XX indexVermont  





      NEWBURY, the largest town in Orange county, is situated in the northwest corner of the county, in latitude 44° 6' and longitude 4° 52', and is bounded north by Ryegate, in Caledonia county, east by the west bank of Connecticut river, south by Bradford and a part of Corinth, and west by Topsham. It was first granted by Governor Benning Wentworth to Gen, Jacob BAILEY (or BAYLEY) and seventy-four others, in eighty-one equal shares, March 18, 1763. The boundaries described in the charter are as follows: 
"Beginning at a tree marked standing on the bank of the westerly side of Connecticut river opposite the mouth of Amonoosock river, so-called, from thence southerly or southwesterly down Connecticut river as that runs, till it comes to a tree there standing, marked with the figures 10 and 11, and is about seven miles on a strait line below the mouth of Amonoosuck, aforesaid. From thence running north fifty-nine degrees west, six miles and one quarter of a mile to a stake and stones; from thence N. 20° E. six miles and one-half mile to a stake and stones; from thence to the marked tree on the side of the river, the bound first mentioned."
      About the same time that Gen. Jacob BAILEY obtained for himself and others the charter of Newbury, John HAZEN obtained a corresponding charter for Haverhill; and in June of that year, 1763, the proprietors of Newbury and Haverhill had a meeting, with the view to the survey and allotment of shares, of the respective townships, and employed Caleb WILLARD as chief surveyor, and Benjamin WHITING as his assistant. WILLARD began his survey from the northeast boundary of Newbury, as made by his predecessor, Joseph BLANCHARD, in March, 1760, and proceeded down the river to BLANCHARD's next boundary, which he found to be over seven miles distant; but without stopping there he continued directly on, one mile and seventeen chains further, into the unchartered tract, where he made a new southeast corner of Newbury. WILLARD having set that bound went directly across the river and performed the same service for Haverhill. His assistant, WHITING, pursuing the survey of Newbury, ran north fifty-nine degrees west from the. new boundary eight miles, thus making the large addition of one and three-fourths miles on the west, giving the proprietors 40,000 acres, when entitled by the charter to but 27,000. Newbury now has 38,000 acres, appraised, including buildings, at $862.992, with a personal property appraisal of $795.768, and 515 taxable polls.

      The rocks entering into the geological structure of the town are of calcif erous mica schist in the western part, clay slate in the eastern-central part, and in the eastern part, bordering on the Connecticut river, is talcose schist. The surface of this town is hilly, the ranges of hills extending northerly and southerly, parallel with the Connecticut river, and rising terrace-like from the river to the summit of Wright's mountain, about 1,700 feet, and about 2,100 feet above tide-water. The climate is rigorous and severe in winter, the temperature sometimes reaching as low as 50°, and in the extreme heat of summer up to 100°. The forest trees are principally maple, birch, beech, elm, pine, hemlock and spruce. The town is well watered, the numerous brooklets and springs affording an abundant supply to nearly every farm. The more pretentious streams are, first, the "Beautiful Connecticut," extending along its entire eastern boundary, Wells river in the northern part, Hall's: brook in the southern, and Peach brook flowing through the central portion. Hall's, Harriman's, Long and Round ponds are also located in this town.

      From many of the elevated places in the town the views are grandly picturesque, looking eastward; but from the summit of the highland known as Wright's mountain the beautiful and sublime scenery can hardly be surpassed. The position is in the center of a vast amphitheater bounded and encircled by the Green mountains sweeping around from the east to the west, and the mountains of New Hampshire from west to east, with the towering peaks of Mt. Washington, Moosilauke, the Twins, and Ascutney, Mansfield: and Camel's-Hump clearly outlined in the distance. The beauties of the place, the bracing and pure air, fine roads and genial inhabitants, make this a favorite resort for denizens of the cities during the heated period of our short but hot summers.

      There was no settlement by the white people in the valley of the Connecticut above Charlestown, in N. H., (then called "No. 4,") until 1762, nor was there but three towns settled south of Charlestown in the valley. Hinsdale, or "Fort Dummer," was settled in 1683; Westmoreland, or “No. 2, in 1741; and Walpole in 1752. At Hinsdale and Charlestown forts were built and soldiers were stationed for the double purpose of affording protection to settlers and arresting the progress of the Indians from Canada, while meditating incursions upon the frontier of Massachusetts.

      In 1752 the governor of New Hampshire. made surveys of several townships on both sides of the Connecticut river, and formed a plan to take possession of the “Rich Meadows of Cohos." The design was to cut a road from “No. 4" to the Cohos, and to lay out two townships on each side of the river, and opposite each other, where Haverhill and Newbury now are. To induce people to emigrate to this new plantation they were to erect stockades, with lodgments for two hundred men in each township, and enclosing fifteen acres, in the center of which was to be a citadel containing the public buildings and granaries, which were to be large enough to receive all the inhabitants with their effects, in case of danger.

      In pursuance of this plan a party was sent up in the spring of 1752, to explore the meadows of Cohos and lay out the proposed townships. But the whole plan was defeated by the timely remonstrance of the St. Francis tribe of Indians.

      In the spring of 1752, John STARK (later Gen. STARK), Amos EASTMAN. David STINSON and William STARK were hunting in the town of Rumney, on Baker's river, and were surprised by a party of ten Indians. John STARK and Amos EASTMAN were taken prisoners, STINSON was killed, and William STARK escaped by flight. John STARK and EASTMAN were carried into captivity to the headquarters of the St. Francis tribe in Canada, and were led directly through the " Meadows" so much talked of in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. These men returned from captivity during the ensuing summer, and gave an interesting account of Cohos, and as the country was expecting the war with the French and Indians would soon be renewed, and that the French would desire the Cohos country for a military post, the general court of New Hampshire determined to send a company to explore the region. Accordingly, in the spring of 1754, Col. LOVEWELL, Maj. TOLFORD and Capt. PAGE were sent out with instructions to pursue the track of the Indians as they came from the great valley to Baker's river and the Pemigewasset, and returned with their prisoners They left Concord, March 10, 1754, with John STARK for a guide, and in seven days reached Connecticut river, at Piermont. But they spent but one night in the valley, when they made a precipitate retreat to Concord. The probable cause of this failure to explore the region to which they were sent was their fear of an Indian foe superior to their own force. The government was not discouraged by this failure, and the same season, 1754, Capt. Peter POWERS, of Hollis, N. H., Lieut. James STEVENS and Ensign Ephraim HALE, both of Townsend, Mass., were appointed to march at the head of a company to effect what had hitherto been attempted in vain. Capt. POWERS's journal sets forth each day's march, and shows that he left Rumford (now Concord), Saturday, June 15, 1754, and also that he reached what is now Haverhill, in Cohos, on the Connecticut, Tuesday, June 25. He continued his exploration up the Connecticut as far as the mouth of Israel's river, in Lancaster, N. H., and on Friday night, July 5; we find them on their return encamped on the west side of the Connecticut, and a little below Wells River. The last entry in the journal on the homeward trip was July 6, and is as follows: "Saturday, July 6th. Marched down the great river to Great Coos, and crossed the river below the great turn of clear interval, and there left the great river, and steered south by east about three miles, and there camped. Here was the best of upland, and some quantity of large white pines." No further attempt to explore or settle this valley was made until 1761, when Col. Jacob BAILEY, of Newbury, Mass., and Capt. John HAZEN, of Haverhill, Mass., were the principal agents in the :first settlement of Newbury and Haverhill in the Coos country. They both had been officers in the old French war and both stood high in the estimation of the government. It is supposed that they were encouraged to expect each a charter of a township in the Coos country if they commenced a settlement therein. They agreed to act in conjunction, and proceed harmoniously in the undertaking. Capt. HAZEN was to go on first and take possession on the east side of the river, and Col. BAILEY was to take possession of the west side, as soon as he could find suitable persons to do it, and come on himself as soon as his affairs at home would permit.

      Capt. HAZEN sent on two men with his cattle in the summer of 1761, Michael JOHNSTON and John PATTIE. They took possession of the Little Ox Bow on' the east side of the river. . They found this and the Great Ox Bow on the west side of the river "cleared interval," as Capt. POWERS had described it in his journal. This had in former years been cultivated by the Indians in growing corn. The hills were turfed over and a tall wild grass grew luxuriantly, and afforded an abundance of hay for the cattle, and was easily procured. At this time the Indians dwelt on these meadows, and were amicable and friendly. They had lost their strong ally, the French, at the close of the war in 1759, which, if unpleasant, was less repugnant to their ideas to have an English colony take possession of these meadows than it was in 1752 when they threatened war if the country was explored for the purpose of a settlement. It was a fine country, with a rich soil, easily cultivated, and well suited to their primitive means of husbandry.

      The river abounded with salmon, the adjacent streams swarmed with trout, and the forests were plentifully stocked with game-moose, deer, bears and wild fowls. It was a half-way station and resting-place between the Atlantic and Canada, and, what was still dearer to the Indians, it was the burial-grounds of their honored chiefs and braves. It is strange indeed that they quietly submitted to the usurpation, and allowed their pale faced brethren to possess their heritage in peace.

      There are indisputable evidences that this section of country was the permanent abode of the Indians, and three is no spot in all New England that could have afforded greater inducements.

      The late David JOHNSON, who resided his life time on the place of which he wrote, said: On the high ground, east of the mouth of Cow Meadow brook, and south of the three large projecting rocks, were found many indications of an old and extensive Indian settlement. There were many domestic implements. Among the rest was a stone mortar and pestle. Heads of arrows, large quantities of ashes, and the ground burnt over to a great extent, were some of the marks of a long residence here. The burnt ground and ashes were visible the last time it was ploughed. On the meadow, forty or fifty rods below, near the rocks in the river, was evidently a burying-ground. The remains of many of the sons of the forest are there deposited. Bones have frequently been turned up by the plough. That they were buried in the sitting posture, peculiar to the Indians, has been ascertained. When the first settlers came here, the remains of a fort were still visible on the Ox Bow. The size of the fort was plain to be seen. Trees about as large as a man's thigh were growing in the circumference of the old fort. A profusion of white flint stones and arrow heads may yet be seen scattered over the ground. It is a tradition that I have frequently heard repeated, that after the fight with LOVEWELL, the Indians said they should now be obliged to leave Coossuck."

      Among the Indian families who returned to Coos after the old French war were two of special distinction-John and Joe, or Captain John and Captain Joe, as they preferred to be called. John belonged to the St. Francois tribe and had been a noted chief. He was fierce, barbarous, and cruel, and the terror of the boys as long as he lived. He was at the battle when Braddeck was defeated, and related how he shot a British officer who had knocked him down, and tried to shoot young Washington, but could not. He had used the tomahawk and scalping knife upon the defenseless inhabitants of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. He was present at Boscawen when, that place was surprised, and he related with fiendish satisfaction that he struck an old woman on her head who was unable to travel as fast as they wished to retreat, and that she made a noise like a calf when wounded on the head. He also related that at the assault on the inhabitants near Fort Dummer that he mutilated a woman by cutting off her breasts, and he would imitate her shrieks and cries of distress. John had two sons-Pi-al and Pial-Soosup, both very different from their father, being mild and inoffensive.

      Captain Joe was a young man when he came to Newbury. He had belonged to a tribe in Nova Scotia which had been scattered when he was young. He, with the remnant of his tribe, joined the St. Francois tribe and grew up with them. Joe was amiable and never sought a quarrel, and boasted that he never "pointed the gun," meaning at his fellowman. Joe's wife Molly had two sons by a former husband when they came here. Their history is that Molly eloped with Joe, who was a great favorite with the dusky daughters of the St. Francois tribe. Her sons' names were Toomalek and Muxa-Wuxal. Muxa-Wuxal died, causing Joe and Molly the ordinary grief for the loss of a son, but it was otherwise with Toomalek. He was low in stature, lacking two inches of five feet, but broad shouldered and very muscular. His stiff, coarse hair grew within an inch of his eyes. He was cruel, revengeful and a murderer. At maturity he became enamored by a young squaw named Lewa; but another Indian named Mitchell was his successful rival and married Lewa. He determined on murdering Mitchell and taking the fair Lewa to himself. It was not long while watching with gun in hand before he discovered the young pair seated by a fire, side by side, at the upper end of the Ox Bow, in Newbury, happy in each other's society, and unconscious of impending danger. Toomalek took aim at Mitchell, discharged his gun, but poor Lewa received the ball in her breast and expired that evening. Mitchell was also wounded, but soon after recovered. Toomalek was tried for his crime by his Indian peers, Capt. John presiding, and was acquitted on the ground that he did not intend to kill Lewa, and, as Mitchell would recover, he was no murderer. Old John's influence alone saved him. But Toomalek still cherished a rancorous hatred for Mitchell who had taken another wife as attractive as Lewa. Toomalek took a bottle of rum and with a white man, Ebenezer OLMSTEAD, went to the wigwam of Mitchell and commenced, beating the company. OLMSTEAD observed that Toomalek drank but little, while Mitchell imbibed freely. Mitchell; excited by the rum, upbraided; Toomalek for killing his wife and wounding him. Being tantalized and frenzied by his foe, Mitchell drew his knife and made a feeble pass at him. Whereupon Toomalek drew his, and gave him his death wound at once.

      For this offense Toomalek had his trial and was again acquitted by old John, on the ground that Mitchell made the first assault, and Toomalek's plea, of self defence. But Old John, who delighted in blood, and was instrumental in saving the life of Toomalek, brought upon himself a fearful calamity, but perhaps a just retribution, no less then the death of his son Pial. Toomalek, Pial and several others were over on Haverhill side, were turbulent and noisy, and showed plainly that they had been drinking. They called at the house of Charles WHEELER and asked for more fire-water, but got none. On their return they met a young squaw from Newbury, who rallied Pial on some past acts of gallantry, who returned her joke for joke. Perhaps Pial bantered her too near the truth. At all events the dusky beauty took the matter seriously. She called Toomalek to her side and after a brief conversation passed on. Toomalek then stepped back and walked beside Pial, and in a few minutes he drew his long knife, and, with a back-handed blow, plunged it into Pial's throat. The knife entered above the sternum and descending penetrated the lungs. Pial ran a few rods, with the blood gushing from the wound, and fell lifeless to the ground. His companions at once informed their white neighbors of this murder, and Toomalek was taken, without resistance or an attempt to escape, and was carried into Newbury for his trial next day. When the news of the murder of Pial came to Old John he was almost frantic with grief, and his conscience awoke to duty. The next day a court was called which tried Toomalek, which gave a unanimous verdict that Toomalek must be shot. By Indian law, Old John must be the executioner, as he was nearest by blood to the slain, and he must avenge the blood of his son. The ground floor of the old court-house was designated as the place of execution, and Toomalek came to the place himself, without guard or attendance, where Old John stood with his loaded musket. He seated himself on the floor, said his Catholic prayers, covered his eyes and said "Mack hence," that is "Kill me quick?" And it was done in an instant. Joe and Molly were both present at the execution, and as soon as it was over Joe took one arm and Molly the other, and they dragged the body from the house and buried it. Molly had mourned bitterly for the death of Muxa-Wuxal, which happened the same season; but she shed not a tear over the grave of Toomalek, nor was she ever heard to speak his name afterward. Old John was afterward found dead by the side of a log at the foot of the hill near the garden of William JOHNSON.

      Capt. Joe was the avowed enemy of the British who had broken up and dispersed his tribe in Nova Scotia, for which he now forgave the "red coats," and did all in his power to aid the Colonies during the Revolutionary struggle, and rejoiced at the reverses and final downfall of his and their enemies. He and Molly paid Gen. Washington a visit at his headquarters on North river, and were entertained with marked distinction. To the last he boasted that he shook hands with Gen. Washington. So great was his hatred of the king of England that nothing could induce him to again put his foot on British soil. In one of his hunting excursions he had followed a moose two days with fair expectations of taking him, and when he found the moose had crossed the line into Canada, he stopped short, and said "Good bye, Mr. Moose !" and returned to his camp. One season he and. Molly built them a wigwam in Derby, and while he was absent from it hunting, the St. Francois Indians, who had heard of his encampment, came and stole Molly away, hoping that he would follow, but he would not. Joe and Molly have each a pond called after them, in Cabot. Joe survived Molly many years. When he became old and infirm the legislature granted him an annuity, which was increased from time to time to. $70 annually. He spent the last years of his life in the family of Mr. Frye BAILEY, in Newbury, where he died February 19, 1819, aged seventy-nine years. He was buried with honors in the cemetery near the village, where the people with whom he lived, and who cherish his memory as a patriot and benefactor, are designing soon to erect a suitable monument to commemorate the sterling virtues of this "Prince of the Red Men" and the last of his kind in the beautiful Coossuck valley.

      In the spring of 1762 the first settler of Newbury, Samuel SLEEPER, a Quaker preacher, employed by Gen. Jacob BAILEY, came from Hampton, N. H., and located himself and family a little south of the Kent farm. He was to hold possession till the General could come on in person. Next came Thomas CHAMBERLIN, from Dunstable, N. H., and located on Mushquash Meadow, south of the "Great Ox Bow.;' He was soon succeeded by Richard CHAMBERLIN, who came from Hinsdale, N. H., and settled on Mushquash Meadow. CHAMBERLIN landed at the ferry about noon, with his family, and before night he had erected a cabin of posts and bark that served as a habitation the ensuing three months. A large stump standing in the center was utilized for a table. These two CHAMBERLINs were not in the interest of Gen. BAILEY or Capt. HAZEN, but were sent on by Oliver WILLARD, of Northfield, Mass., who was trying to supplant BAILEY and HAZEN. But they succeeded and WILLARD failed. WILLARD's disappointment and anger was so great that he gave out vaunting threats that if he caught HAZEN out of the settlement, he would flog him to his heart's content. This hero of the French war was not much disturbed by this braggadocio. These two men eventually met in Charlestown, and WILLARD, in attempting to execute his boastful threat, "caught a Tartar," and received a tremendous whipping. The same year, 1762, John HASELTON, from Hampstead, moved into Newbury, and first settled at the foot of the hill south of Johnson village. In 1763 his daughter, Betsey HASELTON, the first white child of Newbury, was born. The same year Jacob Bailey CHAMBERLIN, son of Thomas CHAMBERLIN, was born. Being the first male white child born in Newbury, his parents received one hundred acres of land from Gen. BAILEY.

      In 1763 Newbury received its charter, as before noticed. This year Noah White came with his family and settled in Newbury, and Thomas JOHNSON located on the Ox Bow, and also Col. Jacob KENT came and located on the Kent place November 4, 1763.

      The first town meeting under the charter was held by the freemen of Newbury at Plaistow, N. H., June 13, 1763, and not less than one hundred miles from their township. At this meeting the officers elected were: Mr. Jesse JOHNSON, town clerk; Caleb JOHNSON, constable; Lieut. Jacob KENT, Lieut. Benjamin EMERSON and Capt. John HAZEN, selectmen. Before this meeting adjourned they voted to unite with Haverhill in paying a preacher for two or three months “this fall or winter."

      The settlement of Newbury was greatly increased in 1764, and by men whose character and influence are still impressed upon the town. Among the number was Gen. Jacob BAILEY and family, who arrived in October of that year. The Rev. Peter POWERS also came, and preached to the people. In the fall of that year (1764) the First Congregational church of Newbury was organized, composed of members from both sides of the river, at Newbury and Haverhill. January 24, 1765, the Rev. Mr. POWERS received a call from this church and society to become its pastor, which call he accepted, and by vote of the society the installment was to take place “down country where it is thought best." The council selected for this interesting ceremony were the Reverends Abner BAILEY, Daniel EMERSON, Joseph EMERSON, Henry TRUE and Joseph GOODHUE, with their churches, and the place thought best was Hollis, N. H., where the installation took place February 27, 1765. Rev. Mr. POWERS preached his own installation sermon. Mr. POWERS's goods were brought by the people of Newbury and Haverhill upon the ice on the river the last of February. We give place to the following incident which took place on this journey. Owing to the lateness of the season the ice had become weak and brittle in some places, and when the party reached the mouth of Ompompanoosuc river in Norwich, the sled of Mr. WAY, an eccentric church member, broke through and came near going down, sled, team, WAY and all. By the prompt assistance of the company all were extricated from the impending danger. As soon as WAY found himself secure on the strong ice, he turned about to survey the swirling and turbulent pool from which he had just escaped, and turning to his companions exclaimed, "That is a cussed hole." This in a little time reached the ears of Mr. POWERS, who at once called on Mr. WAY and said that he had been told that he had been speaking wickedly. "What is it?" inquired Mr. WAY. "They say that you said, speaking of the Ompompanoosuc, that it was a “cursed hole.” WAY answered, “Well, it is a cursed hole, and I can prove it." “Oh, no, you cannot, you have done wrong and must repent, Mr. WAY." "Why," said WAY, "did not the Lord curse the earth for man's sin? and do you think that little devilish Ompompanoosuc was an exception?”

      The first meeting-house was built of logs, 28x25 feet, and a little south of Gen. BAILEY's, which they occupied some years. Then a framed meeting-house was erected near where the “Old Meeting-House” stood. The location of this house, for some reason, was not satisfactory, and it was pulled down and removed to the site west of the burying-ground and converted into a court-house and jail. In 1790 the "Old Meeting-House” was erected near the site from which its predecessor had been removed. This was an imposing edifice in its day, and said to be the first in Vermont furnished with a steeple. The Passumpsic Railroad Company purchased it on the completion of the railroad, designing to convert it into a depot, and in attempting to remove it bodily, it had an ignominious fall in transit at the hill.

      As late as the Revolutionary war there were no roads for heavy teams, and goods that were not brought on the ice of the Connecticut in winter were obliged to be carried on pack-horses from Concord, N. H. The glass for Col. Thomas JOHNSON's house was brought in this manner. Col. Robert JOHNSON opened the first tavern in Newbury, in a house a little south of where his granddaughter, Mrs. HIBBARD, now lives, and the supplies for his bar were brought to him in the same way.

      NEWBURY is a tidy and pleasant post village and railroad station, situated on a slightly elevated plateau bordering on the “The Meadows" of the Connecticut river, and about the middle of the eastern boundary of the town. This village enjoys the celebrity of being the first settlement of white people on the Connecticut river north of No. 4, now Charlestown, and was honored with two sessions of the state legislature (1799 and 1801), and at an early date was a half shire town. Its Congregational church was the second church organized in the state, and built the first church edifice in the state with a steeple. The present village contains an intelligent population of about 400 or 500 people, four stores, a neat and well kept hotel, two churches (Congregational and Methodist), the Newbury seminary, and a quiet summer resort and bathing establishment, "The Montebello Sulphur and Iron Springs." This property includes the beautiful grove situated on "Montebello," or "Beautiful Mountain," which, with Mt. Pulaski, situated on the western border of this attractive village, commands an extensive range and sublime and picturesque views of the white mountains, and varied, extensive and beautiful valley and meadow scenery.
      WELLS RIVER (p. o.) is located in the extreme northeast corner of Orange county, and at the confluence of Wells river with Connecticut river, and it is also the junction of the Passumpsic, the Boston & Lowell, and the Montpelier & Wells River railroads. This pretty village is separated from the village of Woodsville, N. H., by the Connecticut river. It contains a thrifty population of from 500 to 700 inhabitants, a good graded school, two churches (Congregational and Roman Catholic), the National bank of Newbury in Wells River, one hotel, Wells River House, eight or ten stores, including dealers of all kinds, three lawyers, two physicians, one dentist, and the usual complement of artisans and mechanics. The manufacturers are DEMING, LEARNED & Co., manilla wrapping paper; R. G. BROCK, furniture; W. G. FOSS, agricultural implements; J. R. GOWING, flour and meal; A. T. BALDWIN & Co. and F. & D. W. LEARNED, harnesses. Err CHAMBERLIN bought of Gov. Benning WENTWORTH 500 acres of land, upon which is now located the present village of Wells River. Mr. CHAMBERLIN built the first mills. Not long after this a Mr. WHITE built a paper-mill and published "Webster's Elementary Spelling Book," which had a very large sale. In 1808 Mr. SHEDD, the father of William A. SHEDD, located here, and was a very active business man.
      SOUTH NEWBURY, in the southeastern part of the town, is a railroad station and post village. It has a good water-power, where are a grist-mill, two saw-mills, a chair factory, a manufactory of bee-keepers' supplies, a carriage shop, a blacksmith shop, and fifteen or twenty dwellings.
      WEST NEWBURY (p. o.) is a small hamlet, and contains a store and Congregational church.
      NEWBURY CENTER is a hamlet, with a postoffice and store.
      Newbury has twenty-one organized school districts, three of which, for lack of scholars, have maintained no schools during the two years past. Eighteen school districts maintain from twenty-four to thirty-six weeks of school. By an act of the legislature of 1886, school district number one, located at Wells River, became incorporated, and has now become a graded school, occupying one of the best school-houses in this section of the state. Five of of these districts are located on the River road, those at Jefferson Hill and Boltonville being the largest among the back districts, and rank well among the most advanced in town. In 1886, 441 scholars attended the common schools, and the various teachers were paid $3,713.43. Newbury ranks second in Orange county in the amount of cash expenditures for schools. The average wages of male teachers is $9.19, and the average female teachers $6.21 per week. The whole number of terms was fifty-five, and the whole number of weeks of school 540, making an average of thirty weeks of school for the eighteen districts. Thirty-four different teachers were employed. The average of taxes raised by districts was 10.4 per cent, and the state school tax of fifteen cents on the dollar being added makes an amount equal to one--fourth of the grand list raised by district taxation for the support of the common schools. To this amount must be added as follows: Rents from school lands, $80.15; Huntington fund, $69.84; interest on surplus money, $279.81, or a total of nearly $6,000 for the year. In 1840 the population was 2,579, and the number of school children 748. In 1880 the population was 2,316, and the number of school children 500. The average cost per scholar in 1840 was about $1.25, and the average cost in 1880 about $8. At their annual school meeting the village district voted to establish a school of two grades, giving the older and more advanced scholars the benefit of a higher grade-a long stride in the right direction. Horace W. BAILEY is :superintendent of schools.

      Newbury High School was incorporated in November, 1830, as a female school, and kept in operation several terms, under the care of popular and successful teachers; but some causes, then well known, tended to discourage further effort to sustain the school, and it was not re-opened until June, 1843. Then it was again called for and revived, under the care and tutorship of Miss Abigail WILLIAMS, of Kennebunk, Maine, and continued two terms. The ensuing winter the school was remodeled, with an extension of corporate privileges, and the addition of a male department. The course of study embraced every thing usually taught in New England academies. This school, as reorganized, opened with a winter term. The catalogue for the fall term of 1844 gives the names of ninety-five students.

      Newbury town poor farm contains 113 acres, and is located in the valley of Peach brook, near the center of the town. The present substantial, commodious, and we may say elegant buildings, as fine as any in the entire state, were placed here in the summer of 1885, through the energy and influence of Mr. John S. GEORGE, who was for seven years the efficient superintendent of the poor and resident overseer. In constructing these buildings the town spared no pains in making them in every way comfortable, cheerful and' homelike. The rooms are neat and airy, and among other conveniences for health and cleanliness is an adequate bath-room, which is duly appreciated. The entire building is heated by furnaces, and the unfortunate inmates are comfortably and substantially clothed, with an extra suit in which to attend church on the Sabbath. Their food is such as is found on the tables of well-to-do farmers.

      A. Allyn OLMSTED's chair manufactory is located on Hall's brook, in South Newbury village. The present commodious building was erected in 1879, by the present proprietor, at a cost of about $6,000. It is furnished with new and improved machinery, affording complete facilities for the manufacture of all kinds of wood-seated chairs, capable of turning out 1,000 chairs per month, although not at present worked to its full capacity. In connection with this enterprise. Mr. OLMSTED has a shingle-mill, which turns out 50,000 shingles annually.

      South Newbury grist-mills, (formerly known as the "Atwood mills,") H. H. RUNNELS, proprietor, are located on Hall's brook, which furnishes the propelling power, and are furnished with two runs of stones, and grinds all kinds of grain except wheat. The capacity of the mill is 200 bushels daily. The enterprising proprietor erected a substantial dam at the outlet of Hall's pond in 1883, and-now uses that little lake, with an area of about 200 acres, as a, reservoir in the dry season.

      KNIGHT & Son's saw-mill, located at Newbury village, was erected by the present proprietors in the spring of 1883. The mill turns out about 500,000 feet of all kinds of lumber annually, giving employment to from six to twelve men during the season.

      Andrew J. KNIGHT's saw and planing-mills, built in 1877, are located on the site of the first mills erected in the town of Newbury, on Hall's brook, in South Newbury village. The propelling power is furnished from the brook on which they are located. Mr. KNIGHT manufactures all kinds of plain and. dressed lumber, and does a custom business, giving employment to two men.

      E.S. TUTTLE & Son's saw mill (originally the "Atwood mill") is located on Hall's brook, at South Newbury. The proprietors manufacture all kinds of hard and soft wood lumber, turning out annually about 200,000 feet, giving employment to three men.

      Edson DOE's carriage shop, located at South Newbury, was established by the present proprietor and his father, Thomas J. DOE, in 1861. The machinery is propelled by steam-power, giving employment to three men, in the repairing, painting, and manufacturing of carriages, wagons, etc.

      H.D. DAVIS's mills, for the manufacture of apiarian supplies, are located on Hall's brook, at South Newbury village, with headquarters at Bradford. The mills are furnished with new and the most approved machinery, and manufacture the finest kind of goods, which are in demand all over the United States and Canada. The project, although in its infancy, turns out about $6,0o0 worth of goods per year, with fair prospects of an unlimited increase.

      DEMING &, LEARNED's sawmill and box factory are located on Wells river and the Montpelier & Wells River railroad, about one mile and a half from Wells River village. The river furnishes ample power for propelling the machinery, and the railroad ample means of transportation. The -mill and shops are furnished with modern and improved machinery for manufacturing and dressing all kinds of lumber, and making packing boxes for shipping purposes. These mills give employment to an average of twenty men, and turn out about 1,000,000 feet of lumber annually. They also cut from 800 to, 1,200 cords of fire wood per year, thus utilizing the entire growth of timber from their lands, which are cleared for farming purposes. They have now about 600 acres of choice land under cultivation.

      Boltonville custom grist-mill, H. K. WORTHLEY, proprietor, is located in the hamlet of Boltonville, on Wells river, from which if derives it power. The mill is furnished with three runs of stones, with the capacity of grinding about 200 bushels of grain per day.

      Rev. E. J. RANSLOW's mills, for the manufacture of bone meal, are located on Wells river, near the village of that name. The machinery is run by water-power, and is capable of grinding five tons daily.

      R.G. BROCK's furniture manufactory is located on Wells river, from which it derives its power, and in the flourishing village of Wells River. This enterprise was established by Messrs. Carpenter & PARKER, in i868, who conducted the business about two years, when Mr. PARKER was succeeded by. H. C. JONES, when the firm became CARPENTER & JONES. In 1874 Mr. R. G. BROCK obtained the interest of Mr. CARPENTER, and the firm name was changed to H. C. JONES & Co., which continued until 1878, when Mr. BROCK became sole proprietor, and is now engaged in manufacturing all kinds of chamber and office furniture, giving employment to six men, and turning out from $5,000 to $6,000 worth of choice furniture annually.

      Wells River flour and grist-mills, J. R. GOWING, proprietor, are located on Wells river, from which stream 'they derive their power, and in Wells River village. The mills, which do custom work, have three runs of stones, with the capacity for grinding 1,000 bushels of grain per day, Mr. GOWING deals in all kinds of feed and grain.

      Wells River paper-mills, since their establishment, have had numerous proprietors, among whom may be named William BLAKE, Ira WHITE, SHEDD & HALE, and Mrs. SCOTT, daughter of Mr. SHEDD. In 1849 Union DURANT bought of Mr. HALE the upper and original Wells River mill, and in 1852 Mr. H. W. ADAMS became his partner, the firm name being DURANT & ADAMS. They engaged in the manufacture of straw paper until 1857, when they placed new machinery in the building a few rods below the old mill, which they had purchased in 1855, of Mrs. SCOTT, and commenced the manufacture of manilla tissue paper, and other manilla papers. This firm continued the business until 1883, and were among the earliest manufacturers of that grade of paper. April 30, 1883, Mr. ADAMS sold his interest in the business to his partner, Mr. DURANT, and January 1; 1884, Messrs. DEMING, LEARNED & Co. succeeded to the business, refitted the mills, furnished them with new machinery and doubled their capacity, and are continuing the manufacture of the same grade of paper, under the efficient management of H. W. ADAMS, turning out daily $l00 worth of goods, giving employment to twelve operatives.

      The mill crank for the first saw-mill erected in the Coos Valley was drawn on a hand-sled from Concord, N. H., through the wilderness by six men. The sled was constructed with thin broad runners, so that the broad surface would carry it over the snow. These hardy backwoods-men found their experience in returning with the weighty iron crank quite different from their journey to Concord, although that was not mere boy's play. They wended their way up the Pemigewasset river to where the village of Bristol now stands, and thence across Newfound lake to avoid hills. When on the lake a number of the party, nearly overcome with fatigue, sat down to rest while others went in search of water. When they returned they found those that remained fast sinking into that stupor caused by weariness and cold, which portends death. They were warned of their danger by their companions, but wished to be left unmolested. By repeated efforts they were aroused to their danger, and induced to again take up their march, with their heavy burden, and a few miles further arrived at a hunter's lodge where they were soon warmed by a cheerful fire and refreshed with a supper; and, after a night of sound sleep, and breakfast, they, with renewed energy, again proceeded on their toilsome journey without further incident. The crank was in due time placed in a mill at South Newbury on Hall's brook, near the site of the present mill owned by Mr. KNIGHT, where it did the settlers efficient service throughout the existence of three mills successively built, In 1790 this "old crank" became the property of Jonathan JOHNSON, who, in company with Jonas, David and Elijah TUCKER, transferred it to a mill at the outlet of Hall's pond, where it has, with several successive owners, turned throughout the life of four more. In 1861 Mr.Thomas L. TUCKER rebuilt the last mill in which it did service, and it now lies in ignoble rest in the old wheel-pit at the foot of Hall's pond, and is the property of Mr. Sherburne Livermore TUCKER. Mr. TUCKER says this old relic of the past would, if required, do duty yet another century.

      Gen. Jacob BAILEY, the founder of Newbury, Vt., was born in Newbury, Mass., July 2, 1728. Gen. BAILEY's first American ancestor was John BAILEY, who came from Chippenham, Eng., and settled in Salisbury, Mass., as early as 1639. He was ship-wrecked on his voyage to this country at Pemaquid, and could not afterwards be induced to again venture upon the sea. He had left his wife in England, and as she would not trust herself to an element that had proved so near fatal to her husband, they met no more in time. The great sea divided them at their deaths. He died November 2, 1651. John, the son of the emigrant, was born about 1615, and died July 22, 1662. Isaac, son of the second John BAILEY, was born in Newbury, Mass., July 22, 1654, ,married Sarah EMERY, a daughter of John EMERY, January 13, 1683. Joshua, son of Isaac BAILEY, and the father of Gen. Jacob BAILEY, was born in 1685, and February 4, 1706, married Sarah, daughter of Stephen COFFIN, and died October 6, 1762. His wife survived until November 20, 1768.

      Gen. BAILEY was an officer in the French war (a colonel), and had occasion -to pass through the wilderness embracing this county so remote from civilized life. He thus became acquainted with it, which led to his settlement of Newbury, as its pioneer, to which he gave the name of his native town.

      Many were the toils, trials and sufferings he endured while serving in the French war. He took an active part at the siege of Fort William Henry was one who run the gauntlet at the dreadful massacre that took place there, and with a few others of that intrepid band escaped to Fort Ann. He was pursued by some Indians, who, finding themselves unable to overtake him, set on their dogs. By leaping from a rock some twelve or fifteen feet, he threw -the dogs off his track, and by this circumstance alone he escaped. After the conclusion of the war, and in 1762, he commenced the settlement of this town. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war he was occupying the most northerly position in the United States. He received from New York the commission of colonel, and became an officer of great importance. He was soon after appointed by Gen. Washington commissary-general of the northern department, known then as Upper Coos. He had continued and frequent correspondence with Generals Washington and Greene. These letters show the high estimation in which he was held by those distinguished generals. This office involved great responsibilities, and subjected him to dangers, difficulties, and sacrifices of an extraordinary character, which he sustained through the war with firmness and unflinching patriotism, and with honor to himself and advantage to his country. A reward of five hundred guineas was offered for him, dead or alive, and many anecdotes are told of his hair-breadth escapes, his encounters with the Indians and tories, and his constant vigilance to escape the scouts sent out from Canada to take him. Among his numerous friends none were more faithful or did him so efficient service as his co-patriot neighbor, Col. Thomas JOHNSON. At one time, while the General was holding his plough on the Ox Bow, Cincinnatus like, a detachment of tories came to capture him, and encamped on the high bluff which commands a view of the "Meadows." The enemy was concealed, but could plainly observe every movement in the valley below. Col. JOHNSON determined to save the General at all hazards, and directed a friend to carry a slip of paper on which was written the words "The Phillistines are upon thee, Sampson," and drop it in the furrough at some distance from Gen. BAILEY, and then return by a circuitous route. His ready sagacity warned him when he read this missive, and he left his plough and immediately placed the Connecticut river between him and his enemies, and made good his escape.

      The elevated position he occupied, and the important services he rendered his country, has awarded him a niche in our temple of fame. But our country has never remunerated him or his family for the fortune he sacrificed in her behalf. He was a proprietor of a large estate at the commencement of the war. This he freely offered up, expecting a grateful people would relieve his sufferings and restore his property. For his country's sake he died poor. Gen. BAILEY died March 1, 1815. His wife Prudence, with whom he lived in the marriage state sixty-four years, died in 1809, aged eighty-four years. Their children were Ephraim, Joshua, Jacob, James, Abigail, John, and Isaac.

      Webster BAILEY was born September 3, 1747, in West Newbury, Mass., and married Miss Mary NOYES, of the same place, August .27, 1773, who was. born July 21, 1753. In 1788 Mr. and Mrs. BAILEY emigrated to this town, and settled on the Connecticut river about one and a half miles south of the village postoffice. Here Mr. BAILEY immediately erected a tannery, which, as near as can be ascertained, was the first established in Newbury. As soon as his sons, William, Ezekiel and Parker, successively arrived to manhood they united with their father and conducted the business jointly, and added a good farm to their other business. In connection with the tannery they conducted an extensive custom shoe shop, and during pressing seasons employed a force of twenty-four shoemakers. In 1816 the firm dissolved. Webster BAILEY retired from active business and resided with his son William until the close of his life. He died February 7, 1830, Mrs. BAILEY surviving until September 12, 1830. Their children were:

(1.) Lydia, born September 3, 1774, married Jesse WHITE, settled in Topsham, where she died February 1, 1833.

(2.) William, born April 15, 1776, never married. In 1816 he retired from the firm of his father and brothers, and purchased the farm, including the old Betsey (Haseltine) LOVELL tavern site in the village, where the Seminary boarding-house now stands, conducted this farm and mercantile business in company with Dea. John BUXTON, and later with Russell HURD, in North: Haverhill. In 1833 he sold the LOVELL place and returned to the old home, where he owned an interest with his sisters, resided there about twenty years, eventually resided with his nephew, William U. BAILEY, where he died December 22, 1866.

(3.) Ezekiel, born September 14, 1778, married Miss Lucy BAILEY, left the partnership at the old stand, and removed to Hardwick, Vt., erected a tannery and shoe shop, remained seven years, then removed to Orfordville, N. H., where he conducted tanning and shoemaking about thirty years, finally returning to Newbury, where he lived a retired life, dying August 15, 1862, after a very active and energetic business career.

(4.) Sally, born April 19, 1781, married Whitefield BAILEY, a farmer, removed to Hardwick, where she died May 15, 1828. Her children were William, deceased, Kiah resides in Iowa, Lucy, deceased, Ezekiel in Iowa, and Harry BAILEY residing on the homestead in Hardwick.

(5.) Mary, born October 13, 1783, married Samuel HIBBARD, a farmer of Newbury, resided successively in Canada., Hardwick, Vt., and Haverhill, N. H., again returned to Newbury, and later to Haverhill, where she died October 31, 1878, aged ninety-five years. She was the mother of seven children, of whom the first two died in early childhood. Ezekiel B., born December 12, 1810, married Esther, daughter of Robert and granddaughter of Col. Robert JOHNSTON (one of the-pioneers of Newbury) was first a merchant about ten years in North Haverhill, then spent twenty-two years in Alabama and North Carolina engaged in constructing and running steam and water-mills, returned, and now with his wife resides in Newbury village, on the fine farm on Connecticut river, the homestead of Col. Robert JOHNSTON. They have an only son who is an enterprising farmer and horse breeder in Kansas. Thomas W. B. HIBBARD, born February 8, 1814, married Jane BURNHAM, of Rumney, was a merchant in North Haverhill, N. H., went to Ohio, was there a traveling merchant, next engaged in New York as dry goods salesman about thirty consecutive years, is now an invalid and resides in North Haverhill. Parker. B. HIBBARD, born about 1817, married Priscilla EASTMAN in 1849, went the overland route from St. Louis to California with an ox-team, engaged with success in mining, started with his gold from the mines for San Francisco, and has never been heard from since. He left two sons, Charles P., of Burlington, Vt., and George E., an engineer of St. Albans. William B. HIBBARD, born in 1820, married Elizabeth, daughter of Col. Moody CHAMBERLIN, of Newbury, was twelve years with a shoe dealer in New York, was a merchant in Elkham, Indiana, two or three years, went to Chicago .and settled the affairs of the Marine bank which then closed, and is still in Chicago, a book-keeper for the great firm of Libby, McNeil & Libby. Mary HIBBARD, born in 1829, married Langdon BAILEY, and resides in Woodsville, N. H.

(6.) Betsey was born November 28, 1785, married Rev. John DUTTON, a Congregational clergyman who was ten or twelve years pastor of the church of Pomfret, and. of the church of Topsham a few years, and pastor of the church of North Haverhill the remainder of his life: Mrs. DUTTON died January. 19, 1842, and her husband a few years later. Their daughter Dorcas married Charles West, and resides in Royalton, Vt.

(7.) Tempy, born December 1,. 1789, died on the homestead May 11, 1839.

(8.) Parker BAILEY, son of Webster BAILEY, was born January 25, 1702, and married Eliza WARD, who was born May 14, 1800. After the division in 1816 he retained a portion of the homestead until 1833, when he sold to Samuel HIBBARD and resided successively in Topsham, Newbury, Stanstead, Canada, Orfordville, N. H., and Wentworth, In 1852 he returned to this town, where he resided with his son William N. till the close of his life, July 12, 1881 His wife died in October, 1883. They were both members of the Congregational church many years. Mr. BAILEY was a constant reader of the Bible, and from 1876 to the time of his death in 1881, he read the New Testament through by course one hundred and thirty-six times. Their children are Hon. Henry W., born January 18, 1819; William U., born September 25, 1820, married Abigail EATON, of Wentworth, N. H., in November, 1844, settled first on a farm in that town, in 1852 removed to Newbury, and settled on a fine farm on the Connecticut river, adjoining the old homestead, where he now resides. His wife died November 25, 1880. Their children are Ellen E. (Mrs. Remembrance CHAMBERLIN), of Newbury Center; Henry, born April 1, 1850, drowned in Connecticut river July 7, 1860; Horace W., born January 16, 1852, is an enterprising merchant in Newbury village and holds the offices of town clerk and superintendent of schools; Warren W., born December 5, 1859, married Delia HATCH, of Groton, Vt., resides and owns the farm jointly with his father; and Jesse P., born July 20, 1866, married Clara J. HATCH, who died in August, 1886, leaving a son. Mr. BAILEY is engaged with Messrs. BALDWIN & HAZEN, lumber manufacturers at Groton.

(9.) Hannah BAILEY, daughter of Webster BAILEY, was born April 23, 1794, died on the homestead March 20, 1874.

(10.) And Phebe BAILEY, born October 14, 1797, also resided on the homestead till her death, January 20, 1872.

      Hon. Henry Webster BAILEY, son of Parker and Eliza (WARD) BAILEY, was born in Newbury, January 18, 1819; received a common school education. At the age of sixteen years he commenced an apprenticeship in the store of Nathan BLAKE, of East Corinth, where he served five years, and was afterward a salesman for thirty-five years. When he became a voter he cast his lot with the old Whig party, and was a man of great influence. At the organization of the Republican party he became one of its leaders, and is yet active in its ranks, and is not without political honors. In 1852; he was elected justice of the peace, which position he held .with only a few years exception until he resigned it in 1886. He is now a notary public and has been since 1852. He was the clerk of Newbury from 1856 to 1886, a term of thirty consecutive years, and treasurer from 1865 to 1878. He represented Newbury in the state legislature in 1859, 1860, and at the extra session in 1861. He also held the honorable position of judge of Probate from 1868 until the fall of 1876. Judge BAILEY is alive and active in all the interests and improvements of his town; a member of the society of the Congregational church and regular attendant, and a liberal supporter of its financial interests.

      Col. Thomas JOHNSON, son of John JOHNSON, grandson of Dea. Thomas JOHNSON, great-grandson of Joseph JOHNSON, great-great-grandson of William, JOHNSON, Esq., (one of the founders and principal municipal officers of Charlestown, Mass., who was born in Kent, in England, during the reign of James I.,) was born in Haverhill, Mass., March 22, 1742. His education was limited. He lived in his native place until 1762, when he came to Newbury in the service of Gen. Jacob BAILEY, one of the grantees of the township. His first purchase of land bears the date of October 6, 1763. From this time he rapidly accumulated landed estate and eventually became the most extensive land proprietor ever living in town, probably owning, at one time, 1,500 acres within the limits of the town, besides land in other sections of the state and New Hampshire. The events and hardships incident to pioneer life tend to bring out the powers of men, and it did not fail to bring out his large natural abilities, and he soon became a leading spirit in the Coos country. Besides his farming and land speculation he kept store and hotel for many years. It being the only store for many miles in all directions, he did a large trading business. He built four houses at the "Johnson village" at the Ox Bow, which are all still standing. The first one was built in 1775.

      He was three times married. November 12, 1765, he married Elizabeth LOWELL, by whom he had two sons, John and Moses, and one daughter, Betsey. November 26, 1772, he married Nabby POOL, by whom he had one daughter, Nabby. February 17, 1775, he married Abigail CARLETON. Eight children were the fruits of this union,-four sons and four daughters. Two sons and two daughters died when quite young, and four sons and three daughters survived him at his death in 1819. John, Moses and Haines were farmers; David a merchant and farmer; Hannah married David SLOANE, a prominent lawyer of Haverhill, N. H.; Betsey married Isaac BAILEY, Esq., of Newbury; Sally married Charles STORY, for many years a lawyer in Orleans county.

      The breaking out of the Revolution found him a staunch and unyielding patriot, and his influence was exerted and felt in this region in the raising and quartering of troops and advancing his country's cause. He took an active part in the siege of Ticonderoga and Mount, Independence, in the fall of 1777, and commanded a company of volunteers from Newbury; but part of the time acted as aid to Gen. LINCOLN. After the surrender of the British at Ticonderoga 100 prisoners were given to his charge and marched back into the country to Charlestown, “No. 4," out of danger of recapture. Soon after this he was appointed lieutenant-colonel. There were several men in town who had made themselves quite obnoxious to the British by their devotion to their country, among whom was Col. JOHNSON, whom they considered a very great rebel, as he had distinguished himself at the taking of Ticonderoga,

      And they sought opportunity to capture him; but he eluded all their efforts until the spring of 1781 when they succeeded, as shown by the following extract from his journal:

“March 5, 1781. This morning early, went to Haverhill with my teams -for my mill-stones. Returned before dinner, shod my oxen, took dinner, and set out for Peacham at 2 P. M. This night put up at Orr's in Ryegate.

"Tuesday, 6th. This day being thawy & bad going, I was obliged to leave one of my millstones within one mile of the place where we lodged. This night arrived at Peacham with the other mill-stone. Lodged at Mr. ELKINS.

"Thursday, 8th. This morning, about twelve or one o'clock, I awaked out of my sleep, and found the house beset with enemies. Thought I would slip on my stockings, and jump out of the window, and run. But before that, came in two men with their guns pointed at me, and challenged me for their prisoner, but did not find myself the least terrified. Soon found two of the men old acquaintances of mine. I saw some motions for tying me, but I told them that I submitted myself a prisoner, and would offer no abuse. Soon packed up and marched but never saw people so surprised as the family was. When we came to Mr. DAVIS', I found the party to consist of eleven men, Capt. PRICHARD commanding.

"Tuesday, 13th. This day marched to St. John's. Col. ST. LEGER took me to his house, and gave me a shirt and some refreshment, which I much -needed. Told me I was to dine with him. Maj. ROGERS, and Esq. MARSH, and others dined there. Then gave me my parole which I am told is the first instance of a prisoner having his parole in this fort without some confinement. Lodged with Esq. MARSH."

      He was treated with marked attention and given many privileges not usually given to prisoners. This was done, no doubt, hoping to win him over to the British cause; but he was not caught with such chaff. An exchange not being effected, in September, 1781, he was released on parole and returned home. This parole placed him in a very trying situation and gave him much annoyance, as the British kept a vigilant watch over his movements. He corresponded with Gen. Washington, asking that an exchange might be brought about, and also communicating to him all he had learned regarding British movements in Canada. He visited Gen. Washington at his headquarters in Exeter, N. H., but before an exchange could be arranged peace was declared.

      He represented the town of Newbury in the legislature in the years 1786, '87, '88, '89, '90, and 1795, '97,'99, 1800 and 1801. He died January 4, 1819.

      Dr. Samuel WHITE was the thirteenth son of Capt. Nicholas WHITE, whose second wife, Mary CALEF, was his mother, born November 6, 1750, died February 26, 1847, after a long and exceedingly useful life. Dr. W. H. CARTER prepared an instructive and useful biography of Dr. WHITE for the Vermont Geographical Society, which was published in the Aurora of the Valley, November 11, 1860. It well illustrates the life and character of an intelligent pioneer physician of the Revolutionary period.

      Dr. WHITE came to Newbury in 1773, though he is said to have previously visited relatives in the Coos country. He was the man who brought up the noted thanksgiving proclamation, appointing a day already past, and which was still further adjourned by patriotic citizens till the supply of molasses could be renewed.

      He studied under Dr. Thomas BRICKET, of old Haverhill, Mass. The deficiency of medical schools being made up by the instruction of the well known and successful practitioners of the times. It is quite possible that the opportunity of practicing under the supervision and oversight of a learned and skillful practitioner may have been more nearly an equivalent to the expensive, but often carelessly improved advantages of the present age than is generally supposed. He practiced one year in the town of Plaistow. Here he could have continued, with probably much greater advantages to himself than he reaped from his exertions in a new and very thinly settled community. There was then no other physician between Newbury and the Canada line within Eastern Vermont or Western New Hampshire. He was often called to ride fifty miles through thick woods and deep snows to attend the sick, and often times the distance had to be gone over on snow-shoes or on foot.