The oldest practitioner of this profession in the State is Dr. James LEWIS, who has been in practice in. Burlington for forty years. He has also received a degree of M. D. His son, D. C. F. LEWIS, is his partner. William H. WATERS, D. D. S., is a graduate from the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, having received his degree in 1860. He began to practice in Burlington in 1866. Dr. S. D. HODGE, who has been in the city since 1872, is a graduate from the dental department of the University of Maryland. Dr. S. S. COSTELLOW, a graduate from the Philadelphia Dental College, came to Burlington in August, 1885.


      In the previous pages of this chapter the reader has already become familiar with the earlier hotels and taverns, the inn of Gideon KING, of Chandonette, and of HARRINGTON, on Water street ; of Uncle John HOWARD and of Captain Henry THOMAS, on the square, and the Green Mountain House of Eli BARNARD, on upper Pearl street. The old Howard Hotel was sold by Sion E. HOWARD, who for a number of years was the real owner of the property, to Daniel BUCKLEY, who rented it in 1844 to Artemas PROUTY, still a resident of this city. On the 2d of January, 1846, this famous hostelry was destroyed by fire. Before that time the old Thomas Hotel was closed and converted into a mercantile block.

      About the time of the opening of the Rutland Railroad a little tavern that had stood for years on Water street was enlarged and named the Lake House. John BRADLEY, one of its proprietors, in common with a great many Burlington people, thought that Water street was always to be in the chief business part of the place, and had the Lake House elegantly fitted up for the reception of guests. One of the most prominent landlords of this house was Moses L. HART, whose jurisdiction continued longer than that of any other. A Mr. CURTIS followed him and was succeeded by Z. G. CLARK. At two o'clock in the afternoon of Monday, November 8, 1869, the house was discovered to be on fire and, notwithstanding the zealous efforts of an efficient fire department, was totally destroyed. The property belonged to the Rutland Railroad Company, and was then leased to Mr. CLARK. The house was valued at $20,000, and the furniture was insured for $10,000.

      After the burning of the old Howard Hotel Lemuel S. DREW, the genial manager of the Van Ness House, then a young man who had had experience as clerk in the Howard Hotel, went to the American Hotel as clerk for the proprietor, W. J. ODELL. This house had been substantially erected by Governor VAN NESS, and was first used as a hotel by Royal H. GOULD, soon after LaFayette's visit to Burlington in 1825. In April, 1852, Mr. DREW, who had been for a time in the house on the site of the VAN NESS House, succeeded Mr. ODELL in the proprietorship of the American, and remained there until July, 1865, when he retired to his present beautiful farm, and left the hotel to his successor, Charles MILLER. In 1878, the house having passed through several hands and through unfortunate vicissitudes, Mr. DREW again took charge of it, and kept it until it was united in ownership with the VAN NESS House in 1883. It originally consisted of only the northwest corner of the present building, but long before Mr. DREW's recollection was enlarged by the addition of the east and south wings. It is now open only from June 1 to October 1 every summer, and is kept in connection with the Van Ness House.

      It will be remembered that the site of the VAN NESS was very early occupied by the musician, Harvey MILLIKEN, and he erected the first building on the site that was used as a hotel. One of the early landlords of this old tavern, Franklin House it was called, was Riley ADAMS, who gave place to Mr. DREW about 1849. Mr. DREW named it the Howard House, after the old hotel on the north side of the square, and was succeeded when he went to the American Hotel in 1852, by S. S. SKINNER. Sidney SMITH became proprietor after three years, and kept it until D. C. BARBER purchased it. On the 11th of June, 1867, at nine o'clock in the evening, a fire broke out in the barn of this house, and before it could be extinguished consumed the entire property, with a number of adjoining buildings. Mr. BARBER's loss was supposed to be about $20,000; the house was insured for $8,000. The main portion of the present Van Ness House was erected by Mr. BARBER in 1870, on the old site. O. B. FERGUSON soon after became a partner with Mr. BARBER, and the property passed from their hands to Mr. WOODBURY, the present owner, in April, 1881. The west wing was added to the old building in 1882, at a cost of nearly $20,000. The American Hotel is leased of the Heineberg estate. Mr. DREW, as has been said, became the manager of this house in 1883. The present day clerk, H. N. CLARK, began as night clerk for Mr. BARBER fourteen years ago, and has remained in the house ever since.

      Rowe's Hotel is an old landmark, and was probably built before 1800, by Harvey DURKEE. His widow kept the house long after his death and was succeeded by her son, Harvey, jr. The present proprietor is Robert NULTY.


      This charity, like very many, was founded by the benevolent efforts of woman. Soon after the year 1860 the need for an institution which should supply the wants of destitute children began to be painfully manifest, and increased to such a degree that in the early summer of 1865, a plan was proposed which took definite shape on the 7th of the following September in the organization of an unincorporated association. The new association assumed the name now borne by its successor. The officers were Miss Lucia T. WHEELER, president; Mrs. Laura HICKOK, vice-president; Mrs. Mary H. PHELPS, secretary; Mrs. Susan M. EDMUNDS, treasurer; Mrs. Julia LOOMIS, Mrs. Harriet J. SHEDD and Mrs. Eliza SMITH, managers; Mrs. Sophia VAN SICKLIN, Mrs. P. B. ROBY, Mrs. Emma A. DAVIS, Mrs. Katharine A. BENEDICT, Miss Mary TORREY, Miss Ella MOODY, assistant managers; and Mrs. Sarah C. COLE, auditor.

      In the month of October, 1865, measures were adopted which culminated on the 1st day of November in the incorporation of the association by the Legislature, the seven first above-named ladies constituting the first board of directors and representing each of the Protestant denominations in Burlington. A small house was rented for the period of six months, a matron was procured, and the work began by the sheltering and partial education of seven little girls. The intention at the beginning was to care principally for homeless little girls of Chittenden county. But applications for assistance poured in with such volume, and donations from the charitably disposed were so numerous and so generous that it was enlarged in its scope, and soon offered an asylum for the destitute children of both sexes throughout the State.

      In 1855 Congress had made an appropriation of $35,000 for the construction of a marine hospital at Burlington. The site selected was two miles south of the village, on the west side of the Shelburne road, embracing ten acres, which cost the sum of $1,750. The building was completed in 1858, at a cost of $4,000 beyond the original appropriation, but was never devoted to the purposes of its construction, the civil war intervening and necessitating the use of the building as a military hospital. The Home for Destitute Children purchased this building on the 16th of July, 1866, and on taking possession on the 8th of the following October, found that there was room sufficient to accommodate forty children. The new building was formally consecrated to the purposes of its purchase on the 26th of November, 1866. The annual subscriptions to the home for the first five years of its career amounted to $22,000, more than $18,000 of which was contributed by residents of Burlington. The institution now has a permanent fund of $69,588.97, besides the magnificent gift of John P. HOWARD, of the opera house and block that bears his name, from which the annual profits net more than $10,000. During the twelve months ending October 1, 1885, ninety-seven children received the sheltering care of the home. The facilities of the institution are constantly growing, and the scope of its beneficence is ever widening. The result of the efforts of Miss WHEELER are therefore more than gratifying. The influence of an establishment like this that achieves success and becomes self-supporting, cannot be estimated.

      The present officers of the home are as follows: President, Mrs. L. A. TURRILL; vice-president, Mrs. A. G. SPAULDING; treasurer, Mrs. A. G. PIERCE; secretary, Mrs. S. C. COLE; assistant secretary, Miss Mary ROBERTS; auditor of accounts, Mrs. M. F. PERKINS. Board of managers: Mrs. A. G. SPAULDING, Mrs. A. G. PIERCE, Mrs. L. B. LORD, Mrs. C. B. GRAY, Mrs. Willard CRANE, Mrs. T. A. HOPKINS, Miss Carrie KINGSLAND, Mrs. Albert E. RICHARDSON, Mrs. G. W. HINDES, Miss Mary ROBERTS, Mrs. D. J. FOSTER, Mrs. S. C. COLE, Mrs. E. P. GOULD, Mrs. J. M. MATTHEWS. Honorary members of the board: Mrs. L. A. HICKOK, Mrs. Julia H. SPEAR. Advisory committee: Mrs. L. A. HICKOK, Miss M. C. TORREY, Henry LOOMIS, Hon. William G. SHAW, Edward LYMAN. Trustees of the permanent fund: Charles F. WARD, Hon. William G. SHAW, C. P. SMITH. County managers: Addison county, Mrs. U. D. TWITCHELL, Middlebury; Bennington county, Miss S. E. PARK, Bennington; Caledonia county, Mrs. E. A. WALKER, St. Johnsbury; Essex county, Mrs. C. E. BENTON, Guildhall; Franklin county, Mrs. J. M. SAXE, St. Albans; Grand Isle county, Mrs. O. G. WHEELER, South Hero; Lamoille county, Mrs. O. W. REYNOLDS, Cambridge; Orleans county, Mrs. W. F. BOWMAN, Newport; Orange county, Mrs. J. W. ROWELL, West Randolph; Rutland county, Mrs. J. B. HOLLISTER, Rutland; Washington county, Mrs. Joseph POLAND, Montpelier; Windham county, Mrs. James M. TYLER, Brattleboro; Windsor county, Mrs. Samuel E. PINGREE, Hartford.


      This institution was founded on the 14th of July, 1893, by Mrs. Mary L. and Miss Mary M. FLETCHER. In a communication addressed to the mayor and aldermen of the city they expressed their desire to "found a library in and for the city, to be called the Fletcher Free Library, on condition that the city provide a suitable library building and care for the same at the cost of the city." According to the articles of donation Mrs. and Miss FLETCHER gave the city $10,000 to be expended in the purchase of books, and in addition $10,000, the income of which should be used for the continued increase of the library. In pursuance of further provisions of these articles the library is managed and controlled by five trustees: President, Matthew H. BUCKHAM; Rev. L. G. WARE, Hon. E. J. PHELPS, Samuel HUNTINGTON, and the mayor, ex officio. The personnel of this board has remained the same to the present, except of course the mayor, who holds the position of trustee by virtue of his office. Such vacancies as shall occur are to be filled by the remaining trustees. The trustees of the library fund were Charles RUSSELL, Henry LOOMIS, and Henry P. HICKOK.

      The proposition of these benevolent ladies was received with the ready concurrence of the city authorities. The Board of Aldermen appointed the mayor, President of the Board HATCH, and Charles RUSSELL to present suitable resolutions of acknowledgment for the gift, and to report a plan of action in furtherance of the object proposed. On the 3d of November, 1873, the committee reported that the building then lately occupied as a court-house could be refitted for a library building until such time as a better place could be provided. The report being accepted, the committee on public buildings were instructed -to put the old court-house in condition to receive the library forthwith. The first invoice of books was received on the 31st of May, 1874 During the year ending January 15, 1875, $8,541.29 was expended for books exclusive of freight, binding, etc., and the library contained at that time about 7,200 volumes. The library received accessions from the Y. M. C. A. and the Green Mountain Lodge of Odd Fellows, both of which organizations gave their books to the library. The report of the librarian of 1877 for the preceding year stated that the generous founders had given $4,000 more to the institution. Mrs. FLETCHER died during the summer of 1876. In 1877 the catalogue, which had involved in its compilation great care and labor, was comleted and published. In the latter part of 1884 the library was closed for a time, but reopened on the 19th of January, 1885, with Miss Sarah C. HAGAR librarian, and Miss Lizzie R. MOORE, assistant. T. P. W. ROGERS was librarian from 1874 to 1885. In that year the building was fully repaired and improved. The reports from the start have shown an encouraging decrease in the reading by attendants at the library of works of fiction, and an increase in the percentage of more profitable reading. There are now catalogued about 16,316 volumes in the library, besides 700 government publications not catalogued, and duplicates, which make the total number not less than 20,000 volumes. The institution has demonstrated to the people of Burlington its great value as an educating element.

[Furnished by Robert ROBERTS.]

      Under the title of internal. improvements brief reference may be made to the highways, parks and cemeteries of the county, and to such societies and laws as exist for the purpose of beautifying the face of nature and of facilitating intercourse between the people of different sections.

      All the towns in the county, save Burlington, being of limited population and distinctly agricultural in character, there is not much material for comment under the head above suggested, excepting in the "Queen City" itself. However it may be said, in general, that the country roads are well worked and easy of travel, although the highways in eastern towns often run over the hills where the early settlers established their homes for fear of the chills and fever which haunted the low grounds of Vermont when it was a new country.

      An act of the Legislature passed in 1882, and modified in 1884, authorizes towns to purchase road machines out of the amount allowed by law for highway purposes. This law has resulted to the advantage of the traveling public, although the advantage is perhaps offset by the official carelessness naturally resulting from the repeal of the law making towns responsible for accidents due to defects in the highway.

   "An act to encourage the planting of shade trees upon public squares and highways," passed by the Legislature of 1884, might be expected to make leafy lanes of our country roads in the course of time. It contains the following provisions: "A town may direct the treasurer to pay to the selectmen a sum not exceeding one per cent. of its grand list of the preceding year, to be expended by them in premiums or in any other manner that they may deem most effectual to encourage the planting of shade trees upon the public squares, parks or highways, by the owners of adjoining real estate." The proclamation of "Arbor Day" as a holiday for the setting out of shade trees has been responded to by the planting of a large number of thrifty trees by the children. Future generations will rise up and called blessed the name of the governor of the State who created the holiday. Sometimes, however, an antagonistic and utilitarian spirit finds expression in the act of some land owner who cuts down an ancient elm by the wayside which shades his meadow and diminishes, by a rake full, his hay crop. Such a man, however, is certain to be scolded without mercy by the good women of the village, who are the natural custodians of all matters within the realm of the sentiments.

      Not all of the towns and settlements of the county lie upon the railroad, but all are connected with stage and mail lines which run daily, with one or two exceptions, substantially as follows: Hinesburg to Burlington by St. George; Burlington to Grand Isle by Winooski, Colchester, West Milton, and South Hero; East Georgia to Westford by Fairfax, etc.

      The highways of Burlington are, generally speaking, in fair condition. There has been a constant improvement from year to year in the condition of the streets, and, although the individual direction of the street department has not always been animated by a sense of beauty so much as by the religion of the spirit-level, square and compass, and has not been aware that straight lines were made for man and not man for straight lines, yet, on the whole, the streets and sidewalks of the city are handsome, as well as safe and easy of travel. If the roads looking over the sandy plains surrounding the city north and east were treated with gravel or macadam it would be economy for the farmer drawing heavy loads, and would make the summer drives of Burlington among the most beautiful in the world.

      Of the public parks of Burlington it may be said that the City Hall Square is useful, and that the College and Battery Parks are growing to be very beautiful. The City Hall Park, formerly known as the Court-House Square, consists of two and a half acres of land, bounded by College, Church, Main and St. Paul streets. This tract was surveyed and mapped out by the original proprietors of the town of Burlington, with other tracts of corresponding size, but was never divided into lots, nor in severalty, nor set to any particular proprietor's right, under the charter of 1763. As early as 1794 this square seems to have been practically devoted to public use, and was occupied as a public common. In 1795 a court-house was built upon it for the use of the county, by direction of the selectmen of the town, and in 1796 a county jail was built by like direction. This court-house was placed near the center of the square, near it standing the traditional pine tree-the whipping-post of that virtuous age. The jail was near the northeast corner of the square, on the ground afterward occupied by part of Thomas's Hotel, now Strong's building. On the 25th of June, 1798, the proprietors, in proprietors' meeting, formally dedicated this square to public use by a vote, as follows:

"Voted, That the block containing two acres and one-half of land whereon the court-house and gaol are built, in said Burlington, shall be and is hereby set off for the use of the public for the erecting of all necessary county and town buildings for public use."
      About this time Lyman KING, at the request of the selectmen of the town, and for the purpose of officiating as jailer, and also of keeping a tavern, erected a tavern-house adjoining the jail. This tavern-house constituted the present north part of Strong's building. It has since been added to on the south and east. The proceedings connected with the construction of the jail upon the site of the present "lock-up" are set forth in a previous chapter. Lyman KING, after considerable difficulty, and under the protection of an act of the Legislature passed November 7, 1808, obtained from the selectmen of Burlington a lease to himself, his heirs and assigns, "during time," of a parcel ninety-five feet by eighty-nine feet, including the site of Strong's building. This title of KING passed by deed to Henry THOMAS June 24th, 1823, and from THOMAS to Timothy F. and William L. STRONG January 23, 1839. In 1848 STRONG conveyed to HUNTINGTON & RANDALL thirty-seven feet of the same on College street, being the part now occupied by S. HUNTINGTON's store.

      In 1820 the selectmen began to lease parcels on the east side of the square, which were extended in territory by private encroachment, as it is claimed, until proceedings in ejectment were brought by Dr. John POMEROY, owner of a proprietor's right thereon, which resulted, in January, 1831, in a decision of the Supreme Court establishing the points that the Court-House Square was conclusively dedicated by the original proprietors to public use; that the town had no authority to lease any part of it; that for a private encroachment upon it, ejectment would lie in behalf of an original proprietor, who might recover to hold subject to the public use; that an action on the case would lie, as for nuisance, in behalf of a contiguous owner who might be injured by such encroachment; and that an indictment for nuisance would also lie. This decision has already engendered considerable litigation.

      Thus the limits of City Hall Park have been somewhat encroached upon, but there is room enough left for fine elms to grow, a fountain to play, and for considerable congregations of people to disport themselves during band concerts, military and firemen's parades, and all public ceremonies.

      The College Park, of many acres, beautifully crowns the hill. Not very much is done for it artificially, but the trees are of good growth and are prettily grouped. A fountain plays and the bronze statue of LaFayette, a gem of art, gives distinction to the college frontage.

      The existence of Battery Park is chiefly due to Frederick W. SMITH, of Burlington. The land was owned by SMITH & WILKINS and ALLEN & HASWELL. They agreed to convey the land, about nine acres, in consideration of Water (now Battery) street being cut through and extended, and of North avenue being stopped up, or rather made to conform to the corner of the park. There were, of course, the usual petitions and remonstrances; but finally, by deed dated April 17, 1840, the park was created. Mr. SMITH has set out all the shade trees, having raised sixty dollars only, by subscription, for the purpose. The fence was paid for with the proceeds of fairs and bazaars organized by the ladies, under the lead of Mrs. SMITH. The promenade on the lake front is the original embankment thrown up by our troops during the War of 1812, to defend against bombardment by the enemy's fleet on the lake.


      The date of the first interments in the town cannot now be ascertained, though it is known that Green Mount Cemetery, located on Colchester avenue, was first used soon after the settlement of the town, and consisted of two acres until 1869, when it was extended to ten. In addition to this the city now has four others, aggregating fifty-six acres, devoted to this purpose. Lake View is the largest, covering thirty acres; Green Mount comes next with ten; Mount St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic) has eight; Elmwood Avenue five, and Calvary (French Roman Catholic) three, completing the fifty-six acres. Elmwood Avenue Cemetery was the next established, occupying school lot number 113, and first used at the beginning of the present century. At the March meeting, in 1812, a committee, consisting of John JOHNSON, Charles ADAMS and John ELDRIDGE, was appointed "to lay out and ascertain the graveyards in the town." At a meeting held April 19, 1813, this committee reported a plan for laying out what is now called the Eldridge and Elmwood Avenue Cemeteries, but stated that the interments in the burying-ground at the falls, now known as Green Mount Cemetery, were too irregular and crowded to allow it to be divided into lots and avenues. At an adjourned meeting held on the 24th of the same month, the committee, on request, reported a series of rules "for the regulation of the burying-ground north of the village," now known as Elmwood Avenue Cemetery. These were formally adopted, and George ROBINSON, Charles ADAMS and John JOHNSON were appointed a special committee to have the entire control, under the rules, of the ground. For a long series of years no continuous record of interments was kept, and it is therefore impossible to ascertain the aggregate number; and for a like reason the figures for Mount St. Joseph's cannot begin. In the period extending from 1860 to September 1, 1881, there were 1,598 interments in the cemetery last named; in Calvary Cemetery, from 1878 to the same date, 173; and in Lake View, from 1868 to the same date, 847.

      Green Mount Cemetery, however, retains the respect and honor due to age, and attracts hundreds of visitors each year, not particularly on account of its beauty, though a beautiful spot it is, and not to obtain a glance at the magnificent view it affords, but to gaze upon a magnificent monument, which marks the spot where rest the remains of one of Vermont's greatest patriots and heroes, Ethan ALLEN. The monument to Ethan ALLEN was erected by the State of Vermont, by authority of an act of the Legislature, passed in 1855, which appropriated $2,000 for that purpose, which by contributions, etc., was increased to $2,700, the total cost of the monument, though it was not completed until 1873, the exercises attending its unveiling occurring July 4 of that year. It is of Barre granite, the base of the pedestal being eight feet square on the ground, and consists of two steps of granite, on which rests a die of solid granite six feet square, in the four faces of which are set panels of white marble bearing the inscriptions. Above the pedestal rises a Tuscan shaft of granite, four and a half feet in diameter and forty-two feet high. Upon its capital, on a base bearing the word "Ticonderoga," stands a heroic statue of ALLEN, eight feet four inches high, modeled by Peter STEPHENSON, sculptor, of Boston, now deceased, and cut in Italy, intending to represent ALLEN as he appeared on that eventful moment when he demanded the surrender of the fort "in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress." The monument is protected by a fence of original design, the corner posts of which are iron cannon, and the pales are muskets, with bayonets, resting on a base of cut granite. The inscriptions are as follows:

(On the West face.)



(On the North face.)


(On the East face. )


(On the South face. )



      The matter appearing under this head was prepared by Professor John E. GOODRICH, of the University of Vermont, for the chapter on educational institutions, which was written by him, but unfortunately came to the editor too late to be printed with it, and is therefore inserted in this place.

      September 15, 1872, Louis POLLENS opened a day and boarding-school for young ladies in the northernmost of the buildings erected by Bishop HOPKINS. The training here furnished was of a high order, and embraced a wide range of topics. The school continued but a few years, Mr. POLLENS being invited to a professorship in Dartmouth College.

      Since 1883 Miss Lillie H. CRAM, a graduate of the University of Vermont, has conducted at 262 Pearl street an excellent school for girls and young ladies, at which candidates for the college course can pursue their preparatory studies. From 1879 to 1883 the same school, on a somewhat smaller scale, held its sessions in the old Foote place at the head of Pearl street.

      In April, 1882, Mrs. J. H. BAIRD, who had previously gained a high reputation as a teacher in the city schools, established a private school for boys and girls, which has been well sustained by the patronage of such as prefer not to send their children to the public schools. This school gathers in the Opera House building.

      A commercial school, or “college," has been maintained for many years for special instruction in penmanship, book-keeping, telegraphy, etc. It was founded by Gilbert SMITH. Mr. J. S. CHAMBERLAIN was at its head for several years. The school has sometimes had assistant instructors from the university, and at times has had a good degree of prosperity.


      Since 1884 a Summer College of Languages has been maintained in Burlington during six weeks of the ordinary summer vacation. Dr. Lambert SAUVEUR had conducted a similar school in Amherst, Mass., for several years; but the school having outgrown its accommodations there, was transferred to Burlington and the buildings of the university. Instruction is given by what is known as the “natural" method in French, German, Italian, Spanish, Greek and Latin. In 1885 Anglo-Saxon, Sanskrit, Hebrew, modern Greek and comparative grammar were added.

      The school affords a very happy means of combining work and play, study and recreation. Two or three hours are usually given by the pupils to the lectures and conversation classes, and the rest of the day to the usual employments of the summer visitor. Instructors in the modern languages find the summer school a very pleasant means of training both ear and tongue, and of gaining stimulus and suggestions for another ten months of class-room labor. The students here have been of all ages, from six to sixty, and the numbers have been four to five hundred. The excellent opportunities here offered for agreeable recreation on land and water, and for excursions by boat and rail -- as to the Ausable Chasm, Mount Mansfield, Mallet's Bay, Ticonderoga, and the islands -- give to Burlington a special adaptation to the requirements of the summer school. The college buildings are occupied by instructors and pupils, and the Episcopal Institute at Rock Point is treated principally as a sort of “annex" for the time being, a large omnibus conveying pupils to and fro. As a retreat which would combine a little study with relaxation, the wildness of nature and a good measure of isolation, with the advantages of a near neighborhood to the appliances of modern civilization, Rock Point cannot easily be excelled. It is no wonder that the jaded denizen of the town should resort to it as a welcome refuge from the heats of the dog-days. It should be added that the rooms of St. Joseph's (Catholic) College, on the College Park, are also offered for the accommodation of the patrons.

      In 1886 Dr. SAUVEUR removed again, this time to Oswego, N. Y., and Professor Leo A. STAGER, of St. Louis, Mo., took charge of the school, with an excellent faculty of seven instructors. The languages taught this year are the five which are most in request: German, French, Italian, Greek, and Latin.

      The Chittenden County Teachers' Association should have a brief memorial here, even if it be somewhat of the nature of a tombstone. It was organized in October, 1847, at Jericho Center, at the suggestion of Mr. Zalmar RICHARDS, who had just closed a two weeks' institute at that place. This institute was held by the request of the teachers of the county, who, one year before, had attended a similar series of lectures and recitations, conducted by the same gentleman at Essex Center. These institutes were attended by over sixty teachers, and were among the means devised by Governor EATON, then ex-officio State superintendent of schools, to stimulate an interest in public education and raise the standard of instruction. The Rev. Francis B. WHEELER, the county superintendent of schools, was chosen president of the association. Its first meeting was held in the bar-room of the hotel at Williston, in January, 1847. They had advertised the meeting, but no preparation whatever had been made for them. As a further indication of the general apathy then existing in regard to the "people's college," it should be added, that they were required, in some cases, to pay for the insertion in the county papers of a brief report of their doings! They met twice a year in the different towns of the county. June 12, 1851, they convened at Winooski, President Worthington SMITH, and Tutor John A. JAMESON, of the university, sharing in the discussions. Their affairs were managed by an executive .committee of five, and some valuable work was done in the way of visitation and reports upon the condition of the schools. With the next meeting in Burlington, however, the secretary, Mr. A. E. LEAVENWORTH, removing from the county, the association entered upon a period of suspended animation, which continued for five years. In 1857 Principal LEAVENWORTH, then of Hinesburg, took means to revive the slumbering association, being assisted in his laudable endeavors by Revs. J. H. Worcester and C. E. FERRIN, and Professor M. H. BUCKHAM. A convention of teachers was called to meet at Shelburne, and the association was reorganized with the Rev. Mr. WORCESTER for president. From that time semi-annual meetings were held in the different villages in the county for fifteen years and more. The Rev. Mr. WORCESTER was at the head of the association for two years; Professor Calvin PEASE, two years; Rev. E. C. FERRIN, two years; Principal J. S. CILLEY, four years; and Principal A. E. LEAVENWORTH, two years. Principal Louis POLLENS was president in 1870, but the succession from that year cannot be given, in the absence of the records. Principal J. D. BARTLEY presided at the last meeting (held in Underhill about 1879), and Principal S. W. LANDON, then of St. Albans, was chosen to succeed him. For some twenty years the association continued to be a vigorous and active body, with an influence which reached beyond the county boundaries. Its meetings were characterized by enthusiasm on the part of the teachers who conducted them, and by a large measure of interest awakened in the communities in which the gatherings were held. And they were both profitable and enjoyable, not to the participants only, but to the towns which entertained them. The causes of the decline of the association are to be sought in the adoption by Burlington of the town system, with the teachers' class and training-school and frequent teachers meetings, which were a part of the new scheme; in the teachers' institutes, held once or twice a year within the county by the State superintendent; and especially in the union by-and-by effected with the association of Franklin and Grand Isle counties at the suggestion of that body. Since the formation of Northwestern Vermont Teachers' Association fewer meetings have been held than before, and less zeal shown. The enthusiasm which sufficed for one county was perceptibly cooled when it came to be spread over three counties, and the sense of responsibility for its maintenance and management was too much divided and distributed. In fact it came to be more like a feeble sub-section of the State Association than an independent local organization. The last meeting was held in Underhill, at Dixon's, some seven years ago. Whether the present dormancy of the association is to result in a perpetual sleep is now quite uncertain. Possibly there is now no occasion for its resuscitation. But possibly, too, there is a slackening of zeal and public spirit on the part of the little army of school ma'ams and school masters in these three northwestern counties. The amount and quality of work done by the association may be indicated by a rapid sketch of two or three of the meetings. These meetings lasted two days, usually Friday and Saturday. In May, 1859, about seventy-five teachers gathered at Essex, where addresses were given by the Rev. H. P. CUTTING, of CASTLEton, and the Rev. W. A. MILLER, of Burlington, and essays were presented by Principal Edward CONANT, of Royalton, and Principal S. L. BATES, of Underhill. In the following December they had a profitable session at Underhill, as may be inferred from the names of some of the participants: Principals CONANT (then of Burlington), C. A. CASTLE, J. S. CILLEY, A. E. LEAVENWORTH, the Rev. J. H. WORCESTER, the Rev. Dr. Simeon PARMELEE, and State Superintendent J. S. ADAMS, the last of whom was especially effective as an awakener of enthusiasm, not less than as a revealer and denouncer of defects and abuses. The next May they met in Charlotte, with the Rev. C. E. FERREN, of Hinesburg, a staunch and intelligent friend and promoter of popular education, in the chair. Professor S. W. BOARDMAN, of Middlebury College, gave the opening address. Fifty-one “practical“ teachers were present. January 4, 1861, the association convened in Richmond with an attendance of actual teachers of eighty; addresses by J. S. ADAMS, Principal LEAVENWORTH, of West Brattleboro, and Professor N. G. CLARK, of the University of Vermont; discussions animated and generally participated in. June 7th they met in Winooski, and so the record continues for many years.


      The First Congregational Church (Unitarian). -- Religious privileges in Burlington at the beginning of the present century were seldom enjoyed; now and then of a Sunday a printed sermon was read to the people, who were always present in good numbers. About this time it was understood that the Rev. Daniel C. SANDERS had closed his labors at Vergennes, and immediately David RUSSELL and Dr. John POMEROY rode to that city and engaged him to come to Burlington and preach, holding themselves responsible for his salary. Mr. SANDERS came and officiated regularly in the court-house, there being no church; but, being soon elected first president of the University of Vermont, he was obliged to abandon his pastoral work. His first sermon in the town was on the death of General Washington, from the text “His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." -- Deut. 34:7.

      From the town records it appears that on the 5th of June, 1805, more than seven freeholders of Burlington sent in a petition to George ROBINSON, town clerk, to warn a meeting for the purpose of forming a society for social and public worship, agreeably to the statute passed on the 26th of October, 1797, entitled, "an act for the support of the gospel." This petition was signed by William C. HARRINGTON, Lyman KING, Ozias BUELL, Arza CRANE, Elnathan KEYES, Moses CATLIN, David RUSSELL, James SAWYER, Samuel HICKOK, John POMEROY and Horace LOOMIS. In pursuance of this warning the people of all religious opinions met and voted unanimously to form themselves into a society by the name of “The First Society for Social and Public Worship in the Town of Burlington." In 1807 Dr. Samuel WILLIAMS, of Rutland, a graduate of Harvard College, came to Burlington to superintend the publication of his History of Vermont, and while in town preached in the court-house and stopped with Dr. POMEROY's family. On the 20th of March, 1809, at the annual town meeting, it was voted that a committee of five be chosen to decide upon a site for a church building, and Daniel FARRAND, Stephen PEARL, Moses ROBINSON and Davis RUSSELL were constituted that committee. They met and reported "that they had taken the subject into consideration, and agreed to recommend to the town a piece of ground lying on the south side of the new road, called College street, leading from the front of the college to the court house square, and east of the road called Middle street [now Willard street] leading south from Pearl street to the turnpike road [now Main street] for said purposes."

      The report was accepted and a building committee appointed; when doctrinal dissensions arose, bringing about a separation which resulted, in January, 1810, in the forming of a large majority of the male inhabitants of the town into a society by the name of "The First Congregational Society in the Town of Burlington." A call was given to Samuel CLARK, of Massachusetts, to become their minister.

      On the 19th of April, 1810, the Liberal Christians met in the old wooden court-house for the ordination of Mr. CLARK. The sermon upon this occasion was delivered by the Rev. William EMERSON, father of Ralph Waldo EMERSON; his subject was “Posthumous beneficence." Mr. CLARK's salary was $550 a year. He served the society twelve years, resigning in 1822. He died May 2, 1827. During his pastorate in 1816, the present commodious house of worship, situated at the head of Church street, on Pearl street, was erected. It cost $53,000, and remains but little changed to-day. The dedicatory sermon was preached on the 9th of January, 1817, by the Rev. John PIERCE, D. D., of Brookline, Mass.

      George Goldthwaite INGERSOLL, a graduate of Harvard College, had for two years before Mr. CLARK's death occupied the desk; and on the 30th of May, 1822, he was ordained the second minister of the society. The sermon was preached by the Rev. President KIRKLAND of the University of Cambridge, Mass. Dr. INGERSOLL remained for twenty-two years with the society, beloved by all, and was succeeded by the Rev. O. W. B. PEABODY, who was ordained August 4, 1845. The sermon was preached by the Rev. W. B. O. PEABODY, of Springfield, Mass. Mr. PEABODY was taken from his people by death on the 5th of July, 1848. His successor was the Rev. Solon Wanton BUSH, a graduate of BROWN University, who was ordained on the 16th of May, 1849; the Rev. E. B. HALL, D. D., of Providence. R. I., preaching the ordination sermon. On the 16th of December, 1862, the Rev. Joshua YOUNG, a graduate of Bowdoin College, was ordained minister, the ordination sermon being preached by the Rev. E. S. GANNETT, D. D., of Boston, Mass. The Rev. L. G. WARE, the present minister, was installed on the 4th of November, 1863, the sermon being preached by the Rev. C. A. BARTOL, D. D., of Boston, Mass. The society is to-day large and prosperous, containing, as it always has contained, numbers of the most respected and substantial citizens of Burlington. The Sabbath-school was instituted by Dr. INGERSOLL in 1828. The officers of the society are the Rev. L. G. WARE, minister; H. G. DAVIS, clerk; Edward BARLOW, treasurer; Elihu B. TAFT, superintendent of the Sabbath-school; E. C. MOWER, J. M. CLARKE and F. H. PARKER, prudential committee.

      The First Church. -- About the years 1795 and 1796 Rev. Chauncey LEE preached a considerable part of the time in Burlington, and Rev. Daniel C. SANDERS a considerable part from 1798 to 1807. February 21, 1805, fourteen persons-Alexander CATLIN, Abigail CATLIN, Lucinda CATLIN, Ozias BUELL, Abigail BUELL, Daniel COIT, Amelia TUTTLE, Daniel C. SANDERS, Nancy SANDERS, Ebenezer LYMAN, Anna LYMAN, Clarissa LYMAN, Sarah ATWATER and Miriam WETMORE, all having been in other places members of churches, met at the house of Moses CATLIN, esq., and adopted articles of faith and a covenant prepared by Rev. Daniel C. SANDERS, president of the University of Vermont. Upon the following Sunday, February 23, 1805, the articles and covenant were read and assented to, when the associated members above mentioned were declared by President SANDERS "to be a regular church of the Lord Jesus Christ, established in Burlington." June 15, 1805, the inhabitants of Burlington, in town meeting assembled, organized the first society for social and public worship, which society extended a call to preach to Rev. Sidney WILLARD, in 1806, and to Rev. WILLARD Preston-afterwards president of the University of Vermont in 1808; but both calls were declined.

      About 1809 two parties appeared in the community, the liberal and the Calvinistic; President SANDERS favoring the former, and several of the constituent members of the society, who came from Connecticut, favoring the latter. Each of these parties procured a candidate for the pastorate, and this led to the dissolution of the first society for social and public worship, and the formation of two new societies, the one first formed taking the name of the "First Congregational Society in Burlington," the other of the " First Calvanistic Congregational Society in Burlington."

      April 10, 1810, Mr. Daniel HASKELL was settled over the First Calvinistic Congregational Society, and April 19, 1810, Mr. Samuel CLARK over the First Congregational Society. Rev. Mr. HASKELL's congregation worshiped in the court-house and college chapel till December 12, 1812, at which time they dedicated the first church structure in town. This church was built of wood, located near the site of the present chapel, facing north, was large for its time, and stood for twenty-seven years. It was destroyed by an incendiary fire Sunday, June 23, 1839. The erection of a new church, the present one, was immediately begun, which was dedicated April 14, 1842; it is of brick, with an hexastyle Ionic portico in front; the cupola is from the Choragic monument of Lysicrates. Its dimensions are 92 x 61 feet; its seating capacity about 600; it was designed by Mr. Henry SEARL, of Burlington, and cost $20,000. Since this the society has built upon its grounds a chapel or lecture-room containing also the church parlors, at a cost of $9,000, and a pleasant parsonage, at a cost of $5,200. Two colonies have gone out from the church. Twenty-three persons were dismissed in October, 1836, to organize the Congregational Church at Winooski, Vt., and forty-five persons were dismissed in November, 1864, and formed in the city the Third Congregational Church. The following is the list of pastors who have served the society: Rev. Daniel HASKELL, ordained April 10, 1810, dismissed to be president of the university June 23, 1822; Rev. WILLARD Preston, D.D., installed August 23, 1822, dismissed to be president of the university July 9, 1825; Rev. Reuben SMITH, installed May 4, 1826, dismissed May 5. 1831; Rev. John Kendrick CONVERSE, ordained August 1, 1832, dismissed October 7, 1842; Rev. John Hopkins WORCESTER, D.D., installed March 10, 1847, dismissed January 7, 1855; Rev. C. Spencer MARSH, ordained November 6, 1856, dismissed February 8, 1860; Rev. Eldridge MIX, D. D., installed September 4, 1862, dismissed September 1, 1867; Rev. Edward H. GRIFFIN, D.D., ordained February 6, 1868, dismissed August 12, 1872; Rev. Lewis O. BRASTOW, D.D., installed November 4, 1873; Rev. Edward HAWES, D.D., installed April 15, 1885. The membership of the church is 393. The membership of the Sabbath-school is 275. The following are the officers of the church: Rev. Edward Hawes, D.D., pastor; Augustus Kimball, Burnham SEAVER, Edwin L. RIPLEY, James PECK, deacons. The pastor and deacons, the superintendent of the Sabbath-school, Rev. Henry A. P. TORREY, and Micah N. STONE, standing committee. Micah N. STONE, clerk; Edwin L. RIPLEY, treasurer; James PECK, auditor; Edward P. SHAW, superintendent of the Sabbath-school.

      The First Methodist Episcopal Church. -- In 1798 Joseph MITCHELL and the well-known Lorenzo DOW traveled and preached in Western Vermont. In 1799 the Vergennes circuit was formed, embracing this whole district. In 1808 we find the circuits changing from time to time, that Burlington belonged to the Charlotte circuit. In 1815, about three MILES east of the city, at the house of Mr. Henry NOBLE, which was a preaching place for itinerants, a Methodist class was formed and Mr. Ebenezer STEWART appointed leader. The officiating preacher upon this occasion was Rev. Nicholas WHITE, who rode the Charlotte circuit.

      It was probably in 1817 that the first Methodist class in the place was formed, consisting of nine members, with Abijah WARNER, leader. Rev. J. McDANIEL, of the St. Albans circuit, presided at the formation of this society Burlington at this time belonging to the St. Albans circuit. Rev. Noah LEVINGS, in after life connected with the American Bible Society, was appointed to Burlington in 1823. He was with the Burlington Methodists two years; his successors to the present time are as follows: Robert TRAVIS, 1825; Joshua POOR, 1826-7; V. KEMPTON and H. CHASE, 1828; C. P. CLARK, 1829-30; Elijah CRANE, 1831; Elijah CRANE and A. M. OSBORN, 1832; M. BATES, 1833; James CAUGHEY, 1834; R. M. LITTLE, 1835-6; John PEGG, 1837; James CAUGHEY, 1838; John HASLAM, 1839; S. D. BROWN, 1840-41; B. O. MEEKER, 1842; T. W. PEARSON, 1843-4; William FORD, 1845; H. G. STARKS, 1846-7; E. B. HUBBARD, 1848; L. JAMES, 1849-50; Thomas DODGSON, 1851-2; C. F. BURDICK, 1853-4; B. O. MEEKER, 1855-6; William A. MILLER, 1857-8; L. D. STEBBINS, 1859; A. WITHERSPOON, 1860-61; H. WARNER, 1862-3; L. P. WALKER, 1864; H. K. COBB, 1865; Isaac McANN, 1866-7; D. W. DAYTON, 1868-9; D. W. GATES, 1870-71; Henry GRAHAM, 1872-3; W. J. HEATH, 1874-5-6; Thomas A. GRIFFINS, 1877-8-9; Merritt HULBURD, 1880-1-2; M. D. JUMP, 1883-4-5.

      The first quarterly conference in Burlington was held September 20, 1823, Rev. Buel GORDAN, presiding elder, Rev. Noah LEVINGS, preacher in charge. At this time Dr. E. D. HARMON and J. W. WEAVER were elected stewards. The report of the fourth quarterly conference for 1823 shows that the amount collected that year was $190.79, of which the presiding elder received $15.33. At the third quarterly conference for the year 1832-3, held in Burlington February 16, 1833, Rev. S. D. FERGUSON, presiding elder, Rev. A. M. OSBORN, preacher, V. P. COON, Charles HAYNES, A. TRUMAN, Ambrose ATWATER, and J. L. FORBES were elected stewards; and at this date we may consider the Methodist Church of Burlington permanently organized.

      During the year 1832 steps were taken to build a church, Mr. John W. SOUTHMADE loaning the society $400 with which to procure a site. Subscriptions were taken, and soon a contract was made for the erection of a church 60 x 40, bricked on the outside. The walls were put up and the structure roofed over in the summer of 1832. While the house was building in 1833 the society held services at the old red school-house on Maiden Lane, now North Union street. In 1834 rough seats were put into the rough building, the pastor, Rev. A. M. OSBORN, constructing the desk himself. Before the year closed the pews were built and the church finished inside; its seating capacity was 400. The building though practically completed, wanted "the glory of a spire.”

      Towards erecting one Rev. James CAUGHEY, a local preacher and afterwards pastor, gave $400, and it was completed in 1836.

      During the pastorate of Rev. C. F. BURDICK a great revival occurred, and the church became of a sudden too small for the worshipers. In 1855 a colony of twenty-seven members and forty-nine probationers went out from the First to form the Second Methodist Church. July 2, 1855, the second church was organized as follows: Stewards, Amasa DREW, James LEWIS, Samuel HUNTINGTON, George T. STOWELL, H. W. SMITH, William MEAD, H. Vickery, B. SEAVER, W. C. DREW, S. HUNTINGTON, J. EDMUNDS. In nine months from its organization this body built a brick church on Pine street which it occupied thirteen years. The pastors who presided over the Pine Street Church were Revs. L. MARSHALL, William R. BROWN, Daniel B. McKENZIE, Charles H. RICHMOND, V. M. SIMONDS, William R. PUFFER, A. S. COOPER, McKendree PETTY, and J. W. EDGERTON. The conference of 1867 sent only one preacher to Burlington, Rev. Isaac McANN; under his labors the two Methodist Churches united and began the building of the present beautiful house of worship, in the Romanesque style on Winooski avenue, which was finished in 1869. Bishop Ames preached the dedicatory discourse April 19, 1870. The church cost over $57,000, and seats 700. The society has at present 496 members and property to the amount of more than $66,000. The Sabbath-school numbers 407. The present officers of the church are: Pastor, Rev. Homer EATON, D.D.; stewards, O. J. WALKER, Ira RUSSELL, S. BEACH, Byron S. JONES, Lester BRAYTON, I. A. GOODHUE, L. M. BINGHAM, M. D., O. P. RAY, esq., G. W. WHITNEY, William WEAVER, L. B. LORD, D. A. BRODIE, H. A. RAY; leaders are Samuel HUNTINGTON, A. H. COBB, A. A. DREW, W. H. LANG, A. S. WRIGHT, A. E. JONES, Charles W. DREW, and Henry DEAN; the Sunday-school superintendent is L. B. LORD; the collector, G. W. Whitney; the treasurer is S. BEACH; the secretary, Lester BRAYTON.

      The First Baptist Church. -- The First Baptist Church in Vermont was organized in Shaftsbury in 1768. The First Baptist Society in Burlington was formed January 5, 1830, when the Burlington branch of the Williston Baptist Church was organized with a membership of six-four women and two men. This society had no meeting-house and no minister, preaching only half of the time, and that half by a lay member of the church of Williston named Hill. For more than three years after Mr. Hill closed his labors the little flock was without a pastor. In January, 1834, they found a preacher in Rev. Mr. NORRIS. The society prospered so well under his charge the summer of that year that in the fall it was resolved to become independent of the mother church. A council convened for this purpose, and September 26, 1834, the First Baptist Church of Burlington was organized. The constituent members were as follows: Rev. Mr. NORRIS, pastor; Mrs. NORRIS, Charles BENNS, Isabella BENNS, E. BARTLETT, Benjamin D. HINMAN, Abigail HINMAN, George WELLS, Lucy WainWRIGHT and Silva Proctor. At the end of the year
Rev. Mr. Norris closed his labors with the church.

      During the year 1835 the desk was supplied by Rev. C. INGRAHAM and Rev. Mr. BRYANT. In June, 1836, Rev. John H. WALDEN became pastor, only to resign in the following September. Not until June, 1839, did the church find another pastor, when Rev. Hiram D. HODGE came to preach. During a stay of only nine months he saw the church double her membership. Rev. Mr. BURBANK finished the year.

      In August, 1840, Rev. Hiram STAFFORD, of Keeseville, N. Y., was chosen pastor. Up to this time the church had worshiped on Colchester avenue in a chapel built by Mr. Charles BENNS -- one of the first members -- and rented to the church at a nominal price. In 1842 a lot was purchased on the southwest corner of Church and Main streets, and a house of worship commenced. Before it was completed the people were bereft of their pastor, who died July 28, 1844. Ins January, 1845, Rev. H. I. PARKER was called to the church. The church structure was speedily finished and dedicated April 3, 1845; at the dedication Rev. Mr. PARKER was installed pastor. He remained with the church till November, 1852. In March, 1853, Rev. Leonard TRACY became pastor, but resigned, owing to continuous illness in his family, in February, 1855. He was succeeded by Rev. H. H. BURRINGTON. Ill health compelled Rev. Mr. BURRINGTON to resign after a stay of two years. In January, 1858, Rev. N. P. FOSTER, M. D., accepted the pastorate. During his first year great interest was manifested, thirty-five being baptized. He remained with the church eight years, during which time the present church edifice was erected on St. Paul street, at a cost of $32,550. The new church was dedicated December 15, 1864. In June, 1866, Mr. FOSTER resigned. From February, 1867, to August, 1881, Rev. Monsoon A. WILCOX was pastor. In 1868 the church dedicated a mission chapel on Water street. Previous to 1870 there were two separate organizations: one the First Baptist Church, a religious body, the other the First Baptist Society, a secular body. July 28, 1870, articles of association were subscribed to in accordance with the general statutes by both bodies, and the church incorporated under the laws of Vermont. In the same year the church edifice was extended one-half of its dimensions, securing a seating capacity of 730 in the auditorium and 600 in the vestry, at a cost of 23,000. This elegant structure was re-dedicated January 1, 1871. In 1873 a chapel costing $6,400 was built by the church, at the northern extremity of Elmwood avenue.

      Rev. F. J. PARRY, the present pastor, was settled in January, 1882. During his pastorate the church has been remodeled at an expense of some $6,000, and a fine parsonage erected, costing between four and five thousand dollars. The officers of the church at present are as follows: Pastor, Rev. F. J. PARRY; deacons, E. A. FULLER, Lawrence BARNES, Samuel BIGWOOD and J. W. JOHNSON; clerk, Arthur CRANE; finance committee, Willard CRANE, George WRIGHT, Dr. H. A. CRANDALL, George DAVIS and Lawrence BARNES; treasurer, George C. PETERSON; Sunday-school superintendent, Samuel BIGWOOD. The membership of the church and Sunday-school are each over 400.