Guilford, Windham County, Vermont

Historical Gazetteer
a local History of
all the Towns in the State
Civil, Educational, Biographical, Religious and Military.
Vol. V.
The Towns of Windham County.
Collated by
Abby Maria Hemenway.
Published by
Mrs. Carrie E. H. Page,
Brandon, VT.

                         By Gen. J. W. Phelps.
                      THE OLDEN INDEPENDENT TOWN:
           The only independent, Republic Town ever in Vermont
Here insert the account of Guilford form Thompson's Gazetteer of
Vermont, edition 1842.)
[Fine, old General, he has gone to his grave, his manuscript History of
Guilford that he desired to see in print, but never did, we will open
and commence to give verbatim.]
"GUILFORD, a post town in the south part of Windham county, is in lat.
42, 47* and long. 4* 26. and is bounded , north by Barttelborough, east
by Vernon, south by Leyden, Mass. and west by Halifax.  It lies 50 miles
south from Windsor.  31 east form Bennington.  It was chartered April 2,
1754, to 54 proprietors, principally of Massachusetts, and contained
23040 acres.
When granted the town was a perfect wilderness,  yet by the charter, the
grantees were to hold their first meeting for the choice of officers,
&c., on the first of May 1754,  and on the first Tuesday ever
afterwards.  It seems the town was organized by and under the very grant
itself.  Power was given to the grantees to transact the business of the
town as a majority should see fit,  subject only to the control of the
parliament of England.
This little, enterprising band composed of Samuel HUNT, John CHANDLER,
David FIELD, Elijah WILLIAMS, Micah RICE, Ira CARPENTER and others,
having little fear from the nominal power of parliament, in the
wilderness of Vermont, assumed the title, which was virtually created by
their charter of a little independent republic.
By the records of their first meetings they appear to have been governed
by certain committees, chosen for the purpose of surveying the lands,
laying roads, drawing the shares or lots, taxing the rights, etc.;  but
their greatest object was to procure and encourage settlers.  Their
meetings were held at Greenfield, Northfield, Hinsdale, or Barttleboro,
until 1765, when their first meeting was held at Guilford.  There was a
condition which if, not performed, went to defeat the grant.  The
grantees were to settle, clear and cultivate in five years, 5 acres for
every 50 in said township.  Although much time and money had been spent
in making roads and clearing lands, yet, on the 20th of March 1764, the
grantees by a special committee chosen, petitioned the Governor of N.H.
for a conformation of their grant and an extension of the time, stating
that the in-
                    ===========================Page 4
tervention of an Indian war had made it impracticable for them to
fulfill the conditions of the charter.  Their prayer was granted, and
the time for settling the town extended to the first of January 1766.
>From the time the charter was confirmed in 1764, the town began to be
rapidly settled by emigrants form Massachusetts and other New England
states.  Through the policy of the original proprietors, the first
settlers began upon lots of 50 acres, in order to fulfill the conditions
of the grant.  So rapid was the increase of the population that the town
became the largest in the state as to numbers.  Yet there was not a
single village in the township, or rather the whole township was a
village--all the hills and vallies were smoking with huts.
By the charter 350 acres were called a share and all the proprietors
shares alike.  The reservations in the charter consisted of "one whole
share to the society in England for propagating the gospel in foreign
parts;  one to the first settled minister of the gospel; and one whole
share for a glebe for the ministry of the church of England as by law
established."  The Governor was not unmindful of his own interest,.  He
reserved 500 and 100 acre lots.  The public rights were fairly located,
but the Governor's fell upon the only mountain in town, which still
bears the name of authority upon the map--Gov. Mountain."
Although no reservation was made in the grant for the use of schools,
yet one whole share was located for that purpose.  That was a just and
generous act of the proprietors but it was not the same liberality that
governed them when they located, sold and settled one whole tier of
100-acre lots, beyond the extent of their charter.  That was the case
and the same is held by the town to this day.
"All the pine trees suitable for masting the royal Navy"  were reserved
to his Majesty.  This shows the attention the English nation paid to the
navy:  one hundred miles from the ocean where was such reservation
made.  What has ben related with a little "proclamation money," was the
price of the charter.
The first land was cleared in 1758, by Hon. Jona. HUNT. AND Elisha HUNT,
on the farm now occupied by the REv. Asa HAYNES.  The first settlement
was made by Micah RICE and family, in September 1761, on the place now
occupied by Jeremiah GREENLEAF Esq., Mr. R's widow died in 1832, aged 95
years , and his oldest son is now living here, aged 80.
Soon after followed Jonathan BIGELOW, John BARNEY, Daniel LYND, Wm.
SHEPARDARDSON, and others.  They came into town by the way of Broad
brook.  Beginning at the mouth of that stream on Connecticut river in
Vernon, and passing up on its banks they found their way into
Guilford.--That was then the only road, and even that was impassable
with teams.  The first settlers had either to boil or pound their corn,
or go 15 miles to mill with a grist upon their backs.
It appears by what records can be found, that the town was wholly
governed by a set of officers chosen annually by the people under their
charter, until the 19th May, 1772 when the inhabitants at a "district
meeting assembled" in the district of Guilford, voted that Guilford was
in the County of
                    ===========================Page 5
Cumberland and providence of New York and chose officers of the town
agreeably to the laws of that province.  At that meeting a record was
first made in a regular town book which was purchased by the original
proprietors some years before.  By that record it appears John
SHEPHARDSON was chosen "district clerk, John BARNEY, supervisor," &c,
and the meeting was they adjourned to a day after the annual meeting by
the charter.
Having renounced their charter, and there being no government which
really exercised authority over them they continued to legislate for
themselves, and tradition says that good justice was done, yet one
principle of the charter was still adhered to, none but proprietors, or
those who held under them, had a right to rule or vote in their
meetings.  Thus was this little republic regulated by a town meeting
which was adjourned form time to time, without interruption from abroad,
or contentious at home, until the year 1776:  then the town was beset
with violent tories and Yorkers on the one side and brave Whigs and New
statesmen on the other.  The Whigs united with those opposed to the
claims of the state of New York, that and the succeeding year out-voted
the tories and the Yorkers.  In 1776 the town voted to pay the expenses
of Benjamin CARPENTER their delegate to the Westminster Convention of
1775.  They voted to raise 9 soldiers for the Continental army, equip
them with arms and powder, give them a bounty of L4 "bay money," by a
tax upon the inhabitants of the town, and it was done.
They, also, resolved no man should vote for town officers who was not
qualified according to the direction of the Continental Congress."
Under that resolution their committee chosen for the purpose excluded
tories form the polls, vi et armies, and the poor, if qualified,
participated in the government.
The title of the town as belonging to the state of New York, was left
out of the records.  To give some idea of the laws passed by the old
republic of Guilford, we will quote the following, passed the next year,
Voted, not to let any person vote in this meeting, but such as have L40
real or personal estate.
Voted, John BARNEY and Benjamine CARPENTER be a committee to go to
Windsor, in June next to hear the report of the agent sent to Congress
concerning a new state.
Voted, that any person, who shall, for the future, pretend to hold lands
by bush possession shall be dealt with by the town, as a breaker of the
peace of the town, a riotous person &c. Attest.
            Elijah WELCH. T. Clerk.
They further chose a committee to establish the price of labor, all
kinds of produce goods, wares and merchandise.  The report of the
committee was adopted as the law of the town.  All the articles
mentioned were a legal tender for debts with a penalty for the article
sold, or the value thereof with costs.--The punishment of offenders was
various, such as "beech-seal,' fines, &c, but the most disgraceful of
all was to be compelled to embrace the Liberty Pole with both arms, time
specified by the committee of inspection, or judges.  There was again an
entire change of politicos in 1778.  It appears by the records that a
warrant and notification for a town meeting was sent form the Council at
Bennington and a meeting held upon the same, when it was "voted
                    ===========================Page 6
not to act agreeable to said warrant," and the meeting was dissolved.
In 1779, after doing the customary town business,
"Voted, Lovell BULLOCK, Timothy ROOT, Henry SHERBARN a committee to
defend the town against the pretended state of Vermont, and to represent
the town in County Committee."  "Henry SHERBURN, Elliot and Hezekiah
STOWELL" all violent  "Yorkers were chosen to take special care of the
powder and lead and other town stores,"  and the meeting adjourned to
the next year.
In 1780, a like meeting was held.  There is the following record for
"Then all the people met together, that means to stand in opposition
against the pretended state of Vermont, and acted on the following
articles, viz:
:Voted, Peter BRIGGS and William BULLOCK for a Committee to send to
Charlestown Convention.+
Voted that Hezekiah STOWELL keep the names of those that are against
said pretended state."
Also, May 1782:
"Then the people met in general and voted to stand against the pretended
state of Vermont until the decision of Congress be known with lives and
"Voted to receive the instructions which came form New York. &c.
"Voted to receive the instructions which came from New York. &C.
"Voted, and chose Henry EVANS, Daniel ASHCRAFT,  and Nathan FINCH to
forbid the constable action.
These appear not to be regular meetings of the town, but of the Yorkers,
who had gotten possession of the town books and stores by a majority of
votes in 1778.  They in turn excluded the other party from the polls by
force of arms.  Frequently a company of Yorkers came from Barttleboro to
stand sentry at their meetings, when skirmishes ensued and hostile shots
were exchanged.
The Whigs and Vermonters, also, kept up their system of government by
regular and stated meetings, but their records were lost, as will be
related hereafter.  In their turn, they sent hostile scouting parties to
Barttleboro to the assistance of their friends in that town.  The
Vermonters had a sheriff in Guilford, and their party had, also, a
constable, who continued to collect taxes for the support of their
cause,--Those Friendly to the new state paid without compulsion, while
the property of the Yorkers, both real and personal was sold at the post
for taxes.  For that reason the committee before mentioned was chosen
"to forbid the constable acting," and their doings were spread upon the
records of the town, by proclamation as follows:
To all the officers of the civil authority under the pretended state of
You are hereby forbid to proceed against any person, or persons that
owns the jurisdiction of the state of New York, according to what is
recommended in a handbill by Congress, bearing date June 2, 1780, and we
do hereby forbid the constable vending those numbers hereby given him."
(referring to certain lots on the plan of
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the town) "and we hereby forbid you on your apparel.
Henry EVENS*,        Committee  [Footnote:  H. Evens was one of the five
who were banished and their property confiscated]
Dan ASHCRAFT,     Chosen.
Nathan FITCH,
A true record, --Attest.
Samuel BIXBY, Town Clerk."
The Yorkers held a like meeting in 1782, April 29, and adjourned to
their annual meeting, 1784.
>From 1778 to 1783, the town was governed principally by their former
laws.  Both parties had their committees, and the Yorkers although in
authority, could not govern the town, yet, in connection with the
tories, prevented anything being done under the direction and government
of the new state.  In this state of things, Ethan ALLEN arrived in town
at the head of 100 Green Mountain Boys;  but as we have already given an
account of his proclamation and proceedings, we shall not repeat them
>From 1783 to 1791, no record of the proceedings of the town are
preserved.  In March of the year last mentioned the town was for the
first time, duly organized under the constitution and laws of Vermont.
William BIGELOW was chosen town clerk who came peaceably into possession
of the papers and records of the town that were to be found.  Tradition
says, the 7 years in which no records were kept, both parties held
public and private meetings but that it was a perfect rule of arnachy.
The Yorkers although they had the town books, dared not record their
proceedings in them, and both parties kept secret their own records.
During this confusion and jealousy, one party stole the records of the
other and hid them, together with their own, many deeds and proprietor's
papers, under the earth in the pound, in order to conceal them from the
other.  There they lay through some dad misfortune until they were
totally spoiled.  When discovered and dug up they could not be read.
During that time the Yorkers having been so closely pursued by the
military and civil authority of Vermont and their property, mostly
confiscated fled to the state of New York and settled on the grants made
by that state  to the New York sufferers.  Almost all whole township,
now called Bainbridge was first settled by emigrants from Guilford.
This accounts for the so rapid decrease of the population from 1784.
While the town was independent of any power superior to the town meeting
assembled, refugees from the neighboring states flocked into it, but
when the law came, they fled.
The violent Yorkers found but little peace under the energetic and
persevering measures of the states attorney for Windham County.  To him
the people of Guilford are indebted for the establishment of law and
order, without the effusion of blood, and the dispersion of the
riotous.  Migrations have not only been westward, but northward and
eastward.  Most of the towns in the northern and middle parts of this
state contain inhabitants from old Guilford.
Although the town has decreased in population, it has increased in
opulence.  Where one farmer now occupies and improves, formerly lived
half a dozen, or more: and you now see one respectable dwellings,
instead, of as many log-huts.
Since 1791, there has been nothing remarkable in the history of the
town.  From that time the inhabitants have supported the character of
free and independent farmers, very jealous of their rights, and form
many years noted for their strong prepossessions in favor of the
political school of Jefferson.
                      The Hon. Benjamin CARPENTER,
was a member of the first convention in Vermont, held at Dorset in 1770.
In those trying times with the brave sons of the Green Mountains, when
they had not only to oppose the powerful state of New York, the claims
of New Hampshire and Massachusetts, the tories and Yorkers at home, and
the menacing threats of Congress abroad: but the power of his Majesty's
legions in war, that brave patriot with an allowance of three days'
provisions upon his back, would cross the Green Mountains on foot by
marked trees, to attend the legislature at Bennington, for the purpose
of devising ways and means of defense against all the enemies of the
As delegate to the Assembly, as a member of the Council of Safety, as
Lieut. Governor of the State, he deservedly holds a conspicuous place in
the early history of the state.
Upon a large white marble tombstone in the west part of Guilford, is the
following inscription:
                          Hon. John SHEPARDSON
born in 1718, was a firm patriot of the Revolution, and held the offices
of judge of the supreme court and member of the council for several
years.  He died in 1813.
                        Hon.  Samuel SHEPHARDSON,
born in 1757, was a useful member of society and had the honor of
sitting as a member of the council several years.  He died in 1813.
                          Hon. William BIGELOW,
one of the first settlers of the town, always a father to the people:
born in 1751: was a judge of the county court which office he held with
good reputation to himself, and died in 1814.
                      Sacred to the memory of the
                     Hon. Benjamine CARPENTER, Esq.
                   Born in Rehobeth, Mass. A.D. 1726
                 A magistrate in Rhode Island in 1764.
                   A public teacher of rightechsness
            An able--eble advocate to his last for Democracy
                     And the equal rights of a man.
                    Removed to this town A.D. 1770,
             Was a field officer in the rEvolutionary War.
     A founder of the first constitution and government of Vermont.
                  A councilor of censors in A.D. 1794.
A member of the council, and Lieut. Governor of the state in A.D. 1779.
 A firm professor of Christianity in the Baptist church 50 years.  Left
            this world and 146 persons of lineal posterity.
                             March 29, 1804
                  Aged 78 years, 10 months and 12 days
                             with a strong
                    Mind and a full faith of a more
                       Glorious state hereafter.
                   Stature about six feet--weight 200
                          Death had no terror.
Among the early settlers of the town since 1796, might be mentioned the
names of Hon. Royal TYIER. Hon. Ja.
                    ===========================Page 9
ELLIOT,  Hon. Richard WHITNEY, Hon. Micah TOWNSHEND, Hon. Henry SEYMOUR,
Hon. Gilbert DENNISON, Hon. Samuel ELLIOT, Hon. John NOYES, and many
others of less note, who are mostly identified with the history of the
state, but who have since removed from the town.
Guilford was the birthplace of Henry DENISON, Esq., [ e] late poet of
Georgia, also the Rev. Wilbur FISK, late president of the Wesleyan
University at Middletown. Ct.
                          The Rev. Royal GIRLEY
was the first settled minister in Guilford.  He was of the
Congregational order, and received the right of land reserved and
located for that purpose.  He was settled in the year 1775, and died
soon after.  He was a young man of science, much respected for his pious
and amiable deportment.  The second of the same order was the
                          Rev. Henry WILLIAMS.
   who was settled in 1779.  Rev. Bunker GAY of Hinsdale preached his
 ordination sermon.  The text was "Death in the pot."  He was a violent
 Yorker and when the town submitted to the state authority, he left with
                his political brethren.  The third, the
                          Rev. Elijah WOOLAGE.
was stetted in 1794, dismissed in 1799.  The next of that order was the
                         Rev. Jason CHAMBERLAIN.
He was settled in 1807, and in 1811 being elected professor of languages
in the University of Vermont, by his own request was dismissed.
Afterwards, the Rev. Elijah WOOLAGE returned, and was received for a
time, but dismissed in 1818.
An Episcopal church was formed in the East parish, Nov. 8, 1818, by the
name of Christ's Church, and on the 8th of May 1819, the Congregational
Society voted to unite with the Episcopal society, and invited their
minister, the Rev. A.L. BAURY, to perform divine service at their
meeting-house, in the center of the town, half of the time.  An
Episcopal society was formed for that purpose, and a union of the tow
societies was affected, and so has continued to this time { 1842 }.
                        The Episcopal Ministers,
who have officiated here are:
The Rev. Alfred L. BAURY from September, 1820, to May, 1822:
The Rev. Samuel SHAW from 1822 to 1831:
The Rev. Jacob PEARSON from 1832 to 1836:
The Rev. Luman FOOTE 1837 to 1838:
The Rev. John B. PRATT form 1838 to 1841.
The present minster is the Rev. Frederick A. WADLEIGH. {1842 }.  This
church consists of about fifty communicants.
                              The Baptists
are the most numerous sect.  Among the Elders who have had the care of
churches in this town may be mentioned Elders WILLIS, HICKS, SNOWE,
minister, {1842} is Elder Milo FRAREY.
                             The Methodists
have several classes and there are two ministers of this order in town:
Rev. Asa HAYNES, the Rev. John L. SMITH.  there is also,
                         A Universalist Society
here, ' and their present minister is the Rev. William N. BARBER.
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There were formerly a very few of the fanatical sect called Dorrilites
here.* [footnote:  A band of ludicrous fanatics that sprang up in Leyden
Mass. and extended its conquests into some of the Windham County
towns;--born in 1797, died in 1908.--See Thompson's, Gazetteer, Part II.
page 202. ].
The Congregationalists built the first meeting-house, the Baptists the
second, The Episcopal church was built and the Methodist chapel more
The town has a neat and convenient town-house, built in 1821, and
situated near the Center.
There is a village at the west, one at the south, one at the east, and
one at the Center of the town:  the two latter, much the largest, yet,
neither containing more that 25, or 30 houses.
                            Early Physicians.
Elijah WELCH was the first physician that settled in town.
Simon STEVENS and Dana HYDE were the principle physicians for about
forty years.
the town is divided into 15 school districts in each of which is a
schoolhouse convenient for teaching from 50 to 100 scholars.  In them
schools are kept most of the year.
The public school fund has amounted to S210 yearly, arising from the
lands.  From that sum, deducting rents of the propagation rights. S79,
taken up by the original proprietors, leaves S131 still annually in the
treasury, arising from the glebe and school lots.  The funds of the
latter were nearly lost to the town as follows:  In 1777, the town voted
to sell those lands amounting to 350 acres and put the money at interest
for the benefit of schools.  It was done, and the price of the lands
received in specie which was lent by the Whig administration of the town
in 1777, to the recruiting officers, for the purpose of tempting the
soldier to enlist into the service of his country.  In payment of the
loans continental bills were received, which turned out to be of little
or not value. Amall as is the fund, it has been of great use to the
In 1818, a "Female Bible and Prayer Book Society was established for the
purpose of distributing those precious books to the poor of the town,
and at the same time a
                              Sunday School
was formed, both of which are under the Episcopal church.  A library,
consisting of about 300 volumes, styled
                       "Guilford Social Library."
established in 1790, was sold at auction, by vote of the society, in
                          Climate And Longevity
The air and climate are remarkably wholesome.  The oldest people in the
town cannot remember any remarkable season of mortality.  Most of the
inhabitants live to a good, old age, and the physicians remark that not
one to a hundred die annually.  It is not uncommon in town for people to
live to the age of 100 years.

                             The Agriculture
the earth is naturally covered with a deep, strong and rich soil, with a
sufficient mixture of earths to make it warm, and at the same time, to
prevent its leaching.  The hills make excellent sweet pastures, and the
low lands are fine for tillage.  The farms consist of from 100 to 500
acres, each, which keep through the year, from 10 to 40 cows with other
stock sufficient for the concerns of the farm.  Of later
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years some of the more wise have turned their attention to the raising
of sheep, for which the hills are best suited.  The land is naturally
covered with maple, hemlock, walnut, beech, birch, ash, bass, butternut
and elm.  A few traces of black oak, locust and sycamore are found.  The
most useful tree is the
The farmers take as much pains to keep and preserve an orchard of maples
as of apple trees, from which each manufactures from 50 to 2000 lbs.
annually, mostly for their own use, but when plenty it becomes an
article of commerce.  Beside butter and cheese for which the town is
famous, it produces beef, pork, poultry, and the finest of horses for
market.  Wheat does not grow well upon the old fields.  Apples, pears,
peaches, plums, cherries, and quinces grow and bear well.  As the stumps
and roots decay, some of the hills washed by the rains and have
decreased in value.  The prudent farmers have set out shade trees upon
their hills, which not only preserve the grass from the scorching rays
of the sun, but the roots prevent the ground from washing.
                          Face of the township.
Free from rocks, stumps and shrubs, most of the hills and valleys are
smooth on the surface, and in summer present to the eye a most
delightful scenery.  The town is hilly, but not mountainous.  Except
Governor Mountain, nearly the whole is subject to cultivation.  East
mountain, so called, extending the whole length of the town, north and
south, is the largest hill.  It is about one mile wide, descending
gradually to the east and south, and, except the bluffs on the west
side, is cleared and cultivated.  Even the west side is covered with
excellent timber.  On the top of this hill lye some of the greatest
dariy-farmers in town.  There you literally see, "cattle upon a thousand
                          Geology of the town.
The rocks are principals mica slate, lying in tight ledges, interspersed
with strata of quartz, and running form north to south.  Impure garnets
are plenty in the mica slate, and some good specimens of rock crystal
have been found.  Quartz and school in various mixtures are found some
having all the appearance of lave.  On the east side of the town is a
range of argillaceous slate, which is manufactured into roof and writing
slate.  Rolled rocks of grant, from huge masses to small pebbles, appear
on almost every lot.  On some few lots is limestone, and on others, bog
iron ore, but neither sufficiently pure or planet for manufacture.
A slight volcanic eruption is said to have taken place here a few years
ago upon the farm of Mr. MAXWELL.
Gneiss and hornblende slate, with those mentioned comprise the principal
rocks in town.  Rocks of all kinds are not sufficiently plenty for the
use of the farmer without much expanse.  In the banks is found good
sand, and in the low lands are pure clay, perhaps, as any in Vermont.
On the farm of Maj. E. HOUGHTON, is a
                             Mineral Spring,
which is the resort of invalids, troubled with scrofulous and other
cutaneous disease.  It is situated in a piece of low, marshy ground, and
the water is impregnated with magnesia, lime, sulfur and iron.  The
bubbles that arise in the spring, on meeting a torch held upon the
surface, will explode with a flame.
                      =====================Page 12
Green River is a rapid stream running south through the west part of the
township, and Broad brook, a smaller stream, running east through the
north part.  There are two small streams, branches of Broad brook, which
ran north, one through the center and the other at the foot of the east
mountain on the west side and empty into Broad brook.  On both the
former are fine mill-priviliges and water sufficient at all seasons of
the year.  The banks and bottom of these streams are clean, the waters
limpid and they contain trout.  Eels and suckers are found in most of
the ponds;  but not in plenty.
There are now in town:  1 paper-mill, 1 extensive tannery, 2
grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, one clothier's works and carding machine, 4
stores and 4 taverns.  A large cotton factory, situated in the East
Village, was burned in 1820.
                           Statistics of 1840
Horses, 255;  cattle, 2312;  sheep 2949;  swine 790; wheat, bu. 920;
barley, 1940, oats, 4630;  rye, 690;  buck wheat, 30;  Indian corn,
9028; potatoes, 31,795;  hay, tons, 3438;  sugar, lbs. 12555;  wool,
6472, lbs;  Population, 1525.
The foregoing account is taken from Thompson's Gazetteer of the edition
of 1842 which account has already become one of the antiquities of the
town.  It was composed by two persons at two different periods, the
first article being written by Cyprian STEVENS a young lawyer of
Guilford, about the year 1820, and the remainder by the Rev. John B.
PRATT, an Episcopal clergyman, which brought the narrative down to
1840.  Ww now propose to extend this notice to embrace the year 1868,
which enters fully upon the second century of the settlement of the
But before giving the few unimportant items of later date, we think that
it might interest the reader to have a more detailed view than has yet
been given of those of an earlier period.  To this end, we shall begin
with the original charter of 1754, follow this with the charter of 1764,
and then add some of the first proceedings under these charters together
with incidents that may appear to be processed of interest.  By this
means the reader may see the precise manner in which one of those
extraordinary emanations of popular freedom, the "corporate town," or
township, has grown up from its first initiation in the wilderness of a
new country and gradually assumed the form of regular government and
established society.
It was not in peace that the town was suffered to grow into shape:  the
obstacles incident to the opening of a new country were not the only
obstacles that the first settlers had to contend with:  but it was amid
threatened Indian raids.  Revolutionary disturbances and domestic
conflicts of a peculiarly involved and perplexed character that the
foundations of their little municipality were laid.  The very act of the
government of New York in erecting the district and country to which
they belonged into a county called Cumberland County, at one time being
revoked by the King and Councils and again being re-established by them
was accompanied by so much uncertainty and indecision as a leave the
inevitable misapprehensions on the part of the people; and then
subsequently, the fair promises, but faint execution with which New York
maintained her juris-
                   ===========================Page 13
diction, and the wavering and evasive course pursued by Congress,
together with the new and strange assumption of authority on the part of
"the new state," all tended to confuse and distract society and render
the organization of work of peculiar difficulty:  a bare reflection of
this difficulty will be seen in the proceedings of the town meetings
sometimes, where these proceedings seem glowering with the ill
suppressed hostility of opposite parties.  Yet, it can be clearly
perceived that this conflict arose from no disruptive spirit of
antagonism existing in the community itself, but from the want of a
clear and definite course on the part of the superior authorities to
which the town was subject.  Society in America was undergoing a
change:  it was letting go the hold of the past and groping its way with
uncertainly into the untried further.  Beset by the claims of rival
authorities to its allegiance finding itself oppressed with the
confusion and arnachy thus occasioned the town at times, acted for
itself as a independent colony, just as the Grants themselves
subsequently did when they set up to be a new state;  but sensible of
the limited extent of its dominion, it appeared willing to transfer its
allegiance to that party which might have the best original claim to
it;  in perfect accord with, and even in advance of the general
sentiment of the day in respect to throwing off the yoke of the mother
country, as will appear by the remarkable proceedings.  July 5, 1775
they were forward in showing their loyal deference to the authority of
the Continental Congress, and would have readily compiled with whatever
decision that new power might have made, whether in favor of New
Hampshire, New York, or even "the pretended State of Vermont."  But they
warmly aided the Revolutionary war of the Colonies' they were hardly
prepared for that other revolution within a revolution--the independence
of the Grants:  their material interests had become too intimately
involved.  Events, however, have thus far shown that that second
revolution was fortunate and appropriate to the condition of things.
                          The Original Charter
Province of                                George II by the grace of God
of Great Britain
New Hampshire                        France & Ireland King, Defender of
the faith et.--
To all persons to whom these presents shall Come Greeting Know Ye that
We of out Especial Grace certain Knowledge and mere Motion of the due
Encouragement of Settling the New Plantation within our aid Province by
& with the Advice of our Truly & well beloved Benning WENTWORTH, Esq.
our Governor & Commander in Chief of our Said Province of New Hampshire
in America and of our Council of the sd Province Have upon the
Conditions & Reservations hereafter made Given & Granted and by these
Presents for Us our Heirs & Successors Do Give & Grant in Equal Shares
unto our Loving Subjects Inhabitants of our sd Province of New Hampshire
and his Majesty's other Governments and to their heirs & Assigns for
Ever whose names are entered on the Grant to be Divided to and amongst
them into Sixty four Equal Shares, All that Tract or Parcel of land
Stuate lying & being within our Province of New Hampshire containing by
Admeasurement twenty three thousand & forty Acres which tract is to
                   ===========================Page 14
Six Miles Square and not more:  Out of which an Allowance is to be made
for Highways & unimprovable lands, by Rocks, Mountains, Ponds & Rivers
one thousand & forty Acres free according to a plan thereof made &
presented by our Sd Governors orders and thereunto Annexed Butted &
Bounded as follows Viz., Beginning at the South East Corner of Halifax
at a stake in the Province Line thence running Six Miles due East to the
South West Corner of Hinsdell, thence due North Six Miles to the North
West Corner of Hinsdell, thence due West by Barttleboro Six Miles to the
North East Corner of Halifax aforesaid, thence due South Sic Miles by
Halifax to the Bounds first mentioned--and that the same be and hereby
is Incorporated into a Township by the Name of Guilford and that the
Inhabitants that Do or shall hereafter Inhabit said Township are hereby
declared to be Enfranchised with & Instituted to all & every the
Privileges & Immunities that other towns within our sd Province by Law
Exercise & Enjoy, and that the first Meeting for the Choice of Town
Officers, agreeable to the Laws of our sd Province Shall be held on the
second Tuesday in May next which meeting shall be Notified by John
CHANDLER, jun' Esq. who is hereby also appointed the Moderator of the
first Meeting which he is to Notify & Govern agreeable to the Laws &
Custom of our sd Province:  and also the Annual Meeting for Ever
hereafter for the Choice of such Officers of sd Town shall be held the
first Tuesday in March  Annually To Have & Hold sd Town Tract of Land as
above Expressed Together with all the Privileges Appurtenances to them
Respective heirs & Assigns upon the following Conditions Viz.
That Every Grantee his Heirs shall Plant or Cultivate five Acres of Land
within the term of five Years for every fifty Acres contained in his or
their share or proportion of Land in St. Township and Continue to
improve & Settle the same by Additional Cultivation in penalty of
Forfeiture of his Grant or Share in Sd Township andits reverting to his
Majesty his heirs & Successors to be by him or them regranted to such of
his Subjects as shall Effectually Settle & Cultivate the same.
That all White & other Pine Trees within the St. Township fit for
Masting Our Royal Navy be carefully preserved for that Use and none to
be cut or felled without his Majesty's Especial License for so doing
first had & obtained, upon the Penalty of the Forfeiture of the Right of
such Grant his Heirs or Assigns to us our Heirs & Successors as well as
being subject to the Penalty of any Act or Acts of Parliament that now
are or hereafter shall be Enacted.
That before any Division of the Sd Land, be made & amongst the Grantees
a Tract of Land as near the Center of the Township as the Land will
admit of shall be reserved & Marked out for Fair Lotts one of which
shall be allotted to Each Grantee of the Contents of one acre yelding
and paying there for to us our Heirs & Successors for the space of ten
Years to be computed form the Date hereof, the rent of one Ear of Indian
Corn on the first day of January Annually if Lawfully Demanded the first
Payment to be made on the January next Ensuing the Date hereof namely on
the First Day of January that will be in the Year of our
                    ==========================Page 15
Lord Christ one thousand seven hundred & sixty four one Shilling
Procamation money for every hundred Acres he so owns settles or
Prossesses and so improves or for a Greater or esser Tract of the sd Sd
Land:  which Money shall be paid by the respective Person above sd their
Heirs or Assigns in our Council Canmber in Portsmouth or to such Officer
or Officers as shall be appointed to receive the same and this to be in
Lieu of all other Reut & services whatsoever In Testimony hereof We have
Caused the Seal of our Province to be hereunto affixed.
Witness Benning WENTWORTH Esq., our Governor & Commander in Chieff of
our Sd Province the Second Day of April in the Year of our Lord Christ
1754 and in the 27th Year of his Majesty's Reign
By his Excellency's Command
 With advice of Council of New Hampshire April 2, 1754
                         Theodore ATKINSON Secy
Entered and recorded in the Book of Charters for the Province aforesaid
Page 197 198 199 per Theodore ATKINSON Secy.
Upon the back of the charter is the following:
The Names of the Grantees of the Town of Guilford:
Elijah WILLIAMS, Seth DWIGHT, David FIELD, Samuel FIELD, William MORRIS,
Mathers CLESSEN, Eleazer HAWKS, Eleazer BARNARD, Joseph BARNARD, Obediah
DICKSON, Samuel BARNARD, Jun., Charles COATES, James MORRIS, Salah
ALLEN, Jun., Richard CROUCH, John CHANDLER, Gardner CHANDLER, John
CHADWICK, James BOYD, John CURTIS, Jun., Ebenezer CULTER, George BRUCE,
Asa FLAGG, Samuel MOWER, John BOYDEN, John CHANDLER, Jr., Samuel
WENTWORTH of Boston, Benjamin POLLARD, Jonathan MARTIN, Jun., Elisha
Samuel CARPENTER, Leonard JANIS, Thoedore ATKINSON, Richard WIBIRD,
Daniel WAREN, His Excellency Benning WENTWORTH, Esq., a Tract of Land to
Contain five hundred acres which is to be laid out in one body, one
whole share for the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel in foreign parts; one whole share for the first settled Misinster
of the Gospel in Said Town; one whole share for a Glebe for the
Ministery of the Church of England as by Law Established--Caleb HOWE,
Entered and recorded with the Original Charter on the other side, the 2d
of April 1754  Book of Charter page 199 200.
                      "pr Theodore ATKINSON Secy.
                        The Confirmatory Charter.
which with the original charter is carefully preserved in the town
records is as follows:
                       "Province of New Hampshire
George The Third by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France, and
Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c
To all whom these presents shall come Greeting
                    =========================Page 16
 "Whereas our late Royal grandfather King George the Second of Glorious
memory, did of His special Grace and mere motion for the Encouragement
of settling a new plantation in our said Province of New Hampshire by
his letters Patent or Charter under the Seal of our said Province dated
2d day of April 1754, and in the twenty sixth year of His Majesty's
Reign grant a tract of land equal to Six MIles square bounded as therein
expressed to a number of our Loyal Subjects, whose Names are entered on
the same, to hold to them their Heirs or assigns on the conditions
therein declared to be a town corporate by the Name of Guilford as a
Reference to the said Charter may more fully appear.
And Whereas the said Grantees have represented that by the Intervention
of an Indian war since making the said Grant it has been Impracticalble
to Comply with and fulfill the Conditions and humbly Supplicated us nor
to take advantage of the breach of the conditions, but to Lengthen out
and grant them some Reasonable time for Performance thereof after the
Impediment shall cease.
Now Know Yee that we being willing to promote the end proposed have of
our further grace and Favor suspended our claim of the Forfeiture w'eh
the said Grantees may have Incurred, and by these Presents do grant unto
the said Grantees their Heirs and and Assigns the term of one year from
the 1st January 1775 for Performing and fulfilling the conditions,
matters and things by them to be done, which term is to be renewed
annually if the same impediment remains until Plenary instructions shall
be received relating to the Incident that has prevented a Complyance
with the said Charter according to the Intent and meaning of the same.
In Testimony whereof we have Caused the Seal of our said Province to be
hereunto affixed Witness Benning WENTWORTH Esq. our Governor and
Commander in Chief of our Province aforesaid the 20 day of March in the
year of our Lord Christ 1764 in the fourth year of his Majesty's Reign
                      By his Excellency's Council
                              B. WENTWORTH
with advice of Council
                          T. ATKINSON Jun Secy
Province of New Hampshire
June 8th 1764 recorded in the first book of Charters P 463
                          P. ATKINSON Jun Secy
        Early Proceedings of the Proprietors Under Their Charter
July 14th 1761 at a gegal meeting of the Proprietors of the township of
Guilford in ye province of New Hampshire being duly warned & met
agreeable to an act made empowering to call meetings on the 14th July
1761, ye proprietors proceeded & made choice of Capt Samuel HUNT  for
moderator of the meeting
2 Voted and made choice of David FIELD proprietors clerk
3d Voted to accept of Capt Nath's DWIGHTS Plan of ye fifty acre Lots
laid out by him
4 Voted to draw ye Lots
5 Voted to adjourn ye meeting to ye first Tuesday in August to meet at
Northfield at ye house of Capt Samuel HUNTS at 10 of ye Clock in sd day
test        Samuel HUNT moderator
                    =========================Page 17
August ye 4th 1761 then ye proprietors of Gilford met at ye time and
place to which ye meeting was adjourned.
1ly Voted to Raise a tax of 5 dollars on Each Right to pay the cost of
Laying out ye Lots on sd township & clearing and making what Roads shall
be thought proper & other contingencies.
2ly Voted & chose Elijah WILLIAMS Esq. & Messrs Eli BARNARD & David
FIELD assessors.
3d Voted & chose Capt Sam'l HUNT Treasurer
4th Voted & chose Micah RICE Collector
5ly Voted to Lay out what now Remains in Common in sd township in
hundred acre Lots
6 Voted and chose Capt Nathan WILLARD David FIELD & Asa RICE to be a
committee to Lay out sd Land
7ly Voted that any five of ye Proprietors by applying to ye Clerk by a
writing under their hands desiring a meeting of sd Proprietors setting
forth ye time place and articles to be acted upon in sd meeting & the
Clark setting up notifications in Gilford Brattlebury & Northfield
fourteen days before sd meeting shall be a good & legal warning until ye
Proprietors of sd town of Gilford shall determine otherwise
8th Voted to dismiss this meeting Test  Samuel HUNT Moderator
                       Greenfield Decem ye 23 1761
at a Legal meeting of the proprietors of Gilford Elijah WILLIAMS Esq was
chosen moderator of the meeting.
2ly that house Lot number sixty three be sequested for a school in said
town and that there be one full share of Land not yet drew for Left for
sd use viz three hundred acre Lots
2 Voted that Cap Nathan WILLARD Esq Levi GOODMAN John INSWELL Micah RICE
& Lieut Johnathan DICKERMAN be a committee & Lay out such Rhodes as are
necessary in ye township of Gilford and report to ye proprietors there
doings thereon as soon as may be ye above said roads are to be Laid as
near ye centre of sd township from south to ye north as may be & also
from ye west part of sd township toward ye grate river as near ye centre
of ye township as the nature of ye ground will admit of
4 Whereas at a former meeting it was voted to Lay out ye common or
undivided Land in Gilford into hundred acre Lots now voted to draw three
hundred acres to each proprietor at the same time making a reserve for
Roads wherever they shall be Laid in sd town with out any consideration
to the owner of such Lott or Lots where any Rhode or Rhodes may be Laid
viz the two rhodes now voted to be Laid out the votes on ye loose paper
here to be entered
5 the tickets or numbers of the Lot being prepared voted to draw ye same
6 Voted yt ye chainmen be allowed 4s pr Day
7 Voted yt Elijah WILLIAMS Esq Eb BARNARD & David FIELD be a committee
to Receive & pass accounts & give orders on ye Treasurer for ye payment
of ye same
                          Elijah WILLIAMS Mod
                     "Greenfield December 16th 1762
at a Legal meeting ye proprietors of Gilford Elijah WILLIAMS Esquire was
chosen moderator then voted to Adjourn the meeting to the House of Da
                   ===========================Page 18
vid FIELD of Brookfield there to meet at nine a clock in ye morning the
next day having met
1st they voted and made choice of Cap Samuel HUNT David GOODENOUGH to be
a Comt" to---Lay out a Road through ye town of Gilford from the East
side to the West side of sd township as near the centre as may be and
make return of ye same at ye next meeting
2ly Voted and made choice of David FIELD and Major Selah BARNARD  to be
a committee to view and Lay out a Road from the south to the north Line
of Gilford as near to the centre of Sd township as may be with
convenience and make return of their doings at ye next meeting
3ly voted and made choice of Elijah WILLIAMS Esq Mess Ebenezer BARNARD &
David FIELD to confer and determine what articles shall be acted upon in
their next meeting in order to complete the settlement of ye sd town of
Gilford and that the Clark be desired to publish the same in the Boston
weekly newspaper three weeks successively
                         Elijah WILLIAMS  mod'r
                        Brattle Bury Sept 14 1763
at a legal meeting of ye proprietors of ye township of Gilford Elijah
WILLIAMS Esq was chosen moderator
2ly David FIELD was chosen proprietors Clerk
3 Voted that Elijah WILLIAMS Esq be added to the committee formerly
chose to view and Lay out a road from ye north and south side of Gilford
& also voted yt Mr ALLEN be added to ye committee formerly chose to Lay
out ye Road East & West through ye town
Voted that Mr Josiah ALLEN John ARMS and Deacon Wm NICHOLS be a
committee to audit accounts with ye treasurer
Voted that Mr Saml ALLEN Mr David GOODENOUG Nathaniel SMITH  Decon Wm
NICHOLS Josiah ALLEN be a committee to view ye Lot No 40 viz ye house
Lot and see if they can find a convenient place for a
meeting-house------ field and Burying-place and make Report at this
meeting Viz at ye adjournment
Voted the Clark be desired to purchase two books one for the treasurer
and one for the proprietors Clark
Voted that ye Collectors be desired to post all of those Rights of Land
that have not yet paid their taxes in order for sale to pay ye taxes
Laid on Sd rights
Voted to adjourn this meeting to ye 17th of Sept at 10 a Clock then to
meet at Joseph STEBBINS in Hinsdale
                            October 17th 1763
ye proprietors of Gilford met at ye time and place to which ye meeting
was adjourned and then upon hearing ye Report of ye committees before
chosen to view ye ground in order for Laying out Rhodes it was thought
advisable to Establish no Rhodes therefore voted that Josiah ALLEN Micah
RICE Nathaniel SMITH David GOODENOUGH & David SCOTT be a committee to
clear and do what else is necessary upon the rhode Leading from fort
Dummer unto Gilford and also from ye South East corner of Gilford to go
a course yt will bring them as near the centre of Gilford as may be and
Voted that those who have or may be paid out of the next tax it shall be
raised on ye proprietors or any other Rhodes if shall be made to
accommodate the present settlers until ye proprietors order otherways
                    =========================Page 19
2 Voted that those that shall work at ye Rhodes shall be allowed in the
fall 2s 8d pr day and in the summer 3s pr day and if any person who
shall work at ye roads does not perform a days work he shall be allowed
no more that ye committee thinks proper
Voted that Colonel Josiah WILLARD and Mr Daniel JONES both or either of
them be desired to get ye charter of Gilford Renewed by preferring a
petition to ye governor and council of Newhampshire petition in behalf
of ye proprietors for that purpose
Micah RICE Dr to a ticket                    0        12        0
Abishai RICE Dr to a ticket                  0        12        0
Oliver HARRIS Dr to a ticket               0         12        0
David FIELD cash for one                    0        12        0
Levi GOODENOUGH Dr to a ticket    0        12        0
John FRISSEL Dr to a ticket                 0        12        0
Eb BARNARD Dr to a ticket                0        12        0
Lt BILLINGS Dr to a ticket                  0        12        0
David WELLS Dr to 4 tickets             L2        8       0
The foregoing is a correct copy of 8 loose leaves of a small memorandum
book in the town Clerk's office of Guilford, copied by Rodney B. FIELD.
August 28, 1860
                         The First Town-Meeting
The first reocrd of any regular meeting held in the town is dated:  "May
ye 19th 1772.  Then the free holders and other Inhabitants of the Tract
of Land called Guilford in the County of Cumberland and Province of New
York met together and by a majority of votes made choice of:
1  Samuel WILLIAMS Esq Moderator of Sd meeting
2d John SHEPHERDSON Town Clerk
3 John BARNEY Supervisor
4 John SHEPHERDSON William BULLOCK & Othniel WILLIAMS Assessors
5 Chose Daniel WILLIAMS Hezekiah HOWE David GOODENOUGH & Joel CUTLER
6 Josiah ALLEN  Hezekiah STOWEL Josiah SCOTT Othniel WILLIKINS and
Samuel BIXBY Commissioners for Laying out Highways
7 Jotham BIGELOW Micah RICE Silas RICE David STEEL Jeams and BACON fence
8 Hezkiah STOWELL field Driver
9 Hezekjah STOWELL Pound Keeper
10 Josiah ALLED Collector
11 Thomas TOWN Treasurer
12 Edmund BEMIS Gad SMITH Joel CUTLER and John BARNEY surveyors and
overseers of the highway
13 Zephaniah SHEPHERDSON Hezekiah STOWELL and John BARNEY overseers of
14 Daniel BOYDEN Pual CHASE Thomas CUTLER and David STOWELL swine
15 Asa RICE Sealer of Weights and measures
16 David STOWELL Sealer of Leather
17 Voted that sheep rams should not go at large from the first of
September to the middle of November next
18 Voted that swine should go at large this year
19 Adjourned Sd meeting to the third Tuesday in May next
                     John SHEPHERDSON District Clerk
May 18 ye 1773  Then the free holders and other Inhabitants of the
District of Guilford in the County of New York met together and by
majority of votes made choice of
1 David JOY Esq modrator of Sd meeting
2 Thomas CUTLER Town Clerk
                    =========================Page 20
3 John BARNEY Supervisor
4 Smuel NICHOLS Treasurer
5 Lovell BULLOCK and Johtam BIGELO Collectors
6 Benjamin CARPENTER Esq William BULLOCK and John SHEPHERDSON Assessors
7 Paul CHASE Joel CUTLER Zephaniah SHEPHERDSON and Silas RICE constables
Commetiess for Laying out Highways
William RAMSDALE Paul CHASE Overseers of the Highways
10 John BARNEY Hezekiah STOWELL Zephaniah SHEPHERDSON Overseers of the
11 Hezekiah STOWELL Pound Keeper and Field Driver
12 Samuel MELODY Giles ROBARD Gad SMITH Samuel CURTIS, Fence Viewers
13 Francis RICE Seth RICE Daniel LYNDE and Seth GOODING Swine Constables
14 Voted that swine be shup up and not go at large this year
15 Adjourned to the Thurd Tuesday in June at three o'clock afternoon pr
John SHEPHERDSON District Clerk
On the adjournment of the annual meeting which was in June ye 15th 1773
after opening the meeting firstly made choice of Othniel WILKINS Town
Clerk of sd meeting
Secondly voted to Dismiss Jotham BIGELOW from serving in the office of
Collector Lieut John SHEPHERDSON to serve in his place Sd meeting
adjourned to the third Tuesday in May next at the Meeting House
May the 17th 1774  Then the freeholders and other Inhabitants of the
town of Guilford in the County of Cumberland and Province of New York
meet together and by a majority of the votes made choice of
1st Samuel NICHOLS Esq Moderator of sd meeting
2d Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
3d Lovewell BULLOCK Supervisor
4th Elijah WELCH & Timothy ROOT Assessors
5th William BULLOCK and John BARNARD Collectors
6th John SHEPHERDSON David GOODENOUGH John BARNEY Committee for Laying
out Highways
8th Benjamin CARPENTER Othniel WILKINS Jr Abel RICE Ichabot PACKER
Timothy ROOT Francis RICE & James BACON Overseers of the Highways
9th Abijah ROGERS & Samuel CURTIS Fence viewers
10 Stephen SHEPHERDSON Manasah BIXBY David STOWELL John BARBER Constable
11 William BIGELO John RICKEY Sam'l ALLEN and Ebenezer TOBY Hogg
12 Voted hoggs shall be shut up
13 Hezekiah STOWEL Pound Keeper
The meeting adjourned to Thursday the 26th of May 1774
" May 26th AD 1774  Then met together according to adjournment and
1st Dismissed William BULLOCK from serving as Collector and made choice
of Micajah RICE  to serve in his room
2d Joel CUTLER serves Constable for John BARBER lastly
                   ===========================Page 21
Chose Thomas CUTLER Assessor
The meeting adjourned to the third Tuesday in May 1775
                       pr Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                       Guilford May ye 6th AD 1776
Then this Town meet together according to request and
1st Made choice of Samuel NICHOLS Esq Moderator of said meeting
2ly Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
3d Voted to let none vote for Comittees town officers &c but such as are
qualified according to the Direction of the Honorable Continental
Congress and made choice of Israel GURLEY Timothy ROOT and Hezekiah
STOWEL for a Committee to inspect and see that there is no other that
vote but such as are qualified
4 Made choice of Samuel NICHOLS Esq Israel GURLEY Deacon Thomas CUTLER
and Levi GOODENOUGH to serve this Town as a Committee of inspection or
5 Made choice of Deacon Thomas CUTLER James BACON Levi BULLOCK Ithamer
STOWEL John NOYES Silas CUTLER and Joseph DEXTER surveyors of Highways
6 Made choice of Asa RICE and David GOODENOUGH overseers of the Poor
7 Made choice of Hezebiah STOWEL sealer of weights and measures
8 David STOWEL Joel CUTLER and Stephen SHEPHERDSON a Committee for
laying out Highways
9 Voted that those men who have blocked up the Roads by falling Trees or
any other way shall clear them on their own cost
10 Voted that all roads laid out by a Committee chosen for that purpose
shall be laid open by the tenth day of November Next and that any Person
may throw down Bars and fences of those who neglect to fence out the
Rode and the owner of such Lots and inclossures shall sustain the Damage
without any redress after the date above sd
11 Made choice of Samuel NICHOLS Esq Town Treasurer
12 Made choice of John BARNEY Edward HOUGHTON and Capt William BULLOCK
13 Made choice of Simeon EDWARDS and James CUTLER Collectors of Town
14 Voted that sheep and hoggs Shall not run at large
15 Made choice of James BARNEY Elijah WELCH Benjamin CARPENTER his
expense money that he has expended at Westminster as a deligate for the
17 Voted to adjourn this meeting to the first Monday in May next at nine
o'Clock in the morning
                     Attest Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                          Guilford June 3d 1776
The Town of Gulford met being Legally warned and
1 Made choice of Samuel NICHOLS Moderator
2 Made choice of Samuel NICHOLS Esq first Committee Man for the County
Samuel GURLEY 2d Ditto
3 And made choices of Simeon EDWARDS and Elijah WELCH Town Committee in
their places sd meeting Dysolved
                       pr Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
The Town of Guilford met together and first made choice of Samuel NIC-
                   ===========================Page 22
ols Esq. Moderator of sd Meeting ("Guilford July ye 5th 1776" date for
before two last lines of the last page.)
It was put to vote to see if we should Raise a Bounty for the soldiers
that are alled for Now and it was voted that we should by subscription
and that it should be recorded in the town book and what each man
3d was voted that the committees' Clerk should Record the proceedings of
this meeting and make a return of it to the Town Clerk
4 it was voted that we should make up the bounty of each man Four Pounds
Bay money
5th they Rescinded the 2d Vote of this meeting and voted it should be
raised by a RAte
6 Voted the Constable of Safety of the Town of Guilford shall see who
onght to pay Rates to make up this Bounty for the soldiers nd who ought
7th Voted to Choose a Committee to Raise this money for the Bounty
aforesd' and chose Esq. NICHOLS Capt. John BARNEY and Paul CHASE
8 Voted to Raise Ten Men to go into the service of this Colony
9 Voted that Capt. BARNEY stand a Committee Man to go to Barttleborough
with some of the Committee in order to send for Fire Arms and powder and
send by Col. SMITH
a true copy of the Proceedings of sd Meeting
                      Levi GOODENOUGH Com't Clerk
                       pr Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
  Feb. 20th 1777 the Town of Guilford met together according to request
first made choice of Maj. SHEPHERDSON Moderator of sd meeting
2 Voted to adjourned to the house of Hezekiah STOWEL
3 Voted to choose a Committee of Nine Men to state the Price of Labor
Provisious Mercantable Goods &c and to make to the Town for their
approbation and made choice of Capt. John BARNEY John NOYES Levi
Thomas CUTLER and Peter BRIGGS for the above Committee
4th made choice of John NOYES County Committee man and voted to adjourn
this meeting to the 6th of March one o'clock afternoon
March 6 met according to adjournment and first on Maj. SHEPHERDSON being
absent made choice of John NOYES Moderator in his stead and the
committee above sd Proceeded and made report to the Town as follows
Viz, Good merchantable wheat shall not exceed 60 cts pr Bu
Good Rye shall not exceed 40 ct pr Ditto
Good Indian Corn 30 ct pr Ditto
Oats 18 cts pr Ditto
Peas and Beans 60 cents pr bushel each
Good Yallow Potaters shall not in the Spring exceed 20 cts pr Bushel
Spannish Potaters ' 16 in the Spring
Good Flax Seed shall not exceed 60 pr Bushel
Good salt shall not exceed 10 c pr Bushel allowing one Penny a mile per
Bushel for Land carriage from the por of Delivery &c
Good West India Rum and New England Rum and molasses and Muscovado sugar
shall be sold on the same as they are stated in the New England States
                   ===========================Page 23
Farming Labors in the summer season shall not exceed 30 cts pr day and
so in usual proportion at other seasons of the year and the lobor of
Mechanics and Tradesmen and other Labor to be computed according to the
wages and customs that hath been Practiced among us computed with
farming labor
Pork weighing form Five to seven score at 3 cts pr llb from 7 score to
ten 3 1/2 cts Pound and all above Ten Score 4 cts
Good Grass Beef of the best quality shall not exceed 24---(illegible)
and so in Proportion for Stall fed Beef and Likewise Beef of an inferior
Raw Hides shall not exceed 3 cts pr lb
Good well tanned Sole Leather shall not exceed 14 c pr lb
Mens Neat Leather Shoes of the best sort shall not exceed 90 cts pr pair
and other shoes in proportion according to their quality
Good merchantable Wool shall not exceed 20 c per lb
Good merchantable Flax shall not exceed 1 s pr lb
Good Yd wide Tow Cloth shall not exceed 2s 10d pr yd and so in
proportion to its width and quality
Corse Linning to be computed after the rate of Tow Cloth
Good Striped Flannel shall (not) exceed 36c pr Yd and other Flannels
according to their widdth and quality the other woolen cloths in like
Good Merchantable Hay in the Cot shall not exceed (illegible) pr tun and
in the spring 36s pr tun
Good cheese shall not exceed 5c pr lb
Good Butter shall not exceed 19c per lb
Tallow shall not exceed 18c (or 8c) pr lb
Hogs Fat shall not exceed 17c pr ld
Good Pine Boards clear stuff shall not exceed "36 (?) pr Thousand and
covering Boards 3/4 inch thick at 24s pr thouhsand and other Boards
according to thir Quality compared to Pine & Good Clean Salted Pork 8
(?) pr H wt
This Town unanimously came into and adopted the above stated Prices and
if any Person in this Town shall sell any of the commodities herein
specified to any Person in the Neighboring towns at a higher price than
is here stated shall forfeit the value of sd article to this Town--And
if any Person or Persons Directly or Indirectly shall Receive or take a
Greater Price for any of the above mentioned articles than is here
stated he shall forfeit and pay the value of sd article or articles the
one half to and for the use of the town and the other half to the
And we the Inhabitants of Guilford in Town Meeting assembled Do Charge
and apoint the committee of sd Town to hear and determine all cases and
complaints that shall Legally come to your or their knowledge so far as
it Respect this Town in the aforesd' articles together with cost of suit
and if he or they are found Guilty they shall pay cost of suit.
By a Unanimous Vote of this Town And chose Maj. John SHEPHERDSON one of
the Committee of Inspection
                     Attest Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                       Guilford March ye 6th 1777
                         Guilford April 7th 1777
This Town meet according to custom and Unanimously Past the following
votes (viz.)
                   ===========================Page 24
1st Chose Levi GOODENOUGH Moderator of the Meeting
2d Made choice of Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
3d Chose Samuel NICHOLS Esq. and David STOWEL County Committee Men
4th Made choice of Timothy ROOT Phineas RICE Hezekiah STOWEL Levi
GOODENOUGH and Simeon EDWARDS to serve this Town as a Committee of
Safety for the year Insuing
5th Chose Adam WHITNEY and James CUTLER Constables
6th Chose Thomas CUTLER Town Treasurerer
7th Made choice of Thomas CUTLER Sam's BIXBY and John NOYES Assessors
8th chose William BIGELOW and Micah RICE Collectors
9th Chose Hezekiah STOWEL Daniel WILKINS David DENISON and Samuel ALLEN
committee for Laying out Roads
10th Made choice of Eben'r FITCH David STOWEL John NOYES Dan'l EDWARDS
Joseph DEXTER Samuel ALLEN Hezekiah HORTON Jr. Newhall EARL Elijah WELCH
Thomas CUTLER Daniel AYRES and Mannassah BIXBY surveyors of Highways
11th Voted that each Freeholder shall work 6 Days and that under age 3
Days apiece and that any Person being duly warned by the Surveyor Refuse
to work without a reasonable excuse shall pay a fine of six shillings
for each days Neglect and the Town Committee to Grant out Warrants on
having a complaint form the Surveyors
12th Voted to shut up sheep and hogs and not let them Run at large
13th Jesse DEMMICH James CUTLER David JOY Jun'r David DAVIS Constables
14th Chose John BARNEY Thomas CUTLER David STOWEL John SHEPHERSON and
David DENISON Fence Viewers and Hezekiah STOWEL Pound Keeper
15th It was unauimous vote of this town to Sell the Right of Land in
town called the school Write to be sold at Public Vendue to the highest
Bidder and the use of the Money to be applied to the Manintaing a School
and for not other
16th Chose Hezekiah STOWEL Asa RICE John BARNEY Thomas CUTLER Daniel
WILKINS a Committee to sell sd Land and Give a Deed in the name of  and
behalf of the Town
Voted to adjourn this Meeting to the first Monday in April 1778
                          Guilford July 3d 1777
This Day Lieut. Josiah ALLEN Capt. Daniel WILKINS Hezekiah STOWEL and
Joseph ELLIOT was sworn as constables Men for this town Before me
                        Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                      Tuesday May the 13th AD 1777
The Town of Guilford Met together according to REquest and
1st Chose Samuel NICHOLS Esq. Moderator
2d Voted not to let any Person vote in this meeting but such as have
Forty Pounds Personal or real estate
3d Voted that those Persons that have settled on Lands without
Purchasing them and Refuse to buy Sd Lands of the owner shall be
Emediately Dissesst.  But those that dont mean to hold by possession and
are willing to buy of the Right owner when to be found to Remain in
peaceful Possession until he can have an opportunity to Buy sd Land
4th Voted that those that have Run a Brush Fence Round Lots to hold them
                   ===========================Page 25
by virtue of that shall Emediately quit sd Land and not to proceed in
that manner any more-- and voted that Person that shall for the future
pretend to hold Lands by such a title shall be dealt with by the town as
a breaker of the peace of this Town and a Routous Person
5th Disimiset Simeon EDWARDS and Timothy ROOT form serving as a
committee of Safety for this Town and made choice of Joseph ELLIOT and
Daniel WILKINS to serve in their place
6th Voted that the Committee for Laying out Highways shall be excused
working at the Highway as many Days as they are on that Business Day for
7th Chose John BARNEY and Benj'n CARPENTER a Committee to go to Windsor
in June next to hear the Report of the agent sent to Congress concerning
a new State
                     Voted to dissolve this meeting
                     Attest Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                          Monday April 6th 1778
Then the inhabitants of Guilford according to adjournment
1ly Made Choice of Thomas CUTLER Moderator
2ly Made Choice of Thomas CUTLER Town Clerk
3ly Made Choice of Thomas CUTLER Ichabod PACKER Peter BRIGGS David
DENNISON  and Nath'l FITCH Committeemen
4ly Made Choice of Henry EVANS and Daniel BOYDEN Constables for the
present year
5ly Made choice of David ELLIOT  treasurer
6ly Made Choice of Henry SHERBURN Simeon EDWARDS and Joseph ELLIOT
(?Sentence in copy not complete.)
7ly Made Choice of Theophilur WADLEIGH and Joseph GOODWIN Collectors
8ly Made Choice of David DENNISON Nathan WALSWORTH with Samuel BIXBY
Hezekiah STOWEL and Micah RICE Committee for Lay of Rhodes
9ly Made Choice of Nathan FITCH David DENISON Amos SMITH Benjamin MORTON
Joseph ELLIOT John BARNEY Ju Hezekiah STOWEL William RAMSDALE Daniel
10 Voted that sheep and hogs shall not run at large
11 Voted that horses shall not run on the common
12 Made Choice Edmund BEMIS and David FISHER Hog REEVE
13 Timothy LARABE Silas RICE and Jesse DIMMICH Fence Viewers
14 Voted to Adjourn to the first Monday of March next at nine o'clock at
the meeting-house
                        Thomas CUTLER Town Clerk
                       Monday January 12 A D 1778
The Town of Guilford meet together according to Notification and
1st Chose Daniel WILKINS Moderator
2d Made Choice of the following men to Squadnn out the town into school
Divisions (Viz) Deacon Thomas CUTLER Hezekiah STOWELL John NOYES Daniel
                          The meeting Disolved
                     Attest Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                        Tuesday March 3 A D 1778
This town meeting according to a warrant and Notification from the
council at Bennington and chose Deac'n Thomas CUTLER Moderator of Sd
2d It being put to vote whether the town would act agreeably to sd
warrant and the town voted not to act
                   ===========================Page 26
3 Voted to dissolve the meeting
                      Per Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                          Tuesday, May ye 1779
then a town meeting was held in Guilford according to adjournment
Mr. Simeon EDWARDS was chosen Moderator
Henry SHERBURN Town Clerk and Samuel BULLOCK Supervisor
William BULLOCK Jesse DIMMICH Hezekiah STOWEL Assessors
Job WHITNEY and William EDWARDS Constables
Asa RICE and Levi BULLOCK Poor Masters
Asa RICE Hezekiah STOWEL and Simeon EDWARDS a Committee to Lay out Roads
William EDWARDS Nathan CARPENTER Ichabod PACKER and Phineas RICE Survors
of Roads
Timothy LARABE and Micah RICE Fence Viewers
Hezekiah STOWEL Treasurer
Lovel BULLOCK Timothy ROOT and Henry SHERBURN Committee to Defend said
town against the pretended State of Vermont and to represent SD town in
County Committee
Hezekiah STOWEL William BULLOCK Joseph ELLIOT Lovel BULLOCK and Timothy
ROOT to alter the Road through Maj. HUNTS Land
Joseph ELLIOT Hezekiah STOWEL and Henry SHERBURN a committee to take
care of the town store of powder and lead
This meeting adjourned til the third Tuesday in May in the Year of 1780
                       Henry SHERBURN Town Clerk
                         Tuesday March 17th 1780
Then a town meeting was Held in Guilford according to a warrant and
acted on the following articles Viz.
Article 1st Chose William BULLOCK Esq. Moderator to govern sd meeting
At 2 Voted Samuel BIXBY town clerk
At 3 Deac Thomas CUTLER supervisor
4 Chose Ebenezer FITCH Asa RICE Capt. Timothy ROOT List & Assessor Made
choice of Wm BULLOCK Simon EDWARDS Esq. Hezekiah STOWEL County Committee
At 5 Made choice of Nathan FITCH James KING constables
6 Capt. Asa RICE Lieut. Timothy ROOT Poor Masters
7 Ebenezer FITCH Lovel BULLOCK Thomas CUTLER Committee men for to lay
out Roads
8th Frederick STOWEL Nathan AVERY Ichabod PACKER Joel CUTLER Daniel
KNIGHT Daniel BOYDEN Micah RICE Surveyors of Roads
9 Joseph ELLIOT Hezekiah STOWEL Henry SHERBURN a committee to take care
of the town stores of powder and lead
10 this meeting is adjourned till the third Tuesday in May in the Year
of 1781
                       pr Samuel BIXBY Town Clerk
                    Guilford ye 10th of January 1781
The people meet together all them that mean to stand in opposition
against the pretended state of Vermont and acted on the following
articles (Viz)
First--Made choice of David JOY Esq. Moderotor to govern sd meeting
Secondly--Voted to defend themselves against the insults of the
Pretended State of Vermont
                    ==========================Page 27
Thirdly Read the Hand Bill bearing date the Fifteenth day of November
one thousand seven hundred and eighty that the convention gave at
Fourthly--Voted to send a Committee to Charlestown to a seat in the
Fifthly--Voted William BULLOCK Capt. Peter BRIGGS the Committee
Sixthly--Voted that Hezekiah STOWEL shall keep the names of those that
are against the pretended State of Vermont
Seventhly--Voted to Dissolve this meeting
                 a true copy per Saml' BIXBY town Clerk
                       Guilford April ye 24th 1782
Then the people meet in general and
Art 1 Chose Capt. WALSWORTH Moderator to govern sd meeting
Committee men of Convention
Art 3 Voted the old committee shall stand good for the committee of
                        Guilford May ye 13th 1782
Then the people meet and made choice of Jotham BIGELOW Moderator
Art 2 Voted to stand against the pretended State of Vermont so called
until the descision of Congress with your lives and fortune
Art 3 Voted to Receive the Instructions that come from New York that Mr.
Daniel SHERHERDSON Bought from there as your agent
                        Guilford June ye 10 1781
Then the people meet in general in Defense of their property and Voted
to choose committee out of the company to forbid the constables acting
Voted Henry EVANS Capt. ASHCRAFT Capt. Nathan FITCH the committee men to
forbid the constables
                        Guilford June ye 10 1782
We the Committee chosen by this Body of People have forbid and Do hereby
Ever forbid your Vending these Numbers hereby given and the Blank Lands
and undivided Lands included--We Do hereby forbid you upon your apparrel
                      Henry EVANS              the
              Daniel ASHCRAFT                   Committee
                    Nathan FITCH                 men
                   Attest true copy Saml BIXBY Clerk
                        Guilford June ye 10 1782
To all the Officers of the Civil authority under the pretended State of
Vermont you are hereby forbid to proceed against any person or persons
that own the jurisdiction of New York according to what is reccommended
to us by Congress in a handbill Bearing date June 2d 1780  pr order of
                 True Copy Attest Benoni CUTBITH Clerk
                      A True Copy Saml BIXBY Clerk
                        Guilford June ye 10 1782
Voted Edward CARPENTER Saml BIXBY James PACKER Saml STAFFORD a committee
men of convention
Voted David CULVER Benoni CUTBITH Nathan AVERY Phineas RICE Josiah RICE
a committee of Inspection
                      a True Copy Saml BIXBY Clerk
                         Wednesday March 25 1782
The Free-Men of the Town of Guilford Met according to Law for the choice
of Town Officers and proceded as Follows (Viz)
                   ===========================Page 28
1st Made choice of Gov'r CARPENTER Moderator
2'ly Samuel SHEPHERDSON Clerk
3'ly Major Simeon EDWARDS Lieut william MARSH & Mr Ephraim NICHOLS
Select Men
4th Capt. Lovel BULLOCK Treasurer
5th Mr Nich' PULLEN and Mr Abel JOY Constables
6th Mr Dan'l STOWEL Nich's PULLEN Edward BARNEY Dan'l SMITH and Mr
Joseph DENSMORE Listers
7th Mr Nich's PULLEN and Mr Abel JOY Collectors
8th Mr Amasa SMEAD Leather Sealer
9ly Capt. David STOWEL Levi GOODENOUGH Esq. & Samuel NICHOLS Grand
10th Lieut William BIGELOW Capt. Comfort STARR Capt. David DENNISON and
Esq. Joseph DEXTER Tything Men
11th Mr Joseph BULLOCK Lt Wm BIGELOW Amos GORE Elijah POTER Isaac WILD
and Mr Isaac SMITH Hay wards
12th Mr Abraham AVERY and Benj' BUCKLAND Brandr of Horses
13th Capt. David STOWEL Sealer of Weights and Measures
14th Ens Paul CHASE Theophilur WADLEIGH Daniel DNIGHT Timothy CHICKERING
CUTBITH Hezekiah STOWEL Capt. D DNISON Lt Stephen GOULD and Mr Elijah
RATHBURN Surveyors of Highway
15th Voted the Select Men be a Committee for Laying out Highways
16th Mr Manassah BIXBY Capt. John BARNEY Capt. Comfort STARR Lt J NOYES
Amos SMITH Paul CHASE Capt. Lovel BULLOCK D JOY D'n CUTLER Lt Stephen
Elijah PORTER Wm SMALLEY and Lt John RICHEY petit jurors
17th Voted that the Select men of this town have the authority to bind
out all strolling Indolent persons who Impose themsleves on sd town
18th Voted that this present meeting be and is hereby Dissolved
                     Attest Samuel SHEPHERDSON T C
                         Guilford April 3d 1782
Pursuant to legal Warning the Inhabitants of the town of Guilford met at
the meeting house in sd town and proceeded to act on the following
articles) viz)
                          Dissolved sd meeting
               A true record Attest Sam" SHEPHERDSON T C
               Guilford ye 31st of March Anno Domino 1783
The Freemen of the town of Guilford met at the meeting house in sd town
for the choice of town Officers and petit jurymen according to law and
proceeded in the following manner (Viz)
1st Made choice of William BULLOCK Esq. moderator
2d Samuel SHEPERDSON town clerk
3d Dn' Thomas CUTLER Mr William SMALLEY and Mr Joseph DINSMORE Select
Capt. Lovel BULLOCK treasurer
                   ===========================Page 29
5th Nicholus PULLEN and James CUTLER constables
6th Mr Matthew PULLEN Edward BARNEY John RICHEY and Jonas NICHOLS
7th Mr Paul CHASE and Benjamin DEAN collectors
8th Capt. David STOWEL leather sealer
9th Maj. Simeon EDWARDS and Mr Ephraim NICHOLS grand jurors
10th Mr Caleb CARPENTER and Mr Abel JOY tything men
11th Mr Dan'l STOWEL and Mr Jonas NICHOLS Haywards
12th Mr Benjamin BUCKLAND brander of horses
13th Capt. David STOWEL Sealer of Weights and measures
14th Maj. Simeon EDWARDS Caleb CARPENTER Paul CHASE Ephraim NICHOLS
Peter BRIGGS Abel JOY David SMALLEY Jeddidiah WELLMAN Stephen COULD and
David DENISON Surveyors of highways
15 Lieut John NOYES Joseph GOODWIN Ens' Edward BARNEY Capt. Stephen
SHEPHERDSON Lieut Moses FISH James CUTLER Lieut William MARSH and Joseph
BULLOCK petit jurymen
Voted that this meeting stand adjourned to the third Monday in April
next at this place at two of the clock P M on Sd Day
            A true record attest Samuel SHEPHERDSON T Clerk
                     Guilford ye 21st of April 1783
The Freemen of ye town of Guilford met according to adjournment and
proceeded to act in the following manner viz
1st Voted that the Select men be a committee for laying out highways
2d that the 2d constable be Dismissed
3d that Lieut John RICHEY serve as 2d constable for the town of Guilford
4thly that the present meeting be and hereby is Dissolved
           A true record attest Sam'l SHEPHERDSON town clerk
                   Guilford Tuesday ye 21st April 1783
The Freemen of the town of Guilford met according to Law for the
election of Representatives Gov Dep Gov & Co according to an act of
Assembly Regulating the same proceeded as follows
1 Made choice of Benjamin CARPENTER Esq. and Dn' Thomas CUTLER to
represent this town in the General Assembly
2d gave in their votes for Governor Dept' Gov and treasurer
3dly Gave in their votes for councillors according to law
            A true record attest Sam'l SHEPERDSON town clerk
                            April ye 29 1783
then the freeholders and other inhabitants of the District of Guilford
in the County of Cumberland and State of New York met together and by a
majority of votes
Made choice of Edward CARPERTER moderator
2d Samuel BIXBY town clerk
3d Made choice of Adonijah PUTNAM supervisor
4 Hezekiah STOWEL treasurer
5 William WHITE Sam'l STAFFORD collectors
6th 7th Hezekiah STOWEL Abraham AVERY Asaph CARPENTER assessors
8th William WHITE Sam'l STAFFORD constables
                   ===========================Page 30
9 Edward CARPENTER Micah RICE Ichabod PACKER commissioners for laying
out highways
10 David CULVER Hezekiah BROADE Micah RICE Jotham BIGELOW Newhall EARL
overseers of the highways
11th Jotham BIGELOW Ichabod PACKER Samuel MELENDY overseers of the poor
12th Jotham BIGELOW Elijah WALWORTH Hezekiah STOWEL field drivers
13th Wm WHITE Sam' MELENDY Asa RICE James PACKER Asaph OLDEN fence
14 Zephaniah SHEPHERDSON Asa STOWEL Ephraim GALE Daniel HARRINGTON swine
15th this meeting adjourned to the annual monday in may
                       pr Sam'l BIXBY town clerk
                   Guilford the 8th day of March 1784
At a meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Guilford being legally
1st Made choice of Deacon David STOWEL moderator to govern sd meeting
2d Made choice of William SMALLEY town clerk
And then adjourned to the 18th day of March
                   Thursday the 18th Day of March 1784
The town met according to adjournment and proceeded to choose town
officers by Nomination
1st Made choice of Dea Thomas CUTTLER and Wiliam SMALLEY and Joseph
2d Made choice of Lovel BULLOCK for the year ensuing treasurer
3d Made choice of Nicholus PULLEN and Jonas NICHOLS and Daniel BOYDEN
Constables for the year ensuing
4 Joh WHITNEY and Stephen GOULD and Rufus FISK tything men
5 David STOWEL and Daniel STOWEL sealers of leather
6 Maj. Simeon EDWARDS and Ephraim NICHOLS Grand Jurors
7 Joseph BULLOCK Caleb CARPENTER Rufus FISK tithing men
8 Samuel READ Stephen SHEPHERDSON Jr Ephraim GALE Williams MARSH for hay
9 Benjamin BACKLAND Brander of horses
10 David STOWEL sealer of weights and measures
Jeddidiah WELLMAN Paul CHASE Elibu ROOT David STOWEL Daniel KNIGHT
Stephen GOULD John STAFFORD Jr surveyors of highways
Voted that the constables should collect the town rates
                a true record William SMALLEY town clerk
  At a meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Guilford Being Legally
                 warned on the 7th day of September 1784
Made choice of William BULLOCK Esq. moderator
Made choice of Lieut John NOYES Lieut William BIGELOW Captain David
STOWELL Committee to settle with the treasurer of said town
Voted that the town be divided by the centre line for the purpose of
making the two large Bridges one at James DAVIDSON mills  the other at
Green River
                   ===========================Page 31
Voted that a committee of four two from each part of the town Lieut John
NOYES and John SLAUGHTER for the west side and William BIGELOW and
Stephen GOULD for the East side Be a committee for Bridges
Voted that the surveyor of highways are empowered to call out the people
under their respective commands to work on the roads and Bridges when
they shall think proper
And then adjourned to Thursdy the 23d day of September instant then to
meet at two o'clock afternoon
                   The above is a true Record Attest
                             Wm SMALLEY T C
                 Thursday the 23d Day of September 1784
          the town of Guilford met according to adjournment and
First Voted to raise a tax of one Penny on the Pound on the Grand List
for the year 1784
2d Voted that Joseph BULLOCK and Amasa SMEAD be collectors for the above
3d Voted that the collectors of the old town tax for the year 1781 be
disrected to take the same in grain at the following price wheat 4 | 8
per Bushel Rye at 3 | 4 pr Bushel Corn 2 | 5 pr Bushel and Flax att 0 |
8d pr pound
Voted that the select men e empowered to engage a master workman for the
bridge at Mr James DAVIDSONS mill
And then dissolved this meeting
                   the above is a true record Attest
                          William SMALLEY T C

                  Guilford the first day of April 1784
Then appeared Nicholus PULLEN Constable and drew out the Name of Matthew
PULLEN  to serve as Juryman at Westminister in May next
                A true record William SMALLEY town clerk
 At a meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Guilford at the meeting
           in said town on Monday the 1 Day of March A D 1785
Made choice of Mr Joel BIGELOW moderator and then adjorned to the house
of Mr Joel BIGELOW in said town and then proceeded to Reconsider the
vote above mentioed and then
Made choice of Wiliam BIGELOW moderator
and then made choice of Wiliam BIGELOW town clerk
And Benjamin CARPENTER Esq. first select man
And then made choice of William BIGELOW Second select man
And then made choice of Paul CHASE the third select man
And Lieut Timothy ROOT town treasurer
And Lieut Elihu ROOT first constable
And Ensign Edward BARNEY second constable
Josiaph BULLOCK and Rufus FISK John NOYES John CONNABLE and Samuel ALLEN
Capt. David STOWEL leather sealer
Capt. Asa RICE  and Mr Joel BIGELOW Grand Jurymen
Capt. Hezekiah STOWEL and Lieut Amos FISH and Jermiah WEATHERHEAD and
Lieut Paul CHASE and Mr James PACKER Jr tything men
Ephraim NICHOLS and Joshua LYNDE and Richard BAILEY and James DENNIS and
Joseph GALLOP and Amos----(?) haywards
Benjamin BUCKLIN hours brander
And Capt. David STOWEL sealer of weights and measures
                   ===========================Page 32
Daniel BOYDEN Phillip MAXWELL David GUINS Capt. Lovell BULLOCK Josiah
RICE John NOYES Joseph OLDEN Capt. Daniel WILKINS John SLATER Surveyors
of highways
James HOUGHTON pound keeper
Ephraim NICHOLS and William MARSH Capt. Asa RICE committee to settle
with the old treasurer
Samuel STEPHERDSON and David DAVIS collectors for the town tax
And then adjourned this meeting to the last Wednesday in March 1785
            A true record Attest William BIGELOW town clerk
                      Wednesday the 30 Day of March
Then the town of Guilford met according to adjournment
First made choice of William SMALLEY Clerk Protemporary
Secondly Voted that Wiliam BULLOCK Esq. Maj. Simeon EDWARDS and Benjamin
BUCKLIN be a committee to see what situation the town is in respect to
the town Debts and make report immediately
Thirdly Voted that a Pound be made as near to Capt. Ezekiah STOWELLS as
can be with covenience
Fourthly Voted that a tax of one penny farthing on the pound as it
stands in the grand list of the year 1784 be assessed and raised
immediately to answer the debts of the town
Fiftly Voted that a committee of three be chosen to call on the old
committee to account concerning the school lands and the men chosen are
Major Simeon EDWARDS Capt. David STOWELL and Mr Joel BIGELOW
Sixthly Voted the quietry act (twenty for it and three against it)
And then dissolved the meeting
                   Attest William BIGELOW town clerk
                    Guilford November ye 1st A D 1785
At a meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Guilford the town being
met according to Notification at the meeting hours
Made choice of Col. Benjamin CARPENTER moderator to govern sd meeting
Secondly called on the committee that was chosen to settle with the old
committee that had the care of the school money and the report was that
there (was) three hundred and fifty pounds or about that Due from the
old Committee
Thirdly Voted that a committee be chosen to settle with the old
committee and make report at the next meeting the Persons chosen Maj.
Simeon EDWARDS and Capt. David STOWEL and Mr Paul CHASE
4 Voted that any person that lives remote from the school house in their
District to which they belong shall have liberty to draw their money for
the use of the school where they sent
                      Attest Wm BIGELOW town clerk
  At a meeting holden in Guilford by the Inhabitants thereof at Mr Joel
       BIGELOWS of said town on Wednesday the 2d Day of Dec'r 1785
First made choice of William SMALLEY moderator
Secondly Voted that the money that the school lands was sold for should
be received of the old committee as it is now and to petition the
Assembly to ratify the sale of the school lands
Thirdly voted that the Districts should be Numbered and that they should
begin at the northwest corner of said town (and) run East
No 1 Benjamin BUCKLIN
                   ===========================Page 33
No 2 Paul CHASE
No 3 Abel JOY
No 4 Timothy ROOT
No 5 David STOWELL
No 6 Daniel WILKINS
No 7 Edward BARNEY
No 8 Ichabod PACKER
No 9 Hezekiah SPRAGUE
                       Attest William BIGELOW T C
                       Guilford March ye 13th 1886
At the annual meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Guilford holden
at Mr Joel BIGELOWS in said Guilford according to Notification
Firstly made choice of William SMALLEY moderator to govern said meeting
2d Made choice of William BIGELOW town clerk
3d Made choice of William BIGELOW and William SMALLEY and Benjamin
BUCKLIN Select men for the ensuing Year
4 Made choice of Maj. Simeon EDWARDS constable for the year ensuing
5 Made choice of Amos FISK (? OR FISH ) and David GAINS and Josiah RICE
and Hezekiah HORTON Jr Listers for the year ensuing
6 Made choice of Timothy ROOT
7 Made choice of Capt. Amasa SMEAD and Capt. David STOWELL Grand jury
men for the Year ensuing
8 Made choice of Capt. David STOWELL Sealer of Weights and measures and
9 Made choice of Caleb CARPENTER William MARSH Ephraim NICHOLS Abner
STREETER Surveyors of highways
10 Made choice of Benjamin BUCKLIN Brander of horses
11 Made choice of Edward BARNEY Simeon EDWARDS and Joseph GOODWIN Fence
12 Voted the Sureyors shall have Power to put in sub surveyors
Nxtly Made choice of Hog Constables Caleb CARPENTER and Abijah RODGERS
Thias JOHNSON and Joseph WEATHERHEAD and Daniel WILKINS and John OLDEN
William PACKER and Isaac TOBY
Nxtly Made choice of Capt. Lovell BULLOCK Collector of town taxes
Likewise made choice of William BIGELOW Supervisor
Jeremiah WEATHERHEAD and James PACKER and Edward BARNEY and David
SMALLEY tithing men
Voted that the Select Men shall be empowerng to look into the situation
of the old Collectors bills and cancel what they think proper
Voted that two Pence on the Pound on the Grand List of the town of
Guilford shall be raised to defray the charges of the town
Then adjourned the meeting to the first Monday of May next
                       The above is a true REcord
                   Attest William BIGELOW town clerk
                       Guilford June ye 13th 1786
At a meeting Holden at Mr Joel BIGELOWS Legally warned for to choose a
Deligate to set in a convention to be holden at Manchester for the
Purpose of Establishing a New Constitution Proposed by the Council of
When met Made choice of Mr Wm SMALLEY
Secondly voted that the accounts of Col. Benjamin CARPENTER and Capt.
John BARNEY and Levi GOODENOUGH Esq. shall not be allowed
                   ===========================Page 34
       The above is a true record of the proceedings of the town
                       William BIGELOW town clerk
                           January ye 15 1786
At a meeting of the town of Guilford legally warned for the Purpose of
settling the Dispute concerning the school Lands
Firstly made choice of Col. Benjamin CARPENTER moderator of sd meeting
Secondly Voted to ratify the sales of the school Lands by giving leases
to the persons that bought the same
Thirdly voted to receive the money that the school Lands was sold for as
the sum was in November 1785 which sum was L311-3-2 according to the
report of a committee chosen by the town the 30th day of March A D
1785---  Signed David STOWELL for Committee
4 Voted to make alterations in the school Districts and Likewise
Voted that the Select men put it in the warrant at March meeting to have
all Persons that want any alterations to make report at sd meeting and
then dissolved the meeting
                       The above is a true record
                   Attest William BIGELOW town clerk
                       Guilford March ye 5th 1787
At the Annual meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Guilford
according to a Notification Holden at the widow Lucretia HOUGHTONS in
said Guilford
First they made choice of William SMALLEY Esq. moderator of said meeting
Secondly made choice of William BIGELOW Esq. town clerk
Thirdly made choice of Wm BIGELOW and Wm SMALLEY Esq. and Mr Benjamin
BUCKLIN Select men for the year ensuing
Fourthly made choice of Maj. Simeon EDWARDS and Mr Daniel BOYDEN
Fiftly made choice of Nathan HORTON William RAMSDELL Abner STEBBINS
James PACKER Jr Listers
Sixth--made choice of Mr Abel JOY Collector of town taxes
Seventh--made choice of Capt. David STOWELL Leather sealer
Eighth--made choice of Mr Paul CHASE and Capt. Lovell BULLOCK Grand Jury
Ninth--made choice of Squire MAXWELL and Comfort STARR and Isaac BROWN
Jr and Jeremiah PACKER and Joseph BULLOCK and Jebez FRANKLIN and Samuel
ALLEN tything men
Tenth--made choice of Mr Matthew PULLEN Edward CARPENTER Wm WHITE Joshua
LYNDE Able JOY Jonas NICHOLS Simeon TERRELL Amasa SMEAD and Josiah
Surveyors of Highways
Eleventh Benjamin BUCKLIN Brander of horses
Andrew WILKINS Ephraim EDWARDS Augustus BELDEN John CONNABLE Haywards
Thirtenth Elihue FIELD Pound Keeper
Fourteenth Mr Paul CHASE Thomas WELLS John NOYES Fence viewers
Voted that any School District that could agree for any alterations
might and that the town would ratify the same and likewise
                   ===========================Page 35
Voted that the District No 7 should be divided according to the vote of
said District
                      Then Dissolved this meeting
                   Attest William BIGELOW town clerk
At the annual meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Guilford for the
  Year 1788 the Inhabitants being met according to the warrant for that
             purpose at the house of widow Lucretia Houghton
Firstly made choice of Wm SMALLEY Esq. Clerk protempory
Secondly made choice of Wm BIGELOW Esq. town clerk for the ensuing year
3--Made choice of Wm BIGELOW & Wm SMALLEY Esqs and Benjamin BUCKLIN
Select men for the Year ensuing
4 Made choice of Joseph BULLOCK Constable and Collector of town taxes
5--Made choice of Wm SMALLEY town treasurer
6--Made choice of Benjamin BULLEN {pullen? a unquestionable B; we, a
long way before, have been having Benjamin PULLEN, and suppose this may
be the man; but, we follow copy.  This long transcribe of the old
records is fair, though fine writ, mostly; occasionally, only, we have
found a word or mark illegible;  twice or so bearing a suspicious look
that where the old record was indecipherable, marks were made as near
like the copy as possible)
6 made choice of Benjamin BULLEN (Possibly, Benjamin BALLOU) Ephraim
NICHOLS Stephen GOULD John NOYES Listers for the Year ensuing]
7 Voted that David STOWELL be sealer of Leather  And likewise that
Thomas CUTLER Wm MARSH Edward BARNEY Grandjury men  And Elihu FIELD
Pound Keeper
8 Capt. Amasa SMEAD Caleb CARPENTER John NOYES Philip MAXWELL David
GAINS titheing men  And then voted that Wm SMALLEY and Dana HYDE and
Zephaniah SHEPHERDSON John B CARPENTER Haywards  And then voted that
Joseph EDWARDS James CUTLER Jonathan ALDRICH Jr Job WHITNEY Solomon
BELDEN Nathan STARK David GAINS Surveyors of Highways  And David STOWELL
Sealer of weights and measures
                    And then Dissolved this meeting
                      Attest Wm BIGELOW town clerk
  At a town meeting Legally warned and in and for the town of Guilford
                 held on ye 4th Day of December A D 1788
Firstly Made choice of Col. Benjamin CARPENTER Moderator to Govern sd'
2 Voted that Joseph BULLOCK should collect the Remainder of a tax which
was taken from Simeon  EDWARDS and likewise Receive twelve shillings out
of said tax for a compensation
3 Voted that a tax of one Penny on the Grand List should be assessed on
the said town
                     Guilford December ye 4th 1788
                      Attest Wm BIGELOW town clerk
At the annual meeting holden at Guilford March ye 7th 1789 Being Legally
     warned and the Inhabitants being met according to the warrant
                   ===========================Page 36
1st Made choice of Wm BIGELOW Esq. Moderator of sd meeting
2d made choice of William BIGELOW Town Clerk
3d Made choice of William BIGELOW Esq. first Select man
4 Made choice of Mr Benjamin BUCKLIN the second Select man
5 Made choice of Mr Ephraim NICHOLS the third Select man
And then made choice of Insine Paul CHASE Town Treasurer
And then made choice of Lieut Timothy ROOT Constable
And afterwards Dismissed said ROOT and made choice of Mr Daniel BOYDEN
Constable By said ROOT being his bondsman
And then made choice of John FITCH Joshua LYNDE Philip MAXWELL Abel JOY
Then made choice of Captain David STOWELL Sealer of Leather
,,And made choice of Elihu ROOT and Thomas WELLS Grand jurors
,,And then made choice of Elihu FIELD Pound Keeper
,,And then made choice of Capt. Edward BARNEY Thomas CUTLER tythemen
And then made choice of John SLATER Cyril CARPENTER Capt. Comfort STARR
Col. Joel BIGELOW Mannassah BIXBY Jonas NICHOLS Theophilus WADLEIGH
Aldrich Joseph STANHOOP Jr Nathan CULVER Surveyors of Highways
,,Then made choice of Caleb CARPENTER tytheing man
,,And then made choice of Daniel BOYDEN Paul CHASE Augustus BELDEN Fence
And then made choice of Capt. Amasa SMEAD Sealer of Weights and measures
,, and then made choice of William BULLOCK James BOYDEN Seth SHEPHERDSON
Osman MARSH Haywards
,,and then made choice of Samuel SHEPHERDSON Town Collector
,,and then voted that the Division of the District No 7 & No 8 according
to their own agreement shall stand and hereafter be known by the name of
School District No 10
,, and then voted that Deacon Thomas CUTLER Isaac TERRILL and Theophilus
WADLEIGH shall come off from School District No 3 and should go to
District No 4
                  ,,The above is a true Record attest
                         Wm BIGELOW Town Clerk
                            March ye 8th 1790
the Inhabitants of Guilford being met at the house of Widow Lucretia
HOUGHTON Innholder in said town of Guilford by a legal warrant for their
annual town meeting
Firstly made choice of Wm BIGELOW Esq. Moderator of said meeting
2d Made Choice of William BIGELOW Town Clerk
3d--Made choice of William BIGELOW Esq. first Select man
4--,,  ,, of Mr Benjamin BUCKLIN 2d Select man
5-- Made choice of Lieut John NOYES third Select man
6-- Made choice of Ensign Paul CHASE treasurer of said town
7 Made choice of Samuel SHEPHERDSON Constable
                   ===========================Page 37
8--,,  ,,  ,, Capt. David STOWELL Leather Sealer
,,--  ,,  ,,  Samuel SHEPHERDSON Collector
,,--  ,,  ,,  David STOWELL and Timothy ROOT Grand Jurors
,,--  ,,  ,,  Elihu FIELD Pound Keeper
,,--  ,,  ,,  Paul CHASE Benjamin BUCKLIN Samuel ALLEN Elihu ROOT James
PACKER Jr Abel WHITNEY William CULVER tytheing men
   ,,  made choice of B CARPENTER Elihu ROOT William PACKER Timothy ROOT
  ,,  made choice of Henry WARD Isaac BARBER James HOUGHTON William
MARSH Jun'r Edward THURBER Jr Benjamin EDDY Haywards
  ,,  made choice of Joseph BULLOCK John BARNEY Jr Manassah BIXBY David
DAVIS Samuel MELENDY Fence Viewers
  ,,  Surveyors of Highways District
No 1  William HANES Joseph SLATER Benjamin BUCKLIN
No 2  William MARSH John HINCLKEY
No 3  Mcihael RICE and Gideon BOWKER
No 4  Philip MAXWELL Nath'l JACOBS
No 5  Aaron WILDER Henry  WARD
No 6  James BARNEY (Jonah CUTTING
No 7  No 8  Capt. Daniel ASHCRAFT--
No 9  Squire MAXWELL Nathan STARK
No 10  Joshua CULVER James PACKER Jr
  ,,  Benjamin BUCKLIN Sealer of weights and measures
Voted that Elihu ROOT Nathan AVERY John B CARPENTER serve as Sextons for
Digging Graves for the dead the year ensuing
Voted to choose a Committee to settle with the Inhabitants of the school
Lands  Chose John NOYES Peter BRIGGS William BIGELOW Lovell BULLOCK
Ephraim NICHOLS to make report
    [The above and within is a true Record of the votes of said town
                      Attest Wm BIGELOW Town Clerk
    [A few records are here added, which will still farther serve to
     illustrate the workings of the township government.--J.W.P. ]
                            "July 26 A D 1774
Samuel MELENDY complains and says that Eunice MERRIAM wife of Samuel
MELENDY and Theophilus MERRIAM her son are at his House, they being
tranchent Persons and he the Sd Samuel MELENDY Determining to take the
steps the Law Directs with them Therefore he brings this complaint
                       pr Elijah WELCH Town Clerk
                         December the 29th 1774
Hezekiah STOWELL has entered complaint that Ithamar HALEY & Moly his
wife with Comfort LIDEA James Nancy & Asa their children came to
Guilford on December the 1st 1774 and being determined to clear this
town from any cost that might arise by reason of them Therefore he
brings this comlaint
                      pr Elijah WELCH Town Clerk"
                        Report Of Road Committee.
"We the subscribers Regularly chosen by the freeholders and other
Inhabitants of the District of Guilford to sarve in sd District as
cornection en for Laying out Highways--  We have laid out the following
First Beinning at Barttleborough Line Near the house of David JOY Esq.
Being the Northeast corner Lot of sd District thence westerly as the way
                    ==========================Page 38
now Traveled by James KINGS William RAMSDEL Samuel NICHOLS Esq-- and so
by the mills and hence to Hezekiah STOWELS and by the meeting house
still westly Down the hill then northerly to Broad Brook thence westerly
as the road is trod to John SHEPHERDSON  and the Northwestly to the lot
of Joseph PECK and so to the house of Benjamin CARPENTER thence a new
untroden way still about the same point of compass to the south end of
Govrners Mountain so called and Between the Governers Mountain and the
Picked mountain so call and mainly about the same point to the Line of
Halifax then Returned and Begun another Rhoad at the foot of the first
mentioned mountain thence easterly up the hill and so to Edward BARNEYS
and so to Caleb COLES and thence up the hill to Paul CHASES Barn and so
by the north side of sd' Barn Down the hill to John BARNEYS
The aforementioned Rhoades we marked with a marking yr on the northerly
side of sd Rhodes marked Thus H W (three straight marks under H W) the
marks under the Letters to signify the number of Rods the road is in
                       Guilford April ye 23 1774
                     John SHEPHERDSON  |         Commetimen
                      John BARNEY       |          for Laying
                              Thomas CUTLER    |          out highways
                         Recineded April y' 23
                          A True Copy Examined
                        Thomas CUTLER Town Clerk
                     Guilford April ye 21st A D 1784
This may certify that I have attached in favor of Sylvanus FISK all the
Real estate of Giles ROBERTS Samuel BIXBY William WHITE James DAVISON
David ASH CRAFT Henry EVENS Joseph PECK Adonijah PUTNAM Joshua NOURSE
David GOODENOUGH Joseph ELLIOT in order to have the attachment Recorded
I Lodge this with the Town Clerk
                      pr Nicholus PULLEN Constable
                          A true Record Attest
                       William SMALLEY Town Clerk
                  Recorded this 30th Day of April 1784
    The following Instrument was Received to Record March 5 A D 1784
                      Samuel Shepherdson Town Clerk
This may certify all People whom it may concern that I the Subscriber
have Attached Eighty Acres of Land belonging to the farm of Nathaniel
CARPENTER Sd attachment Levied on the 4th day of March instant and Laid
on the East side of sd farm in favor of Sylvanus FISK Guilford March the
5th 1784
                    pr Nicholus PULLEN Dept' Sheriff
                          A True Record Attest
                     Samuel SHEPHERDSON Town Clerk
[The foregoing records furnished by Rodney B. Field then town clerk, the
                       General resumes the pen.]
                      Difficulties Of Jurisdiction
The difficulties between the Yorkers and new statesmen occasioned some
bloodshed and a very considerable display of military force.  On the 9th
of September 1782, Ethan ALLEN at the head of 250 Green Mountain Boys
entered Windam County from Bennington, which was as noted as a centre of
opposition to New York as Guilford was for its attachment to that State.
ALLEN arrived at Marlboro, was there joined by companies form that town,
Wilmington and Dummerston, which swelled his command to 400 men.-- This
force was sent off to by detachments to various points in the adjoining
                   ===========================Page 39
towns and with the most considerable one, he in person repaired to
Guilford.  He there made several arrests and with his prisoners
continued on with the view of turning them over to the civil authorities
at Westminster,  He had not gone far before he was fired on by a party
of Yorkers.
Tradition speaks of one Broadstreet who was designedly aimed at for
ALLEN who rallied the Yorkers for their bad markmanship;  being a large
man and his clothes only having been cut by a bullet.
The Vermonters were brought to a stand and they made threats to kill one
of their prisoners for every one of their party who should be injured.
ALLEN made a announcement to the inhabitants in the most emphatic terms
that unless they peacefully submitted to the authority of Vermont, he
would "lay their town as desolated as Sodom and Gomorrah, by--."  It
does not appear that he met with any farther opposition on this
In 1783, an act was passed at Westminster to raise 100 men for the
purpose of assisting the civil authority in carrying into execution the
law in the southern part of the County of Windham.  But on the eve of
the troops being employed a party from Guilford assisted by several from
Barattleborough made an attack about midnight, Jan. 17, 1784 upon the
head quarters of Gen. FLETCHER, a hero of Bunker Hill, which was at an
inn in Barttleborough.
Major BOYDEN, Constable WATERS and some others holding office under the
new state were lodging at the same inn: and the Major and a traveler
were wounded by some of the thirty bullets that were discharged into the
Constable WATERS, who had rendered himself odious by his enforcement of
the collection of state taxes from the Yorkers was captured and taken
This inn was about a quarter of a mile N. W. from where the asylum for
the insane now stands, on the road to Newfane.
                        The Spirit Of 76 Awoke Up
State troops were already assembled in the neighborhood, and on the
morning of the 19th amidst a snowstorm, they took up their line of march
toward Guilford.  They consisted of companies from Wilmington, Marlboro,
Townshend, Rockingham, Westminster, Putney and Dummerston, amounting in
all to upwards of 300 men with one piece of artillery.  The route which
they followed was what is now known as "the old road to Guilford."
>From before so considerable a force whose numbers were augmented still
by rumor, and which met with welcome from the adherents of the opposite
party, the Yorkers retreated toward the southern part of the town.
After one or two ineffectual stands they at length fired on their
pursuers and wounded two men, Joel KNIGHT of Dummerston and Sergeant
FIST, whose wound proved mortal.  They then fled into Massachusetts.
On the 22d Ethan ALLEN again arrived into town with another party from
Bennington; but, after a consultation with the officers from the Eastern
side of the mountains, it was not thought proper to follow into
Massachusetts--and they decided to retire.  The companies from Windham
County reached Barttelboro that night; and some of them were dismissed
to their homes, while others continued on with the prisoners to
                    =========================Page 40
Two companies,--the one comanded by Elijah KNIGHT, the other by Benjamin
WHITNEY, the first, consisting of 20 men, the latter, of 65 men, were
left in Guilford and its vicinity till near the close of the following
March with the object of preserving order, and preventing the return of
those who had fled into Massachusetts.
                         GOODENOUGH And SPICER.
In this state of things, David GOODENOUGH, who held a commission of Lt.
under New York, attempted to return to his home.  He was accompanied by
a friend, named SPICER.  On the evening of the 5th of March, having
advanced about half a mile within the limits of Guilford, they were
challenged from the roadside by a man under arms "Who comes there?"
Endeavoring to make their escape, they leaped the fence and started for
the woods, but they were pursued and fired on by KNIGHT'S party, and
SPICER was mortally wounded.  GOODENOUGH escaped unhurt.  SPICER was a
citizen of Massachusetts, had had nothing to do with the differences
between the Yorkers and Vermonters, and he had served in the
Revolutionary War, having received his discharge only the preceding
June.  He was shot in two places one of the balls having "passed through
his trunk," and the dying man was treated with great harshness and
severity:  and, indeed, those inhabitants of the town who had given
their allegiance to New York, long remembered the irritating plunderings
and exactions to which they had been exposed by some of the troops who
were sent against them.
Of quite a different tenor form their martial movements is the
traditionary story told of the opposition which was manifested,
doubtless by the Vermont party of the town against the Rev. Henry
WILLIAMS who had distinguished himself by an ardent zeal in the cause of
New York.  One Sunday morning on going to his pulpit to preach, as
usual, he found it occupied by a dead horse, with head crest, forefeet
upon the reading desk, and the bands which were then worn by clergymen,
around his neck!  It is evident that the controversy had reached the
moral foundations of society, and had need of being brought to a
The population of Guilford at about this period, was probably, nearly as
large as it ever has been since, and perhaps greater.  We can find no
record of the number of the inhabitants previous to 1771, and note
between 1772 and 1791.  In the year 1771, it was 436, of whom three were
black males and two black females.
A schedule of the inhabitants is extant, dated May 11, 1772, in which
the names of the heads of families are recorded, which gives 586
souls.--  By the year 1791, it had increased to 2542, or about one
fifteen hundredth part of the then population of the United States.
>From that period it has steadily decreased until the census of 1860,
when it was only 1292.--  It is now, probably, somewhat larger than it
was at the last census.  It has ranged:
                       1791--2432   |  1800,--2256
                       1810--1872   |  1820,--1862
                       1830--1760   |  1840--1525
                        1850--1389   |  1860--1292
This decrease of the number of inhabitants is owing to several causes:
                   ===========================Page 41
the party of differences to which we have alluded;  the decrease in the
virgin richness of the soil;  the greater inducements offered by the
fertile fields of the West;  the great difficulty in the way of an
inland, agricultural community becoming a manufacturing people under the
hitherto unfriendly policy of the general government, rendering it
impossible for its small capital at home and abroad and the more
favorable situation of Barttleboro as a natural centre of the trade of
the county.  But still, the town has much to recommend it;  its cheerful
hills and streams lie pleasantly to the sun;  its soil responds
generously to good and careful tillage, and its climate is healthy;--
many of its first born sons, of whom not a few have died during the last
decade, often attaining the age of between 80 and 90 years.
It is not long since we have conversed with those whose axes helped
shear the land of its pristine forests, and indeed, though our own
memory extends back only fifty years, we can remember when it was
customary to "clear a piece" of forest every year for the purpose of
bring the land under cultivation.  Some of those pieces are not again
covered with a heavy growth of timber.
    Grant To The Society For Propagating The Gospel In Foreign Parts.
One whole share of land, as seen by reverting to the charter was granted
to the above society, whose seat is in London-- the oldest Protestant
missionary society in the world.  But many believed by the Revolution,
the title to the lands thus granted in the state properly vested in the
government of Vermont, and hence, in 1794, the Legislature passed an act
directing them to be used for school purposes.  But, after the treaty of
Ghent in  1815, an agent of the society visited Vermont and transferred
the rights of the society in these lands to a Board of agents in favor
of the Episcopal Church of the State.  The claim, however, was not
definitively settled till 1841, after a long, costly and troublesome
course of litigation in which Daniel WEBSTER was council for the State,
and the case had been carried up to the Supreme Court of the United
States.  The rents of these lands throughout the entire State amount to
some $3000, and they are appropriated first to the support of the
bishop, and the remainder to the use of the church in the state.  The
Episcopal church of Guilford has received of late years $100 annually
from this fund.
As the glebe lands were designed for building up and establishing, as a
state institution, a peculiar form of religion, which is contrary to the
tenor of our constitution, those lands are considered as rightly vesting
in the state and they accordingly remain, as disposed of by the act of
1764, for the benefit of schools.
                          The Governor's Grant.
The mercenary disposition manifested by Governor WENTWORTH in making use
of public office to enrich himself and family, does not appear to have
been much respected by the original proprietors of Guilford since they
located his tract of 500 acres on the least valuable land of the town,
on a mountain which has ever since gone by the name of Governor's
Mountain, and which may be regarded as a perpetual monument of the
disapproval by the people of venal exercise of the functions of public
office and trust.
                   ===========================Page 42
The present proprietors of that land derive their title by purchase from
the Governor's heirs.
                      Villages And Noted Districts.
There are four villages in town, viz:  East Village in the N. E. corner
of the town:  Guilford Centre, near the middle:  Green River in the
western part and Hinesburgh in the N. W. corner.  The last
inconsiderable-- a collection of ten or a dozen buildings:  the three
former are nearly of the same size, containing each from 20 to 30
edifices, in which they have raised but very little for nearly half a
century.  The East Village, also, called Algiers, is probably the
largest of the three, and may contain within a mile's radius some 40
houses.  Within this limit there is an excellent water-power which has
never been brought into use.
Besides these villages there is a collection of houses to the southward
of Guilford Centre which used to be called South Neighborhood.
South Hollow is a deep, narrow valley in the eastern part of the town
containing some very fine farms.  It runs nearly north and south, and is
several miles in length.
To the eastward of this hollow and separated from it by East Mountain is
a region which is called the Slate Rock from the principal slate
quarries being in that quarter.
In each of the three principal villages there is a tavern and a small
store.  There is, also, a post-office in each on a mail route, running
from Brattleboro to North Adams, Mass.
There was at one time a circle of literary men in Guilford, whose
ambitious aspirations had an elevating effect on the tone of society,
and whose influence was felt long after they had left town.  Between
1790 and 1800, Royal TAYLER wrote "The Algerine Captive", a work of
merit and of considerable celebrity.  In the course of this work, the
author gives a graphic picture of the horrors of the slave trade.  He,
also, wrote a play at this period, probably, the third ever written in
America, (the writer, himself, having written the first two.)  called
"The Georgian Spec, or Land in the Moon", which ridicules the fever then
prevailing for speculation in Georgia lands.  It was repeatedly played
on the Boston stage and was received with favor.  He was, also, a
prolific writer for various periodicals, one of which was a spirited
paper, the "Farmer's Weekly Museum, at Walploe, N. H.
Judge TAYLER resided in Guilford about 11 years, 1783- 1800, when he
removed to Barttleboro, where he died in 1836.  His widow, who survived
him about 30 years, died 1865, ae. 94 years.  She contributed largely by
her talents and the natural grace and refinement of her sex to give a
stimulus to the ambition of the literary circle alluded to, of which her
husband was the head and inspiring example.
Of this circle, we may mention John SHEPHERDSON, James ELLIOT, his
brother, Samuel, J. H. PALMER, John PHELPS, Henry DENISON, and Miss
Elizabeth PECK.  These were all poets, and the two ELLIOTS and John
PHELPS became lawyers.
James ELLIOT was born in Essex Co., Gloncester, Mass.  At the age of
fifteen we find him in a store in Guilford.  He devoted himself to
reading and in the perusal of Rollin's History, he gained a thirst for
military glory.  The Indians were active in their hostilities upon
                   ===========================Page 43
the settlements northwest of the Ohio, and on July 17, 1793, he enlisted
at Springfield, Mass. as the first not commissioned officer in the
Second U.S. Sub Legion, commanded by Capt. Cornelius LAYMEN.  having
performed a term of service against the insurgents in Pennsylvania, and
against the Indians in Ohio, he returned to Guilford, Aug. 23, 1796, and
in 1798, published a volume, called "The Poetical and Miscellaneous
Works of James ELLIOT, Citizen of Guilford, Vermont, and late a
Non-Commissioned Officer in the Legion of the United States."
Many of the pieces are versification's of the odes of HORACE.  Among the
pure original effusions is one on "The Autumnal Season", addressed to
Royal TAYLER of which the four, concluding stanzas are:

               Oh Thou! my carly and my constant friend!
              In thee the fruits of carly knowledge shine;
               In thee the graces and the virtues blend--
              A soul sincere, a feeling heart, are thine.
              In thee has nature various powers displayed;
                Art, eloquence and taste, alike to grace
              The bar, the senate, or the studious shade,
            To wield the sword, or tread the walks of peace
              On thee, long may the rays of science fall,
                An in the life and writings greatly glow
               Long be thy useful life--and thine be all
              The bliss that conscious virtue can bestow.
              Be thine throughout life's variegated year.
                The meed of genius and the poet's lays;
               And in thy autumn may bright suns appear.
                 To gild the happy winter of thy days.
 Considering the period at which our author wrote, soon after the close
  of the Revolutionary war, his ideas of equality may be considered as
              possessed of peculiar interest.  We give his
                            Ode To Equality.
                       All hail, divine Equality!
                     Benignant daughter of the sky!
                 Sister and friend of Godlike Liberty!
                   Descend from the etherial plains,
                   Proclaim on earth, Jehovah reigns
                 'Tis Nature's King who rules on high,
                Oc'r Countless Equal Worlds Equal Power
             Thou gentle, soothing, sovereign balm of woe'
                And purest bliss that human beings know,
            "Tis thine to cheer old age and guide the youth:
                   Come issue form thy calm retreat,
                  And fix on earth thy peaceful seat,
                 Attended by the radiant Ord of Truth'.
                  On Reason's basis build thy throne;
                   Exalt the peer and prince to Man,
                   And humble all the ig-noble clan!
                    Beneath Oppression's iron road,
                       Obedient to tyrant's rod,
            No more, the wretched, human race shall groan--
                   Oh! come with Virtue in thy train.
            And o'er the universe extend thy glorious reign!
The book contains 25 short essays, called "The Rural Moralist," which
had been generally published in "The New England Galaxy."  Of these, one
was written by his brother, Samuel ELLIOT and another by John H. PALMER,
then a youth of seventeen.  They are apparently imitations of ADDISON,
STEELE, and other English authors of that time and are quite creditable
to the writers.  But the most interesting part is a journal kept by the
writer during his military service.
                         From the ELLIOT Journal
At Springfield, Mass., Aug. 7, 1794, he writes:
"Information is received that the insurrection in the western counties
of Pennsylvania is assuming an extremely serious aspect.
On the 16th of July, at dawn of day 100 of the rioters attacked the
house of Gen. NEVILLE, the inspector of the revenue.  The General with
the assistance of his servants and family, is said to have defended his
house for upwards
                   ===========================Page 44
of an hour, wounded a number of the rioters, and ultimately obliged them
to retire.
On the following day, having augmented their number to five or six
hundred, they renewed the attack.  In the meantime a sergeant and twelve
men, detached form the garrison at Pittsburg, (all recruits and several
of whom marched from this place on the 2d of April) had taken possession
of Gen. NEVILLE'S house.  The General escaped before the attack began
and the insurgents permitted his lady and the females of the family to
retire.  The attack then commenced, the little party defended it for a
considerable time, with a degree of bravery which displays an
illustrious example for the imitation of those who may hereafter be
called to support the laws of their country.
The Corporal, whose name was DOUD, conducted in a manner which ought to
immortalize his name.
Ebenezer WALKER and William GRIGLEY, two lads of seventeen years of age,
natives of Massachusetts, fought with astonishing bravery.
Three of the soldiers were wounded and four of the insurgents killed--
Jame McFARLUD, the leader, was killed, and a number of them were
Our little band of heroes were ultimately forced to surrender, and the
rioters burned the house and out-houses and all the property which they
contained; but either because they respected their courage, or dreaded
the resentment of government they immediately liberated the soldiers.
                                 Aug. 12
An account is this day published of an attack on Fort Recovery, in the
Western Territory, by the Indians on the morning of the 30th of June.
The enemy were repulsed with great slaughter; but they again renewed the
attack, keeping a very heavy and constant fire all that day, and by
intervals during the night and morning of the 1st of July, but were
ultimately compelled to retreat between the hours of 12 and 2 o'clock of
that day, with loss and disgrace, from the field, where on a former
occasion, they had been entirely victorious.
                                 Aug 20,
The President of the United States has issued orders for embodying 1300
of the Militia of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia to
suppress the insurrection.

                                 Aug 30
Cap. LYMAN with a detachment of recruits, embarked at Springfield for
                         New Brunswick, Sep. 9.
The Militia of New Jersey and Pennsylvania drafted by order of the
President to oppose the Pittsburg rioters, are now in motion and will
rendezvous in Trenton and Carlisle.
                                 Sep 24
                          Arrived at Carlisle.
Carlisle is a large and handsome borough, shire of the County of
Cumberland, 120 miles west of Philadelphia " " " The barracks are
situated a quarter of a mile east of the town, and are large, but
decayed buildings, capable of containing several thousand men.
                                 Sep. 28
This morning an express passed through town on his way to Philadelphia
with information of a victory gained by the army under General WAYNE,
over the Indians, on the 20th ult, on the river Miami of the Lakes.
                   ===========================Page 45
Three troops of cavalry from the city of Philadelphia arrived this day.
                                 Oct. 2d
150 infantry arrived from Philadelphia. Gen MIFFLIN, who was appointed
second in command, arrived this day.
Governor LEE of Virginia, who is vested with the chief command of the
Federal army, under the order of the President, is now moving toward the
scene of rebellion, at the head of 8000 men form the states of Virginia
and Maryland.
                                Oct 3 & 4
On these days large bodies of artillery, cavalry and infantry arrived
from various quarters.  The President, Gen. WASHINGTON, arrived on the
                                  Oct 6
President WASHINGTON reviewed the troops under arms, amounting to
between three and 4000 men.
>From Carlisle the march was to Chambersbury, and there the President
arrived on the afternoon of the 12 Oct. "without any escort, attended
only by the Secretary of the Treasury, Col. HAMILTON, who acted as his
aid de camp."  He left on the 13 for Williamsport, Maryland, where the
Maryland and Virginia lines are to rendezvous.
On the 17th Oct. the author arrived at Bedford, a town of fifty or sixty
                                 Oct. 18
Large bodies of troops arrived form the eastward.  Governor MIFFLIN
arrived this day.
                                 Oct 19
The number of troops at Bedford including those that arrived this day,
amounted to between five and 6000, and occupied a circular encampment,
entirely surrounding the town. ***  Many men of independent fortunes and
the most respectable character were in the ranks as private soldiers.
All ranks and conditions of men were united in one common band of
citizen soldiers, and appeared to be irresistible determined to
vindicate and maintain the violated majesty of the laws.  It was
deservedly styled "The Army of the Constitution." ***
This day, the President and Gov. LEE arrived in town from the encampment
of the Maryland and Virginia lines {about 30 miles south of Bedford] and
were received with a discharge of 15 cannon.
The following general order was issued:  The President of the United
States directs that Capt. LYMAN who commands the detachment of
continental troops shall be annexed to the light corps under the command
of Col. R. PHERSON.
                                 Oct. 20
The troops were paraded and reviewed by Generals LEE and MIFFLIN, who
express their approbation of the soldierly appearance, spirit and good
conduct of the army in general.
                                 Oct 21
The President being about to return to Philadelphia to attend the
approaching session of Congress, made an elegant address to Gen. LEE,
expressing generally his approbation of the appearance, spirit and good
conduct of the army, and his warmest wishes for their success in the
cause of rational liberty, and the support of the laws of their
country.  This address and the order to march to Pittsburg was published
                   ===========================Page 46
The town of Washington, the "cantre of the territory of sedition." is
graphically described:  "the country,"  he continues, "trembles around
us and the late insurgent inhabitants are as humble and submissive as
they had been insolent and daring before the army appeared.  David
BRADFORD, whose abilities, influence and exertions placed him foremost
on the list of rebels, had descended the Ohio with a number of
associates, intending to reach the Spanish territories; and many more of
the fomentors of discord were seeking their safety in flight.
                                 Nov. 17
Arrived at Pittsburg** the whole of the Federal army was now at this
place, except about 1500 who were left at Washington.  The number ow at
Pittsburg was calculated at 12 or 1300.
                           From Nov. 17 to 24
Those who had been principally concerned in the rebellion, and who did
ot choose to abandon their country, were now generally secured; and the
professions of repentance in the deluded inhabitants at large, had the
appearance of sincerity.  In order however to preclude the possibility
of a renewal of the unhappy scenes that had lately distracted this
country the Commander in Chief, General LEE, continued at Pittsburg, and
was employed in organizing a body of 1500 men to be commanded by Gen.
MORGON, who established his head quarters on the Monongahela, a few
miles from Pittsburg, for the purpose of enforcing an exact obedience to
the government.
                                 Nov. 26
Gen. LEE  left Pittsburg on his return to Virginia.
The Continental troops to which the author belonged continued on down
the Ohio and arrived in; Cincinnati on the 29th December.  The Spaniards
were then at work on fortifications at the mouth of the Ohio.
The whole journal during the service of Sergeant ELLIOT in Ohio is
interesting, and we would like to give it entire, did space admit:  we
conclude with the following entry on the 3d of August:
"This day the treaty was concluded and signed by Gen. WAYNE, on the part
of the United States, and the Sachems, Chiefs, and warriors of the
Wyandot, Deleware, Chipeway, Otteway, Shawanee, Miami, Potawatamy, Eel
River, Neea ? Kickopoo and Kanskias, --nations of tribes of Indians."
Not long after the publication of this work, Mr. ELLIOT was elected to
Congress, where he served, 1803--1809.
He then published a paper in Philadelphia.  After this, he entered to
army as a Captain, but after a brief period of service, returned to
Vermont where he finally became the Clerk of the Court of Windham
County, in which position he died at Newfane on Nov. 10, 1839.
An incident connected with his life while in Guilford shows that the
people of that town did ot entertain so high an opinion of the right ot
vote as is manifested at the present day.-- It appears that at a
freeman's meeting Jan. 1793 for the election of a Federal
representative, only eleven voted while the number of qualified electors
in town was four hundred!  But at the election in 1797, there was a
considerable improvement, about one hundred voted.
John PHELPS, a contemporary of James ELLIOT, and a warm friend and
admirer of Judge TAYLER, was the au-
                   ===========================Page 47
thor of several pieces of poetry one of which, called "New England"
became quite popular in its day.  He composed several Christmas hymns
for choir at the usual celebrations of Christmas at Christ Church,
Guilford, which are still extant;  and in 1825, he published a
compilation called the "Legal Classic, or the Young American's first
book of Rights and Duties, " a small work of about 150 pages.  He was
also the author of one, or more political pamphlets.
His wife, Mrs. Almira PHELPS, prepared, for the press, one edition of
her Botany in Guilford, and wrote several other works of instruction on
chemistry and other subjects, somewhere between 1830 and 1835.
                           Miss Stella PHELPS,
daughter of John PHELPS, wrote numerous pieces of verse, some of which
were very flatteringly received by the public.
                 From:  Lines ON The Death Of A Father
                           By Elisabeth PECK
                Say, Spirit of my Father! dost thou know
                  When oft my mother at the silent eve
                 Ascends with all the "luxury of woe,"
                To weep in silence o'er thy dewy grave?
              Oft at that lonely hour, when all is still.
               When labor ceases and the laborer sleeps,
             She climbs with hasty steps the village hill,
               And o'er thy humble grave in silence weeps
               Oh' if thy blessed spirit, lingering near.
            Would soothe her woes and bid her sorrows cease.
           Wipe from her grief-worn cheek the trickling tear
               And to her throbbing bosom whisper peace.
                               The Grass
                             Lowly my lot--
                   Among the flowers or gorgeous dyes
                    And thousand perfumes that arise
                              I am forgot.
                         Yet through the earth
                   All flesh that move in gentle mood
                    For carpet, sustenance and food
                           Most own my worth.
                           My name is grass:
                   And though of poor, ignoble birth
                 And crushed and trampled to the earth
                           By all that pass.
                            I stronger grow,
                   My roots with firmer fibre prest,
                  My leaves in brighter verdure drest,
                           And brighter glow.
                            And learn of me
                   When ingrate mortals rudely spurn
              All ills for blessings give, to meek return
                             Sweet charity.
                           Jeremiah GREENLEAF
entered the U.S. service from Guilford during the war of 1812, and was
promoted to a lieutenant in 1816: at what period he left the service and
returned to his home, we have not learned; but at about that period he
published a work on grammar called "Grammar Simplified," which is
regarded by many even now as the plainest and best treatise on that
difficult subject which has ever been produced.  It first appeared in
1821 and speedily rna many editions, the 20th edition being published in
Brattleboro in 1822.  At a later period he prepared a modified form of
this work called the "Labor Saving Grammar."  which was published in
1855, but it is not equal to his original treatise.
Since that period the published literature of Guilford has consisted
almost exclusively of an occasional piece of poetry:  generally by some
young lady.  Some of these productions are possessed of considerable
merit but it is evident there is not such literary aspiration as existed
formerly.  the freshness and attending life in a newly opened country
have already felt the effects of time and are like the music of the
                   ===========================Page 48
birds that pass away with the vernal season.
               Thespian Societies, Lyceums And Amusements.
Of a kin to literary circles are Thespian Societies and debating clubs.
Of these, several have arisen from time to time, though they have never
continued for any lengthy period.
Between the year 1825 and 1832, a Thespian Society was established by
the young people of the East Village which enacted several plays on
different occasions.  Their exhibitions were held in the hall of the
tavern:  and one of the principal plays brought forward was SHERIDAN'S
but generally shorter and more amusing plays were selected.
A strolling company of players about this period came from Albany to
Brattleboro to exhibit there:  but as Gen. Jonathan HUNT, a resident of
Brattleboro, a member of Congress, and a person much beloved by the
people, had recently died, the inhabitants were averse to gayety at that
time and the players exhibited for a night or two at Algiers.
It was in the hall above mentioned, that POTTER, the Magician used
always to exhibit his performances.  This SPOTTER was a mulatto, who had
been brought away from Southern slavery by a New Hampshire sea captain;
and he was one of the most expert jugglers of the age.  He always drew a
full house whenever he came; and with the proceeds of his art he finally
retired from active life and built a house in Andover, N.H. where he
died some years since.
The hall of the tavern was designed chiefly as a dancing hall.  It was
there thanksgiving balls and dances, so called sleigh-rides, used to be
held, and occasional dancing-schools.
The tavern, itself has been the centre of various changing scenes.
A Masonic lodge once held their meetings in its hall;  but in course of
time a hot dispute arose about the relation which such societies bore to
a free government, and in the earnest conflict of opinion the lodge
succumbed.  In those days the very passengers in the stage coach that
stopped to change mails were heard in sharp disputation about masonry.
The coach arrived from the south about 9 o'clock P.M.  Sometimes the
driver announced his approach by winding a melodious tin horn; and not
until he had dashed away did the usual knot of villagers depart.
Among the amusements of the villagers who spent their evenings around
the-barroom fire were telling stories and singing songs which were often
enlivened by a circulation of mugs and half-mugs of flip and punch.  A
blind miller by name of STEVENS composed songs and set them to music.
The refrain, in which all joined, of one, ran:
          Thus as though life we go, I would have you to know
            There are slaves in high life as well as in low.
                           The celebration of
                           The Fourth Of July
was seldom omitted at least so far as the consumption of powder extended
and we remember festivities on one occasion in honor of the victory of
Lake Erie,
Shooting matches were frequent during the winter.
Base ball was played by the young men on Fast day;  and once, at least,
while snow was on the ground, there
                   ===========================Page 49
was a hunt for the white rabbit.  Elihue FIELD, the keeper of the tavern
and the post-office was the leading spirit in this sport, and often were
the corners of his bar-room decorated at the close of a day's hunt with
the fowling-pieces of the party and the rabbits which they had shot.
He, also, took a lively interest in the political affairs of the
country;  and when the great speech of WEBESTER was ringing through New
England, we remember to have been struck by his appearance on one
occasion:  a tall, slim man with a large bright black eye, as stretching
forth his hand, he repeated the following passage:
"I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts;  she needs none, there
she is.  There is Boston, and Concord and Lexington and Bunker Hill, and
 there they will remain forever.  The bones of her sons, falling in the
 great struggle for Independence, now lie mingled with the soil of every
 state from New England to Georgia;  and there they will lie forever."
                             The Fine Arts.
No person from Guilford, as we are aware of, has ever distinguished
himself as an artist;  but a young gentleman.--RICHARDSON, BILLINGS--
produced several oil paintings between the years 1840 and 1850, which
evinced a high degree of artistic talent and genius.  Unfortunately he
died at an early age;  had he lived, he promised to become the equal of
the artists, MEAD and BROWN, of whom he was the contemporary, who are
natives of the two adjoining towns of Barttleboro and Leyden.
The dairy interests, which used to be very great, the butter and cheese
of Guilford ranking first in the Boston market, is now reduced to a
comparative small scale, there being but little cheese produced, and
much less butter than formerly.  The pastures are greatly worn out and
need renewal by fertilizers, which can hardly take place so long as the
labor of the town continues to seek as it has done for the last forty
years, the more fertile fields of the West.  That principle of the soil,
phosphate of lime, which goes to form bone and also lime, was so
thoroughly exhausted during the dairy period that the cows came at
length to suffer from the bone disease, and in many cases could hardly
stand to graze from the weakness of their bones, the phosphate of lime
necessary to their strength having been almost entirely taken from the
soil and carried off in butter and cheese to Boston.  It was at one time
customary for the principal farmers to carry to that market the product
of their own dairies;  going in the winter season with two, and
sometimes four horse-teams, and returning in the course of two weeks
with a supply of groceries for the year.
The land produces excellent crops of corn, grass, and oats:  but does ot
yield potatoes as well as formerly.-- Stock-growing may now be
considered as the principal interest, and efforts have been made during
the last five years to introduce good breeds of cattle, horses and
sheep.  Bone-dust, either given in meal, or liberally strewn upon the
pastures is found to be an effectual cure for the bone-disease.  Not
enough grain is raised for the consumption of the stock, and a great
deal of corn is imported from the West for this purpose.
Fruit thrives so well that the proper care need only to be taken to
                   ===========================Page 50
success in its cultivation.  Peaches have always been produced to some
extent, ever since introduced, while the precious plums and pears of Mr.
BRIGGS in the north-west part of the town, shew what can be done in that
way by intelligence and attention.  The southern slopes, where well
sheltered from the northern winds, would doubtless yield good grapes;
but unfortunately the cultivation of that fruit is not genial to the
habits of the people, and but few as yet have attempted it
                           Statistics of 1850
                      Value of farms, $413.223.00:
                     Farming implements $12998.00:
                         Number of horses 294:
                       Number of milk cows, 608:
                      Number of working oxen, 409:
                           Other cattle, 908:
                       Sheep, 2281:  swine, 329:
                    Value of live stock, $64,523.00:
                    Bushels of corn raised, 13,614:
                       Bushels of oats, 13, 186:
                          Bushels of rye, 663:
                       Bushels of barley, 2, 664:
                  Value of orchard products, $1, 978:
                       Pounds of cheese, 30,250:
                       Pounds of butter, 55,569:
                          Tuns of hay, 4,684:
                         Pounds of hops, 2,361:
                     Pounds of maple sugar, 30,856:
                         Bushels of beans, 336:
                      Bushels of potatoes, 17,357:
                       Gallons of molasses, 400:
                 Value of animals, slaughtered $17,321:
                         Bushels of wheat, 214:
In 1863-64, an effort at associated action was made for the improvement
of the stock of the town, and a
                              Farmer's Club
was formed at the Middle of the town., of which Mr. Charles LYNDE became
A good breed of cattle was introduced, and a corresponding movement was
made at the same time by Mr. Perry MELENDY of the East Village, and
others;  and at the same time another movement was made by Mr. Bryant
MELENDY of South Hollow, to improve the breed of horses, which promises
some success.  Mr. George C. HALL of New York, has also kept some fine
horses in town, where he purchased a farm for this purpose.
The statistics of 1870 exhibit a very considerable falling off from the
census of 1850.  This may be owing in part to some defect in the taking
of the census:  but still there has doubtless ben a decrease in the
agricultural products of the town.
                           Statistics of 1860
                        Horses, 261:  cows, 556:
                     Oxen, 324:  other cattle, 804:
                        Sheep, 2506:  swine 310:
                         Wheat, 1033  bushels:
                           Rye, 241 bushels:
                          Corn, 7735 bushels:
                          Oats, 6377 bushels:
                           Wool, 8615 pounds:
                         Sugar, 47,926 pounds:
                          Hops, 10,311 pounds:
                            Hay, 4408 tuns:
                         Butter, 34,870 pounds:
                          Cheese, 9995 pounds:
It would be well to have the census taken by the town constable, or some
other person of the township, and to have a copy entered upon the record
of the town.
                   ===========================Page 51
It appears form the church records of Barattleboro that arrangements
were made as early as 1769, between the inhabitants of that town and
those of Guilford for the support of Mr. REEVES, a Congregational
preacher.  The people of Guilford were to pay half the salary, L60, New
York currency, and one sixth of the settlement, which was also L60, and
Mr REEVES was to preach half the time for them, they losing the time
when bad weather prevented his preaching there.
the first edifice erected for Congregational service was located upon
one of the highest hills, at what is called Guilford Centre, through the
village, so called , is about a mile to the northward of the
geographical centre of the town.
The early settlers, descendants of the pilgrims, on entering and taking
possession of a new country, see to have associated their religious
condition with that of the Jews on entering the Holy Land, and their
idea of worship was always connected with the act of going up to the
temple of the Lord."  There is moreover, a natural association between
religious sentiment and elevated position.
The size of the township from its origin in early colonel, times, arose,
doubtless, from the limits over which a congregation of healthy,
energetic persons could conveniently travel, on toot, if necessary in
going to and returning from church.  It was in fact the religious parish
that determined the size of the civil municipality:  and when Benning
WENTWORTH made his township grants embrace six miles square, he was
following a custom that had already become established by usage.
Persons form all parts of the town used to attend this church, and at
times the roads were thronged on the Sabbath by those who wended their
way to it.
The house though large, was often more than filled, so that many sat
around the doors outside.  It was built during the last decade of the
last century, at a time when the town had attained its maximum
population.  The graveyard was on one side of it, and the large
two-story mansion of Doct. HIDE on the other.  This church was as we
remember it, a large, two-story weather-stained building, without a
steeple, a circular window at the gable-ends, large, square pews, the
seats on hinges, and an upper gallery extending round three sides.  The
congregation stood while at prayers, and the seats were raised to give
more standing room.  When the prayers were finished the seats were
lowered and were usually allowed to fall to their places with a great
clatter.  There was no means of warming this edifice in winter, since it
was before the days of furnaces and stoves; but ladies often carried
small foot-stoves made of tin, which were heated by a cup of coals
placed within.
In summer when the weather had become warm, young ladies appeared in
white dresses; and as wheeled vehicles had hardly begun to be
introduced, many rode on horse-back.  Following the primitive custom of
the times, some of the foot-travelers carried an extra pair of shoes
with them, which they put on in the place of an older and poorer pair
just before entering the church, leaving the old pair tucked away
outside.  Boys and girls often went barefoot in summer time, and when
they attended church, they carried their shoes in their hands until they
reached the church door.
                   ===========================Page 52
After the union of the Congregationalists with the Episcopalians of the
East Village in 1819, this church was still used on alternate Sundays
for a time; but finally, it went into the possession of the
Universalists who arose in town and by them was taken down in 1837, and
put up in a new shape, in the village at the foot of the hill.  The
mansion of Dr. HIDE was destroyed by fire; and nothing now remains upon
the hill from which these two stately edifices used to overlook the
country around except the grave-yard.  The monuments there will shew by
their inscriptions that the town has seen better days.
Across an intervening valley, stood another similar edifice with the
same weather-stained appearance, and the same circular windows in the
ends.--It was designed for the use of the Baptists.  At what precise
time it was built we have no authentic information.  It was never
entirely finished, and was taken probably down about the year 1833, for
the purpose of being rebuilt in Brattleboro, where it is now called the
"Valley Mills."
A smaller building nearer Hinesburg and on a lower site was erected in
1816 an, and has been in constant use by the Baptists ever since.  It
has recently been repaired and ornamented with the addition of a small
steeple.  It contains about 40 pews, and may average an attendance of
100 persons.  In 1860 it was presented with a communion service of
silver by Mr. E. BLAKE of Springfield, Mass.
It would appear from the records of this church that the early settlers
of Guilford were largely composed of Baptists, since at one period there
were four considerable societies in town of that denomination.
                        Richard WILLIAM'S Church
so called, was organized in 1780, and by the close of the following
decade it numbered 100 members.
This congregation was probably located in South Hollow or the eastern
parts of the town and perhaps in both.  There was formerly a church
edifice in East Guilford which has long since been taken down and moved.
                          Second Baptist Church
The second Baptist church was constituted in 1781.  Its preacher in
1796, was Rev. Whitman JACOBS.
                          Third Baptist Church
The Third Church was constituted in 1782.  It was located in the
northern part of the town and the Reverend Peleg HICKS was its presiding
elder for some 18 years, when in June 1800 it became united with the
Second Church.  It is now the only Baptist society in town.
                          Fourth Baptist Church
The Fourth Church was constituted in 1797, in the southern part of the
town.  In 1802, Benjamin BUCKLIN became its pastor and preached some 20
years.  It then dissolved.
These church societies usually assembled in dwelling-houses, barns,
school-houses and groves; the only established place being those which
we have already mentioned.
                          The Baptist Ministers
who have officiated for this church since the Rev. Milo TRACY are:
Rev. Edmund H. SMITH, 1842
Rev. Samuel S. Kingsley, 1848
Rev. Henry ARCHIBALD, 1852
Rev. John HUNT, 1855
Rev. Joseph B. MITCHELL, 1867
                   ===========================Page 53

Rev. J.P. HUNTINGTON, 1859:
Rev. Geo. CARPENTER, 1861:
Rev. Jonas G. BENNET, 1864:
Rev. Samuel FISH, 1867:
The members are gratified with the belief that the church is now in a
reviving condition.  It has remained as a bright light through the
darkest periods of the town's decline, and has been the centre and
principle of Christian union and social comfort to some of our
substantial and most worthy families.
We are indebted for the principal of these facts to Dea. John CARPENTER,
Church Clerk, who is a native of the town, and is now [1869 or 70]
seventy six years of age.
                      The Episcopal Church Edifice
of the East Village has been newly slated , painted, and thoroughly
repaired since 1860, for which service the parish gratefully
acknowledged the assistance of Mrs. Jane McMILLAN of Cleveland, Ohio, a
native of Guilford.
This church used formerly to have an attendance of about 300; but of
late years it has been maintained under great disadvantages; its members
having been gradually, but constantly reduced by death and emigration
until regular attendance numbers only between forty and fifty persons.
Yet these are full of hope that their days of greatest trial are past,
and that they may transmit to future times of worship which with its old
pleasant memories has been such a warming source of union to themselves
and their fathers.
The clergymen who have officiated in Christ Church since the
ministration of the Rev. Frederick WADLEIGH from Sept. 18, 1841 to June
30, 1845, are:
Rev. John B. PRATT, a second time, Aug. 23 1846 to Aug. 8, 1850.
Rev. G.C. EASTMAN, May 18, 1851.
Rev. Ethan ALLEN, October 1855 to May 19, 1867, at which time this
worthy pastor died.
Rev. Silas M. ROGERS, from Aug. 4, 1867:
                             The Methodists
have a small chapel at Green River which was built some years ago and
which has been recently repaired.  Its erection and the support of
service there were largely due to the efforts of Mr. Samuel CUTTING.
According to tradition the first Methodist preaching in Guilford began
about seventy years ago.  We have this statement from
                            Mr. Amherst LAMB,
an exhorter in the church.  Between the years 1820 and 1830 this sect
exhibited the greatest activity and seems to have attained its widest
                        the preacher now is the
                           Rev. A. G. BOWKER,
and service is held by him in succession at the East Village, at
Guilford Centre and at Green River.  The attendance at all three places
numbers considerably less than 100 persons,-- Mr. BOWKER was preceded in
the minority by the Rev. Hubbard EASTMAN.
                        Univrsalism In Guilford.
In 1829, Matthew Hale SMITH, who has since distinguished himself as a
clever newspaper writer and as the author of several works, among which
is "Sunshine and Shadow in New York," came to Guilford to preach
Universalism, then, comparatively, a new doctrine in that part of the
country.  He was a young man of talent, about 18 of age, and, he soon
                   ===========================Page 54
came very popular with his hearers.-- He preached in the old
Congregational  church at Guilford Centre; but does not appear to have
remained long since in 1832, her returned to Hartford.  Severices were
held from that period at intervals until about 1860, since which they
have entirely ceased.
                         Congregational Church.
In 1855, a small church for Congregational service was erected in the
East Village, the
                         Rev. Moses G. GROSVENOR
became the preacher and continued in that office with intermissions,
laboring with zeal and fervor until 1865, when he removed to the West.
Since the departure of Mr. GROSVENOR, there has been only occasional
preaching at this church, and generally by the Methodists.  The Young
Men's Christian Association of Brattleboro have recently held
prayer-meetings there on Sunday afternoons.
The attendants on services there was never considerable.  Its erection
does not seem to have been occasioned by any growth of religious
interest, or the want of additional church accommodation:  for there was
already a sufficient number of such edifices in town to seat nearly, if
not all the inhabitants.-- From the most reliable statements we have
been able to procure, not more than one person in six, or five at
farthest, attends church of any denomination.  The religious spirit of
the people as evinced by church-going, when compared with what it was
forty years age, exhibits a marked contrast and decline.
But though the maintenance of religious worship has undergone a change
the educational interest of the town appears to have been kept up with
unabated care and attention.
There are 41 districts in town and though the number of pupils in each
is less than half what it used to be though the expense is doubled and
we are not so many to bear it as formerly.  Summer and winter schools
are still held in each district.  The winter school now, is often kept
by young ladies, where the services of a male teacher used to be
considered necessary.
A general progress in these schools during the last generation is
noticeable particularly in this, that it is not infrequently the case
that the more advanced scholars in arithmetic are taught algebra.
A general social improvement among the people is also remarked in the
greater number of musical instruments of the higher order that are met
with in the houses of the inhabitants.  Young ladies may be heard
playing the piano or melodeon where twenty years ago such instruments
were hardly known.
During the present decade the currency of the country and prices of
every thing have been inflated by the war of the Rebellion, and the
wages of teachers have correspondingly risen with those of other classes
of employees.   The average pay of male teachers 20 years ago was $14 a
month; of female teachers five or six dollars per month.  The average at
this time is about $30 for male teachers and from $12 to $16 for female;
but when females teach winter schools their wages are about the same as
those of males.
Select schools have occasionally been established in town;  but they
have never been maintained for any considerable length of time.
                   ===========================Page 55
The following are the names of men who as far as we can learn, have
entered college from Guilford:
Dana HYDE, Jr.-  U.V.M.- Doctor:
Timothy PHELPS, "  "  "   - Lawyer:
Henry DENISON, do, - Lawyer & Ed.:
Erastus ROOT,      "  ,  - Doctor:
Timothy ROOT, Amherst, Cong. Cl.:
Isaac BUCKLIN, Baptist Clergyman:
William BULLOCK, William's College:
Ebenezer BOYDEN, Yale, Epis. Cl.:
Justin CARPENTER, Union, Lawyer:
Mark CARPENTER,     "   , Bap. Cl.:
Ira CARPENTER, Middlebury, Teacher:
Samuel GREGORY,                , Teacher:
Amos W. HART, Middlebury,     "
Henry W. ALLEN, Hobart, Epis. Cl.:
Alex. V. G. ALLEN, Gambia,   ":
Besides these, Gen J.W. PHELPS graduated at the West Point Military
Academy in 1836, and entered the army.
James M. TYLER graduated at the Albany Law School in 1860 and became a
John PHELPS received an honorary degree of A.B. form the University of
Vermont in 1811.
Amos W. HART, mentioned, spent but one year in Middlebury:  he then
pursued his studies in Germany.
Samuel GREGORY is President of the College of Female Physicians, Boston,
Hosea BALLOU, President of Tufts College, Mass. is a native of Guilford.
Alex V.G. ALLEN is Professor in the Theological Seminary, Cambridge,
The Rev. Wilbur FISK has been previously mentioned as a native of the
town.  On window No. 14 in the Metropolitan Memorial Methodist Episcopal
Church, Washington, D.C. is the following inscription:
      "Wilbur FISK, D.D., John DEMPSTER, D.D. Founders of Methodist
                    Theological Schools in America."
James and Daniel PACKER, natives of the town, became Baptist clergymen.
                         Lawyers And Physicians,
Royal TYLER Elisha BIGELOW and John PHELPS have been the principal
practicing lawyers of the town.  There has been no resident lawyer in
Guilford since 1835.
Drs. Dana HYDE, Sr. and Benjamin STEVENS were the earliest settled
physicians of whom there is any record.  Both resided on the hill near
the old Congregational church, and both reared each a son to the medical
profession:  Drs. Dana HYDE, Jr. and Benjamin W. STEVENS, the latter of
whom is still living in town at the age of 80 years.
Drs EDWIN and Elisha CROSS, and Frank BURDICK have practiced medicine in
town for short periods of time and Dr. N. WEBSTER is now in practice.
At what time military trainings began in Guilford we have no precise
information; but as early as 1775, an organized band is mentioned as
being present from there at the disturbances of Westminster.  Those
disturbances sprand from the general spirit of liberty, independence and
disaffection then prevailing against the mother country which was
greatly aggravated still by a belied on the part of the settlers that
the royal court then about to
                   ===========================Page 56
set at Westminster would give decisions averse to their land claims and
titles.  The sitting of the court was resisted by the "liberty men," who
were in turn attacked by the court party, or tories, and several of
their number wounded, two of them mortally.-- The band from Guilford
marched to the support of the "liberty men."
In 1782, seven years after this event, we have the record of three
companies in town, the names of whose officers are given.  And even
earlier still in February 1776, a company belonging to Guilford is
mentioned in a report of Col. Benjamin CARPENTER to the New York
Provincial Congress.  From this time the militia organization of the
town appears to have been kept up with get spirit for more than half a
century.  About the year 1830, this spirit began to decline and by the
close of 1840, had nearly expired, the last June training having taken
place, it is said, in 1846.
Perhaps at no time did the military spirit run higher than during the
decade between 1820--1830.  At one time of this period, there were three
large food companies in town besides a cavalry company which was made up
in part from Barttleboro.  The cavalry and one company of infantry were
called volunteer companies, while the other two companies were usually
termed "flood-wood"; so called form being made up from all kinds of men;
every one between the ages of 18 and 45; with certain exception, beigh
obliged to train and furnish his own musket, equilpments and uniform.
No companies in regular service ever made a better appearance than the
two volunteer companies; their uniforms were exceedingly martial in
appearance, and their arms and equipments were complete; as were,
indeed,, also, those of the flood-wood.
The infantry volunteer company uniforms consisted of a blue coat trimmed
in yellow, large eagle buttons, white drill pants, gaiters or boots,
white vest, leather stock, and leather helment with high tin crest from
which flowed long, red horse-hair, while from a cockade on the left rose
a tall, red feather plume with white top.
This cavalry had for its Captain between the years 1823 and 1829.
Philip MARTIN, a soldier of the war of 1812, a man of great military
spirit and character and of devoted patriotism.  His father had served
in the Revolutionary war, and he, himself, had a son, who served in the
department of the Gulf during the War of the Rebellion.
The cavalry uniform consisted of red coats, blue pantaloons and helments
like the infantry, but trimmed with bearskin, as also, were their
holsters.  Their arms consisted of a long saber, a brace of brass
mounted pistols, and they usually rode fine horses.
When the first Tuesday of June arrived, all these troops swarmed from
the hills and vallies to training at the "middle of the town."  The
thunder of the bass drum, the rattle of the snare drum, the fife, bugle
and clarionet awakened the slumbering echoes; bright armor and showy
uniforms gleamed amidst the green foliage then all in its prime, and the
town was all astir, gingerbread, lemons and oranges and apples scarcely
less valued than they at that season, cider, pop-beer, etc were offered
for sale from waggons at every turn: rum, punch of the most delicious
kind was mixed in unstinted quantities at the store and tavern; the
troops marched and countermarched, maneuvered and fired blank
                    =========================Page 57
the rolls were called and unlike the practice in Shakespeare's time, all
who were absent, not those present, were pricked, and nveer was there a
more enjoyable time for all both old and young than June training day.
In the fall of the year when the stress of the summer work was over, a
more extensive military parade was made and the companies of several
neighboring towns joined together for "general muster."  At musters
                               Sham Fights
were held, where the maneuvers appropriate to real battles were
performed, and at times a band of men representing Indians in dress and
warefare style, formed a part of the contending scores, making some
piece of woods on the field ring with the medley of their yells and the
crack of their rifles.
At one of these musters held at Brattleboro, Sept. 11, 1816, the
Guilford Light Infantry Company was on the ground by daylight in the
morning but its ardor was somewhat damped by being ordered to take the
left of the regimental line instead of the right , a position which its
commander, Captain MARTIN claimed by virtue of commission, if not by the
excellence of his company.  The order being reiterated he marched off
his company and mustered, inspected and drilled it by itself;  as the
men were proud of their old warrior captain, they would sustain him in
anything that he might do.  He was court martialed, but finally
acquitted, gen. Jouathan HUNT, then a candidate for Congress, acted as
his attorney; and doubtless political considerations had much to do in
occasioing as well as settling the discord.
Since that period, the population has rapidly declined, the young and
enterprising going to the West.  Of all the military activity that once
existed in Guilford--of all the paraphernalia in which it once
exhibited  itself, by the year 1850, hardly a vestige remained.  It
would probably have been impossible then to have found half a dozen
muskets or parts of uniform in town, and such was actually the case on
the break out of the Rebellion in 1861.
Since that war an effort has been made by the State to revive the
militia, and Guilford has been associated with Vernon in raising one
company as part of the 12th regiment of the State.
                             The War Of 1812
We have no means of ascertaining fully the names of number of men who
went from Guilford to the War of 1812, since no record of them was kept
as there ought to have been on the town book.
The following names have been furnished to us, taken chiefly from the
muster roll of the 2d Company of the 31st United State's Infantry which
was in the Battle of Plattsburg, and may be relied on as correct, viz:
                         Sergt. Philip MARTIN:
                        Private Samuel ROBERTS:
                          "        Asa BULLOCK:
                         "         Joel BOLSTER, Jr:
                          "         Benjamin DENNIS:
                         "         Rodolphus EDDY:
                            "        Theophilns WADLEIGH:
                         "        John K. CHASE:
                           "         George CARPENTER:
                          "         Joshua CULVER, Jr:
Besides these it is known that Ephraim GALE, Jr. and Jonathan CHASE
served in the cavalry, and that Joseph JACOBS died in the service.
                   ===========================Page 58
The war of 1812 was not very popular in New England, and it has not a
few opponents in Vermont:  But immediately on its declaration by our
Government, June 18, 1812, a company of old men called the "Silver
Grays" was organized and drilled many of whom had been Revolutionary
soldiers.  They called themselves "minute men", and with their sliver
locks rendered impressive by Revolutionary memories, they made an
imposing appearance, forcibly to the rising generation to sustain the
country in her hour of need.
The names of some of this company of the Silver Grays as handed down by
                           Gen. Aaron BARNEY:
                              Isaac NOYES:
                              James NOYES:
                              John PHELPS:
                            Cyrus CARPENTER:
                          Samuel SHEPHERDSON:
                             Joseph BOYDEN:
                             Nathan HATCH:
                             James PACKER:
                            James SLAUGHTER:
                            Aaron FRANKLIN:
                           Elihu FIELD. Sen:
                              David BAKER:
                             Jonah CUTTING:
                          Joel BOLSTER, Sen.:
                              Paul CHASE:
                             Cyrus MARTIN:
                             William MARSH:
                           Ephraim GALE. Sen:
                            Andrew WILKINS:
                             Thomas LYNDE:
                            Jason MAKEPENCE:
                             William HINES:
                             Fred ASHCRAFT:
The officers known to have gone from Guilford to the War of 1812 were:
              Jeremiah GREENLEAF, 2d Lieut. 31st Infantry:
                       Benj. W. STEVENS, Surgeon:
                 Jonathan K. CHASE, Captain of Cavalry:
                    Isaac NOYES, Captain of Infantry:
After the war, Benjamin W. STEVENS returned to the practice of medicine
in Guilford, where he still remains at an advanced age.
                             The War Of 1861
the number of men tarnished by Guilford for the War of the Rebellion as
credited in the reports of the Adjutant General of the State is 124
men.  Not all of these were inhabitants of the town: some of them were
procured elsewhere.  Several were negroes, who had joined our regiments
in the South.  The sum total of bounties paid to these men amounts to
$3,656.29.  the highest bounty paid to any one man being $10.50.  It
will be seen that the town furnished one man for about every ten of its
inhabitants, and at a direct cost of $27 for every man, woman and
child.  The names of all these men cannot now be given:  we here record
such as we consider authentic.
                       Volunteers For Three Years
                      Previous to October 17, 1863
                            Eliphas ACKELY:
                            David G. BAKER:
                           Herbert C. BAKER:
                             Charles BIXBY:
                           Thompson BURDICK:
                           George P. BURROWS:
                            Andrew CATTLEY:
                            Henry R. CHASE:
                            James CLIFFORD:
                   ===========================Page 59
                           Myron L. CORBETT:
                             John W. CROSS:
                           Samuel C. CUTTING:
                             Edmund FISHER:
                           Thomas FLIEN [?]:
                           Lorenzo FRIZZELL:
                           Edward P. GREGORY:
                            Stephen GREGORY:
                            Elenzer GROVER:
                            Henry A GROVER:
                             Thomas HARMON:
                            Elbridge G. HILL
                            George W. HILL:
                           Elisha H. JAQUITH:
                              Owen JONES:
                            Robert G. JONES:
                            Robert J. JONES:
                          Edward K. KEPLINGER:
                           Elbridge F. LYNDE:
                           Francis J. LYNDE:
                            Lewis H. LYNDE:
                            Daniel H. MARSH:
                            William MARTIN:
                            Gilbert McCLURE:
                          Gilbert D. Mc CLURE:
                             Patrick MOORE:
                             Osman NELSON:
                           Horace S. WARREN:
                          Charles S. WILLIAMS:
                           Herbert S. PIERCE:
                           Frederick W. RICE:
                         Lucius B. SHEPHERDSON:
                             Lewis SPEARS:
                          Charles D. STEVENS:
                           Herbert E. TAYLOR:
                            Rufus C. THORN:
                            Thomas E. TOBY:
                            Emery L. TUBBS:
                            Roger A. TUBBS:
                            George WHEELER:
                           Herbert M. WORDEN:
                       Volunteers for Three Years
                   Subsequently to October 17, 1863.
                           Harvey D. BARRETT:
                             George BOWEN:
                             John CARROLL:
                            Otis F. CHILDS:
                             Gilbert CLARK:
                             William DOLAN:
                              Frank DYER:
                             Thomas ERWIN:
                           Charles P. HOWARD:
                            Franlkin MARTER:
                             Joseph MARTER:
                            Thomas MONOHAN:
                              John O'NEIL:
                            Frank J. PUFFER:
                             Amos F. SMITH:
                             William SMITH:
                             George WELLS:
                            George A. WELLS:
                            William WINSLOW:
                        Volunteers For One Year.
                           Samuel B. BOYDEN:
                            David D. BROWN:
                           Langdon J. GROVER:
                          George C. WILLIAMS:
                             Ezra W. PLUM:
                           Moses W. ROBINSON:
                            James M. WARNER:
                            Lynde A. STARKE:
                       Volunteers For Nine Months
                             John B. BAKER:
                           Herbert S. BANGS:
                          Charles R. BARDWELL:
                             Samuel BOYDEN:
                           Hollis H. BURNETT:
                            John F. BURNETT:
                   ===========================Page 60
                            Joel FLAGG, Jr.:
                            Austin A. HILL:
                            Samuel S. HUNT:
                           George A. JACOBS:
                            Samuel B. WARD:
                            Henry W. JACOBS:
                           Frederick H. KING:
                              Jason MANN:
                             Elemer MASON:
                            George R. RYDER:
                           Loren SHEPHERDSON:
                           Sandord A. SMITH:
                           Grove L. STODDARD:
                         Frederick A. THOMPSON;
                           William H. TYLER:
                            Orrin F. WILSON:
                           Entered U.S. Navy
                              John CHASE:
                            William CLOSSON:
                           Charles FULLERTON:
                             Thomas O'NEIL:
                            Peter PATTERSON:
                            Entered Service
                           William M. EVANS:
                            Allen J. POTTER:
                            Francis BERTON:
                              John WATSON:
                             Charles SMITH:
                             Patrick NAGLE:
                             John E. TYLER:
                             John WALLINS:
                            John STEVENSON:
                             William COOK:
                               John DUNN:
                           Manuel BROUGHTON:
                             James GRANSON:
                       Killed, Died, And Wounded:
         The following is a list as far as can be ascertained.
                           George A. JACOBS:
                            George W. HILL:
                           Elbridge F. LYNDE:
                             John W. CROSS:
                            Herbert PIERCE:
                          Charles S. WILLIAMS:
                            Elbridge G. HILL
                            Stephen GREGORY:
                           Moses W. ROBINSON:
                             Edmund FISHER:
                            Elisha JAQUITH:
                            George A. WELLS:
                            John F. BURNETT:
                            Robert J. JONES:
                             Fred W. RICE:
                             Lewis SPEARS:
                           Herbert E. TAYLOR:
                          Edward K. KEPLINGER:
                            Lewis H. LYNDE:
                             Patrick MOORE:
                             Emery L. TUBBS.
Of the wounded, one case is of such peculiar interest that we will
append an account of it:
                            Herbert E. TAYLOR
Sergt. Co. F 4th Vermont Infantry enlisted Aug. 31, 1861:  wounded in
the Battle of the Wilderness:  First wound in the small of the back
right side of the spine, bu a piece of shell, weighing 3'12 oz., from
bore of our own guns.  It passed through to the left side of the spine
where it remained four months and was then removed by Dr. Geo. F. GALE
of Barttleboro:  also at the same time, he received a gun shot wound in
the left foot:  the ball of which remained in the wound four
                   ===========================Page 61
weeks.  A piece of the heel-bone was afterwards removed by Dr. GALE.  He
                       Officers Of The War Of 1861
General J. W. PHEIPS and General Charles E. PHELPS, sons of John PHELPS,
are both natives of Guilford.  The first entered the service as Colonel
of the First Regiment of Vermont Volunteers and the Second as Lieut.
Colonel of the Maryland Seventh.
Colonel Halbert S. GREENLEAF, son of Jeremiah GREENLEAF, was also born
in Guilford.  He commanded the 52d. Massachusetts Volunteers in the
Department of the Gulf.
Besides there were:
Henry R. CHASE, Major, of the 11th Vermont Vols.
Roger TUBBS, Lieut. of the 11th Vermont Vols.
Thomas BURDICK. Lieut. of a Colored regiment
Frand E. BURDICK, Surgeon of an Illinois regiment.
William W. LYNDE, Capt. 8th Vermont Vols.
Henry H. PIERCE, Lieut, of 7th Connecticut Vols.
Frank H. HOUGHTON, 2d Lieut. 17th Ohio Battery
William W. LYNDE, Captain 8th Vermont Volunteers.
the various branches of manufacture which have sprung up in the town
since its first settlement have generally flourished only for a short
time.  Numerous efforts have been made to rethem stable, but they have
not thus far met with such success.  We give a list of such as have been
pursued at different periods. viz:
                        Agricultural implements:
Barrels, bed-steads, chairs,--cabinet furniture;  boots and shoes;
brick, brooms, buttons:
Carriages, carts, sleigh and sleds:  cider-brandy, combs, cotton-yarn;
Harmonicons, harness-trimmings,--hats of all kinds:
Inkstands; leather; linseed-oil; malt; ox-yokes, ox-bows; plows;
Some of the first cast iron plows ever made in Vermont, were made in
Fulling, cloth-dressing, wool-carding were formerly carried on at threee
or four establishments, but these branches of industry as large
factories arose, went gradually into disuse.  They are still
occasionally met with, though not in Guilford, the last in town, having
disappeared some 15 years since.
Yet a family of the old style is seen now and then where the woman
raises ten or a dozen children, does all her own work and spins and
weaves enough to clothe them all, herself and husband included.
The domestic linens manufactured in town some forty to fifty years ago,
might compare favorably with those produced in any other quarter of the
Elegant furniture was manufactured at that period by Elihu FIELD, a son
of one of the original proprietors of the town.  His side-boards which
it was common to see in all the principal residences of those days were
noted for their beauty of design, convenience of use and excellence of
workmanship.--though no longer in fashion they are frequently seen in
Guilford and the adjoining towns at this day.
                   ===========================Page 62
The manufactures now existing may be represented by four principal slate
quarries, one birck-yard, three black-smith shops, one paper-mill, four
perambulator shops, one shop for chair-stuff and bed-steads, one
grist-mill and seven saw-mills.
the slate quarries and brick-yard have been in operation for more than
half a century.  The quarries gave employment at one time, between 1850,
1860, to over 100 men;  some 50 or 60 are now employed upon them.--the
slate is of the best possible quality of a dark blue color, hard, firm,
with a metallic ring, and apparently of unending durability.  The
quarries extend along a line of some six miles in the eastern part of
the town, and occur at points amidst the prevailing formation of rough,
gnarled mica slate.
                             Medical Spring
In 1868, the Medical Spring at the Centre Village, after having remained
unnoticed for many years was again brought into use.  In that year Mr.
James DALTON, formerly from Boston, Mass., but more lately from
Calcutta, Hindostan, and who was spending a time at Brattleboro for his
health, and turning his attention to the tradition concerning it, and
being convinced of its value, Mr. H. purchased, together with several
other gentlemen, the old HOUGHTON farm on which it is situated and
commenced bottling the water for market.  Before the close of the year
many cases of bottles had been sent to Boston.  An excellent
diddertation on the qualities of the water had been published in
pamphlet form by Doct. ROOT of Guilford, 51 years previous.  The
qualities then ascribed to it were confirmed by a recent analysis made
by Dr. Charles T. JACKSON, State assayer to the commonwealth of
Massachusetts and analytic and consulting chemist.  Its ingredients are:
                 Carbonate of lime per gal. 15.80 grs.
                  Carbonate of soda per gal. 2.40 grs
                  Carbonate of iron per gal. 2.99 grs
                Carbonate of magnesia per gal. 0.60 grs
                  Chloride of sodium per gal 2.41 grs
                   Insoluble silica per gal 0.60 grs
 Organic vegetable matter with traces of nitrate of potash and traces of
                       sulfate of soda 0.40 grass
                    Solid matter per gal. 30.80 grs
         Carbonic acid gas 30 cubic inches or 13.74 grs per gal
            The water is tonic and ante acid in its effects.
                      Navigation Of the Connecticut
the town of Guilford does not border upon the Connecticut River, but it
approaches it to within about a mile at its nearest point.--near enough
to feel the warming effect of its waters, and thus to enjoy in its
eastern borders a growth of the sunny chestnut about its usual latitude.
To a town from which so large an amount of produce went annually to
market as from Guilford in former years, the navigation of the river was
a matter of great importance. It was hoped that steam might be
introduced upon it to advantage.  Its waters maintained a greater
average depth in those days, before so much of the pristine forests were
cut away, than it does now, and its current was already a channel of
considerable commerce with Hartford and the towns on its banks by means
of long pole-boats.  These boats while ascending the river and when the
south wind was fresh, would often hoist large, squae, lug sails and
                   ===========================Page 63
when the canvass bellied out full, nothing could be more beautifully
picturesque than their stately march as they steadily stemmed the
current among the fields and villages along its course.
In anticipation of a successful issue of schemes of improvement by the
navigation of the river, the town constructed a road to the last village
down Broad Brook to the Connecticut, which had never been accomplished
till towards the close of the decade following the year 1820.  But the
ascent of a small steam-wheel stemmer as far as Barnet, effected by much
pushing and hauling was all the result accomplished at this time, and
though other partial attempts were made, the subsequent introduction of
railroads and the reduction of the number of inhabitants by emigration,
rendered farther efforts unnecessary.
              The following is the record of town action:
                        Request For Town Meeting
                          Jan'y 20th A.D. 1825
To the Selectmen of Guilford:  We the undersigned, inhabitants and
freeholders of said Guilford, request that a Town meeting be called for
the purpose of choosing a delegate to the Windsor Convention on the 13th
of Feb'y next, for the purpose of taking into consideration the
navigation of Connecticut River, which we consider of Vital importance
to the town of Guilford.
                            Willard MARTIN,
  Cyprian STEVENS, Edward HOUGHTON, Edward HOUGHTON, Jr. Philip MARTIN,
                            Benj W. STEARNS.
These are to notify and warn the inhabitants of the town of guilford who
are legal voters to meet at the Town House in said Guilford, on the 7th
day of July next at one o'clock P.M. for the following purpose, to wit:
1st To choose a moderator to govern said meeting.
2d To see if the inhabitants will vote to choose some one person to
represent the town of Guilford in a Convention to be holden at Windsor
in the County of Windsor & St. of Vt. on the 15th day of Feb'y next to
take into consideration the propriety and devise the best means of
rendering the waters of Connecticut River navigable for boats and
uniting the waters of Magog Lake therewith.
3d To transact any other business though proper when met
                           Aaron BARNEY     |
                        Wm. BIGELOW     |          Selectmen.
                             Elihu FIELD   |
A meeting was held agreeably to the foregoing notice, and chose William
MARTIN Esq. Moderator.  Then voted to send a delegate to the Windsor
2d. Voted, seven dollars be paid out of the Treasury for the expenses of
said delegate.
3d Voted to choose a delegate, a first and second substitute.
4th Chose John PHELPS Esq. Delegate, Cyprian STEVENS Dana HYDE Jr.
5th Voted to chose
                             Jonah CUTTING
                                Guy ARMS
                              Jos. BOYDEN
                              Philip MARTIN
a Committee to make an estimate of the products and transportation to
and from market, number of tons &c.
Report made & accepted, handed over to the Delegate.
                   ===========================Page 64
Voted to dissolve said meeting.
A true record of notice and proceedings thereon.
                  Attest. Cyprian STEVENS, Town Clerk
>From the origin of the State government ot the present time.
March 1778:  Benjamin CARPENTER & John SHEPHERDSON
October 1778:  Comfort STARR & Levi GOODNOE
1779:  David STOWELL & John NOYES
1780:  David THURBER & Levi GOODHUE
1781:  William BULLOCK & John SHEPHERDSON
1782:  William SMALLEY:  this being the first year that the town did ot
have two representatives.
1783:  Benjamin CARPENTER & Thomas CUTLER
1784:  Lovewell BULLOCK & William BULLOCK
1785:  William BIGELOW
1786, 7, 90, 96:  Peter BRIGGS
1788:  Benjamin CARPENTER
1789, 91-5, William BIGELOW
1799-1804, 1809-11. John NOYES
1805-8, Gilbert DENNISON
1812, 15, 21, 28,9, Aaron BARNEY
1813, Jonah CUTTING
1814, 18, John PHELPS
1816, 19, 22, 25. Willard MARTIN
1820,24, Joseph BOYDEN
1823, Amos BILLINGS
1826-27, Dana HYDE, Jr
1830-33, Russell HYDE
1831, 32, Ward BULLOCK
1834, Nathan COURANT
1829, 44, 45, John LYNDE
1841, Isaac BROWN
1842-3, Elihu FIELD
1846, 56, Samuel L. HUNT
1847, 48, Nathan P. CHAIN
1849, 50, Aaron C. BARNEY
1853-4, Cyrus CARPENTER
1857, 8, 67, 8, C.C. LYNDE
1859,60, Levi BOYDEN
1861, William W. BARNEY
1862, 65, 66, Stephen SMITH
1863, 64, Samuel L. HUNT.
                       State And County Officers.
the following are some of the State and County Officers from Guilford:
Benjamin CARPENTRE, Lieut. Govrnor, 1779:  Member of the Governor's
Council, 1788:  Member of the Council of Censors, 1784:
John SHEPHERDSON, Judge of the Supreme Court from 1778 to 1779:
Royal TAYLER, State's Attorney from 1796 to 1800:  elected Judge of the
Supreme Court in 1801.
Samuel SHEPERDSON,  Member of the Governor's Council, 1803,4,5:
Register of Probate in 1806:
Gilbert DENNISON, 1806-10:  Member of the Governor's Council, 1809 and
10:  Sheriff from 1811 to 1819;  Assistant Justice from 1817 to 19:
John PHELPS, Register of Probate, 1809 to 12:  Member of the Council of
Censors in 1820, 34:  Member of the Governor's Council in 1831 and
1832;  one of the College of Electors 1828.
Cyrus CARPENTER was Sheriff in 1852-3:
Samuel L. HUNT was Senator in 1861:
Paul CHASE was at one period Deputy Sheriff, probably about 1820.
Aaron BARNEY served many years as High Bailiff.
                   ===========================Page 65
Col. Russell HYDE was Deputy Sheriff for a period of several years.
During the corn harvest in October the old style
was very common:  sometimes, in barns; out of doors, if the weather was
fine.  The weather during that season is often very pleasant, and the
moon with her quiet light and benignant expression gave an additional
exhilaration to the feelings, besides that naturally awakened by the
abundance of the golden corn fields.  The huskers, generally a score or
so, were seated in front of a large pile of ears; some in chairs, and
others on large pumpkins.  Maudlin songs and stories were invariably the
accompaniment of this kind of sport, which was usually followed at the
house by a treat of pie and cheese, with an occasional drink of rum from
the farmer's wife and daughters.
The young girl was taught industry, economy, exercise of taste,
forecast, etc.  She was taught to sew sometimes when fours years old.
The odd bits and ends of calico dresses were cut and basted for
bed-quilt blocks by the mother and given to Miss to sew.  The cover to
her quilt she was expected to finish by the time she became marriageable
and it was to be a part of her marriage outfit.  When the girl had
attained somewhere near her majority, eighteen, or somewhere near, a
quilting was given.  All the young ladies of the neighborhood assembled
at her house to complete the bed-quilt.  Stories and pleasant chat
enlivened the busy afternoon, followed by tea, after which the beaux
were expected.
It is told of Dr. Dana HYDE, Sen. that it became a custom with him when
called up late at night to attend a patient at some distance, as was not
unfrequently the case, he would inquire on entering the sick-room:
"Well; are you going to die?"  And, the Patient:  Oh!  I do'nt know,
Doctor, but, I am very sick!
The Doctor, after feeling the pulse of the patient, examining his
tongue, and finding, perhaps a case of indigestion form over-eating, or
something of the kind.  "Well, do you know what procus means?"
Patient:  No, Doctor, I do'nt know what it means.
The Doctor:  Well, procus is the Latin for Hog!"
On inquiring into the truth of this story, we learn that the case as
given, certainly occurred once.
                              Our Architect
the Master Carpenter of the old Congregational Church was William
SHEPHERDSON, or as he was usually called, "Uncle Bill SHEPHERDSON."  the
frame-work being ready, was put up, according to the custom of the
times, by a "raising-bee,"-- a large number of men who voluntarily came
together for the purpose.  The frame was thus put up, from ground-sill
to ridge-pole, in a very short time.  When the raising of the church had
thus been completed, it is a well-attested fact that "Uncle Bill" put
one foot over his neck, and on the other hopped the full length of the
ridge-pole, from end to end!
                             Our Strong Men
Mr. Thomas HINES, who at the age of 89 is still living (1869) with his
son in Brattleboro, came to Guilford with
                   ===========================Page 66
his father from Rhode Island when 9 years old.  It was from his father
that the village of Hinesburg was named.  As he grew up he became a
mill-wright and was employed in putting up the machinery of many of the
finest mills that were built in the surrounding country.  He was six
feet one inch in height, weighed 209 pounds and could lift nearly four
times his own weight.  He speaks of using an ash-log on one occasion, 20
ft. long and 14 in through the butt, one end of which was an over weight
for two ordinary men, but the whole of which he lifted with ease.
But there was another man in town, Nathan CUTLER, taller that he by
several inches, who has taken him up withone arm and carried him off the
ground in spite of himself.
This Mr. CUTLER was noted for his extraordinary power.  It is said at
the raising of a barn where it took 18 men to put upon of its sides, he
and John PHELPS together alone put up another.  I heard a man say that
he saw him once place himself under a horse, weighing 900 pounds and
lift him upon his back and shoulders from the ground.
                      Wrestling with Brattleborians
It was formerly customary to form "wrestling rings" and challenges were
given out for the championship of these rings.  The victor was called
the "Bully o the Ring," and was looked upon by the young men as an
object of envy.  The raising bees alluded to were favorite occasions for
forming these rings.  At the raising of the old church or meeting house
as it was called in West Brattleboro, the Guilford boys were challenged
by the Bratteborians for the usual wrestling match.  Twelve were chosen
on each side.  Dr. HYDE Sr, a very powerful man, was the first to enter
the ring form Guilford.  He alone, threw nine of the Brattleborians in
succession, and a man by the name of Jacob BARNABY, threw the other
                            The First Waggon.
The first waggon that ever came into town was brought in by John PHELPS
in 1810.  It was of a light blue color with wooden springs and cost
$65.  Previous to that time, people when they rode to meeting or to
parties, used to go in large lumber waggons, on horseback:  the women
often mounted on pillows behind their fathers, brothers, husbands, or
                               A case of
                            Breach of Promise
occurred in the early days of the town which occasioned much
merriment.-- A maiden lady by the name of Anna GOODENOUGH received an
offer of marriage from Deacon Jonathan ALLEN, who, however, subsequently
changed his mind.  On coming to inform her of the change in his
intentions, she expressed regret:  said if it must be so, it must:  but
it was a disappointment to her.  The Deacon replied that he was willing
to make good the damages if she would let him know what they were.  She
said that she thought that they ought to be as much as a dollar or four
and sixpence at least:  and the affair was amiably settled on that
basis;  but the Deacon became unenviably famous by it.
                          The Guilford Sorrels
the early settlers were fond of good horses.  Jonathan ALDRICH raised a
pair of sorrels about the year 1806, at the Wild Air or Deer breed, one
of which would trot a mile in less than three
                   ===========================Page 67
minuets with ALDRICH who weighed upwards of 200 on his back.  this horse
was sold for $300, which considering the time was a large sum to be paid
for one horse.
                              Nahum CULTER
The Village of Algiers owes its origin largely to the enterprise of
Nahum CUTLER, a native of the town of Guilford who was in many respects
a remarkable man.  This Village was being built up during the first 30
years of this century, the city of Algiers in Africa became particularly
noticeable in America.*** The idea of Algiers and its Day as its head
officer was called, became impressed upon the public mind; and as Mr.
CUTLER was a prominent character, studing in a similar relation to the
village which he was building up that the Dey did on the city of
Algiers, he was called the Dey of Algiers, and the village thus got its
name:  though its proper name is East Guilford.
Mr. CUTLER was born in 1776.  He was a man of gigantic stature, being 6
feet six inches in height, and his muscular strength was in every way
proportionate to his size.  He had a strong intellect, was an original
thinker, possessed an intuitive knowledge of men and was generally able
to control them.
On attaining his majority, he went to Connecticut and there took
advantageous contracts for supplying Hartford and other places with
water:  which he did by means of pine logs bored out for the purpose.
While thus employed he became acquainted with a Mis ADAMS of Hartford,
an heiress, who was as diminutive in size as he was large, whom he
married.  It was doubtless through her influence that he became attached
to the Episcopal form of worship, which he subsequently aided to
introduce into his native town.
Returning to Guilford in 1802, he devoted his future to building up
manufactures and business generally.  A company comprising himself,
Elihue FIELD, Artemas GALE, and others set un operation a
carriage-maker's shop, cabnet-maker's shop, blacksmith's shop, a
cotton-factory, distillery etc.
They erected a building for stores, and shops called the Tontine, in
which there was at one time a drug-store.  The national flag was often
seen flying from it and the people, animated by an intense activity were
much given to the consumption of gun-powder which they often exploded
form the old-fashioned 56 pound weights at other times then on
holydays.  Besides shops and a new tavern there was a church,, a
school-house, and a number of dwellings erected.  Previous to this time
the village consisted chiefly of the residence and grist and saw mills
of Mr. Levi BOYDEN, a tavern, school-house and a few scattered houses.
It prospered till about 1820, when on the close of the war with Great
Britain and the restoration of commercial relations with that country,
its manufacturing interests began to decline, and Mr. CUTLER and some
others of its business men went to Western Ne York.  The impulse thus
given to manufacturing, however, continued to be felt for many years
afterwards;  but it could not compete against the low priced labor of
Europe, -- the low tariff imposed by the dominate political party of the
country and the greater attractions that were offered by the virgin soil
and new life of the West.  Mr CUTLER removed from Cayuga
                    ==========================Page 68
County New York in 1836 to the State of Pennsylvania, where he died in
1840.  His widow still survives. (1869)
We have alluded elsewhere to Mr. CUTLER'S great strength.  It is told of
him while someone was boasting of the power of a horse which he had
purchased, Mr. CUTLER offered to draw against the horse, the load to be
on a stone-boat, up hill, each to carry the same weight.  Three men,
whose united weight was nearly 600 pounds were piled upon Mr. CUTLER'S
head and shoulders, and the boat for the horse was weighed with 11
bushels of corn-  Mr. C. drew the boat by falling forward upon his hands
and then rising repeating the operation:  the weight of the men on his
shoulders, actually helping to propel the load forward;  while the load
of corn was as much as the horse could well bear, to say nothing of
dragging the boat.  He could not budge an inch.
It is said that he afterwards ran a race of four rods weighted with the
same men against another man unweighed, who was to run eight rods, and
won it.
                          Retiring From Office
Instances have occurred, where persons have been selected to office
through a long series of years.  John LYNDE acted at town clerk for 15
years, concluding his period of service in 1854.  His immediate
predecessor, Ward BULLOCK, served form 1825 to 1839.  And in concluding
this imperfect sketch of the Town of Guilford, we cannot do better than
to repeat the words which this last named clerk entered upon the records
at the close of his official career as follows:
"Here close the arduous duties of fourteen years service as Town Clerk.
I now bid adieu to the cares and troubles of office with pleasure, and
with pleasing anticipation of enjoying in quiet the sweets and pleasures
of private life the few remaining days of my earthly pilgrimage and with
a devout and fervent prayer to the Father of the spirit of all flesth
that the richest and choicest blessings of heaven may rest on my
immediate successor in officer that he be endowed with wisdom form on
high to guide and direct him in all the duties of his official
estimation, as well as in the more pleasing ones of private live: and
may he be so fortunate in the discharge of those duties as to receive
the approbation of an approving conscience, an approving people and the
approbation of his God.  And may God save the people."--  And with a
hearty response to this sentiment, we thus close this historical sketch
of the Town of Guilford
              April 1, 1869.                       J.W.P.
                        Gen. John Wolcott PHELPS
                     By Cecil HAMPDEN Cutts HOWARD.
It has been truly said "the world knows nothing of its greatest men."--
Of the late General PHELPS, who as a soldier and author, gained but a
partial recognition of his merits before his death, it is perhaps the
most appropriate thing that could be uttered.
He died in his native town, Guilford, of heart disease.  Feb, 1 1885 at
the age of 71 years and 3 months.
Of his early life, prior to his entering of the West Point Military
Academy at twenty, we have but little record.  Spent in the company of
his parents and many who have since become distinguished, it is not to
be wondered at that he was always so much interested in literature and
                   ===========================Page 69
ical pursuits, to that degree that it showed itself all through his
later life.  His great-grandfather, Charles PHELPS, of Northampton,
Mass. was the first lawyer who ever came to live within the limits of
the State of Vermont.-- His grandfather, Timothy PHELPS, was also a
lawyer and held many positions of trust.
His father, John PHELPS, practiced law in Guilford, and the substantial
mansion of ye olden time and the law office which he used are still
General PHELPS' father was married twice, and of eight children, the
subject of our sketch was the sole survivor.
The second wife of his father was Mrs. Almira LINCOLN, the celebrated
teacher and author by whom he had two children, descendants of whom are
now leaving in Baltimore.
In 1836, General PHELPS graduated from West Point into the army a short
time before the out-break of the war with the Creek Indians.  As early
as 1838, his gallant conduct was conspicuous in the action of Locha
Hutchee, in January of that year.
After the war, he was put in charge of the emigration to the West of the
Cherokee Indians.  To quote his own words in connection with this
subject he has said:
"I had alwary believed the Indians more sinned against that sinning and
later in my life I finally came to use my pen in their behalf."
Many skirmishes and other duties in the South and in Canada occupied his
time until the out-break of the Mexican war, in which for two years he
lead a company and was prominent in the battles of Vera Cruz, Contreras,
and Chernbusco.  For gallant conduct he was breveted, but declined to
accept the promotion.  In 1850, he received a regular promotion.  For
some years afterward he was away from civilization and had the hardest
kind of border experiences.  In a diary written later, while in
Brattleboro, he says:
"In the spring of 1852, I was obliged to leave Brownsville, Texas,
because the government would not sustain me in my efforts to execute
their orders for the suppression of filibustering attacks from out
territory on Mexico.  It left me in the lurch among savages whose
cunning was exhausted in quiet, yet constant efforts to destroy the
government under which they lived.  I want then to Europe, simply
because I was not prepared to resign, having devoted my whole life
singly to the service, and remained abroad one year.
While in Europe he visited many places of note, and on his return wrote
and published his first volume, entitled "Sybilline Leaves."  this is
connected with his journal and very original.
In 1859, he resigned his commission after having served awhile under
General JOHNSON in the Utah expedition, and then returned to
Brattleboro, having completed nearly 23 years of military services.
Much of the intervening space between his leaving the army and the
out-break of the war of rebellion was spent in writing articles against
the aggression of the slave power.  In a sketch of the war he pens the
following account of his services:
"At the out-break of the Rebellion I volunteered my services to lead the
first company of Vermont volunteers which together with one regiment
from Mass-
                   ===========================Page 70
achusetts, and one from New York under my command, took possession of
the mouth of the James River, thus securing the strategic point for
subsequent reduction of the Rebel Capital.
>From the mouth of the James River I was ordered to the South West,
I occupied Ship Island with a brigade of New England volunteers, and
subsequent took part in the reduction of New Orleans.
I garrisoned the Fort near the mouth of the Mississippi, and was the
first to enter the Custom house as the citadel of New Orleans.
I then took possession of the Rebel works north of the City.  The gun
carriages of these works were still burning, having been set on fire
previous to their falling into the hand of the government troops.  The
guns had been spiked, but New England ingenuity soon restored them to
fighting order.  At Carrolton, anmed by me, Fort Parapet, our camp was
swarming with negroes which the government commands was ordering to be
returned to their masters.  I began organizing slaves as soldiers.  The
reasons for this movement were these:
First, men were wanted for holding the strategic points which had fallen
into the possession of the Government, as Vicksburg, Red River, Prot
Hudson, etc.  Second every slave when made a soldier, not only could
help hold a strategic point, but could help throw bullets at his old
masters, instead of supporting them in the rebellion with his labor.  In
short, there was every military reason in favor of the measure and note
against it.
I was ordered however by the Government commander to cease organizing
negroes as troops and to set them at work instead cutting wood for
markers and other labor.  In reply to this I decidedly refused to become
a  slave-driver, and resigned my commission and came to Vermont."
The given words coming as they do from his own pen tell the world much
more forcibly than could be done in the language of another.
In a short time after his resignation, the plan at first presented by
him was adopted, and before the war ended colored troops were plentiful.
In December 1862, General PHELPS was waited upon by a number of
prominent people who asked him to return to his post.  He accompanied
some of them to Washington and held an interview with President
LINCOLN.  The result was his immediate return to Brattleboro, as
President LINCOLN  would not accede to some things which General PHELPS
deemed important.  President LINCOLN offered him a commission as Major
General of Volunteers, or in other words as chief officer in command of
black troops.  General PHELPS' love of army life, his long service in
the same, and every surrounding circumstance combined to make him resent
the proposition.  It gave him no credit for previous service, and he
could not honorably consent to losing any part of the credit due to him
for the long time spent in active service.  In addition to this, the
fact that his idea of increasing the army by organizing and arming the
freedmen should have been taken later, though so violently opposed at
first, and acted upon through President LINCOLN's proclamation of
emancipation embittered the rest of his life.  He was ever after severe
and bitter in his estimation of President LINCOLN's character, regarding
him a weak
                   ===========================Page 71
man and a "time-server."  He had a deep sense of justice and his faith
once shaken, was not easily restored.
Returning to Brattleboro, he realized that henceforth his life must be
in a great measure spent among books, for his tastes were such that he
could not mingle to any great degree with his fellow men.  His friends
were few, but true, and the best of them were so unfortunate as to
misunderstand his motives.  He wrote much and made use of his linguistic
talents to translate a work form the French on Secret Societies.  His
study was his earthly paradise.  He lived in a giant, old house on
Asylum street in Brattleboro.  It was at some distance from the street
and overhanging trees shaded the winding walks by which the house was
reached.  On the front and one side a broad piazza surrounded the house,
and at the end of the piazza was a bay-window.  The house was a two
story frame structure of simple design.
As you entered by the front door, you found before you on the right a
flight of stairs leading to the second story.  On the left of the hall
were two doors, the one leading into the drawing-room, and the other
into the parlor.  These were furnished very simply and connected by
folding-doors.  They were like a soldier's quarters.  In every room the
long windows came down to the ground and opened out on the piazza
Opening out from the parlor was his study.  In the wide bay-window he
wrote day after day, and in fancy we can see him now, sitting at his
table writing, around him on every side the collection of books which he
had gathered from time to time in his travels.  Before him through the
vine-covered bay-window he could see the village street and beyond where
Mount Wantstiqut arose.  In front of the window was his garden.  In
summer and fall it was his delight to treat the children to pears and
apples which grew on his fruit trees.
It was before he left this home that he wrote the book, called "Good
Behavior."  The work was intended as a text book for schools, and was
adopted later in St. Louis and other cities.  The chief aim he had in
writing it was his idea that children should be taught good manners in
school, as well as at home, thereby ensuring to all a knowledge of many
of the rules of good breeding, so often unwittingly broken;  obviation
many of the difficulties which arise in the later life of many public
school pupils.  We quote from the book, as partial illustrations of its
"Conversation is a reflex of character, let us therefore cultivate a
tone of mind and a habit of life the betrayal of which need not put us
to shame in the company of the pure and the rest will be easy."
"True politeness has been defined, benevolence in little things.  We are
not to be polite, because we wish to please, but, because we wish to
consider the feelings of others;  because in a word, we desire to carry
into every act of our daily life the spirit and practice of that
religion which commends us to do unto others as we would they should do
unto us."
The first lessons taught young sovereigns should be the respect and
kindly regard which they owe each other."
General PHELPS was greatly interested in educational matters and for
many years was President of "The Vermont Teachers Association."  He was,
also, a leading officer of The Vermont His-
                   ===========================Page 72
torical Society.  Besides the works mentioned, he wrote as his last
published work, a small volume on Madagascar.  He contributed largely to
various periodicals throughout the country; among them "The Century,"
"The Christian Union," and "The Independent," as well as many scientific
Believing that "the Masonic Lodge was the cause of much of our country's
evils, he was always opposed to secret societies of every kind.  His
prominence in the matter, let to his becoming the nominee for President
of "The American Parth in the presidential election of 1880.
Perhaps upon no other subject was he so thoroughly misunderstood except
by the few.  His temperament was such, however, that he could not stand
idly by when anything arose to claim his attention, as being wrong or
unjust.  He never disguised his sentiments, but was always open and
frank in regard to his convictions.  His friends honored him for being
so true to his conscience.
In 1883, he married Mrs. Anna B. DAVIS, and soon after went to reside in
his native town.  Previous to this he sold his Brattleboro residence and
traveled a short time.
During his life in Guilford, after his marriage, he was very active in
the affairs of the community and also kept up his literary activity.
He was an earnest advocate of the Metric System, and the week before his
death delivered a lecture upon that subject which was highly instructive
and interesting.
And, not the least among his literary abilities may be counted his art
of letter-writing, in which his love of poetry was plainly portrayed,
and whether he expressed his thought in poetry or prose, he was always
at ease.
He had studied law and been admitted to the bar, thus adding another to
his long list of accomplishments.  He never practiced the profession,
although he would doubtless have succeeded admirably in it.
In person, he was a man of commanding presence, nearly six feet in
height, with a well developed, powerful frame and dignified bearing.
He was a man of deep religious feeling and strongly attached to his
church.  Fond of young people, his face framed in snowy beard and hair,
with the light of a genial countenance radiation therefrom, will never
be effaced fro the memory of his friends.  He passed away peacefully
during the night of February 1st, leaving a wife and infant son to
survive him.
The following original lines, written in a friend's album by him apply
to his own life
                  "Let us reflect through sorely tired
                     Neath cold, intemperate skies
                    Yet on dear winters farther side
                         A pleasant summer lies.
A more truthful and eloquent tribute to his memory was never given than
that by Col. HAWKIN's in the New York Times soon after his death which
we give as follows:
"General John W. PHELPS whose death was announced in your paper this
morning, was one of the most notable officers of the army.  He was an
accomplished soldier of the highest and best type, a patriotic citizen
with an unblemished reputation, a scholar, well versed in mathematics,
science, history, several of the dead and four or five of the living
                   ===========================Page 73
As a soldier, he was all that the best authorities demand, and even
more, for it might be said of him that he possessed an inner sense of
duty which no written formula could prescribe.  It was his faithful
care, intelligence and attention to his whole duty as a commanding
officer, and above all, his example of indefatigable industry which made
his command one of the best disciplined, best drilled, and most
efficient in the whold army.  He was not much of a believer in the
extra, unofficial, off-duty dress parade business.  Neither was he a
martinet.  He had the rare, good sense to accept the volunteer army for
exactly what it was.  He weighed its defects and measured its virtues
and governed the performance of his duties accordingly.  He knew he
could trust its patriotic sense of duty and intelligence to imitate a
good example, and its willingness to follow where it could not be
driven:  and there never was a commanding officer more implicitly
obeyed, or more confidently trusted.
It was my good fortune to have been ordered to his command at Newport
News, Va. soon after the outbreak of the Rebellion in 1761.  When I
reported to him with my regiment, I was given to understand that we were
engaged in a most serious undertaking, involving as it did the national
life, and that we could only hope to overcome our foes by taking
advantage of all our resources, (he was the first to urge the
organization of negro troops) and molding our raw material into a well
disciplined army;  that the accomplishment of the latter was the
immediate work in hand; and work he made of it, such as many of us never
dreamed of before; but we soon saw the necessity for labor, and the good
sense involved in his orders and criticisms, and all worked with a will,
officers and men to reward the great industry of a commander who had won
our affection and deep respect.  We went to him as children go to a
school and left him after three months tuition, a thoroughly well
disciplined regiment, of whose afte record he was justly proud.
To that kind hearted, quaint old man with his perfect sense of justice,
the officers and men of my regiment owe a debt of gratitude, which can
only be effaced from their memories when the last survivor of that
command shall have passed away.  This little statement, inadequate as it
is, is the tribute I bring to the grave of an honored friend of a
quarter of a century:  I could not do lett; I wish I could do more.--
Take him for all in all, I have never known a man so free from the
hypocrisies, sins, and vices which make humanity despicable, as was John
                            Rush C. HAWKINS
                         New York, Feb. 3, 1885
 As indicative of the high order of his poetic genius, we append the two
                      following, "Day" and Night:"
               On such a day as this, so fair and bright,
                All redolent with the breath of violets:
            While the gay, summer cloud revives in the deep
               Serenity above, and gleefully the wavelet
                      Laughs responsive form below
                 While songs of birds and city murmurs
                 Blend with music of playful fountains
            And bright sunbeams flash their threads of gold
              Amidst leaves and flowers, and throw oer all
              A magic gauze, through which nature glances
                     Like beauty through her veil--
                         On such a day, O God?
              the gladdened soul, like the cloud in ether,
                Swims in the joyous spirit of thy works
                     And thanks thee that it lives.
                   ===========================Page 74
               And now again 'thisnight' and such a night
                        With her star all bright
              Like jeweled princess, o'er whose dusky brow
                the electric light doth catch and play,
                   As of emotions deep and tremulous:
              Whilst the full rose sips at her dewy breath
               And opens the sweets of a swelling heart;
            Whilst the moist earth doth teem with quiet joy
               With all the promise of a fruitful year--
               Sweet with the perfume of myriad flowers,
             Gay with the fairy lanterns fireflies light--
             And plaintive with the song of whip-poor will
               When loving hearts for the first time feel
                The strange communion of this human life
                With the deep-hid mysteries of the stars.
[To which, we will append a poem by the father of General PHELPS, see
the poets of Guilford, page 46.]
                          By John PHELPS. Esq
                  Moonbeam soft from heaven descending
                           With silver light;
                   Radiant o'er yon mountain bending
                       Through shades of night.--
                  Now rising from the gates of heaven,
                 By light wing'd zephyrs gently driven,
                    Floating high o'er silent eve'n
                           Clear and bright.
                   Amidst cerulean stars you glitter.
                              High in air.
               In shades where wanton wood-nymphs titter
                              You repair;
                    And in yon glen Narcissa ramble;
                   On hills of shepherdesses gambol,
                   Or in her car bright Venus amble,
                            You sport there.
              Fring'd round the curling clouds high riding
                           With lucid glare,
                    Swift on aerial pinions gliding,
                             Soft and fair;
                 Now over you proud banners streaming,
                 Bright on the waves of ocean gleaming,
                  Through mist and vapor dimly beaming
                            You float there.
[Also from the Author of the nice book of Botany written at Guilford,
Mrs. Almira LINCOLN PHELPS, the scholarly and gifted widow of John
                         "A Farewell To Vermont
                        By Mrs. LINCOLN PHELPS.
            Land of the Mountains Green, and rugged soil;--
            Of cascades wild, of swiftly gliding streams;--
    Of darkly waving pines and stately firs;''-Of gloomy ravines and
                           romantic dells;--
              Of haunted glens and sweetly smiling dales!
             Land of my beauteous, mountain home, farewell!
                Yet still I linger;--for to me, thou art
                 A land of beauty, picturesque and rich
              In native charms;--a land for poets' dreams.
            For patriot's visions, and for angel's thought.
               Methinks there's inspiration in the breeze
             Reflected from you mountain's pine-clad side,
                  Breathing aerial music to my soul--
              The dying mid the groves with cadence sweet.
                There is poetry in science when it leads
               To gaze upon the rainbow's glorious arch.
                  To follow echo to her grottoes wild,
             To trace the circling planets in their course.
              And watch the bud first bursting into bloom.
                Nature, I owe thee much;--if I have felt
              Aught of the firm resolve, or wish sublime,
            Tis that I drand from thee the heavenly draught.
                 And gave thy moral image to the world.
                And, O, ye venerable oads!  whose shade
                Embosoms the dear spot I new must leave.
             Adieu, ye ancient friends! and may, sometimes,
            Thy feathered songsters thrill in pensive notes.
               Their sorrow for me, gone! for dear to me
              Their matin song and vesper-hymn hath been,
             Sweet home, adieu! flowers that I've loved to
          To tend, watching with care materal for your bloom;
            Others may cull your sweets, enjoy your charms.
              May twine my woodbine o'er the treilis neat,
                  May guide the Lonicera's spiral way,
             Or train the pensile Lycium's graceful stalk.
                   ===========================Page 75
              O, ye have been my pride, ye twinging race,
             Who have so beautified and cheered my bowers;
               And i have fancied as I've seen you climb,
              'Twas tratitude that urged your upward way,
                And gave luxuriant blossoms for my care.
               E'en on the very verge of winter's frost,
             Your bloom still lingers, as if fain ye would
          Cheer nature's gloom, and soothe this parting hour.
              My grateful flower, methinks I hear thee ask
              Why thus I leave thee to a stranger's care;
              Perchance, uncared for, trampled under foot
               By the rude hind as valueless and nought,
                My honeysuckle sweet, list to my words.
            Thou'rt a dear, docile plant, and pleasant 'tis
             To train thee in the way that thou shouldst go
            But I must tell thee, there are flowers on earth
                 Created for far pure skies that these.
                They are allied to thee in outward form,
               Being made of earth and beautified by God
                With shape and color, lovely to the eye.
                But God to these sweet flowers has given
                   Immortal spirits to survive decay.
                In yon fair sylvan land a garden blooms
               Of those immortal plants and fitting 'tis
           That skillful, patient hands should lend their aid
             To train them for the ends which God ordains.
              As step by step thy upward way I've trained,
              So must I guide them in their onward course
            Up learning's height, and virtue's rugged way.--
              Such labor calls me hence, but yet methinks,
              When frost of time shall settle on my brow,
              And age ask respite from the cares of life,
           Like Noah's wandering dove, my flowers, my birds.
               My ancient trees, again I'll come to you.
               Here stands my home, above the busy town,
           Peeping through clustering oaks with col'mus white
             And fair proportions.  Quick the eye of taste,
               Beholding from the bustling street below,
                 Panses to mark its beauty, and admire
           A scene so fair, lonian portico and verdant lawn,
               Plazza, graveled walks, and garden, fair.
               All, ail, adleu! No stranger shall intrude
              Within these halls scred to studious thought.
there, the fragment of the poem we have, breaks or ends.]
                           Wilbur FISK, D.D.
 By Rev. Alonzo G. HOUGH [Footnote, The Methodist pastor of Ludlow when
                  this was written, now of Montpeller.]
To the eastern branch of the Methdist Episcopal church the name of
Wilbur FISK will ever be an inspiration and his memory a perpetual
benifiction.  He was born in Guilford, Aug. 31, 1792, of old Puritan
stock and joined the church in his eleventh year.  In 1809, he went to
the Grammar School at Peacham, and in 1814, graduated with honor at the
Brown University, Providence, R.I.  Being the first Methodist minister
of the Eastern states who had the advantages of a collegiate education.
>From the time of his entering the ministry in 1818, he took a deep
interest in ministerial culture.  Craftsbury, this state, was his first
field of labor.  In 1819 and 1820, he was stationed at Charleston, Mass.
and then took charge of the Vermont District as presiding eldership, he
was elected as principal of the Wesleyan Academy, Wibraham, Mass. and in
1830, was canned to the presidence of Wesleyans University, Middletow,
Ct. of which he was one of the founders.  This position made him more
that ever a leader in the cause of education in the church.  FISK led
the whole Methodism of the East in educational enterprise.  Young men
from every part of the nation were attracted to the institution by the
fame of its president, and under the influence of his character they
were moulded for positions of usefulness in the collees and seminaries
which rapidly sprang into being thought out the United States under the
patronage of the church.
In 1829, Wilbur FISK was honored with the degree of D.D. by Brown
                   ===========================Page 76
University, and in the same year he declined the presidency of La Grange
College and a professorship in the University of Alabama.  He was twice
elected to the episcopacy, but declined the office saying, "If my health
would allow me, to perform the work, I dare not accept, for I believe I
can do more for the cause of Christ where I am than I could do as a
Without great brilliancy of genius, remarkable literary acquisitions, or
the very highest order of intellect, but endowed with vigorous and
evenly balanced facilities, good sense, quick sagacity, and a thorough
devotion of the mission he found himself called to accomplish, Wilbur
FISK was instrumental in giving to Eastern Methodism, through her
educational institutions, a position of respect and power, and he
rescued the church from the imputation of ignorance which had been cast
upon her by the educated clergy of other denominations.  When Mr. FISK
entered the ministry there was not a literary institution of any
importance under the patronage f the church.  His life work marked a new
epoch in her history, and his saintly character exemplified the doctrine
of perfection which has ever been prominent in her teaching and the
right hand of her power, she distinguishing qualities of men like
FENELON, CHANNING, EDWARDS, and  FLETCHER  of Madely, not in his nature,
giving peculiar grace and charm to his features, which were harmonious,
and to his voice which was softly flexible and deep.  His manner in the
pulpit was marked by dignity and his eloquence was of the highest
order.  Dr. STEVENS writes its effect: "No imaginative excitement
prevailed in the audence as under Max---'s eloquence, not tumultuous
wonder as under BASCOMB's, now of COOKMAN's impetuous passion or OLIN's
overwhelming power; but a subduing, almost tranquil spell, of genial
feeling, expressed often by tears or half suppressed ejaculations;
something of the deep, but gentle effect of SUMMERFIELD combined with a
higher intellectual impression.
For many years his life was an incessant struggle with pulmonary
disease.  He died at Middletown, Feb. 22, 1838.
Among his writings are "The Calvinist Controversy," "Travels in Europe,"
"Sermons and Lectures on Universalism," "REply to Pierpoint on the
Atonement," and other tracts and sermons.
                        Family Of  FELD Or FIELD
                           By Rodney B. FIELD.
Zechariah FIELD, son of John and grandson of John FIELD, the Astronomer,
born in East Ardsley, West Riding of Yorkshire, England about 1600,
emigrated to New England, in 1629; settled in Dorchester, Mass in 1636;
removed ot Hartford, Ct. in 1659; to Northampton, Mass. in 1663; to
Hatfield where he died, June 30, 1666.-- He married Mary ---- Children:
Mary, b. abt 1643; m. Joshua CARTER of Nhn. and Dhd. who was killed with
Capt. LATHROP at Bloody Brook, Sept. 18, 1675.
Zechariah, b. 1645
John, b. 1648
Samuel, b. 1851. (2)
Joseph, b. 1658.
2  Samuel Field, son of Zechariah and Mary (1) set. in Hatfield. Mass
where he was killed by Indians while hoeing corn July 13, 1697.  He was
a sergeant and under Capt. Turner at
                   ===========================Page 77
the Turner's Falls fight, May 19, 1776.  He m. Aug. 1676, Sarah dau. of
Thomas GILBERT of Hartford, Ct. d. about 1710.--Children:
Samuel, b. Sept 27, 1778 (3)
thomas, b. June 30, 1680.
Sarah, b. June 30, 1683; m. Nov. 8, 1702, Samuel WARNER of Springfield,
Zechariah, b. Aug. 29, 1685
Ebenezer, b. Mar. 17, 1688.
Mary, b. July 23, 1690; m. June 26, 1712, Jonathan HOYT of Deefield; d.
June 26, 1780. [On her 68th marriage day.]
Josiah, b. 5, 1692.
Joshua, b. April 9, 1695
3  Samuel FIELD, son of Samuel and Sarah (GILBERT) (2) b. in Hatfield,
Mass. Sept 27, 1678.  He settled in Deerfield in 1714 where he d. Aug.
28, 1762.  He was in the fight at the destruction of Deerfield, Feb. 29
1704; and was wounded in a fight with Indians, Aug 25, 1725, for which
he was granted 200 acres of land.  He m. Jan 10, 1706, Mary, daughter of
Joseph DEWARDS  of Northampton and wid. of Daniel HOYT Jr. of Deerfield,
who was killed, Feb. 29, 1704, She was b. Sept 15, 1675; d. July 25,
Elizabeth, b. April 16, 1707,
Samuel, b. Feb 20, 1709; died, Oct 24, 1726.
David, b. Jan 4, 1712 (4)
Euncie, b. May 9, 1714; m. Nov. 14, 1735, Joseph SMEAD of Greenfield.
Ebenezer, b. Oct 2, 1723; d. Oct 14, 1723.
                            David FIELD, Sen.
son of Samuel and Mary EDWARDS (3) b. in Hatfield, Mass. jan. 4, 1712;
settled in Deerfield where he d. Apr. 19, 1792.  He was one of the
Council of Safety of Massachusetts, and his name was signed to an order
on Col. Thomas W. DICKINSON of Deerfield, dated May 5, 1775 to finish
1500 lb. Beef for the troops to be raised by Col. Benedict ARNOD for the
capture of Fort Ticonderoga.  He was Commissary General under General
STARK at the Battle of Bennington, Aug. 16, 1777, with the rank of
Colonel.  He was one of the original proprietors of Guilford.  He m. in
1740, Thankful, dau. of Thomas and Thankful (HAWKS) TAYLOR of North
field, b. in Deerfield, July 18, 1716; d. March 22, 1803.--Children:
Mary, b. Oct. 31, 1741; m. Sept. 1, 1755, Rev. James TAYLOR of New
Fairfield, Ct.
Samuel, b. Sept. 14, 1743.
Rufus, b. July 20, 1745; d. July 26, 1746.
David, b. May 4, 1747
Trizah, b. April 16, 1749; m. (1) Nov. 8, 1771, Jonathan ASHLEY, Jr. of
Dfd. (2) Aug. 27, 1792, Rev. Johathan LEAVITT of Heath, Mass. d. Nov.
22, 1792.
Oliver, b. Sept. 13, 1751.
Elihue, b. Oct 17, 1753. (5)
Thankful, b. Mar. 25, 1758; m. Jan. 25, 1775, Col. Thomas W. DICKINSON
of Deerfield, d. Jan 21, 1836.
Hiland, b. Sept. 5, 1761; m. Consider DICKINSON of Deerfield; d. Oct.
31, 1831.
                              Elihue FIELD,
Son of David and Thankful (Taylor) (4) b. in Deerfield, Mass. Oct, 16,
1753, and in 1787 removed to Guilford, Vt. where he d. Aug 23, 1814.  He
was a soldier of the Revolution and a promi-
                   ===========================Page 78
nent man in town.  He was U.S. Deputy Marshal for taking the census fo
1810, and U>S> Dept. Assessor of Internal Revenue at the time of his
He m. Dec. 29, 1774, Hepsibah, dau. of Thomas and Prudence (SMITH)
DICKINSON of Deerfield, b. May 10, 1753; d. Mar. 30, 1843.
Gratia, b. Apr. 11, 1776; m. Dec. 9, 1798, Thomas LYNDE of Guilford; d.
Sept. 3, 1860.
Rectina, b. Nov. 6, 1777; m. Dec. 3, 1795, Richardson HOUGHTON of
Guilford; d. Aug 23, 1846.
Henry, b. Aug. 18, 1779.
Elihue, b. June 6, 1781.  (6)
Pliny A. b. June 2, 1783.
Matilda K. b. May 14, 1785; m. July 11, 1811, Robert STEVENS of Jordan,
N.Y.; d. April 13, 1858.
Filana, b. Dec. 12, 1787; m. Wiliam SMITH of Geneva, N.Y. d April 15,
Charlotte, b. Oct. 29, 1791; d. August 22, 1794.
Charlotte, b. Feb. 8, 1795; d. November 5, 1870.
6  Elihue FIELD, son of Elihue and Hepsibah (DICKINSON (3) b. in
Deerfield, Mass. June 6, 1781, settled in Guilford where he d. Sept 3,
1874.  He was a prominent man in town holding various town offices.  He
was Adjutant of the 1st Reg. 1st Brig. 1st Rev. of Militia during the
War of 1812 of which the duties were very onerous, but were performed to
the satisfaction of his superior officers.  He was appointed, Jan. 1,
1819, Postmaster and held the office 20 years, and represented the town
in the Legislature in 1842 and 1843.
He m. April 13, 1808, Pamelia dau of Ithamer and Prudence (DICKINSON)
BURT of Deeffield, b. Dec 27, 1783, d. aug. 10, 1872.--Children:
Rodney Burt b. Feb. 25, 1809. (7)
Cora Arabella, b. Dec 30, 1810; m. Aug. 15, 1836, Samuel HOUGHTON Jr. of
Guilford, d. Mar. 7, 1875.
Laura Pamelia, b. July 25, 1812; d. July 29, 1833.
Jane Sophia, b. Feb. 18, 1816; died, Aug. 27, 1819.
Jane Sophia, b. Sept. 2, 1820; died Dec. 23, 1866
7  Rodney Burt FIELD, son of Elihue and Pamelia (BURT) (6) b. in
Guilford Feb. 25, 1809, where he now, 1879, resides.  He was a member of
the last Constitutional Convention of Vermont held at Montpeliar, June
1870, and member of the Legislature 1870-72;  Postmaster for 13 years.
[dead ab. 5 yrs.
He m. Nov. 6, 1833, Louisa HADDOCK, dau. of Richard and Mary C.
(KIMBALL) CHAMBERLIN, b. in Hull. L.C. Sept. 7, 1810.--Children:
Richard Elihue, b. Oct. 15, 1834, d. Sept 21, 1837.
Pamelia Jane, b. Oct. 7, 1836; d. Sept. 25, 1837.
Cora Arabella, b. Sept. 6, 1838; d. Jan 5, 1829.
Ida Jane, b. July 21, 1842; d. June 25, 1853.
Julia Paulina, b. May 11, 1845; d. June 29, 1872.
Clifford Kimball, b. Oct. 9, 1848.
George Pliny, b. May 20, 1851
                        Family Of Abijah PRINCE
Abijah PRINCE, born in Wallingford Ct. 1706, a servant of the Rev.
Benjamin DOOLITTLE, the first minister of Northfield, Mass. settled in
1718.-- After the death of Mr. DOOLITTLE, he
                   ===========================Page 79
was the "servant of Captain Ebenezer WELLS of Deerfield.  In 1851, he
was allotted a share in the undivided lands of Northfield, which from
running the state line was in Vrnon, Vt. which he sold in 1783.  On his
marriage he settled on a little stream south of the cemetery and near
where the R.R. depot now stands in Deerfield, which still bears his name
"Rijah's Brook."  In 1764, he removed to Guilford, Vt. and took
possession of a lot, given him by Col. David FIELD, but soon after
returned to Deerfield where he remained several years.  He was an
original grantee, named in the charter of Sunderland, Vt. and the only
nee who settled there.  He returned to Guilford in his old age where he
died, January 19, 1794, age 88.  The place where he lived and died is
still called the "Bijah Lot."
He was familiarly known as "Bijah" and Caesar, his oldest son was
baptised by the Rev. Jonathan ASHLEY  as son of "Bijah, negro, and Lucy,
his wife."-- He was married, May 17, 1756, by Major Elijah WILLIAMS to
Lucy TERRY, "servant to Ebenezer WELLS."  She was brought from Rhode
Island to Enfield, Ct. when 5 years old (date unknown) and said to have
been of pure African blood.  She was baptised "on her master's account."
June 15, 1735.
Lucy was a noted character and her house was a great place of resort for
the young people, attracted thither by her wit and wisdom, often shown
in her rhyme and stories.  The best contemporary account of the Bars
fight, August 25, 1845, is her poetic one in HOLLAND's History of
After settling upon the SUTHERLAND grant, the title to the property was
contested by Col. Eli BRONSON, and the matter finally got into the
United States Court.  Colonel BRONSON employed two leading Vermont
lawyers:  Gen. Stephen R. BRADLEY, and Royal TYLER, the wit and poet and
afterward Chief Justice of Vermont.  Isaac TICHENOR, afterward Governor
of Vermont, managed the case for Bijah.  He drew the pleadings, and Lucy
argued the case before the court.  Hon Samuel CHASE of Maryland the
presiding judge, said Lucy made a better argument than he had ever heard
from a lawyer in Vermont.  Desiring a liberal education for one of her
sons, probably, Festus, she applied at Williams College.  He was
rejected on account of his race; the indigent mother argued the case in
a 3-hours speech before the trustees, quoting abundantly text after text
from the scriptures in support of her claims for his reception.  She
died in Sunderland at a very advanced age.--Children:
Ceasar, b. Jan. 14, 1756; came to Guilford in 1776; was admitted to full
communion in the Congergational chh. in Guilford; was one of the
covenanters in the settlement of the Rev. Henry WILLIAMS, January 1779.
He removed to Sunderland where he died.
Duruxa, b. June 1, 1758, died insane in Sunderland.
Drusella, b. Aug. 1860, the 7th, --a poetess, d. Nov. 21, 1854.
Festus, b. Dec 12, 1763, a natural musician, could play upon any
instrument, he went to New York; d. in Dorset, Vt. in 1818.
Tatnai, b. Sept. 2, 1765, lived with Capt. E. HUNT, Northfield, Mass
Abijah, b. June 12, 1769, settled near Ballstown, N.Y.
Lucy came every year to visit Abijah's grave as long as long she lived.
I regret the date of her death cannot be ascertained; from what I have
heard my mother say, Lucy must have been alive in 1809 or 10.
                   ===========================Page 80
baptism of all the children is found in the Records of the Rev. Jonathan
ASHEY of Deerfield.
Lucy [TENNY] PRINCE's Poetical Account Of The Fight At The Bars In
                     August 'tws the twenty-fifth,
                   Seventeen hundred and forty-five,
                     The Indians did in ambush lay,
                     Some very valient men to slay;
                 The names of whom I'll not leave out:
                    Samuel ALLEN like a hero foute:
                  And though he was so brave and bold:
                    His face o more shall we behold.
                   Eleazer HAWKS was killed outright
                      Before he had time to fight;
                     Before he did the Indians see
                    Was shot! and died immediately.
                      Oliver AMADEN, he was slain,
             Which caused his friends much grief and pain.
                     Simeon AMSDEN they found dead,
                   Not many rods form Oliver's head.
                      Adonijah GILLETT we do hear,
                  Did lose his life that was so dear;
                   John SADLER fled across the water,
                And so escaped this dreadful slaughter,
                  Eunice ALLEN see the Indians coming,
                  Did hope to save herself by running;
                And had not her petty-coats stop'd her,
                The awful creatures had not catched her.
                    Nor tommy hawked her on the head
                   And left her on the field for dead.
Euncie ALLEN died, March 1828, I recollect having seen her when a boy.
She was not scalped as all the old accounts say; was b. 1738; was 90
years. old.
                             Elizabeth PECK,
born in 1780, removed here with her father's family while yet young.
They had for neighbors and friends the families of Judge TYLER and the
other literary persons of the town.  The society of these friends
stimulated her native talent; she wrote considerably for her own
amusement; but was so diffident about it, it was not know to her friends
generally till after her marriage when Judge TAYLER seeing a poem of
her, entitled " What is it to be Happy?"  had it inserted in a newspaper
published at Newfane.  It was received so favorably her friends proposed
she should collate her pieces, add to them and have a volume published;
but surrounded by a large family of children, and her health delicate
the project was abandoned.  Seh m. Bethuel RANGER of Colrine Mass. Apr.
3, 1804; died at 55. yrs.
                               The Violet
             Sweet Violet, earliest of fair Flora's train,
                Why dost thou shun the cultivated plain,
               And hide thy beauties in this lonely dell
                                Say, why
                thy modest beauties shun the public eye,
                 And in such solitude delight to dwell?
              Sweet harbinger of Spring's delightful reign
            I sought thee in my rambles through the fields,
                But ne'er thy beauteous form could find
                   T'ill lately, in this mossy gien,
                     I found thee, half concealed;
                     And midst the leaves confined.
               Methinks, I have the modest flower's reply
                        It is security, I count,
                   And therefore from the gay resord;
                Of pride and fashion, noise and strife,
                    And all that con embitter life,
                        With early speed I fly.
                 While here from care and danger free,
                    The friends of Nature visit me;
                    Delighted with my simple charms,
                     While with my various sweets,
                      I deck their green reteats;
                        Secure from all alarms.
                                                     Elizabeth PECK
Capt. John BARNEY, one of the first settlers, came here, 1764, with his
wife, Rebekah MARTIN, from Rhehobath Ma.  They raised 12 children, six
sons and six daughters who m. lived in Vermont; the sons, mostly, went;
West the youngest, Aaron, Brig. Gen. Vt. Militia, Town Cl. justice of
the peace, had two sons, Zenas, who went West and Aaron Chase, who mar.
Charlotte, dau. of Lovell BULLOCK, had 3 sons, 3 daughters; the eldest
W. W. is the present town clerk, now 8 yrs.  All the rest live in the
Previous town clerk, Sam's HUNT, 27 yrs. Selectmen, 1883-85:  Francis G.
TAYLOR, Wm. H. TAYLER, Amos S. SALLUP 1886-89: A.S. GALLUP, Frank E.
WARD, Joel FLAGG, Jr., Geo. E. HOUGHTON coms previous constable, J.H.