1881 History of Northern Wisconsin Bayfield County Section Western Historical Company Chicago
Bayfield County has no prairie lands, most of the country being covered with growths of timber - chiefly hemlock, sprice, pine, sugar-maple, red oak, elm, poplar and white and yellow birch. The numerous streams afford facilities for handling the lumber cheaply. The streams in the northern part of the county empty into Lake Superior, while those in the southern part flow toward the Mississippi. They are bordered by rich lands, easily cultivated and very productive. There is a good supply of red and brown sandstone. Copper and iron have also been found.
Bayfield County has a coast line on Lake Superior of over seventy-five miles, of which not less than fifty miles are a safe and secure harbor for vessels. This harbor is formed by the Apostle Islands, which shelter it from winds in every direction. There are a number of trout streams in the county. Among the most noted are the Sioux River, Onion River, Pike's Creek, Fish Creek, Raspberry and Sand rivers. All manner of wild game abounds in the woods, especially deer and bear.
The Chippewa Indians formerly occupied what is now Bayfield County, and many of their descendants still live there, engaging in the same occupations as their white neighbors. The Indians have a reservation in this county, called the Red Cliff Reservation. Buffalo Bay, Indian village, contains a Government saw-mill. It is one of the most beautiful spots on the lake. Its population numbers 500, and is composed mostly of half-breeds and civilized Indians, who have all adopted the white man's dress. Robert Pew established a school here in 1874. January 29, 1878, Red Cliff was visited by a destructive fire, which consumed property to the amount of $15,000. The Government, Mr. Mahan and family and L.O. Clemens were the principal losers.
This section is the scene of the first efforts by white men to introduce civilization into Wisconsin. The facts are detailed in the foregoing pages.
October 1, 1665, Father Allouez, the first white man who came to the county, reached the bay. It is believed that for a short time he was located at the place now known as Pike's Bay, the precise spot being unknown. One tradition designates Section 22, and another Section 27, in Township 50 north, Rage 4 west, the latter on the estate of Franklin Steele. The Jesuit engaged in missionary duties amongst the Indians, as is related in the preceeding pages of this work.
Subsequently two other Jesuit missionaries, James Marquette and Louis Nicholas, attempted to perfect the work of Allouez. They were the next known white visitors to Bayfield. In 1693, Du Luth arrived, and traded with the Indians of "Chegoimegon." Missionaries, voyaguers, fur traders, were the visitors of what is now Bayfield County, at different periods from 1666 to the year 1854, at which date speculators purchased lands of the United States, as preliminary steps to the modern settlement by whites.
The first settler of Bayfield County was Elisha Pike, who, with his wife and two children, came from Toledo, Ohio, in 1855, and located on Section 21, Township 50, Range 4, Bayfield County. He purchased an old saw-mill of Julius Austrian, who had bought of the American Fur Company. Mr. Pike also commenced farming.
The territory of Bayfield County belonged to five different counties before it was set off with an individual organization.
In October 1818, the county of Michilimackinac, which included all of the present State of Wisconsin north of a line passing west from the head of De Noquet Bay, was created by Lewis Cass, then Governor of the Territory of Michigan. A new county, with the name of Chippewa, was created by the same authority in 1825. This county was formed of territory taken from the northern part of Michilimackinac, and extended along the entire southern shore of Lake Superior.
After the Territory of Wisconsin was separately organized, Crawford County embraced all of this region, the former two disappearing when the dominion of Michigan over them ceased.
St. Croix County was created from Crawford, by an act of the Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin, in 1840, and included all that corner of the State.
In 1845, LaPointe County, including in its area the present counties of Douglas, Bayfield and Ashland, was set off from St. Croix.
In 1854, Douglas County was set off. Up to 1858, LaPointe had been the county seat of La Pointe County, but the seat was then moved to Bayfield, at which action the people of La Pointe united with Ashland in the effort to form a new county, comprising the Apostle Islands, which was done in 1860. The name of Bayfield was given to the remaining part of the old county of La Pointe in 1866. The county records were destroyed by fire in 1874, and the historian was unable to obtain a transcript of the first organization. The first election held in Bayfield was in November, 1857, when it was a town of La Pointe County. April 7, 1858, the first town election was held there.
Owing to absence of records of the town of Bayfield the first complete list of officers that can be found is for the year 1859, though the town was set off two years before that. The officers for 1859 were: Andrew J. Day, Chairman; Linneus Matthews and William S. Warren, Supervisors; J. Harvey Nourse, Benjamin F. Bicksler and George Clark, Assessors; Peter H. Ley and Elisha Pike, JUstices of Peace; Charles O. Stedwell and Antoine Perinier, Constables; T.L. Patterson, Treasurer; J. Henry Feemeyer, Clerk; Benjamin F. Davison, Overseer of Highways; Paul Lanouette, Sealer of Weights and Measures; Andrew Tate, Superintendent of Schools. The first meeting of this Town Board was held April 5, 1859, at which meeting $600 were appropriated for a school building, and $500 for a cemetery; $10 was made the license for selling spiritous liquors. In September, $1,000 were appropriated for building roads and bridges to the St. Croix River.
An observatory has been built by the Government three miles from Bayfield, from which can be seen, with a good glass, a part of the north shore of Lake Superior and the eastern part of the Apostle Island group.
A court-house was built under contract by B. F. Bicksler, of Ashland, in 1874, costing $15,000. Prior to this time the county offices were located in private buildings.
The population of the county (then La Pointe) in 1860 was 352; in 1870, 344; and in 1875 it was 1,032.
The present county officers are: John McCloud, County Judge; John Gonyon, Sheriff; Louis J. Bachand, Clerk; Nelson Boutin, Treasurer; J.D. Cruttenden, Register of Deeds; W.J. Herbert, Clerk of Circuit Court; B.B. Wade, District Attorney; O. Flanders, Superintendent of Schools; E. Pike, Coroner.
Town Officers are: Frederick Fischer, Chairman; A. Tate and Ervin Leihy, Supervisors; J.D. Cruttenden, Town Clerk; J.H. Nourse, Town Treasurer; O. Flanders and E. Pike, Justices of Peace; Wm. Herbert, Street Commissioner.
The Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railroad is surveyed to Bayfield, and is finished to Long Lake. Most of the line is graded to Chequamegon Bay. It will probably be constructed through Bayfield in 1882.
Bayfield is the county seat and the principal place in Bayfield County. It was named in honor of Lieut, Henry R. T. Bayfield, of the British Navy, who made the first survey of Lake Superior, from 1823 to 1825. It is sometimes called "The Fountain City," from the fact that in front of many of the cottages are fountains, supplied with water from the hydraulic works.
It is probable that missionaries and traders visited the present site of Bayfield at a very early date. The Bayfield Press gives the following account of the place in 1765:
"It seems that in August, 1765, Alexander Henry, a trader, landed at what is now Bayfield, and built a house just below Chapman & Co.'s store, and above Col. Banfill's house, occupied by F. Boutin, Esg. He called the place Chagawamig, and says he 'founf fifty lodges of Indians there. These people are almost naked, their trade having been interrupted, first by the English invasion of Canada, and next by Pontiac's War. * * * Chagawamig, or Chagawmigon, might at this period be regarded as the metropolis of the Chippewas, of whom the true name is Ojebway. * * * The chiefs informed me that they had frequently attacked the Sioux, with whom they are always at war, with 1,500 men, including in this number the fighting men of Fond du Lac, on the head of Lake Superior. The cause of the perpetual war carried on between these two nations is this, that both claim, as thier exclusive hunting ground, the tract of which lies between them.
"The Chippewa of Chgawamig are a handsome well made people, and much more cleanly, as well as much more regular in the government of their families, than the Chippewas of Lake Huron. Adding the Indians of Chagawamig to those I brought with me, I had now a hundred families, to all of whom I was required to advance goods on credit. At the expense of six day's labor, I was provided with a very comfortable house for my Winter's residence. My Winter's food was the next object; and for this purpose, with the assistance of my men, I soon took 2,000 trout and white fish, the former frequently weighing fifty pounds each. We preserved them by suspending them by the tail in the open air. These, without bread or salt, were our food through all the winter, the men being free to consume what quantity they pleased, and boiling and roasting them whenever they thought proper. After leaving Michilimackinac, I saw no bread, and I found less difficulty in reconciling myself to the privation, than I could have anticipated.
"On the 15th of December the bay was frozen entirely over. After this, I resumed my former amusement of spearing trout, and sometimes caught a hundred of these in a day.
"My house, which stood in the bay, was sheltered by an island of fifteen miles in length, and between which and the main shore the channel is four miles wide. On the island there was formerly a French Trading Post, much frequented, and in its neighborhood a large Indian village. To the southeast is a lake, called Lake des Ontaonaies, from the Ottawas, its former possessors; but it is now the property of the Chippewas. [This is probably Ashland Bay. - ED.]
"On the 20th of April, 1766, the ice broke up, and several canoes arrived filled with women and children, who reported that the men of their land were all gone out to war against the Nadowessies, or Sioux. On the 15th of May a part of the warriors, with some others, arrived in fifty canoes, almost every one of which had a cargo of furs.'
"After gving an account of the doings and adventures of the war party, he says:
"I found myself in possession of a 150 packs of beaver, weighing 100 pounds each, besides twenty-five packs of otter and martin skins, and with this part of the fruits of my adventure, I embarked for Michilimackinac, sailing in company with fifty canoes of Indians, who had still 100 packs of beaver, which I was unable to purchase.'
"M. Cadotte, who has many descendants living in this vicinity, was a partner of Mr. Henry. Vincent Roy, Sr., now nearly eighty years of age, a man of great integrity and of high standing, has often pointed out the site of Henry & Cadotte's buildings, and even now some of the places where they buried their goods can be seen."
The first settlement was made by a party of nine men, under charge of John C. Henley, March 24, 1856, who landed on a point now occupied by the residence of Col. John H. KNight. The first tree was felled, and the party erected a log cabin on the spot now occupied by the United States land-office. The cabin was finished March 26. On the twenty-seventh, John M. Free arrived, bringing Maj. McAboy, a civil engineer, and others, to lay out the town. They came overland from Superior. A dock was built. Hon. H.M. Rice, of St. Paul, had located the land and selected the site for Bayfield. The first family to arrive was John C. Henley's on the schooner "Algonquin," May 8, 1856, this being the first vessel. Others who came about this time were Andrew Tate, Peter H. Ley, JOhn Hamlin and S.S. Vaughn. Others son followed. The first steamer to arrive was the "Lady Elgin," on JUne 16, 1856, and the propeller "Manhattan," July 7. The propeller "Mineral Rock," arrived July 27 with an engine and mill machinery with Mr. Kahoe. The first frame house was built by JOhn C. Henley, July 16, 1856. The first hardware store was started by John and R.W. McCloud, of St. Paul, under charge of Joseph McCloud, in September, same year. S.S. Vaughn opened the first provision store in October. The building of a hotel by the Bayfield Land Company was commenced December 25, 1856, and was finished in June, 1857. It was opened by J.H. Nourse. This hotel was burned in 1860, then kept by George D. Livingston. The first post-office was established in October, 1856; Joseph McCloud, Postmaster. Mail service was carried on between Bayfield and St. Croix Falls semi monthly. First mail was carried through by August La Ruch.
In 1856 a dock was built, and a steam saw-mill erected. At this time Congress had passed several magnificent land grants to aid in construction of railroads, one of them, called the St. Croix and Lake Superior Land Grant, extending from Madison and Portage to Lake St. Croix, and from there to the west end of Lake Superior and to Bayfield. In 1857 a dock was built by Charles E. Rittenhouse, which has since disappeared.
Bayfield was made a port of entry, December, 1858. In May, 1859, the revenue cutter "john B. Floyd" arrived for service on Lake Superior, with Bayfield as her station.
H.C. Hayward is the present Postmaster and Port Collector.
The steamers of the Lake Michigan & Lake Superior Transit Company touch at this point regularly. Connection is made with Ashland by the little steamers of"Favorite" and "Eva Wadsworth" daily.
$500 were appropriated for a cemetery in 1859. It is located on Section 28, about three and one-half miles west of the village.
The anticipated railroad from Bayfield to St. Croix [in aid of which a grant of land, now known as the Bayfield and St. Croix land grant," has been bestowed by Congress, which, it is believed, would cause Bayfield to excel even Chicago in business enterprise] had induced many Eastern people to purchase lots in Bayfield at enormous prices. In 1857, when all ficticious enterprises disappeared, the illuson was dispelled.
In 1860, Mr. McAboy's residence was burned. IN 1862, two buildings and a store belonging to Mr. McAboy and Mrs. Day were burned. The Bayfield House was destroyed by fire, March 10, 1863. The Herbert House was burned March 12, 1872, and in 1874, three buildings - one building containing some of the county records, and another the Indian Agency offices - were burned. This was the largest fire Bayfield ever experienced.
The village of Bayfield is well built; the land gradually rises at an easy grade until one gets back about two miles, where it is several hundred feet above the lake, giving all who build a fine view of the bay. The streets are lined with shade trees, its sidewalks kept in good repair, and the whole place has a neat and substantial look. A system of water-works supplies almost every house in the town with pure spring water.
Large quantities of some of the finest building material in the West, are obtained from the red sandstone quarry in the harbor.
The harbor at Bayfield is constantly dotted with sailboats and vessels, and upon the completion of a railroad, the village will, in all probability, become one of the finest summer resorts in the country.
The harbor is formed by islands which shelter it from the wind in every direction. It is magnificent in its surroundings and perfect in all its details. It is the only harbor on Lake Superior that does not require engineering skill to complete and be made serviceable. It is large enough to accommodate any amount of shipping, no sunken rocks or dangerous reefs, and the largest draught vessels float in its waters without grounding; the largest steamers can land with safety in the most boisterous weather. It opens earlier and and closes later than any other harbor, it being inside the currents of wind that drift the field-ice and icebergs across the face of, and into the bays.
As a commercial point in the manufacture and shipment of lumber she has all the elements requisite to build up a heavy business, equal to any point on the lakes. The fisheries in this vicinity are unexcelled, the feild being unlimited and the markets good; in this branch a big business has been built up which is assuming immense proportions. The shipment of tan bark is carried on to quite an extent.
As a summer resot Bayfield comes in for a large share of the patronage. The town site includes almost every variety of surface, at some points forming beautiful terraces one above the other, and from all points a fine view of the lake is seen.
Schools. - The first school was opened December 1, 1856, in the upper room of S.S. Vaughn's building; it was kept up by subscription; was taught by Miss Rebeccs McAboy; it was closed in March 1857. Another school was opened October 1, 1857, by Rev. Joseph Peet; this was also kept up by subscription. This school was closed the following spring.
At the first town meeting, held April 7, 1858, Andrew Tate was elected Town Superintendent of Schools. who proceeded to organize the first school district. The first school meeting was held May 1, 1858; at this meeting the following officers were elected: John C. Henley, Director; A.J. Day, Treasurer; W.S. Warren, Clerk. The first public school was opened July 19, 1858, MIss Sarah Mahan, Teacher, who came from Cleveland, Ohio. The first school building was erected in the summer of 1872. In 1876 another school was built on the bay about a mile and one-half above town, which has since been abandoned. The present attendance is about fifty; the school is first class in every respect, has good teachers and considered one of the best schools in northern Wisconsin.
Religious. - The first religious services were held in 1856, in different houses, by William S. Warren, of the Methodist Church. An organization was perfected in August, 1857, Rev. James Peet, as pastor.
A Presbyterian Church was organized in the Fall of 1856; Rev. T.R. Elder ws the pastor. Both these organizations erected churches. Neither of these denominations now hold any services, and have passed out of existence; both churches have been sold and are now used as private dwellings.
Christ Church Episcopal Mission. - Lay readings were commenced in October, 1869, by Thomas Carrington. A mission was organized April 8, 1870, and church built and occupied the folloowing September. Bishop Wells preached the first sermon. In an early day Mr. Rittenhouse, of Washington, D.C., deeded in trust six lots for the benefit of the Episcopal Church of Bayfield, Wis. These lots are now held by the trustees of the church. The present missionary is the Rev. J.A. Davenport, who has officiated for several years. The present officers of the mission are, John McCloud, warden; J.H. Knight, secretary; J.D. Cruttendon, treasurer.
St. Joseph's Catholic Church was built in 1859. In 1861 additions were made. Since then other improvements have been made, till now it is one of the most beautiful churches on the lake. It is situated on a high elevation overlooking the harbor, at the north end of the village. The first pastor was Father Chebul, who remained until 1871. From that time till 1878, no regular services were held, though missionary services were held often. Since 1878 Father Casimirus, of the Franciscans, has been in charge. In 1878 a convent was established, in connection with the church, under charge of Superior Sister Louise; every new year a new sister takes charge. By the end of the year, (1881), a school-house will be finished and will be under the charge of the sisters. The Catholic Cemetery is near the church. This church has a large congregation, its seats are always full, people coming from all the islands and surrounding country to attend. They have also a school at Buffalo Bay Indian Reservation.
Saw-Mills. - First saw-mill was built in 1856, by Mr. Kahoe, for the Bayfield Land Company. It was burned January, 1857. It was rebuilt by Mr. Hahoe in the Summer of 1858. After changing hands several times it was pulled down. Capt. R.D. Pike built a shingle mill in 1869; additions were made in 1870, and since then other improvements have been made, at different times, so that now it is one of the most complete saw-mills in northern Wisconsin; has the best of improved machinery, some of the machinery being Mr. Pike's own patents. Manufactures some fish barrel staves. Capacity of mill 40,000 feet per day, for season 4,500,000 feet. Most of the logs come from Bayfield County. Shipment goes mostly to Chicago and the Manitoba country. The mill has a dock up to which the largest boats on the lakes can float. Mr. Pike has his own water-works, having a reservoir on the hill above the mill getting a head of fifty-eight feet fall, enough to throw a large stream over the mill at its highest point. Pipes are run along over roof of the mill, and at the opening of a valve the whole roof can be flooded.
Superior Lumber Company was organized in 1881 for the purpose of manufacturing lumber. The mill will probably be located at some point on Chequamegon Bay. The officers are A.C. Fuller, president; H.M. Fuller, vice-president; T.J. Potter, Treasurer; J.H. Knight, secretary.
Fish Creek Booming Company was organized in 1881 for the improvement of Fish Creek. The officers are A.C. Fuller, president; R.F. Sprague, vice-president; I.H. Wing, treasurer; John H. Knight, secretary.
Fishery. - In 8171 the fish business began to assume large proportions, when N. & F. Boutin engaged in it. They have continued ever since. The catching and packing of fish is one of the great industries of Bayfield. It is estimated the business for 1881 will amount to $250,000, and is the largest shipping point on the lake. White fish and trout are caught. Fishing is done with gill nets, trap nets, and seines, by white men and mixed bloods; in Winter by gill nets, and hooks through the ice. The "catch" in the Winter amounts to 150 tons. The fishing grounds are around the islands. Shipment goes mostly to st. Paul, Minneapolis, Chicago, Buffalo and Eastern trade. N. & F. Boutin employ about 150 men; ship about 12,000 barrels a season. Fred Fischer employs about thirty men; puts up about 4,000 barrels. Other parties have been engaged in this business but are now out of it.
In 1871, the fish business becoming so large, and the demand for fish barrels increasing, Louis Bachand started a factory for the manufacture of fish barrels, since which time others have gone into it. The timber for the barrels comes from the surrounding country. Louis Bachand employs about thirty men, and his manufacture for a season amounts to 12,000 barrels. Fred Fischer employs about twenty men, and manufactures about 10,000 barrels a season.
Boat Building. - This branch of business is carried on quite extensively, a large number of "mackinaw" boats being built every year, mostly for fishing purposes. Antoine Lemorieux is the principal builder.
Bayfield Press. - The first paper published in this place was the Mercury, in August, 1857, by Hamilton & Hatch, who received a bonus from the Bayfield Land Company composed of Hon. H.M. Rice, St. Paul, Minn.; H.B. Sweeny, B.F. and C.E. Ritterhouse, and Hamilton G. Faut, banker at Washington, D.C. This paper was published about one year. The next newspaper enterprise was the Bayfield Press, which made its appearance October 1, 1859, by Joseph H. Campbell, of Ontonagon, with Rev. Wm. B. McKee, editor, assisted by Joseph McCloud and Cyrus K. Drew, which was published about two years and a half, when it was suspended, and the material purchased by S.S. Vaughn. In the Summer of 1870, Sam S. and Hank O. Fifield revived the Press, and continued its publication about two years, when it was removed to Ashland, June 1, 1877. Sam S. Fifield moved the office back, and commenced the publication of the Bayfield Press again, with Morris Edwards as business manager. In the Spring of 1879, D.L. Stinchfield became editor, and conducted it until April 1, 1880, when the present proprietor, Isaac H. Wing, purchased the office of Sam S. Fifield. Mr. Stinchfield continued as editor till Spring of 1881, when D. H. Pulcifer came in.
November 30, 1857, the Bayfield Lyceum was organized, with the following officers: J. Harvey Nourse, president; William McAboy, vice-president; A. Tate, secretary; S.S. Vaughn, treasurer. The society used to meet every week, when debate and reading of essays would be the order of the evening. The society continued till it was merged into the Bayfield Library Association, March 9, 1875, with the following officers: J.H. Knight, president; B.B. Wade, secretary; Andrew Tate, treasurer. This new society flourished, till some of its members going away, it became reduced in membership so that now no meetings are held. Of the original members in the Lyceum only five remain here - J.H. Nourse, R.D. Pike, Andrew Tate, George Stark and Joseph McCloud.
Bayfield Lodge, A.F.&A.M., No. 215, was chartered June 14, 1881, with the following charter members: Robert Inglis, S.E. Mahan, O. Flanders, P.W. Smith, A.O. Haywood, John Banfill, A. Tate. The officers installed June 24 were: Robert Inglis, W.M.; S.E. Mahan, S.W.; O. Flanders, J.W.; A. Tate, treasurer; N.J. Willey, secretary; P.W. Smith, S.D.; F.W. Herrick, J.D.; Thomas Doherty, tyler.
In January 1, 1873, Sheriff Nelson Boutin, Capt. R.D. Pike and a party of seventy-five chosen men went over to Ashland as a company to quell the railroad rioters. After stopping there ten days they returned. Having had this little of military life, they conceived the idea of forming a new military company and joining the state militia. The company organized February 25, 1873, with the following officers: R.D. Pike, captain; John Gonyon, first lieutenant; Duffy Boutin, second lieutenant. These officers have continued to date, with the exception of second lieutenant, Duffy Boutin resigned in 1878, and B.B. Wade was elected to fill the vacancy. He resigned in 1879, and F. M. Herrick was elected, who is the present second lieutenant.
Bayfield Hydraulic Company was incorporated March 16, 1870. First officers were: S.S. Vaughn, president; Asaph Whittlesey, secretary; John Banfill, treasurer; T.J.L. Tyler, superintendent. The company built a reservoir above the village, on a small stream that runs down a deep ravine through the village. This stream is supplied with springs that line the ravine for a long distance. The company have exclusive control of the water for ten miles. By damming at the reservoir they get ninety-eight feet head. Mains made of logwood pipes and other small pipes have been laid throughout the village, giving all an opportunity to have fountains and pure spring water at a moderate rate by a system of water tax. The whole if one of the finest natural water-works in the country. The present officers are: Andrew Tate, president; B.B. Wade, secretary; Isaac H. Wing, treasurer; P.W. Smith, superintendent.
Bayfield & Ashland Telegraph & Telephone Company was incorporated in 1880, with a paid up capital stock of $1,500. The building of the line commenced in 1880, and was finished by October the same year. The line is about twenty-six miles long, and telephone connection is made between Ashland and Bayfield. The officers are: R.D. Pike, president; Frederick Fischer, vice-president; I.H. Wing, treasurer; S.E. Mahan, secretary; J.H. KNight, superintendent.
The La Pointe Indian Agency was located at Bayfield in May, 1860, Col. Cyrus Drew, Indian Agent. Prior to removal it was at Superior. Col. Drew was succeeded by Asaph Whittlesey, who was succeeded by Col. John H. Knight, when Gen. L.E. Webb came in. He was succeeded by S.M. Clark, who was succeeded by Dr. I.L. Mahan. He was succeeded by S.E. Mahan, who was succeeded by the present agent, W.R. Durfee.
United States LAnd Office was established at Superior in 1853. It was removed to Bayfield in 1860. The district was set off from the Willow River district in 1853, and comprises all of that part of Wisconsin lying north of north line of Town 40 and west of the west line of Range 2 east. George Hyer was the first Register, followed by Daniel Shaw, who was succeeded by William McAboy. In June, 1861, F.W. Bartlett came in, who held till April, 1867, when V. Smith succeeded, and in April, 1871, Col. John H. Knight came in, who has held it ever since. First Receiver was E.B. Dean, who was succeeded by T. Rush Spencer in 1858. He was succeeded by Benjamin Thompson, July 1, 1860. In the Fall of the same year Asaph Whittlesey was appointed and held till the Fall of 1868, when Joseph H. Nourse was commissioned. He held till 1872, when the present Receiver, Isaac H. Wing, came in.
Smith's Hotel was built by Resau & Bono in 1856; was opened by Mr. Bono. It was then called the Bayfield Exchange. It was bought in 1862 by P.W. Smith, the present proprietor. The building has been improved, and several additions made at different times. It has a capacity for sixty people; has a large dining-room with a seated capacity of seventy. It is a two story frame, in the shape of a letter L, 90x75 feet, with a verandah running around in front.
The Fountain House was built, not as a hotel, in 1856, by Antoine Bardon, who first occupied it. It was not opened as a hotel until 1877, which was by John B. Bono, the present proprietor.
The Lake View House is a large boarding-house. There are numerous other boarding-houses, public and private.
This is a little place in the southern part of the county, below Long Lake, the present terminus of the northern division of the C., St. P., M.&D.R.R. The post-office is called Gunderson.
CHAUNCEY T. ANDREAS, jeweler, Bayfield; was born in Sparta, Wis., in 1859; son of Jere and Elizabeth Wise Anreas. He was brought up and educated in his native town; learned the jeweler's trade of L.D. Merrill, of that place; went to Mather, Wis., for two years; went to Bayfield, Wis., in January, 1881, and opened a jewelry store.
HON. JOHN BANFILL, retired, Bayfield, was born in Topsham, Vt., Feb. 12, 1811. He remained at home till 1832, and then moved to New Orleans to work at his trade, the mason's, and while there volunteered to go with the expedition that was to search for the body of Maj. Dade, who had been killed by the INdians. After returning to New Orleans he went north to New York, and then to Albany. In 1838 he went to Lancaster, Grant Co., moved to Prairie du Chien and kept the Grant House, but sold out and went to St. Paul and built the Rice House. He then built a saw-mill and bought a farm sixteen miles up the Mississippi River. While here he was sent to the State Senate; was also Postmaster at Winona. In 1861 he moved to Bayfield, Wis., where he kept hotel. Since coming to Bayfield he has been School Treasurer, Judge of Probate Court from 1870 to 1878, Chairman of County Board, and has held other offices. In 1838 he married Miss Nancy Foster, of New York City. He is a member of the Masonic Fraternity.
LOUIS J. BACHAND, County Clerk, Bayfield, was born in Two Rivers, Manitowoc Co., Wis., April 17, 1853, where he remained till 1862, going thence to Chicago to attend school. In 1866 he came to Bayfield and in 1870 engaged in fishing, which he carried on till the Spring of 1878, when he was elected Assessor. In 1880, he was elected County Clerk for Bayfield. He is a member of the Catholic Church.
HON. N. BOUTIN, of the firm of N. & F. Boutin, fish dealers, Bayfield, was born in Canada East, Aug. 17, 1831. With the family he moved to Detroit in 1837, where he lived eleven years, and then moved to Mackinaw, and soon afterward to Manitowoc Co., Wis. While there he was in the mercantile business. He moved then to Kewaunee County, and while there was sent to the Legislature. He then returned to Manitowoc, where he engaged in fishing up to the year 1870, when he moved to Bayfield and established the firm as it now stands. He has been a politician more or less, holding the position of sheriff for years, and in 1880 was elected county treasurer. In 1848 he married, then being only seventeen years of age, Miss Conture of Detroit. They have had four children, Mary, now Mrs. Mahan, being the only one living.
FRANK BOUTIN, firm of N. & F. Boutin, fish dealers, Bayfield, was born in Canada East, September 1833, and followed the fortunes of the family till coming to Bayfield, where he entered the fish trade and general merchandise business with his brother Nelson. They have $200,000 in their business, handling 1,500 barrels of fish in the Summer and about 100 tons of fresh fish in the Winter, employing about 100 men. In 1853 Frank married Miss Mary Landie of Canada. They have six children: James, Frank, Emily, Lucy, Mary and Anita. Of his brothers four were in the 27th Wis. V.I. - Joseph C., Duffy, Solomon and Felis.
DUFFY BOUTIN, saloon, Bayfield, was born in Detroit, Mich., Dec. 15, 1845. He moved from place to place engaged in fishing - Mackinaw, Whiskey Island, St. Helena Isle and Two Rivers, where he remained until 1850; then to Kewaunee and on to Bayfield, where there are now living several brothers, Benoni, Edward, Felis F., Nelson, Frank, Joseph C., Duffy and Solomon D. In 1868 he married Miss Lawrence. They have three children - Walter, aged thirteen; Nettie, eleven; and Lafayette, three. He has been Deputy Sheriff. His brother Joseph is also married and has a family of seven children living. He has also three sisters, Emily, Clara and Adeline.
J.B. BONO, hotel, Bayfield, was born in Detroit, Mich., April 14, 1832. When five years of age, went with his parents to Sault St. Marie, where his father, John Bono, died in 1880, at the advanced age of 106 years and six months. J.B. left there in 1854, and went to sailing and fishing. He came to La Pointe in 1855, and there kept a boarding-house; then coming to Bayfield, he kept the first hotel in the place; in 1867 he sold out and went to his trade, shoe-making; in 1870 he began his present business of hotel and a meat market with grocery store; in 1853 he married Miss Berron, of Michigan. They have five children - Alice (now Mrs. Welcome), Albert, Julia, Hattie and Henry. The family attend the Catholic Church.
JAMES CHAPMAN, merchant, Bayfield, was born in Sault St. Marie, Mich., May 22, 1853. His parents moved from there to Mackinaw, and from there he attended Erie Academy in Erie, Pa. In the Summer time he engaged on a revenue cutter, and went to school in the Winter. He came to the iron region on Lake Superior in 1849, locating at Marquette. He was one of the first settler there. He took an iron claim for S. McKnight, and then worked at proving up. He was in Detroit in 1854, and had been at the treaty between the Chippewa on Lake Superior and Mississippi and the Government. He returned to Marquette and remained until 1856, when he came to La Pointe. He came to Bayfield, and in 1861 was employed in the Indian Agency, and was Postmaster from 1856 to 1864. In 1871 he went into general merchandise business. In 1858, was elected to the first Register of Deeds for Bayfield, holding office till 1868; has been Supervisor of Tom and County, and Deputy Collector of Customs. He attends the Episcopal Church.
COL. J.D. CRUTTENDEN, real estate, Bayfield, was born in Georgetown, D.C., March 2, 1822. He lived there till 1838, then moved to St. Louis, where he remained till 1846; then up the river to Prairie du Chien, Wis., in 1849, to St. Paul, in the Indian trade, and afterwards formed a partnership with R. P. Russell at St. Anthony. He then went to Little Crowing, where he stayed until 1855, in the meantime representing this section in the Territorial Legislature, and then in the State House in 1857-8. He was appointed Register of United States Land office in 1859, by President Buchanan. In February, 1861, he was made captain and assistant quartermaster; was promoted to colonel and inspector of the quartermaster's department, and in 1865 was mustered out and in 1869 came to Bayfield. He was elected Register of Deeds in 1872, which he has held since; also Town Clerk since 1874; has held deputies in town and school offices. In 1861 he married Miss Lucy F. Green, of Granville, Ohio. They have one child, H. Rice. They attend the Episcopal Church.
FRED FISCHER, general store, Bayfield, was born in Hanover, Germany, NOv. 8, 1847; was brought an infant to America landing in Baltimore in January of that year. He lived after that in St. Louis, and in 1867 went to Milwaukee, and afterward to Michigan. In 1869 he went to St. Paul; in 1873 came to Bayfield and opened a saloon. In 1879 he went into the fishing business and general merchandise. He has been on the Town Board for four years, and is now Chairman of the Town and County Board, and is one of the Masonic fraternity. In 1873, he married Miss Elvina Topel, of Sheboygan County. They have four children - Henry, Fred, Charlie and Alfena.
J. PATRICK HOWLEY, boarding-house, Bayfield, was born in Kilkenny Co., Ireland, Nov. 1, 1823. He came to America in 1840, landed in New York, and went from there to Connecticut where he farmed and worked in a factory. In 1847 he took a trip to California, and stayed till 1861, when he enlisted in the 3d V.I., Co. I. He was mustered out in 1865, and from California he returned to Connecticut. In 1866 he went to Milwaukee, where he was until 1870. In 1874 he reached Bayfield, and opened the Lake View House. In 1857 he married, but lost his wife, and in 1874 married Miss Bridget Shildah, of Ireland. He has been Constable from 1874 to 1877.
A.C. Hayward, Postmaster, Bayfield, was born in Buffalao, N.Y., March 8, 1828, where he lived until 1857, when he removed to Superior City, Wis., where he remained seven years, engaged in house building and acting as Assistant Postmaster. Coming to Bayfield in 1864, he engaged in the mercantile business. He was then appointed Postmaster and has held the position ever since. He has been Deputy Collector of Customs of the port of Bayfield, Clerk of Court, and has held position on the school board. In 1855 he married Miss Elizabeth Sutton, of New York. They have one child, a daughter, Mattie. Mr. Hayward is a member of the Masonic fraternity.
COL. JOHN H. KNIGHT, Bayfield. Was born near Dover in Kent Co., Del. on Feb. 3, 1836; was educated in New York at Charlotteville, Schoharie Co., and at Fairfiled, Herkimer Co. Studied law three years under Hon. N.B. Smithers, at Dover, Del. Graduated at the law school Albany, N.Y., in 1859, and in same year was admitted to practice in Delaware law courts, and formed a partnership with Hon. George P. Fisher at Dover. When the war broke out he responded to the call of President Lincoln for the three months' troops and raised a company; was mustered in as first lieutenant, perfering the captaincy to go to one having more knowledge of tactic; served in his company until mustered out at the expiration of term of service; was immediately appointed assistant adjutant-general of volunteers and tendered a commission of captain in the regular army - the latter was declined and the former accepted, and he was assigned to the staff of Brig-Gen. H.H. Lockwood, where he served until the spring of 1862; meantime having accepted a captaincy in the regular army he was in April on his own request ordered to his regiment (18th U.S.I), then serving under Gen. George H. Thomas at the seige of Corinth. Served with his regiment from that time in the Army of the Cumberland until January 1864, just after the battle of Mission Ridge, when he was ordered to Detroit, Mich., as mustering and disbursing officer. Shortly after entering upon this duty was appointed chief mustering officer and acting assistant provost marshal of the State of Michigan, in which capacity supervised the re-organization of the Michigan regiments; execution of the draft laws and finally the disbandment of the Michigan regiments. He had the following commisssions in addition to those above stated: Colonel of the 1st Del. C.; brevet major and lieutenant-colonel in the regular army. Participated in a number of engagements and battles during the war during the time of his field service, beginning with the first battle of Bull Run and ending with the battle of Mission Ridge. He was detached from his regiment during his service in the Army of the Cumberland at a number of times by Gen. Thomas for important duties. His health was completely broken down during the war, and has only recovered it during his residence in Wisconsin in the pure climate on the south shore of Lake Superior. He was relieved from duty at Detroit, Mich., in February 1867, and remained on leave of absence until in October, same year, when he received orders and joined his regiment at Fort Sanders, Wyoming Ter. In the spring of 1868, he commanded the troops assigned to protect locating and constructing parties of the Union Pacific Railroad between Ft. Sanders and Ft. Bridger, and established his headquarters in the western end of Bridger's Pass; was ordered to Camp Douglas, Salt Lake City, in November, 1868; and remained at that post until in April, 1869, commanding the post a portion of the time. In spring of 1869, he elected to be discharged from the army under the Act of Congress reducing the regiments in the regular army, and returned to his home at Wilmington, Del. Shortly afterwards, in May, 1869, was assigned by the President, agent for the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior, and was ordered to Bayfield, Wis., whither he went and assumed the duties of Indian Agent, which he performed about one year and was relieved by the civil appointee. In the Fall of 1870, he resigned his commission in the regular army, and established his residence at Bayfield, Wis. In 1871, was appointed Register of the Untied States Land Office at Bayfield, and still retains that position. In 1863, was married to the eldest daughter of Levi G. Clark, of Wilminton, Del. She died on June 29, 1867, leaving one child, Eugenia B., who is still living. In 1874, he married a sister of his first wife, from which union he has four children - Susan B., Clark M., Mary Emlen and Elizabeth K. He is a member of Oriental Lodge of Masons of Detroit, Mich., and of the Episcopal Church.
ALONZO KNIGHT, book-keeper, Baufield, was born in Kent Co., Del., April 13, 1854. He attended Mt. Vernon Grammar School in Philadelphia, then the High School, and finally went to Pierce's Business College. On leaving school, began keeping books. In 1878 he clerked in Philadelphia. In 1881 he came to Bayfield, arriving the 29th of May. He is engaged in keeping books for his brother, Col. John H. Knight. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and corresponds with his hoe aper, the Dover State Sentinel.
ERVIN LEIHY, general store, Bayfield, was born in Oswego Co., N.Y., Oct. 12, 1822. His early life was passed on a farm, and at eighteen moved to Illinois. Later he bought a farm on Bad River and moved to it in 1846. In 1870 he moved to Bayfield, built his present residence and opened a store, and is engaged in clearing another farm on Sioux River, about eight miles from the village. In 1851 he married Miss Morrin, of La Point. Their children are - Hannah (now Mrs. Newland), Eunice (now Mrs. Inglis), Eliza (now Mrs. Herbert), Charles, Charlotte (now Mrs. Boutin) and Phoebe. Mr. Leihy was member of Town and County Board for Ashland, while living on Bad River, and in 1871 and 1872 was Supervisor in Bayfield, and is now on the Board. He has held other offices.
MRS. ANNA LEY, general store, Bayfield, widow of Peter H. Ley, one of the pioneers of Bayfield. He was a native of Prussia, and died June a6, 1876. Mrs. Ley was born in county Clare, Ireland. Her maiden name was Sexton. She was married to P.H. Ley in 1854, in Detroit, Mich. In the Spring of 1856 they came to Bayfield and opened a store, and since 1857 have been in the same building. They had one child, who died before its father. Mr. Ley during his life served as Supervisor, Register of Deeds, etc. They were both members of the Catholic Church.
SAMUEL E. MAHAN, real estate, Bayfield, was born in Terre Haute, Ind., Aug. 4, 1846; graduated in 1861 from the State University and began the study of medicine, taking one course of lectures at Ann Arbor, Mich. But his health not being favorable he went out to Kansas and entered mercantile life in Harvey County; then he took a homestead in McPherson County, where he remained till 1873, when he came to Bayfield. In 1877-8 was County Clerk; is now secretry of the Telephone Company of Ashland and Bayfield, and secretary of the Hydraulic Company of Bayfield, and has just closed his term as Indian Agent. In 1878 he married Miss Mary J. Boutin, of Bayfield. They have had two children, Frances Edna and Lucille Eugenia, only one of whom is living. Mr. Mahan is a member of the Masonic fraternity.
J.H. NOURSE, merchant, Bayfield, the oldest son of Rev. James Nourse, was born in Washington, D.C., Jult, 1830. In 1853, just a few months before marriage, he was appointed by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, a teacher to Spencer Academy, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory. Failing in health, returned with his wife to Washington late in the Fall of 1854. Bleeding from the lungs, in August, 1856, he visited Bayfield, and early in the spring of 1857 brought his family to that healthy spot. In the Fall of 1858 took charge of a large hotel belonging to the Bayfield Land Co., called the Bayfield House and since burned. Taught the public school from October, 1861 to June 1864; was County Treasurer during the same time and Town Clerk from April, 1860 to 1864; Collector of the port in 1863 and 1864; Receiver of the U.S. Land-office from 1869 to March 1872; taught the public school again from September, 1869, to March 1871; has been in his present business since May 1872; and from April of that year up to the present time (1881) annually elected Town Treasurer. His wife was Miss Isabel Rittenhouse, of Washington, D.C.; they have eleven children, four deceased.
CAPT. R.D. PIKE, manufacturer, Bayfield, was born in Corcoran Co., Penn., April 12, 1838. He was taken to Toledo, Ohio, by his parents in 1845, and remained there, receiving the rudiments of an education. He came to Bayfield in 1855, but not having finished his education went to Detroit, Mich., and took a commercial course. In 1862 he enlisted in the 27th Mich. V.I.; was transferred to the 1st CAV., and at the battle of Appomattox he was promoted to captain, and after some service on the plains returned home in 1866 and commenced lumbering. At first he had a shingle mill, then a saw-mill, and finally has a mill that produces lumber, 40,000 shingles and 30,000 laths, and staves for fish barrels; he is also engaged in the real estate business. Capt. Pike has been Chairman of the County Board, Clerk of County Court, and filled other public offices. He became a member of the Masonic Lodge in 1863 at Fort Howard.
RUSSELL ROBERTS, saloon, Bayfield, was born in Canada WEst, Aug. 21, 1838. He was reared on a farm, and on leaving home in 1857, he engaged in the same business in Walworth Co., Wis. In 1860 he moved to Grand Rapids, and began lumbering and working as pilot on the river. In 1872 he moved to the western part of the county upon a farm, where his family now is. He engaged in his present business in Bayfield in June 1881. In 1861 he married Miss Van Vaulkinberg, of Ohio. They have six children - Julia, Jane, Fred W., Frank, Mary A., William and Edna.
CAPT. P.W. Smith, hotel, Bayfield, was born in Lowville, Lewis Co., N.Y., Aug. 24, 1827. When twenty years of age he went to sea in a whaler, and at Van Diemen's Land went on board of a merchant ship and returned to New York. In 1861 he raised Co. 9, N.Y. V. I.; resigned in May, 1862, on account of bad health, and came to Bayfield in the same year and opened a hotel, in which he has since continued. In Fall of 1868, he went to Portage Lake; returned to Bayfield in 1869, and is now proprietor of the oldest hotel in the village. In 1856, he married Miss Sabina Sanders, of Toronto Canada. They have two boys - Frederick W., aged twenty-four, and William J., twenty-one. Mr. Smith was appointed Sheriff in 1873, and elected in 1876; was Under-Sheriff till January, 1880; has been Clerk of the Court, held town offices, and is now superintendent and director of the Hydraulic Co., of Bayfield, and a member of the Masonic Lodge.
ANDREW TATE, was born in the city of Washington, D.C., Aug. 23, 1823, and left that city on the 25th of April, 1857, and arrived at Bayfield 25th of May following. Opened a store and commenced reading law, and was admitted to practice in the County Court in 1858, and in the Circuit Court in 1861; was appointed County Judge in 186a; was elected District Attorney soon after; was the first school superintendent in the county; was elected Clerk of Circuit Court, then County Treasurer; also County Treasurer in 1880; was elected Supervisor in 1881; joined the Masonic Lodge in Washington, D.C., in 1856, and is one of the charter members of Bayfield Lodge, No. 215; joined the Odd Fellows in 1844; is president of the Bayfield Hydraulic Company. He married Miss Nellie G. Hall, of Bayfield, formerly of Ohio, in July, 1866. They have one child, Lillian.
B.B. WADE, District Attorney, Bayfield, was born in ONeida Co., N.Y., May 21, 1841. He graduated from Hamilton College in 1860, and was admitted to the bar in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. in 1863. In 1864, he took a trip to Colorado, where he practiced and mined, returning to New York in 1868. His heath was not good and he was recommended to the climate of Lake Superior. He came to Bayfield in 1869, and has remained here since, engaged in real estate business. He was County Clerk, and elected District Attorney in Fall of 1880. Mr. Wade is lieutenant of the Bayfield Rifles.
MRS. L.M. WHITTLESEY, relict of Hon. A. Whittlesey, who was born in Ohio, is a natice of Massachusetts. They were married in Peoria, Ill., and came to La Pointe in 1854, and from there went to Ashland, and helped lay out the village, living there until 1861, when he was appointed to the land-office and moved to Bayfield, where they lived up to the time of his death, which occurred December, 1880. He had always endeavored to develop the resources of his adopted home, in which he recognized the capacity for a great and rich future. He held at one time a place in the Legislature of the State, traveling to Madison on snow-shoes. There is now in the capital a picture illustrating this incident. He was Indian Agent and Pot Collector. He died leaving a widow and one daughter. There were two children - Delia E., now Mrs. Green, and Jennie, deceased. Mrs. Whittlesey's mother, Harriette M., and her father J.P.T. Haskell, moved to Ashland in 1855; the latter died in 1875, but the mother is living in Chicago at the advanced age of seventy-two. Mrs. Whittlesey now lives on the property left her by her husband in Bayfield.