent for a load of hay, clearing up the balance of the hay in the bottom. The Dr. spading up the garden. Dave came to hire with me. Hired him for one year at $120 per year. Edward came over, left all well. {Dan 3 Bushel of corn}.

4th, 36°, Saturday; quite a cool wind. Sent Robert up for his mother. Gave him $20 to pay James Rees for bringing Sam from Baltimore* for me and to get me 2 gallons of brandy. Edward left for home. Received letters from Mrs. Washington and Bettie. Jno. Inskeep called and paid off his note, $75. Archibald Young came down to get some corn, let him have it, took with him 1 1/2 bushels of ears, sold him the hay on the ridge for $12. Charge it to him. Gave old Dr. Wash an order on Jno. Daily for a pair of shoes $--.

Didn't quite finish the sod. Had the old Doctor fixing the strawberries etc. George rode up with Jno. Inskeep, Miss Ellen rode to Romney to attend Dr. Foot's meeting. *(Sam'l McJilton was indentured to Mr. Washington on 29 Nov. 1867)

5th, 28°, Sunday: Quite a freeze, the air cutting, high NW wind. George didn't return last evening, I suppose stayed all night with Jno. Inskeep. Miss Ellen didn't expect to return till this evening. Miss Ellen & George returning....expect a pleasant meeting.

6th, 24°, Monday: Another freeze {Dave} Dave sets in to work this morning at $120 for a year, if he is a good boy & attends closely to his work I will give him something more, probably as much as $130. {Julia a bull calf} Bro. Butt came home, I paid him in full for bringing August* up for me from Baltimore, $5. Mrs. Washington got home, left Beck much improved. Brought Little Lucy home with her. *(August Leftner from House of Refuge in Baltimore)

7th, 38° Tuesday: Raining too bad for the boys to be out. About 12 it stopped and when they got their dinners, started the plows at the upper end of the place. Nothing of interest occurred.

8th, 32° Wednesday: High NW wind. A perfect hurricane blowing all the flax away. Two plows running. Fixed the calves in the bull lot. Scattered the thickest of the manure where the straw rotted in the bull lot.

9th, 28°, Thursday: Cloudy & damp, quite a freeze again. Two plows running and the balance scattering and hauling manure. Commenced snowing about 10 o'clock & a day of snow.

10th, 34°, Friday: Still snowing & storming. The boys getting in some wood as we are entirely out. George rode to Springfield, brought me letters from I. Wright and from R. Carshaddon.

11th, 36°, Saturday: Clear & windy, start two plows, the other boys shucking white corn. Send Robert to Green Spring after a shepherd dog sent me by Mr. I. Wright from PA. James Gibson spent the day with me. In the evening Isaac Parsons called to see if I could let him have some hay.

12th, 42°, Sunday: Close & sultry, the young folks go to church in Springfield. About 11 o'clock clouded up & commenced raining. Rained incessantly till about 5 when it turned to snow & in a few minutes the ground was covered. Miss Ellen & Ettie didn't get home.

13th, 28°, Monday: Quite a snow on the ground. I think it will soon disappear. The sun comes out and the snow melting fast, being Easter the darkies are keeping holiday. Henry came to see me about his two children, I advising him to take legal advice on subject. Ephraim Herriott called to pay me some money for Thomas Davies & Nimrod Alkire paid off two notes, $381, and took up the notes. The after part of the day pleasant.

14th, 34°, Tuesday: Clouded up again. Start two plows out as it is and finished the field. The boys are plowing, Dr. & Sam hauling corn. Dave shucking. Isaac Parsons came for a load of hay. Let him have a 4 horse load, didn't charge him anything for it. About 12 o'clock came up the thunderstorm, and gave us a hard rain. Henry came and took one of Ellen's boys, had authority from Alfred White so he claimed. Set the boys to plowing manure in the barnyard.

15th, 38°, Wednesday: Heavy fog. The first we have had for some time. Set all hands to shucking & hauling white corn. {The Doctor sick}, loses the day. About 12 commenced raining again. Had quite a hard shower.

16th, 66°, Thursday: Still cloudy, close & sultry, {Doctor still} sick. Too wet to plow or harrow. All hands at the corn. R. H. Patterson came out and sat a while. Let (him) have my growing crop to thresh. He is to come here from Herriott's. I wrote to Joshua White, Esq. Bet got home from Baltimore, left our friends there well.

17th, 59°, Friday: A lovely morning. Sow the oats, and let old Doctor out this morning. He and Sam cutting corn stalks in the bottom. Dr. Daily called on his way from Springfield. Had been down to see Mrs. Dr. Moore who is sick.

18th, 44°, Saturday: Another lovely morning. Start one plow & two harrows. Miss Maranda Taylor came up to spend a while with the girls. Jno. Inskeep spent the evening with the young folks. Paid me for young Joseph Pancake $63. Stayed all night with George.

19th, 48°, Sunday: Quite cloudy & damp. George accompanied Jno. Inskeep to Romney. About the middle of the day commenced raining & still at it. I hope there will not be too much.

20th, 40°, Monday: Still cloudy & damp. Start two harrows & one plow. If not too wet will stop the harrows & start another plow. Commenced raining too bad for the hands to be out. George rode to Springfield, sent Mr. Gushwin by George the balance of the $100 I borrowed from him, $28. Mr. Young bought the potatoes Old Hensen had on the ridge 4 1/2 bushels. They are hardly worth buying. Let Young have 35 half-bushels of corn on the ears, making 8 bushels & 3/4. Gave George $3 to pay Betty's stage fare from the Creek home. Bro. Butt returning home.

21st, 42°, Tuesday: Still cloudy & damp. The ground too wet to work. The boys hauling in hay, spreading manure & etc. Ettie rode to Mrs. Inskeep's. Mr. Peter Miller's son brought me a letter requesting me to send him the amount of his account for repairing some chairs, $10, which I sent. Mr. & Mrs. Daily came out to visit us. Jno. & I had several games of chess.

22nd, 48°. Wednesday: Clear & calm, some fog, but soon disappeared. Start two plows The ground feels wet, paid Jno. Daily $ 200. He & wife left in the stage. Sam & the Dr. hauling manure. After dinner 1 plow & 2 harrows running. R.H. Patterson came out to see me relative to selling me a Buckeye reaper.

23rd, 56°, Thursday: Another lovely morning. Bro. Butt takes his buggy to Romney to get repaired. After dinner sow the balance of the oats. Richard Hoffman came to see me relative to selling me a reaper.

24th, 48°, Friday: Another lovely morning. 1 plow & 2 harrows running. Bro. Fitzpatrick spent the day with us. In the evening Jno. Inskeep & Mrs. Maggie Blue rode down & set till after tea. Clouded up & threatening rain.

25th, 46°, Saturday: Raining lightly. Start two plows to running out corn ground. Richard returned to New Creek. Ettie went with him to Jim Rees. Gave Mrs. Washington $15. Cleared off in the evening. Received letter from Missouri informing me of the death of my youngest brother Joseph. Also the death of my niece Margaret Chase.

26th, 34°, Sunday: Light frost. Prospect of a pretty day. George & Betty rode to Springfield to church. Jno. Inskeep rode down to accompany them but was too late.

27th, 32°, Monday: Another light frost, though a bright morning. Run 2 plows running out and 2 harrows. Miss Ellen sick, no school. Mr. Meekin's team commencing passing through hauling corn from Herriott's not however without permission. Edward Lake spoke for 4 bushels of seed corn for Bare Lake.

28th, 40°, Tuesday: Cut & plant potatoes, finish running out & commenced planting. James Parsons got 5 more bushels of corn. Left his colt here for pasture. I agreed to keep it for him until after harvest. Fear it will rain. The air is getting very damp. Old Mr. Stoner left two sacks for Lake's seed corn. An unusually large and distinct circle around the moon.

29th, 42°, Wednesday: As I feared pouring down rain and every prospect of a big one. Between showers made a ditch to turn the water through the patch. R.H. Patterson brought out the mail & showed me a letter from R.H. Carshaddon relative to a reaper offering to let me try one a day or two, etc.

30th, 46°, Thursday: Heavy fog, hope it will be clear when the fog fades off. If so, as soon as it dries off a little, go to plowing in the bottom. Paid Margaret $20. Finished the ditch & then went to planting corn, two droppers running. Bro. Butt got home but rode to Romney to see the Dr., Lucy being indisposed.

MAY 1868

May 1st: 56°, Friday: A lovely morning {Louisa a bull calf}. All hands planting corn. I want to finish the bottom this week. Nothing of special interest occurred.

2nd, 54°, Saturday: Rained some during the night. All hands at corn. About 12 it commenced raining and made it too wet to plant. Sent 15 head of cattle to the ridge. Had one there, making 16. Jno. Inskeep came down to see George, stayed with him. Robert returned from New Creek, left all well.

3rd, 50°, Sunday: Still cloudy & damp. The young folks go to Springfield to church; has the appearance of clearing off. Children report a large turn-out.

4th, 56°, Monday: Still cloudy {Dan 1 B. of meal}. Bros. Butt & Dice came out to breakfast. Fear we will have more rain. All hands go at the corn again. Bro. Butt & Bettie spent the evening with Mary Blue. Edward came over, left all well.

5th, 54°, Tuesday: Still damp & drizzling rain. Two plows running in the island. The young folks go to Romney. Sent by George $5 to Chessy for my toll for one year. Dan & Lizzie Parker came to see the young folks.

6th, 60°, Wednesday: Still cloudy & foggy. Hope when the fog disappears the clouds will also. Edward returned from Romney & started for home. Dan Parker left also. The day turning out to be a pretty one. Late in the evening a thundershower.

7th, 54°, Thursday: Rained quite hard during the night. Still threatening. All hands go at the island plowing. Raking & piling the stalks. About 1, heavy thundering & lightning, an evening of rain & thunder. A letter from McMaster requesting me to get subscribers to the Journal. The river raising. E.S. Lake came for seed corn, let him have 4 bushels at $1.10-$4.40. I helped him take it to Herriott's boat. He didn't pay for it as he owes me on a note due. Told him to leave it till he paid the note.

8th, 50°, Friday: Cloudy, wind from the NW. Too wet to do anything with the ground. Haul some wood & fix a bridge over the ditch. After dinner start the plows and harrow. Nothing of special interest occurred.

9th, 34°, Saturday: Quite a frost. George accompanied Miss Lizzie Parker to Springfield. Sent by him for some tobacco for the boys. Dan got 1/2 lb. & the Doctor 1/2 at $1.50 per pound. Start three plows. Hope to finish the island today. James Rees & family came. Beck is looking badly. Ettie stayed to keep house till Beck returned. James will go back tomorrow. Edward came for some sugar corn.

10th, 36°, Sunday: Clear & light frost. The family all at home. No church today. Dan complaining.

11th, 36°, Monday: Another light frost. Gave Edward 10 or 12 bushels of seed corn. John Daily called to get Edward to go to Romney as a witness in some suit he has. Gave Dan $4, the balance due him on last year's work, & pay for John's cutting cornstalks. Bet & Miss Ellen rode to Romney. Let Old Jake Horn have a horse & plow to run out his corn ground. Start two plows to running out in the island. Plant the patch in sugar corn, etc., etc. Dan sick, day out.

12th, 42°, Tuesday: Quite a high wind, Dan still sick. Earsome Boys commenced operations in the island. Isaac Long called to get the money I owed him. I didn't have it for him.

13th, 48°, Wednesday: Rained hard, nearly all night and still pouring down. River rising very fast. Shell sugar corn & to go to mill. River quite high, all over the island.

14th, 40°, Thursday: Still raining wind getting to the NW. Hope it will clear off. River still raising, fear it will wash, very much. Fix fences, etc.

15th, 46°, Friday: Still showering, the river has nearly got within its banks again. Fear from the looks of the island or what I can see of it that its very much washed. Set all hands at the fences to repairing, moving, etc.

16th, 50°, Saturday: Heavy fog, hope it will be clear when the fog passes off. Send George to the mill, all the rest at the fences. Showery pretty much all day. Nothing of special interest occurred.

17th, 52°, Sunday: Still cloudy & misting rain. The family all at home, except George who spent the night with Jno. Inskeep.

18th, 56°, Monday: Still cloudy. Rained during the night. Too wet to do anything with the ground. Got all hands to fencing. I go to Springfield. Mrs. W. & Beck accompanied me. Paid ferriage going & coming $6.80. From Springfield I go to Simon Taylor's, borrowed from him $300. Paid express fare on a lot of sheers sent me by Mr. Wright ($0.50). Mr. Sheets from the mountain sent my gun home & got 142 bushels of seed corn.

19th, 48°, Tuesday: Clear & cool, start three plows to running out the island again, the freshet having filled up the furrows. George went to mill with the little wagon. After dinner gave him some notes & started him out collecting. Let Jno. & Will Earsome have 5 bushels of corn, $2 per bushel; received from them $10. Lent them my little wagon to take it home. They are to bring me a calf from Springfield in the morning. Dan 3 bushels of corn; Dave a plug of tobacco.

20th, 54°, Wednesday: Heavy fog. Finished running out & started to planting. I drop (seed) till George returns. George got home about 11 o'clock. Collected from N. Feire $900.00, and took a new note for the balance. He owes me $166.80--from Ben Lake, $50 from James Johnson, $66.50 gave up Johnson's note. Lake's $50 to be credited on his note. Jno. brought me the calf from Springfield. James Rees came for his family.

21st, 56°, Thursday: {Orphan Rose a bull calf} Quite cloudy, all hands at the island. Hope to finish it today. James Rees paid me the money he collected for me from the Carshaddons $2.38, and $2. balance due me on his and my dealings. James and the young ladies go to spend the evening with Mrs. Jno. Blue. Did not quite finish the island.

22nd, 54°, Friday: Clear & cool wind. Finished planting the island. Make the boys plow & fix the ground for potatoes & cabbage. When we get (finish) our dinners will wash the sheep. James & family left us about 10 o'clock. Robert went with them to accompany Et home. Washed the sheep.

23rd, 58°, Saturday: {Sultana, a bull calf} Cloudy & damp. Gave the boys the day to plant their patches, etc. Commenced raining about the middle of the day, and bids fair for a little rain. Gave the doctor an order on Mr. Gutherie for $5 worth of goods, and 60 cents in cash. George went to Mr. Seymore's for the money he owes me & to Mr. Taylor for Bett's horse. An evening of rain. Fear it will put the river up again.

24th, 54°, Sunday: Still raining lightly. Family at home. Jno. Inskeep rode down & sat awhile. Ellie and Bob didn't get home. Fear Bett is sick. The river raising quite fast.

25th, 50°, Monday: Still cloudy. Start the hands in the bottom corn. I am glad to find so little missing. A funeral procession has just passed, and am at a loss to think who it could be, as I have heard of no one in the neighborhood sick. George returned, brought me $72, the principle of the amount they now owe me. George informed me the funeral procession that passed was Mrs. James Sheetz of Romney.

26th, 60°, Tuesday: {2 Merinos}, clear & calm, a lovely morning. All hands at the corn. I ride to Romney, settled with Mr. Jacob & paid him in full, $867, and took up my note. Gave him a certificate of the fact for his protection in case of any difficulty hereafter. He also took a copy of the note I took up. I gave him the certificate at his request. He also posted the three last receipts I took from Baker on the certificate. Settled with Sheets & Kuykendall to this date and paid them in full $93. Settled with Richard Martial, postmaster for Box, and paid him 75 cents. Paid Champ Paddy $6.25 for 5 pounds of tobacco. Called at Isaac Parson's and got my shepherd pup.

27th, 62°, Wednesday: Clear & sultry. Wind from the south. More rain brewing I fear. Let Patterson have a team again to plow and plant his patch, hope he will finish today as I want my horses. Lent Earsome my little Wagon. He got a peck of seed corn. About 1 o'clock there came up a thunder storm, rained considerably, and broke up, and clouded up again and at 3 commenced a gale and gave us for one hour and a half or two hours the heaviest rain I ever saw fall.

28th, 60°, Thursday: Still cloudy & occasionally sprinkling rain. Set the boys to fencing. Sent George with some money to Isaac Long $500 and to William French $300. I wrote L. F. Allen requesting him to send me the 8" Vol. of A.M.H.B. having sent him the money some days since for it, and the pedigree he recorded for me in the 8" Vol. George returned the $500 sent Long, not being able to get over the north Branch. Brought me a receipt for French's $300. The afternoon too wet to plow.

29th, 62°, Friday: Still showery. Set the boys to fencing. George goes to Springfield for the fish, etc. etc. Bro. Fitz spent the day with us. In the evening Bro. Butt and Bet rode to Romney. Another hard rain late in the evening. The river raising fast.

30th, 60°, Saturday: Heavy fog; kept the boys fencing. Old Dr. Wash loses the day on a visit to his brother-in-law. Wood Daily came down with Bob.

31st, 62°, Sunday: Clear and cool air . Family all at home, the river too high to get over to church.

JUNE, 1868:

1st, 60°, Monday: Clear & calm, all hands at the corn. Bro. Butt returned in search of his horse that got away from him at Hinkles. George complaining; Bet rode to Romney, will visit there tomorrow and the day after go to New Creek to see her sister.

2nd, 64°, Tuesday: Cloudy & sprinkling rain, still at the corn. Ellen goes to spend the day in Romney. Bro. Fitzpatrick & family came out in the stage to pay us a visit. Mrs. Isaac Parsons rode down and sat a few minutes. Was sorry the girls were absent.

3rd, 62°, Wednesday: Still cloudy, all hands at the corn. Sent George to the mill. He took up 24 bushels of wheat brought back 3 barrels of flour. Told him to call & get Charley Bolls & Bill Washington to come tomorrow and help shear sheep. Dan Parsons had them both hired but he said he would send them down.

4th, 60°, Thursday: Rained lightly during the night. Send for Young to help shear sheep. He came, also Charley & Bill, ran four shears; think the sheep will turn out well. Didn't get through 44 to shear, which we will try and finish with our own force. Dan 1/2 pound tobacco 75 Cents.

5th, 68°, Friday: Heavy fog. For fear of rain, put the sheep up last night. Commenced early shearing. Young helped us. The small fry in the corn. George quite unwell. Nothing of interest occurred.

6th, 70°, Saturday: Another fog. The small fry in the corn. Dan preparing ground for potatoes, and planting them. Miss Ellen & Sallie go to Romney to the decoration of the soldiers' graves. Brothers Fitz & Butt to their appointments.

7th, 70°, Sunday: Clear & sultry, a nice shower during the night. George rode to Romney. Miss Ellen came home with him.

8th, 62°, Monday: Heavy fog, start the hands in the corn, the second time. Archibald Young came for some corn. Let him have 6 bushels. Lent Old Jake a horse to plow his corn. Received a letter from A.I. Marker relative to my corn. I asked him $1.30 per bushel. Brother Fitz & Bet came home, the day close & sultry.

9th, 72°, Tuesday: Heavy fog. Mrs. Washington & Mrs. Fitzpatrick go to spend the day with Mrs. Blue. Start 3 plows, received a letter from L.F. Allen & a Mr. Townsend of Boyton View.

10th, 60°, Wednesday: Quite cool. Another fog though not so heavy as yesterday. Three plows running. Bro. F. & family leave in the stage for home. Fear there is going to be another fall of rain. A circle around the sun.

11th, 62°, Thursday: Rain during the night. Still drizzling and damp. Fix a cow pen at the springhouse after which I replant the bottom. Davy got two bushels of meal, Dave $16 in cash.

12th, 58°, Friday: Clear & cool, 3 plows running. Bob plowing in Dave's place, he loses the day. Gone to get married, will not be back before Monday. An old man by the name of {Prophet came for} some corn. Let him have one bushel not paid for.

13th, 60°, Saturday: Clear & cool. Dan loses the day and the plows running. Isaac Long came for the money I owe him. Pay him $500 credited on my note. I wrote by him to Mr. Kirk relative to the reaper. Wrote to Dr. Daily to come and see Miss Ellen who is quite unwell.

14th, 64°, Sunday: Close & sultry, a prospect of a warm day. The family except Mrs. Washington go to hear Brother Fitzpatrick who gave us a fine sermon. On our return found the Doctor Mr. & Mrs. Harper. They sat till evening & left.

15th, 70°, Monday: Another warm morning. Started 4 plows, finished the bottom, and start in the island. Brother Butts came home. Miss Ellen better. Nothing of special interest occurred.

16th., 62°, Tuesday: Fine evening air. All hands in the island. Let Margaret have a horse to see about Charley. Bro. Butt & Sallie go to New Creek. Brother Fitzpatrick called. Dined with us. Let Dave have 1/2 lb. tobacco, 75 cents. Mr. Brown came looked at my wool, pronounced it well-handled, and in the best of order. Complimented me in my success in sheep husbandry. Paid Mr. Brown for my shears, $7.

17th, 66°, Wednesday: Cloudy & close. Think it likely we will have some rain. Four plows running in the island. Dr. Daily called & sat a while. Fine shower. Some man stayed all night. Says he is a clock cleaner.

18th, 70°, Thursday: Had a splendid rain last night. Set all hands to thinning corn. Start Dan to the depot with the wool. Let the stranger clean one of the clocks. Brought my reaper home, paid commission $0.60. My wool didn't hold out as well as I expected. The Misses Dempsey arrived from Alexandria, left all well. Bro. Butt and Bett got home from New Creek, left all well. {Old Jake helping}, take 5 1/2 B. corn to house.

19th, 72°, Friday: Close & sultry. Start the plows 4 in the island. Finish thinning the bottom as soon as they finished plowing the island. Turned them the other way & started the hoes. {Old Jake helping}. The young folks go to spend the evening with Mrs. Harper.

20th, 70°, Saturday: Another close, hot morning. Run three plows today. {Old Jake helping}. Too many weeds for all the plows. The boys cannot keep up. Nothing of interest occurs. Clouding up and threatening. Think we will have rain. Fine rain. The ground well soaked. Doctor an order for $4 worth of goods from Gutherie's.

21st, 66°, Sunday: Rained pretty much all night. Still sprinkling, fear it will be injurious to the wheat. Family all at home. Miss Ellen worse, I fear her health is gone. Send for the doctor.

22nd, 60°, Monday: Cool & bracing, run only three plows. The island so weedy. Have to start with the hands I can raise. Fisher & Thompson came out to select irons for a wagon. Dr. Foot called to see Miss Ellen. {Old Jake helping}.

23rd, 58°, Tuesday: Another cool morning. Still at the island. Mrs. Foreman Inskeep & wife Lizzie with the doctor came to see Miss Ellen. Nothing of special interest occurred.

24th, 60°, Wednesday: Cloudy. Send Dave to Springfield with the wheels & iron for the wagon. Send Fisher 2 bushels of corn. R.W. Parker & 2 daughters spend the day with us. Finish the island & start in Old Jake's to plow it for him.

25th, 60°, Thursday: Cool & pleasant. Start 4 plows in the bottom after finishing Old Jake's. Mrs. Gilkinson & Mrs. Hiskill rode down & sat a while. Nothing of special interest occurred. Clouded up and thundered considerably several times, but no rain.

26th, 62°, Friday: Heavy fog, raining. Start 5 plows. heavy fog no advantage to the wheat. Found Parker's horse with his leg broke off short. Suppose he did it by jumping out of the Lot I had him in as I found him in the adjoining field. I sent for Dr. Daily to set the leg, & rested on the road till Parker came along & informed him of his loss. He took it quite cool, asked me to seeing him & attend to him which I promised to do. I am sorry the accident occurred as he is a fine little horse. Should he lose him it will be a considerable loss to one in his circumstances. The Doctor took Miss Ellen to town with him where she will remain for a while.

27th, 68°, Saturday: Close & sultry, light fog, all 5 plows running. I plow in George's place, till he returns having gone to Mr. Gibson's to a party, and not yet returned. Jno. Daily came by for me to accompany him to Romney to act as an arbitrator in a difficulty between F. Inskeep & himself. Mr. Gibson, I understand, being the other. I dislike to have anything to do in such cases but suppose it my duty. The case was disposed of in favor of Daily. Found to my astonishment when I got to town they were selling out the Yankee lawyer. I suppose he had made money while there. Bro. Butt got home. Jno. Inskeep came down to spend the night with George.

28th, 70°, Sunday: Another sultry morning. Some clouds. Hope we will have a shower. It is badly needed. Mrs. Washington quite unwell. I stay with her. The young folks all go to church at Springfield.

29th, 70°, Monday: Close & sultry. Shell 12 bushels of corn to go to mill. Robert takes it. Let Dan have 3 bushels. Start 4 plows. I rode to Springfield with Mr. Mytinger to look at the church, he's bidding for its repair. On my return found Robert Parker & Will Maloney here, fixing the horse's leg. Mr. Brown & Worthy Montgomery came & set till after two. Robert H. Patterson brought me a buggy plow to try. Bob Parker's father came to attend to the horse. They all stayed all night.

30th, 70°, Tuesday: Close & sultry. Tried the plow. It does well where the rows are wide enough for the wheels, not to run on the corn. I think with ground properly laid off and dropped too it will be a first-rate institution. The season is so near over I think I will not buy one this season. The young ladies & Bro. Butt go to spend the day with Miss Susan Parsons. Mr. Elefritz came for the Russle Reaper left here last summer by Richard Hoffman. I delivered it to him. In the evening a fine shower. Fear it will prevent our finishing the island tomorrow as we will have to go to cutting wheat the day after a light shower late in the evening.

JULY 1868

1st, 70°, Wednesday: Some fog. All hands at the island, hope to finish it today. Mr. Brown called and dined with us, has closed up his business collecting his wool. I think I will give up sheep this fall. Ettie & Sallie start to New Creek to a picnic. Patterson came out with a bolt and screw for his buggy plow.

2nd, 72°, Thursday: Close & sultry. Finish the corn the third time. Set Dan & Dave to opening lanes for the reaper. Richard came to put-up the reaper & start it. Young got 2 bushels of corn. George went to New Creek last evening, left about dusk. Start the reaper, it does not come up to my expectations. Jo Parker & Jno. Long came to see it work. I fear they are not favorably impressed. Parker helped.

3rd, 70°, Friday: Another close morning. Mr. Parker, Young & old Jake helping. Dave sick. George got back awhile before day this morning left all well at James'. The girls will come home Saturday. Young got half lb. of tobacco.

4th, 72°, Saturday: Closest morning we have had, sufficatingly hot. Young & Jake all day, Mr. Parker till noon. Young complaining, the fellow not well. George went to meet the girls. They got home about 11 o'clock. Bro. Butt & Bet rode to Romney. Dave $1.10.

5th, 72°, Sunday: Some air moving, still very warm. Family all at home. The warmest day of the season. Thermometer reaching 99°, fine rain.

6th, 72°, Monday: Still cloudy. Start two cradles. Send the broken parts of the reaper to Springfield to get repaired. Young & his little boy & Horn helping. Mr. Parker came to dinner 1/2 day to him. Frank Allen spent the evening & night with us. Dave 1/2 lb tobacco. Sam Fisher 4 barrels of corn by Rob't.

7th, 70°, Tuesday: Light fog, some clouds. Sent Rob't. to Springfield to get a bolt for the reaper. Parker, Horn, Young & his son helping. The day a hot one. Finish the upland and move to the bottom after dinner - find the grain much better than I had supposed. James Daily & Miss Em Blue spend the day & night with us.

8th, 72°, Wednesday: Slight rain during the night. James & Miss Em left after breakfast. Anna & Bett rode to Romney to see Miss Ellen. Same hands helping - Old Jake and the Old Doctor gave out the last-half day. Jno. Inskeep spent the evening & night with us.

9th, 72°, Thursday: Another light shower during the night. Parker, Young & son helping - Jake sick. Jno. Inskeep left after breakfast. The reaper doing finely. The day close & sultry. Broke the reaper & had to stop, fear we will not finish this week. A fish peddler asked to stay all night - let him stay.

10th, 68°, Friday: Heavy fog. Old Jake still sick. Parker, Young & son helping. I rode over to see Herriott's Buckeye work - it does nice work. I was decidely pleased with its performance. Broke a bolt & had to send to Springfield, consequently did not get as near done as I expected - finished the bottom.

11th, 72°, Saturday: Another heavy fog. Parker & Young helping. Commenced in the lot near the house. Find the wheat much better than I had supposed it to be. Finished cutting & putting it up.

12th, 74°, Sunday: Some fog. The family go to Springfield to Church. Bro. Fitzpatrick gave us a good sermon.

13th, 72°, Monday: Some fog. Start in two mowers in soy grass. R. H. Patterson called to see if I was ready to go to threshing. Borrowed from Jno. Daily $30. Old Doctor loses the day - gave him $2. Bro. Butt came - is more & more pleased with his horse. The day an awful hot one. Richard's Father came. Mr. Parker came to see his horse. The horse died a few minutes before he got here. I paid him for his helping me in the harvest - $12. In place of his charge bought a mare & colt from him for $125 six months after date, he insures her sound to work well & 9 years old this spring. He is to bring them to me tomorrow. George went to New Creek for Sallie.

14th, 70°, Tuesday: Another close morning. Start the mowers again. Bro. Hoffman left after breakfast. Mr. Parker brought me the mare & colt. Gave him my note - six months after date for $125. He insures the mare sound, 9 years old this spring and to work well. Bro. Fitz came, stopped the reapers and put all hands to cooking.

15th, 72°, Wednesday: Close & sultry. All hands at the reaper. George & Sallie got home sometime during the night. Left all well at James. Finished mowing and putting up the grass. Patterson came to thresh, sent for the machine. The young Ladys go to spend a day or two with Miss Foot. Bro. Fitz & Butt spend the day with Mr. Foreman Inskeep.

16th, 74°, Thursday: Prospect for a hot day. Send Rob't. to the bridge for Jake & Young. Commenced threshing. Jake came. Young not at home. Jno. Inskeep sent his wagon & 4 horses & driver. The day awful hot. Threshed 38 sacks. Fisher 35 lbs bacon.

17th, 74°, Friday: Young came. Jake, Richard, & Jno. Inskeep's hand helping. Dudley Taylor came to see Patterson relative to threshing his crop. Patterson starts to the Ponds to see Mr Taylor to get him to thresh next week instead of week after next. Threshed today 63 sacks.

18th, 76°, Saturday: Another awfully hot morning. Same hands helping. Mr. Parker came yesterday before dinner making a strong half-day. One of my horses over hot, fear it will die. Isaac Parsons & Ephraim Herriott came to see about threshing. George goes to Romney to accompany the Young Ladys home, they have been spending the last few days in Romney. Threshed 60 sacks today.

19th, 70°, Sunday: Pleasant air. The young folks got home last night after I went to bed. James Gibson came with them. Met with a serious loss in the death of Old Marion - something of lock jaw from being over hot. James Gibson left after dinner. Edward rode up to see Miss Ellen.

20TH, 70°, Monday: Heavy fog too wet yet to thresh. We had quite a hard rain yesterday evening & last night making it too wet to thresh. The hands are gathering in, will have to put them at something else. Cleaned out the cabbage & sow beans. Commenced threshing after dinner & finished about 4 o'clock. Mr. Parker came & made half-day, Young a whole day. Young got 171/2 lb bacon at 18 cts. Chester came for wheat for Patterson got 12 bushels. Ben Shannon 21/2 Bushels. James & family came. The young folks spent the evening with Mary Blue. John Daily & Jno. Inskeep came & sat till bedtime. Hired Jno. for one month at $12/month to be continued if I like him.

21st, 72°, Tuesday: Some fog. Jim and Edward left before breakfast. Made the boys plow and hoe the potatoes and cabbage. Mrs. W., Beck & myself spend the day with Mrs. Susan Inskeep. Found Mr. List and Mr. Ott, two pleasant gentlemen, rode up in the evening and sat a few minutes with Miss Ellen. Ettie & Sally Dempsey go to spend the day at Cousin Bob's. Sent George out collecting. Did not get any from Farr. Collected the balance on Lake's note and for the seed corn, $19.

22nd, 76°, Wednesday: Start the boys at the hay. I rode to Springfield, paid Jno. Daily the $30 I borrowed from him some days since. Borrowed from N.B. Gunther $15. Richard took two horses & went to the depot for the drill. It is a pretty nice looking machine. Think it will do well. Let Dave have 12 lbs. of bacon at 18 cents. Shelled some white corn to go to mill.

23rd, 74°, Thursday: Heavy fog. Send Robert to the mill. Wrote to Sheetz to send me 150 or 200 lbs. of flour. Bob too unwell to go. Sent Dan. Gave Dan $1 for Margaret to get its worth in flour. Gave Dan an order for two bushels of wheat or the flour of two bushels. Mrs. W., Beck, and myself go to spend the day at Mr. Gibson's. Called at Foreman Inskeep's and paid Miss Ellen Carr $50. We had quite a merry & pleasant day. The company promised to spend Saturday evening with us. On our return my horse ran off, fortunately did no injury. Mr. Gilkinson kindly offered me one of his. It being however out of town made us so late we concluded to stay all night, spent a pleasant evening with Mr. & Mrs. Hiskill. Fine show. Dan got 3 bushels of corn.

24th, 72°, Friday: After breakfast left for home. Had quite a rain on the road. Every appearance of a settled rain. Found all well at home. George had the hands shelling corn. As soon as the rain ceased put them to work cleaning out the sugar corn & send Mr. Gilkinson's horse back. Bro. Butt came. Met with McCuin. Paid him in full for work he says he done for George after we settled $2. Settled with Richard & paid him in full $10. Rained pretty much all day.

25th, 74 °, Saturday: Heavy fog. Dave loses the day. Dan & Jo getting wood, etc. The Gentlemen from Mrs. Inskeep and Miss Lizzy spent the evening with us. The balance of the invited guests did not come. We had a pleasant time. Mr. Ott gave me as a memento a very nice penknife. I am very much pleased with him.

26th, 70°, Sunday: We went to Springfield to church. Bro. Butt preached a good sermon. Quite smoky presenting an appearance of Indian summer.

27th, 68°, Monday: Still cloudy & sultry. Commenced raining. Fixed to go cutting oats, but it rained too much. Put all hands to shelling corn. George took Beck home. Sent by him tar to go for Mr. Davis's horse. In the evening Mrs. Wilson & Jane Gibson came, spent the evening. They broke down. Jim sent to Jno. Inskeep to borrow his buggy, I having none. Let Jo have 1/2 bushel of corn, 62 1/2 cents. {Doctor set in to work again}.

28th, 66°, Tuesday: Still cloudy though I think there is a prospect of its clearing off. The sun raising; if not too wet will go at the oats, start the reaper. The oats good. George returned to dinner. They got up safely. Left all well. Dave got 1 plug of tobacco.

29th, 60°, Wednesday: Quite a fall morning. Some fog, as soon as the fog passes, all hands go at the oats. Ettie & Anna ride to Romney. Nothing of special interest occurred.

30th, 62°, Thursday: Finished cutting the oats. They are too damp to tie up or rather too weedy. Patterson came with his machine to go to threshing. Set it in the old orchard field, but will not thresh before Monday. Mr. Parker set in to work about 4 o'clock, will help us haul grass, wheat, etc. the balance of this week and help thresh next week.

31st, 68°, Friday: Cloudy and threatening rain. I put all hands at the hay. After finishing the hay put them to hauling wheat to the machine, so as to get a start. I go to Cumberland. Sold my wheat to Johnson at $2 per bushel. Corn at $1.25 both to be delivered in Cumberland. Returned to Springfield and stayed all night. Found all well.

AUGUST, 1868

1st, Saturday: (written in margin "Paid Bob Parker $1 for bringing me over the sacks from Johnson, the sacks not coming he is to bring them when they do come.") Still cloudy. Left immediately after breakfast so as to get to the depot before the Carrs as Mr. Johnson promised to send 300 sacks this morning by express and I want to get Parker to bring them over in the stage. Got to the depot some time before the Carrs. No sacks came. Met with James Dempsey on his way to my house. Called on Mr Nimrod Farr for the money he owed me, paid me in full $119.25. Called in Springfield & paid Will Stump for N.B. Gutherie $65 that I borrowed a few days since. Borrowed Jno. Daily's sacks, found all well on my arrival at home. George had made them haul in a large rack of wheat which will help the cause. Mr. Parker helped yesterday and today. Earsome's boys loaned me 2 horses in the event I want them. Found Will Parker here, who thinks I can get 2 horses from his father if I want them as they are not using theirs. Think I will send down and see if I can get a couple. An evening of rain.

2nd, 64°, Sunday: Still raining, a night of incessant rain. The Young folks who spent the day at Mrs. Inskeep's did not get home last night.

3rd, 68°, Monday: Robert brought me two of cousin Bob's horses & 37 sacks from Jno. Daily's. Mr. Parker made a half day, he & his horse. Sent Margaret to Romney for some sacks Mr. Kuykendall loaned me. She brought me 40 sacks. Threshed 42 sacks today, or rather this evening, it being after one when we began. Sent Rob't. Parker $20 quaterage.

4th, 72°, Tuesday: All hands at the wheat. Send Dave to the ridge for Young & Jake, they came also. Polk Hinkle, who has moved in the Keen's house, I let him have the house & garden & fire wood for 24 $ per year. If he works right for me I will not charge him for the house. A young man by the name of George came to get work but having enough to carry on the threshing did not hire him.

5th, 68°, Wednesday: Heavy fog. Same hands helping me. Andy & Rollings got mad yesterday & left the machine. James Hines came down & ran the machine last evening & is still feeding. Patterson came to run the machine, Hines left to thresh his own.

6th, 70°, Thursday: Another heavy fog. Same hands helping, except Mr. Parker who is gleaning the bottom, having given him permission to do so.

7th, 70°, Friday: Another heavy fog. Young and Hinkle helping. Jake went home last night and has not returned. Parker still gleaning, finished up everything about 3 o'clock. Sent the machine to Springfield for Patterson. Settled with Parker and paid him in full, $8.00. Let Hinkle have 14 1/2 lbs. of bacon at 18 cents. Brother Eggleston and wife came to see us. Also Brother Dice spent the night with us on his way to his quarterly meeting.

8th, 68°, Saturday: Showers during the night. Brother Dice left before breakfast. Send Sheets and Kuykendall back home filled with corn, 90 b. 31 lbs. Didn't measure it, suppose there is between 90 and 100 b. Set the boys to measuring and filling up wheat for hauling off next week should we leave. William Raison borrowed 5 bushels of wheat. Mr. Adams called for his commodity note, didn't pay him. Cleaned up and loaded two teams with 55 sacks of wheat. Jo got $5, had 90 b.31 lbs. of corn.

9th, 68°, Sunday: A lovely morning, quite a fall appearance as some of the young folks attend Dr. Foot's protracted meeting in Romney, the day quite windy.

10th, 64°, Monday: Cool and pleasant, Start the teams with 55 sacks of wheat. Paid Dave $10, cleaned up two more loads . George returned, had 120 B. 30 lbs. Brother Fitzpatrick, R.W. Parker and Butt come to spend the day with us.

11th, 66°, Tuesday: Cloudy, fear there will be rain. Start two loads to the mill {Ricky Young} got two bushels of wheat after dinner. Brother & Sister Eggleston and Brother Fitzpatrick left. George had today 129 b. and 39 lbs. brought out sacks for Fisher and Shannon for corn.

12th, 64°, Wednesday: Cool and raining, start the teams again. Send one load of wheat and one of corn. Send Fisher 2 1/2 b. corn, Shannon 2 B. & John Dailey 2 sacks of oats, between 4 and 5 bushels. Set the boys to cleaning up corn. George returned, had 71 B. of wheat and 68 of corn. Mr. Jno. Inskeep and sister, wife Em Blue, Mr. Slaughter, Mr. Vape and wife Ginny Lind spent the evening with the young folks. Anna Ellie Fineas had gone up to Mr. Gibson's, consequently was not at home. The day cool, feels like frost.

13th, 46°, Thursday: Start two loads of corn. Bet and Jay ride to Springfield to attend the funeral of Mrs. Dr. Moore. Quite a large turnout. A letter came for Virginia Offutt to my care so she must be on the road somewhere. Letter from Johnson.

14th, 48°, Friday: Heavy fog, start only one team, not having sacks. To my surprise George Chase and family arrive in a wagon from Springfield just from White Sulphur Springs. Meeting the stage having got off at Green Springs. Miss Em Blue and Miss Pugh called to see the ladies. Mr. and Mrs. Daily spent the evening, Bill Stump and Lizzie Parker left. Jno. Inskeep sat like old times.

15th, 50°, Saturday: Another heavy fog, the Miss Dempseys and Simms take their leave. Send the wagon back to the Depot, hope to get some sacks today. George gave me $50 for Larne Reese. After dinner George Chase left, the girls will remain a week or two. Gave George $21 and he gave me a check on N.Y. for the amount. Made the boys, after running through the wind, make the balance of the corn. Make them spend the balance of the day cleaning up wheat & spreading it. George returned at dusk. Gave Wash $6.60, settled with Jo. and gave him an order on Jno. Daily for $3.36 in full of account.

16th, 52°. Sunday: Light fog, family all at home. In the evening Sally and Bob rode up to see Miss Ellen a few minutes, found her quite cozy.

17th, 60°, Monday: Light fog, set the boys to cleaning wheat and oats. George went to Springfield and to Green Springs. I went to R. D. Johnson. Rollie Parker came for his wheat and I told him about the mare kicking so we could not work her. He told me he had a four year old colt he would give me in her place. The day quite warm. Old Wash not come in, and I do not care if he never comes. Hope he may not. George returned, no sacks. He is quite unwell. Jno. Inskeep rode down and sat awhile in the barn.

18th, Tuesday: Another heavy fog, start two plows, sat the smaller boys to cleaning up the oats in the basement. George quite sick. Jno. Inskeep spent the night with him. The doctor not come. I find the ground plows very hard. If I can get sacks, will go to hauling again and wait for rain. Isaac George brought an order for Young's piece of meat I promised him yesterday-- shoulder weighing 9 lbs. He got for Polk Hinkle--one b. of wheat $2--one b. of corn $1.25. Sent Robert to Cumberland for sacks. I found the ground too hard to plow, so if I can get sacks we'll haul off the balance of my grain. Sent an order to Callahan for a barrel of sugar. Wrote to Johnson requesting him to send me $300.

19th, 64°, Wednesday: A lovely morning, start two plows. I with the little boys finish the oats. Isaac George came to work for me, set him to mowing the weeds in the yard. A fine rain. Robert got home just as the rain commenced, brought 300 sacks and $300 from Johnson.

20th, 66°, Thursday: Sprinkling rain, start the teams to hauling grain. Had 67 B. corn, 93 oats. Got Dave a pair of shoes from John Seders $3.50. George returned from the Picnic. Met with his sister there, she will be down tomorrow or Saturday. Miss Lizzie Inskeep called on the ladies. Paid Isaac Long $100.

21st, 70°, Friday: Still cloudy, send the teams off with oats. Sent John Daily sacks, 35. Having sent him two with oats in some days since I borrowed 37. Brother Butt got home. A fine shower late in the evening. George had 198 bags of oats.

22nd, 70°, Saturday: Heavy fog, start the teams back with wheat. Sent 56 sacks. Sent Jno. Seders 6 B of corn. Received a letter from R.W. Gilkinson. Several of the young folks gathered in. Alfred White and Ben Daily and Jno. Inskeep stayed all night. Edward arrived about dusk. Left all well. Two of my horses gave out. The old sorrel mare they had to leave at Springfield.

23rd, 72°, Sunday: Quite cloudy. Messrs. Daily and White returned to Romney. The young folks attend church in Springfield. Beck came about 11 o'clock, gave us an agreeable surprise; about 1 o'clock a fine shower. The young folks not yet returned, now after 3. Still threatening rain.

24th, 70°, Monday: Cloudy and sprinkling rain. Send one team only today with 31 sacks of wheat. Set the small boys to hoeing up and cleaning out the late potatoes and paid Beck the $30 given me by George from Jno. Seders on a lot of leather he got from her. Beck left us this morning. Edward is quite unwell, not able to be up. Robert goes to Springfield to get his saddle repaired. Send James Parson's wagon home.

25th, 68°, Tuesday: Send off the last load of wheat I will send at this time. I go with the wagon and will go on to Cumberland, loaded in the wheat and then jumped in the car Dr. Boner with me and went to Cumberland. Settled with Kirk, paid him in full for commission $24 also freight on the Bone Dust $10.15. Settled with Johnson for all the grain sent except the oats which stands unsold. Johnson thinks it would be better to clean it over again before offering to sell it. Spent the night with Mr. Johnson. Was kindly received and entertained. His daughter is a loquacious lady.

26th, Wednesday: Left the Johnsons before breakfast and had a busy morning. Young Anning met me at the bank about 7, and cashed Johnson's check for $1,287.10. I then paid Long and Co. $26 in full for three plows sent me by Edward and freight to Green Spring. Paid Coulehan in full for a barrel of white sugar $48.76. Ticket 50 cents. Got 4 tickets to St. Louis $28.30 each for which Mr. Johnson posed settling, and take it out of the oats, when he sells. I got home about the middle of the day, quite unwell. Sent to the depot for Mr. Buckhannon who is to accompany the ladies to St. Louis. He and Mr. Kirk came up with George. Edward came to accompany the party to Morefield.

27th, 68°, Thursday: Gave Bet & Ed $225 and cash and an order on George Chase for $76.60 which I think might be enough for them. Gave George $20. Took the girls and their baggage to Green Springs, stayed with them till just as the cars were commencing. Bought the last of the Coal and Bone dust, got home about 11 at night. The old Doctor came back and worked today. Poor Ed was completely broke up on parting with me.

28th, 70°, Friday: Clouding up, should there be no rain it will make it much more pleasant for their meeting at Morefield. I am told a great many have gone. The old Doctor plowing again today. Late in the evening a fine shower.

29th, 66°, Saturday: Some fog. Weaning calves, lambs, and separating the sheep, have 146 old sheep, 130 lambs, 66 ewes, 54 Wethers and 10 bucks. Doctor plowing today. Gave Ellen $10.

30th, 70°, Sunday: Sunny, heavy fog, Messrs. R.D. Johnson, and Sprigg came last night on their return from Morefield. Stayed with me till evening and left for home. They represent having had a pleasant time of it. George and Kirk got home this evening.

31st, 68°, Monday: Some fog. Isaac George came with an order from Polk Hinkle for two or three dollars, I gave him $5. I charged him with it. George took Mr. Kirk home. The young ladies from R.W. Parker came to spend a few days with us. Started one harrow, sent Robert and Gus to the mile-wide for 200 lbs. of flour. They got it. I am afraid I shall have to attend court as I am summoned as a jury man.


1st, 70°, Tuesday: Rained some during the night, still threatening, two plows running and one harrow. Set the small boys to hauling manure on the meadows. I go to attend court, having been summoned as a juror. Paid Baker for two Cling bridles $4, paid Jno. Pearce balance on subscription to defray cost on Rebel Suits $55. Paid Keller tavern bill, 85 cents. We had some speaking from Colonel Johnson, Thomas Carshaddon Esquires. The Judge being sick there was no court nor will there be next term.

2nd, 72°, Wednesday: I rode to Springfield. Paid William Adams $80.50 in full on the Connelly note-for the colt I bought of him last fall. Went to James Brady's to pay him, but he did not want his money, insisted I should keep it.....will do so, and pay H. R. Hoffman what I owe him. We let Worthy Montgomery have the repair of the church for $275. He is to put it in perfect order. Do all the work that is to be done except the painting, for that sum. Discharged Old Wash paid him in full $5.

3rd, 70°, Thursday: Commenced raining about light and every prospect of a settled rain. 11 o'clock and still at it. Too bad for the boys to be out. Set them to cleaning up the flax seed, etc. Mr. Pugh commenced work in the shop for me. Dave not come. A day of rain. The ground has got the best soaking it has had for months.

4th, 66°, Friday: While cloudy and damp think the rain not over yet. Dave not come. Gave Arty Young $5 and had two grubbing hoes sharpened for him $. Bert Parker came to see us. Mrs. W. and myself rode to Springfield. Paid for furring 80 cents; paid for the church which is to be refunded, $100, advanced that amount to Worthy Montgomery, the undertaker, in order that he may go on with the repairs of the church. I subscribed $25 which is to be deducted from the $100. We are to give him $275 for putting the church in perfect repair, save the painting and papering.

5th, 60°, Saturday: Heavy fog. I go to Mr. Conrad Long's; he had left home consequently transacted no business with him. Returned by Springfield, took up a note held by Wheeler Green in the hands of Edward Green by paying in full $270! Three plows running, Dave not come yet. Saw him in Springfield, he apologized for not coming to his work. Said he had been hunting his father-in-law's horse. Ben Daily and Jno. Inskeep spent the evening with the young folks. Dr. Daily took tea with us.

6th, 56°, Sunday: Heavy fog. The young folks go to Springfield to church and from there home, on to their uncle Robert's. My young people went with them, and they stayed till evening.

7th, 58°, Monday: Commenced raining about 4 o'clock and rained till sunrise. A fine rain. Three plows running. Dave not returned yet. I rode to the ridge to salt the cattle. They are going wild. Chester came for two weeks for Patterson. Got 8 bushels , 10 more coming to him, having got 12 sometime since. Mr. Conrad Long come and offered me some money. I took from him $1100 including $90.70 interest on two other notes he holds against me. One for $631.25 and the other $250. Received in cash $1009.30, making my whole indebtedness to him $1981.25.

8th, 56°, Tuesday: Heavy fog, I rode to Springfield, there met with William T. Taylor and paid him $16 in full for a balance due him since 1864 on some brandy bought of him which was to have been paid in Vic money, but not doing it before the war closed, he claimed current money. Wrote L.F. Allen and sent him $5 balance in full for 8 Volume of A & B and recording pedigree in same. Paid Jno. Hause $30. Gave Jno. Daily $1350 to send by express to H.R. Hoffman on a note of $2800 I owe him. Received a letter from Hoffman instructing me to send it by express. Received a letter from Ettie, the Missouri friends all well. Talked with Jno. Daily who fell in my debt $28.

9th, 60°, Wednesday: Another heavy fog, finished plowing and start two harrows. George went to Romney to see Mr. Dinwiddie relative to taking Sally to board; he agreed to take her, she coming each Friday evening at $16 per month. R.W. Parker and lady spent the day with us. The Lieutenant Parsons and sister- in-law spent the evening. I wrote Richard Hoffman for a Bickford and Hoffman drill for R.W. Parker. Wood Daily came home with George. Late in the evening a shower.

10th, 64°, Thursday: Raining every prospect of a settled rain. Should it continue will make the boys shell some corn, preparatory to going to the mill. I rode to Springfield, had a day of chat with a gentleman by the name of Manshim and Jno. Daily. George went to the depot with his mother's onions and flaxseed, and for the cloth Mr. Kirk got in Philadelphia for George and myself. Gave George $60, he returned $9, making the cloth $51. Mr. Manshim came home with George and spent the night with us.

11th, 79°, Friday: A night of rain. Keep the boys harrowing wet as it is. Mr. Manshim left after breakfast, sold him a fine ? $5. Note for a $2 Greenback. The river rising quite fast. Edward came, left all well. Commenced raining about 5, quite a hard rain. Chester got the balance of Patterson's total wheat, 10 bushels.

12th, 70°, Saturday: Heavy fog, too wet to work in the Land, but keep the harrow running. Send Robert to mill with 12 bushels of corn, nine for self and three for Don W. Pugh. Left at noon, paid him $5. About 5 a heavy rain.

13th, 72°, Sunday: Family at home Edward left for home in the rain. About 12 two men from Washington Co., PA, put in with a lot of sheep. It was too late to turn them off. So let them stay. I find them two right clever Yankees.

14th, 66°, Monday: Still raining, Dave not come. Mr. Cotton went back to Isaac Inskeep's to sell him a lot of sheep. I picked out a lot of wethers. Have some idea of buying them. Jno. Inskeep came down to put in a lot. I think they offer these sheep on economical terms.

15th, 60°, Tuesday: Still raining. Quite cool. Edward came over for my old drill which I gave him. Mrs. Washington takes Sallie and Bet to Romney to school. Gave her $80 to pay on their board and tuition. Jno. took 100 ewes at $2 per head. Brother Fitz spent the evening and night.

16th, 64°, Wednesday: Still raining lightly. Brother Fitz left after breakfast. Mr. Cotton returned, having gone to Frankford with the sheep he sold Inskeep and Farr. I bought 300 for $400. They are take the wool that comes off them at 40 cents per lb. in part payment. Brothers Cotton and Swisher went back to Inskeep's and Farr's to try and sell out the balance of their flock, about 475. They will not get back today. While George and myself picked out my 300, Jno. Inskeep came down and paid me $200 for Cotton. I am to pay $4 for him. Old Mr. Pugh came back. Dave not come yet. Make the boys cut some corn after dinner as there is a prospect of its clearing off. Getting quite cool. Paid Cotton for the 21 commissioned sheep. A check on the Washington County Bank sent me by Wright $24.30 and $25.70 in cash and in full of the price I was to pay. Gave him my note 6 months after date for $264, it being for a lot of 110 Merino wethers.

17th, 42°, Thursday: Quite a fall morning. Set the boys to cutting corn. Dave not come in. Settled with old Mr. Pugh and paid him in full $5, having paid him $5 last Saturday. Cotton and Swisher returned quite dispirited. Canceled the bargain we made yesterday or rather flew from it. They are pretty much scamps, I think. They left with their sheep. The next I take in will be my fault, not theirs. Made them pay $15 for their bill yesterday and today. Paid them $204 for John Inskeep. I advanced $4 for him. George rode to Springfield to see if he could get some hands to help cut corn. Succeeded in getting the promise of three hands. Roy, Tom, and Yellow John.

18th, 38°, Friday: Heavy fog, but for which we would have had frost. Roy and John helping. Tom came at noon. Started the drill, it does finely. Miss Ellen left, Mrs. Washington's settled with her and paid her off in full, $ 15, having paid her $45 before. Sallie rode the horse home she rode to Romney. Brought a letter from Ed to Miss Ellen. Nothing of interest occurred.

19th, 38°, Saturday: Another heavy fog, saving us another time from frost. Roy, John and Tom helping cut corn, Dan's John also, work today, yesterday, and the day before. I rode over the river to see if I could raise any more hands. Failed to get any. Sent Robert and Sam over after what pouches they had left and the quinces. Paid off the boys for helping cut corn. Roy, 2 Days $2; Jno. 2 days $2. Tom 1 1/2 days $1.50. They promised to come back if they could and help me next week.

20th, 42°, Sunday: Raining lightly. The equinoctial storm. The darkies all go to Springfield to their big meeting. They will have a worst time. George took a horse for Kate Stump who wants to come out to spend a while with her cousin Sallie.

21st, 40°, Monday: Still cloudy, the clouds look hard and cold. Think it will clear off. I rode to the bridge to get some hands to cut corn. Archibald Young came, made half a day. Brother Butt got home, I think improved in health, and appearance. Jno. cutting corn.

22nd, 44°, Tuesday: Moderated during the night, and the appearance of rain. Commenced snowing about 10 o'clock. Young made half a day. They sent for him, his child being sick. Jno. cutting corn. Commenced raining about 3. Drove us from the field. Young got 1 gallon of vinegar.

23rd, 46°, Wednesday: Still showery, rained hard during the night. I rode to Romney to attend to some business for Mr. Gibson. Called at Mrs. Parsons for S.W. Blue at the request of Mr. Gibson who wanted us to promote his Act as President of the Valley Bank at Romney. The foreknown ? to not to do anything. Returned to dinner. Set the boys cutting corn on my return.

24th, 50°, Thursday: Still showery. Too wet to drill or cut corn. Start 3 plows in the stubble in the upland. Plowed until about 3 o'clock when the rain got too hard & we had to quit.

25th, 48°, Friday: A night of hard rain, the river rising fast, fear we will have a big water. The boys getting wood. In the evening Mr. Brown came with a lot of sheep & a need for pastures for the night, let him stay as I wished to make some arrangement with him relative to the lot of sheep I have of Wright & Polock.

26th, 48°, Saturday: Some appearances of clearing off. I concluded to keep the lot of sheep I have another year, as Brown was anxious I should do so. He releases me from all responsibility for loss by death or otherwise. I am to carry out the spirit of the original contract, except that I am not bound for any loss. Should any of the sheep die, I am to give them the wool of such dead sheep, delivering with the other wool the 18th day of June 1869 at Greenspring Run Depot on the B.O.R.R. As several of the sheep look badly he let me have the two lots - mine & the Morehead sheep, at 138 head, throwing in 8 sheep. I also bought from him 180 head for which I expected a note on demand for the sum of $45 & the wool that they produced next shearing time, the wool to be delivered as the other wool in good order on the 18th day of June 1869 at Greenspring Depot. He made me a present of two fine ewes. I let him take my shepherd dog with him to train him. Sallie got home, it being too inclement for her yesterday. Mr. Hamilton came to meet Brown, they are right clever Yankees, like them very much. The Boys cutting corn, the ground too wet to work. Jno. Inskeep paid me the $4 I advanced to Cotton for him.

27th, 54°, Sunday: Still cloudy & damp - fear we will have more rain, family all at home except George who rode away last evening. No preaching today in Springfield, the river too high for us to cross even if there was preaching. George returned, Jno. Inskeep with him who sat an hour or two with us.

28th, 56°, Monday: Heavy fog. Start the drill again. Dan and Jno. and Sam cutting corn. I rode to the ridge to salt the cattle, and see if I could get some hands to help cut corn. Didn't succeed in getting any. Young being at his own and Hinkle working in Frankford, Jake promised to come and shuck for the hogs.

29th, 40°, Tuesday: Clear and windy or there would have been frost. Jake came to shuck corn. Old Mr. Pugh at work in the strip. Finished seeding the Bottom.

30th, 36°, Wednesday: Quite a frost and some fog. I hope the fog will counteract the effects of the frost. Old Jake shucking. Mr. Pugh at work. Rode to Springfield. Took Mrs. Hause 3 lbs. of rolls. Bought from Mr. Gushwin & Shanholtz 19 sheep bells.


1st, 40°, Thursday: Some fog. Start 3 plows in the upland stubble, Gus & Jno cutting corn. Let Roy have 10 lbs. of meal $1.50. A light shower late in the evening, fear we are going to have rain. {Pugh at work}.

2nd, 60°, Friday: Cloudy & damp, rained some during the night. {Pugh at work}. Finished the piece over the ditch and commenced the piece next to the shop. Nothing of interest occurred.

3rd, 56°, Saturday: Cloudy, rained during the night. Send Robert to Springfield for the sheep bells & some iron. Kate & Sallie rode to Springfield, George to Romney to attend the political speaking. {Pugh at work}. George returned & reports a fine set of speeches from Liman Kilgore & etc.

4th, 48°, Sunday: Still cloudy & damp, occasionally a shower. Family all at home.

5th, 50°, Monday: Still cloudy & threatening. Rob't & Sal go to Romney to school. I rode to the ridge to salt the cattle. Jake promised to come tomorrow if he is able, & shuck corn for me. Young is to come & cut for me. After dinner I rode to Roy's to get him & by Springfield to get Gus a pair of shoes. Called at Mr. Grace's to see about the wheat he was to let me have, promising me 10 or 12 positively and perhaps 13 bushels. {Pugh helping}

6th, 42°, Tuesday: Some fog and quite smoky, like Indian Summer. Jake, Young, and Roy come to help me. {Mr. Pugh at work}. Beck and her little ones came. Lucy is looking pretty. Letters from the girls, all well.

7th, 44°, Wednesday: Another fog. Jake, Young, and Roy helping. Hope to finish cutting today, all I will cut. I rode to Romney to attend the meeting of the Board of Registration, being there to prove my loyalty. What a farce, as I expected. They took my name from the registration books, to think such a lot of irresponsible, contemptible lot of fellows setting on the character of gentlemen. Finished cutting corn or rather stopped. Am afraid to cut the Island. Paid Young 2 bushels of wheat. Paid Roy $2 in full for his work. Engaged Ephraim M. Grace 12 or 13 bushels of wheat at $2.25 per bushel.

8th, 48°, Thursday: Cloudy and high wind. I wrote a few lines to Jacobs and sent him some Yank documents. Start the plows and harrow. {Mr. Pugh working}. After breakfast send George to Grace's for the wheat I am to get from him. He got bushels. Mr. Pugh sharpened two shears for Young, $0.25. After dinner I accompanied the ladies to Mr. James Inskeep's and spent the evening. Jo came to hire with me. I hired him for one year at $120 and furnish him a horse and garden. He is to commence work in the morning.

9th, 30°, Friday: The coldest morning we have had this fall, a very heavy frost. Jo came to work. Keep two harrows running, the balance picking apples. Young came for a cradle to cast his buckwheat, let him have one; also let him have one bushel of wheat. Fisher sent his son for grist of corn, let him have 21/2 bushels. {Pugh}

10th, 30°, Saturday: Another heavy fog & frost. Start the drill. Sow, broad cast, the side between the ditches. {Mr. Pugh at work} James Rees came. Also Jno. Inskeep spent the night with us. Miss Kate Stump and Miss Hattie Blackman, go to Mr. Price's Res. on a visit.

11th, 36°, Sunday: Heavy fog, no frost. Gave {Old Mr. Pugh} $2.95. Family all at home. Mr. Pugh left, will not be back for 2 or 3 weeks.

12th, 40°, Monday: Send Dan & 4 horses to help Jno. Inskeep thresh. Let Jo have the team & wagon to move his things over. He loses the day. James & family started for home but meeting with an accident returned. It is a great mercy they were not all killed. The horse ran off with them & broke their buggy to pieces. I rode to Springfield. Miss Susan Poland came to help Mrs. W. sew. Received a note from Peter Miller agreeing to do the papering of the Church for $2 per roll.

13th, 34°, Tuesday: Another fog. Hope to finish seeding today. Kate rode down to her Uncle Robert's. Finished seeding all the ground I have plowed. Am at a mind whether I shall rake up the balance or not of that field. After dinner James and family made another effort to get home. I let him have one of the mules that I know is perfectly gentle. He is to send her back tomorrow. In the evening it clouded up and looks like rain. Make Jo and Sam get in some wood. Set Gus to gathering the soy beans.

14th, 36°, Wednesday: Some fog, rained during the night and still cloudy. Send Jo with two of the horses to help Cousin Bob's father thresh his wheat. George starts to the depot and from there to Cumberland. Gave him an order on R.D. Johnson for wheat money I had in his name. Set Sam and Gus to cutting and spreading corn in the island. As the day advances it looks more threatening. I think there will be rain, and I am not exactly prepared for it.

15th, 40°, Thursday: Rained during the night. Dan got home this morning. Finished threshing after night. Set him and Sam to hauling out my share offor fear of high water. Gus cutting and shucking in the Island. James Rees sent my mule home. They got up safely. I start Charley back with his horse. Appearance of clearing off.

16th, 30°, Friday: Jo got back in last night. They finished threshing at Cousin Bob's. Roy came with him to get a horse to plow his patch. Let him have one. Start two teams to hauling corn from the Island. George brought me $97 from Mr. Johnson , more I think than I had coming to me. He had gone with some material for making a carpet to Mrs. Carter. Bro. Fitz came.

17th, 40°, Saturday: High wind. I take the boys and go to the ridge with the sheep, 315 head. Make a pen for holding them of nights. The young folks accompany Brother Fitzpatrick to the Branick Mountain to attend a Sunday School picnic. Burt Parker came home with them. The day quite cool. A letter from R.D. Johnson informing me of a mistake in paying George of $49.25 and asking that it be remitted which George did, borrowed the money from Mr. Gushwin. Sent the amount back to Gushwin by William Stump.

18th, 28°, Sunday: The coldest morning of the season. One of the ewes came fresh. Task Sam. George took Burt Parker home, her horse having got out last night and went home.

19th, 38°, Monday: Rained light during the night. Mr. Keller of Romney called a few minutes. Mr. G. L. Blue came to get permission to clean some wheat through my mill, which was granted. Set the boys to digging potatoes, but finding the earth stuck to them, quit; set them to shucking corn. After dinner take them to the ridge to fix some fences for the sheep.

20th, 40°, Tuesday: Some fog. Go at the potatoes again. Jo got 101/2 lbs. of bacon at 18 cts. Letters from the girls - all well. Ellie in St. Louis attending the state fair.

21st, 40°, Wednesday: Rained lightly during the night. Commenced the potatoes again, but the rain stopped us. Shelled some corn & sent Dan to the mill. Let Dan have two bushels of corn.

22nd, 38°, Thursday: Cold NW wind. Start two teams to hauling corn from the island. I ride to Springfield. The election. Borrowed from Simon Taylor $400 took up the $300 note and added it to the $400 and gave a note for $700 payable on or before the first day of August, 1869. Snowed some in the evening.

23rd, 36°, Friday: Cold, damp air. Finished hauling my share of the Earsome corn from the Island. Cut and put away the Henson corn, finished digging the potatoes, etc., etc.

24th, 38°, Saturday: Clean up a load of wheat and take it to the mill. Had 62 bushels and 37 lbs. Let Dan 150 lbs. of flour. Brought home two barrels of flour for myself, as Sheets could not recommend it as being very good. Paid Jno. Hiskell my taxes, $148.68. Bought Jo material for a suit of clothes, $5.60. George spent the night with Jno. Inskeep. Paid Mrs. Offner 10 cents toll. Edward came, left all well, gave Mrs. Washington $6.

25th, 30°, Sunday: Heavy frost. George returned from Mr. Inskeep's. Family all at home. About 10 o'clock commenced thundering and raining, every appearance of a settled rain.

26th, 38°, Monday: Clear and calm. A lovely morning. Sent by Edward to Colham $3 for the Fireman's insurance. Set the boys to hauling corn, shucking, etc., on the Bottom. George accompanied Kate to her Uncle Robert's.

27th, 32°, Tuesday: Heavy fog and some frost. George goes to Greenspring for some salt and onto Cumberland for his Aunt. Gave him $50. Sent by him to Dr. Moore 5 sacks of wheat, less or more bushels, he is to weigh in Springfield. Make the boys shuck corn till noon and then make them haul in. I rode to the ridge to see how the sheep are doing.

28th, 42°, Wednesday: Quite windy through the night. Paid Daniel $30 on his work. Set them to shucking corn in the Bottom. Jno. and Will Ransom come for my hand mill, lent it to them and sold them my old Winchester mill for $5. They are to take it when they bring the other one home. George returned, brought me 4 sacks of salt and $2.50. Returned $25.40 of the $50 I gave him yesterday. 632 lbs of wheat.

29th, 28°, Thursday: A stinging cold morning. George tried the Old Hound. No deer. Patterson came out to shuck some corn. Keep the boys shucking in the Bottom. The day pleasant after the effects of the frost passed off.

30th, 36°, Friday: Heavy fog and some frost. The boys still shucking corn in the Bottom. After dinner set them to hauling in corn. George and the small boys pick over the potatoes and put them away. After dinner he took his mother to Romney.

31st, 34°, Saturday: Cloudy and damp. Make the boys finish hauling in the corn, and then go to getting wood. I rode to the ridge to salt the stock. The sheep I think are improving some. An evening of rain. Gus* ran off about the middle of the day. I suppose gone back to Baltimore. It is too inclement to go to see about him, and I care little or nothing about him. Let him go. Jno. Inskeep came down to spend the night with George. *(August Leftner - Indentured from the Baltimore House of Refuge)


1st, 38°, Sunday: Squalls and rain or snow. Jno. Inskeep and George rode out to see if they could hear anything of Gus who left yesterday about the middle of the day. He returned this evening having gone to Mrs. Inskeep's last night, and scared them all badly by trying to get in the window.

2nd, 34°, Monday: Still cloudy and windy. Start the boys in the Island corn, cutting and shucking. Brother Butt came, also Old Mr. Pugh. He will set into work tomorrow fixing Dan's house the first thing.

3rd, 26°, Tuesday: Quite a freeze. {Mr. Pugh} goes to work at Dan's house. Let Dan help him. George goes to the election. I being a foreigner stay at home. Mrs. James Henry Inskeep & Mrs. Reinhart spend the day with us. Jo shucking corn. Kate Stump & Dan Parker come home with George.

4th, 28°, Wednesday: Another frost & freeze. George & Dan go to Cumberland. Dan helping {Mr. Pugh}. The others shucking corn. I rode over to see old Jake, found him quite sick with nothing to eat. Take him some flour, meal & meat. The day close & sultry, think we will have rain. Received a letter from Wm. H. Davis relative to some books he sold in this neighborhood.

5th, 39°, Thursday: Fine shower during the night. George helping {Mr. Pugh}. The hands shucking corn. I rode to the ridge to salt the stock, brought the cattle home. Found a {Ram} among my ewes. Wrote to William H. Davis. The day showery.

6th, 40°, Friday: Cloudy & windy. George went to Springfield for some nails for {Mr. Pugh}, brought home 20 or 30 lbs. of a keg he bought from Shanholtzer. He then helped Mr. Pugh put the roof on Dan's house. Make the boys fix the road below the house & then go to hauling in corn. Prof. Daily came home with Robert. After dark we were surprised by the arrival of Rebecca Carter & Ellen Wright. They came up in the Winchester stage, & Mr. Keller sent them down. Young Keller stayed all night.

7th, 26°, Saturday: Another heavy frost. Paid young Keller for Mrs. Carter $2. Jno. Inskeep and James Blue came for his bushels, let him have three. {James Parsons} came for his colt, got it.

8th, 42°, Sunday: A lovely morning, like June weather. The mountains on fire. Family all at home.

9th, 56°, Monday: Close and sultry. Let Dan work at his house. Jo shucking. I rode to Springfield. R.W. dined and spent the evening with us. Late in the evening Young sent me word the fire was approaching the ridge rapidly. Sent all hands to fight it. They returned about 11 o'clock. Jno. Inskeep sat till bedtime.

10th, 60°, Tuesday: Another summer morning. Patterson came out with his dogs to take a horse. Let Dan work at his house. In the evening Sprig Lynn came, spent the evening and night with us. The day warm and calm. Late in the evening clouded up and commenced raining, attended with considerable rain.

11th, 46°, Wednesday: High NW wind. Dan still at work at his house. Jo & the small boys cutting & shucking. The young folks went to watch the river- no deer came. Quite cool, think we will have a cold spell.

12th, 30°, Thursday: Still windy & cold. The ground froze quite hard. Dan still at work at his house. Make Jo & the little boys haul in the corn & then go to hauling wood. Jno. Inskeep came down & watched the river with the young folks, no deer. Bro. Butt, Dan Parker & Lizzy came. George & Julian went home with Jno. Mr. Lynn goes home, finished Dan's house.

13th, 24°, Friday: The hardest freeze we have had. Set the boys to shucking corn. {Mr. Pugh} at work in the shop. Mrs. W., Mrs. Carter, George go to Romney, give Mrs. W, $5.

14th, 26°, Saturday: Another heavy frost. Start the dogs - no deer. The boys cutting & shucking. Settled with old Mr. Pugh, gave him $18 leaving a balance of $1., not being able either of us to make the change.

15th, 34°, Sunday: A lovely morning. Family go to Springfield to Church. Bro. Beale preached. Let Margaret have my dory to go to see her son, Monro entered schooling last night.

16th, 32°, Monday: Another heavy frost and fog. Separate the ewes from the lot, returned 41 and put the bucks with them. Sent Mr. Alkire by Young, Martin 2 bushels of wheat. Sent Dan to the mill with some corn. Dan Parker came to take a hunt with the boys.

17th, 40°, Tuesday: Cloudy and damp. Think we will have rain. Make the boys put the cabbage away. Clean out some laurel from the lot where the sheep are to stay. Think of bringing a part of the sheep from the ridge. Brought also the last year's ewes home and left the last lot I got of Brown on the ridge, 180. A day of rain.

18th, 42°, Wednesday: A lovely morning after the rain. Put the bucks with the ewes. I rode over to Jno. Reason's to borrow a buck, said I could get one. Met with E. R. Grace, who told me to give him credit for 10 b. of wheat he having got 5 b. from the Reasons that I loaned them. Letters from the girls, well.

19th, 30°, Thursday: Froze some. The boys cutting and shucking corn. The young folks go to spend the day with Cousin Bob and family. I ride to the ridge to salt the sheep. Promised Young the ox team to haul some corn to Frankford. The day warm and pleasant. Clouded up in the evening. Think we will have rain.

20th, 36°, Friday: To my surprise find the ground covered with snow and still at it, and every appearance of a day of snow. Finish raking up the laurel in the feeding lot. Set the boys to making brooms, etc., after they finish the laurel as it is too bad to be out. Let Young have my ox team.

21st, 34°, Saturday: Still cloudy and spitting snow. Set the boys to shucking. Lillian Baker left for home. Let Jo have $6 in cash.

22nd, 32°, Sunday: Still disagreeable. Spitting snow. The family all at home. Edward came, left all well at home. Made the boys write to Mr. Lincoln of the House of Refuge.

The following is copied from the House of Refuge 1869 Annual Report

      S. and A. are still with me in good health and spirits, and appear to be perfectly happy. I sent them to school one quarter last winter and spring, but have not sent them this fall, and am undecided which will be best for them; to keep them at home and make them learn of nights, and then before they become of age send them six or nine months, or if they continue good boys--twelve months consecutively. It strikes me that they then would be of an age to appreciate an education, and would apply themselves more closely. It is a matter of indifference to me, except for their good. I feel interested in their welfare and want to do that which will be best for them.

      They have attended Sabbath school and church, though not regularly, our church is at this time undergoing repairs, and so soon as these are completed, I hope we will be able to attend on the means of grace more regularly than we have done since the close of the war, during which most of our church edifices were injured or entirely destroyed.

      The moral disposition and habits of S. are good, or as much as could be expected from one raised as he has been. A. not so good. S. is apt at both his books and employments. A. rather dull. I think they have improved in every respect. Their general character for industry, obedience and truthfulness, are better than most boys with like antecedents. At first I was under the painful necessity of occasionally correcting them. They found I would not be trifled with, and they soon became obedient, good boys. I endeavored to impress upon them that I had only their good in view, and I hope I have succeeded. I will, in all things, try to do a good part by them.

G. W. W.

Continued from the House of Refuge Annual Report , 1869

This is a letter that Samuel McJilton wrote to the House of Refuge in Baltimore he was about 14 years old at the time of this letter.

      I feel that it is my duty to write to you, to let you know how I am getting along. I have a good place, and Mr. and Mrs. W. treat me very kindly, and are trying to make me a good man, and I am trying to do the best I can. Mr. W. told me if I would be a good boy while I lived with him, he would do his part by me; and he promised that if we behaved right, and stay with him till we are of age, he would not only give us our hundred dollars, but would give us a horse, saddle, and bridle, worth as much more. I have not been sick enough to be laid up since I have been here. At first I did not like the place at all, but now I like it first rate. I have learned to drive oxen and horses, and have been plowing this summer, and tried to do it the best I could. We have great many sheep, and cattle, and hogs. We had good luck with our sheep last winter; we had one hundred and forty-three ewes with lambs, and only lost seven out of them all. Mr. W. gave us patches last summer, and I raised a little money out of it; and he gave A. a patch this summer, and he raised money enough to buy three sheep, and he thinks to take care of them and profit something by it. Please to send me an Oriola; it cannot be got here. I went to school last winter and spring, and study grammar, history, geography, arithmetic, &. S.A.MCJ.

Continued from the same Report

Letter from August Leftner to the House of Refuge

      I am well, and hope these few lines will find you in good health. I have a good home and Mr. W. and his family are kind to me,--more than I deserve. I have not been a good boy, as I ought to have been. Mr. W. has not whipped me but once, and I will try hard to do better, --the best I can. He gave me a patch, on which I made right smart of money, and bought three sheep with part of it, and have some left. Mr. W. lets me keep them with his. Please send me a hymn book.

A. L.

This ends the quotations from the House of Refuge Report

23rd, 28°, Monday: After the frost passed off a lovely day. Young and Jake came to shuck. After dinner killed 15 hogs.

24th, 32°, Tuesday: Another heavy frost and freeze. Charley came to shuck corn for me. Young and Jake are also helping. Cut up and salt the pork. Let Dan have his hog back. Jno. and Will Earsome brought my windmill home. Brought me a buck that I borrowed from them. Sold them my old windmill, they paid me $4 for it.

25th, 28°, Wednesday: James home helping shuck. George went to Parker's mill. Jo and Sam hauled in corn. Letter from the girls on their way home. Will stop a few days at Lafayette, Ind.

26th, 40°, Thursday: Rained quite hard during the night. Same hands helping shuck. Dan got 1/2 b. meal. I rode to Springfield. Letter for Bro. Butt. George out on a still hunt. Returned, no luck. Letter from Et, all well.

27th, 30°, Friday: Quite a freeze. Clear and calm, same hands helping shuck. Hope to finish the Island tomorrow. Ella Wright takes her leave of us this morning for Winchester by way of B.O.R.R. I wrote to the girls at Lafayette, Indiana. George and Kate go to Cousin Boll's.

28th, 28°, Saturday: Air unusually heavy frost. Let Old Jake have a horse and 2 B's corn to go to the mill. Young and Charley helping shuck, do not finish the Island. George and Dan Parker came. After dinner they went to call on the ladies at Mrs. Parsons.

29th, 36°, Sunday: High wind. Family all at home except George, who did not return last evening. George and Dan returned to dinner. Edward came over, left all well.

30th, 40°, Monday: High NW wind. The darkies all want to go to the burying, old Jake died at Cousin Bob's. Roy wants to hire with me to work. They all lose the day at the burying. I rode to the ridge to salt, fear the sheep are not doing well. Edward rode to Romney. Brother Butt came home, had a good meeting, 8 or 10 conversions.


1st, 32°, Tuesday: Hired Roy for one month at $(blank) per month. Set them all at the corn in the island, after finishing it go at the sheds for my sheep. George took the horses to Springfield to get shod. Gave Mrs. Washington $1.60 cts. Will Stump came to see us before starting to Missouri. Letter from Bet, they are in Indiana, expect to be home next week.

2nd, 30°, Wednesday: Cloudy & spitting snow. Gave Mrs. Washington $10. George took two of the horses back to get shod. Set all hands at the sheep sheds. After dinner make them get in some wood.

3rd, 32°, Thursday: A lovely day. Work at the sheds again. Rebecca & her two children came home with Robert, they having come to Romney in the stage. Dan got 21/2 B of corn. Clouded up & looks like snow.

4th, 36°, Friday: Quite cloudy, commenced snowing. Set the boys to inclosing the sheep sheds. A day of snow. George & Jno. Inskeep make arrangements for a still hunt tomorrow.

5th, 38°, Saturday: A night of snow, The snow 6 or 8 inches deep. Jno. & George go hunting. Send Beck to Romney to take the stage. She leaves Lucy. Letter from the girls, they expect to be home next week.

6th, 42°, Sunday: Still cloudy, the snow melting. The darkies all go to their big meeting in Springfield. George rode to the ridge to see how the sheep are getting on. The after part of the day like a May day, the thermometer 52°.

7th, 36°, Monday: Pouring snow. Too bad for the children to go to school. Jo's sick; Dan & the little boys getting in some wood from the island.

8th, 34°, Tuesday: All hands go to the ridge to get wood. Make them cut so as to get a start and bring home a load at night with each team. Heard from James Porter. Sue has another fine daughter.

9th, 26°, Wednesday: A cold morning. Returned to the ridge. Start Dan to hauling over the river. I went up to see the sheep. They are looking badly. Must bring them home or they will all die. Rich Young got one peck of salt and 13 lbs. of nice bacon. Bro. Butt came home.

10th, 20°, Thursday: A stinging cold morning. A real winter one. All hands go to the ridge again. Send Jno. to Parker's Mill with a grist of corn. He returned, not being able to get it until tomorrow. We looked for the girls today, but they did not come, nor did we hear from them.

11th, 18°, Friday: Still clear and cold, haul wood from the ridge with the horse team, and from the river with the ox team. Freezing all day, decidedly the coldest day we have had. Brother Butt went to Springfield in his sleigh. Robert in Romney on his sleigh, broke down and had to leave the rig at the Inskeep's.

12th, 12°, Saturday: Take the wagon and go to the ridge for the sheep. Had to haul 50 to home, being too weak to walk. Think they will die. On my return found the girls at home. They look well and have had a nice visit. Jno. Inskeep called and sat till bedtime. Letter from Richard Hoffman asking me to send his money.

13th, 08°, Sunday: The coldest morning we have had. The young folks go to Springfield to hear Brother Butt. Snow moderated about the middle of the day.

14th, 12°, Monday: Cloudy and threatening snow. Fix to kill the balance of my hogs. Young came to help. Also Roy returned to work having lost all last week, worked 4 days week before last. I wrote to R.D. Johnson and Richard Hoffman.

15th, 18°, Tuesday: Quite a high wind during the night. Shell 12 bushels of corn and send to the mill. Send Mr. Dinwiddie three hogs, weighing 120, 130, and 142. The one weighing 130 belongs to Sallie. Send Jo to the ridge to help Young kill his hogs. I am quite unwell. Have Vertigo lately. {Roy helping} Frank Carter came.

16th, 30°, Wednesday: Storming, raining, hailing and snowing. An exceedingly disagreeable day. Frank and Beck fully intended starting home this morning but for this inclemency of the weather. The boys cut up and salt away the pork. Let Jo have a shoat weighing 61 lbs.; Margaret one weighing 110 lbs. at $9 per hundred each.

17th, 34°, Thursday: Like Wednesday, windy, otherwise a lovely morning. Set the hands to shucking corn in the Bottom. {Roy made half-day} being sick. After dinner set them to hauling in corn. Brother Butt and Bettie gone to Romney. Mrs. Lizzie Inskeep and Jno. sat an hour or two with the ladies. Letter from Mr. R.D. Johnson offering me $1 for my corn.

18th, 30°, Friday: Clear and high wind. {Roy still sick} Send the boys to the ridge for hauling wood. George goes to Cumberland, Frank and Beck leave us for home. Gave George $5. Roy leaving sick, settled with him and he goes home. Paid him $1.50 in full of work, he owing me for the bacon he got which was settled in this settlement, squaring us. The river raising.

19th, 28°, Saturday: The river too full to haul from the ridge. Make the boys haul other wood from the riverside. George returned from Cumberland bringing me $131, leaving too late to get in bank. Mr. Johnson promised to express to R.H. Hoffman $239, the amount of his claim against me for reaper and 1600 lbs. of bone dust as reckoned by himself sometime since, which account I have in my possession. Jno. Inskeep spent the night with George.

20th, 28°, Sunday: Still cloudy, rained some during the night. Sleeted. Family all at home. The day damp and disagreeable. Think we will have more failing weather. George rode away with Jno. Inskeep.

21st, 32°, Monday: Clear and windy. Make the boys, after they feed, shuck corn, so as to have fresh fodder for the sheep. The day quite pleasant.

22nd, 34°, Tuesday: Another pretty morning Keep the boys shucking. George went to New Creek for his sister. I rode to Springfield. Met Brother Fitz, who spent the day with me. Charley came for his corn. Paid him in full 6 bushels for his work. Gave George $5 before he left. Paid Capt. Earsome in full of ferriage to this date $2.40. He allowed me 75 cents for some planks I let him have for his boat. Settled with R. L. Inskeep; he still holds my note for $5. He gave it to me last fall when we had a partial settlement.

23rd, 20°, Wednesday: An exceedingly disagreeable day. High wind and spitting snow. Make the boys cut wood at woodpile and pack it under the shed for the holidays. Such weather still hard on the flock. Robert took a horse up for Sallie. Their school closes till after New Year.

24th, 18°, Thursday: Another stinging morning. Still cloudy and spitting snow. Too cold to snow. If Beck comes home today, she will have a cold time of it. Let Dan get himself some wood today. Jo and the little boys helping him. George got home. Jim and family came with him.

25th, 18°, Friday: A cold keen air. Settled with Dan and paid him in full $55. Met with quite a serious accident, as scared as I am of fire, in smoking at the shed of one set of my sheep threw the fire from my pipe which communicated to a large haystack, burning it, and the shed up. Jno. Inskeep spent the day with us. Jim and George went home with him and spent the night. George returned the $5 I gave him.

26th, 20°, Saturday: The wind calmed down. Fixing for another snow. Let Daniel have a horse to go to Romney. Wrote to Jno. Parker of Jacob informing him his money was ready. Sent it to the letter box. Let Jo have $1. Jim and George did not return.

27th, 26°, Sunday: Quite cloudy and spitting snow. James, George and Eph Herriott returned to dinner.

28th, 30°, Monday: A lovely morning, almost like spring. Jim and family, Mrs. Washington, and myself spend the day with Mrs. Herriott. Brother Butt came home. A lovely day, thawed considerably.

29th, 32°, Tuesday: Sleeting, prospect of a disagreeable day. Expect some company from Romney: Jake Inskeep, Mr. Dinwiddie and family, Mrs. Inskeep and Miss Lizzie, Mr. Hunter, Mrs. James Inskeep and Bev Fitzpatrick spent the day with us. I found Mr. Dinwiddie a very pleasant gentleman.

30th, 34°, Wednesday: Cloudy, snowed lightly during the night. The young gentlemen go to take a skate. Young Hammer spent the day with the young folks. He and Mr. Hunter left late in the evening. Negroes all taking their holiday.

31st, 32°, Thursday: Sleeting some. R.H. Patterson and Jno. Daily come out to take a deer hunt. Daily spent the day with me. We had several games of chess. Dan Parsons and Ben Daily spent the evening and night with us. James and George went to Mr. Pancake's. Will stay till Saturday.

This ends a year of Mr. George W. Washington's Diary and an unusually candid look into the life of a Gentleman Farmer in 1868. At present we are transcribing the diary for the year 1869 and are looking for diaries for other years.

This is a preview into the diaries for the year of 1869. The full Diary for 1869 will be transcribed and published later.


1st, 38°, Friday: A night of rain, hail and snow, and still at it. Gave Sam and Gus $1 each for their work at the ice house. Sent them to Springfield to get their feet measured for a pair of shoes. The gentlemen left after breakfast. A note from Rob White requesting my presence at Romney tomorrow. An exceedingly disagreeable day. James Gibson and Jno. Inskeep sat till bedtime. Jim and George got home after dark. The close of the first day of another New Year. God grant that this year may be more profitably spent, ( ) than any of the past.

2nd, 28°, Saturday: {Jo lost from Christmas to today, 7 days} Quite a fog,

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Persons mentioned in the George W. Washington diaries. The numbers refer to the month/day of 1868: © 1999 Walter & Roberta McJilton & Mrs. Carol J. Guth. All rights reserved.

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