ChittendenBurlington_5  

 

 

 



      The first firm to go into the jobbing of specialties in Burlington was T. W. GREGORY & Co., who established themselves in the tea business, to which POPE, BERRY & HALL subsequently succeeded. The WELLS & RICHARDSON Company was the first firm to go into the wholesale drug business on a large scale. This house first began to do business about 1870 in the block now occupied by the PORTER Manufacturing Company, and their success was almost immediate, soon requiring more extended quarters. The first to do any wholesale business in the dry goods line was Elias, who was succeeded by Edward LYMAN, now of the firm of LYMAN & ALLEN, and Sidney BARLOW, who built up a large trade in wholesale dry goods. William WELLS & Co. had a store on Pearl street, where they carried on a large wholesale business in liquor and flour. One of the early dealers in spices, coffee, tea, etc., was Charles MINER, the originator of the large house of MINER, POPE & Co. H. W. CATLIN began the wholesale flour trade in 1865, in the store now occupied by JONES & ISHAM. POPE & Co. did a large general wholesale business, on the corner of St. Paul and College streets. The present firm of SAFFORD, WETHERBY & Co., wholesale jobbers of fancy goods, began business in Burlington in 1870, under the firm name of E. S. FULLAM & Co. Safford & HUMPHREY, who were connected with the business, purchased it in 1881. HENRY, JOHNSON & LORD went into the wholesale drug business in 1881, but soon after disposed of their trade in this line to the firm of Wells, Richardson & Co., and went into the manufacture of proprietary medicines, which they have continued with great success ever since. In 1870 the firm of ARBUCKLE & Co. previously succeeded to the manufacturing and wholesale business of D. A. VAN NAMEE. The wholesale business of the city, exclusive of marble and lumber, now aggregates about $2,000,000 yearly.


PRESENT MERCANTILE INTERESTS

      The wholesale grocery business of O. J. WALKER & Bros. was established by the present senior member of the firm. O. J. WALKER began business in Burlington in 1851; in 1856 a member of the firm of VAN SICKLEN & WALKER. This firm now keep three men on the road, and make a specialty of salt and nails, though they carry a heavy stock of general groceries, amounting in value to $100,000. The sales, amounting to about half a million a year, are as extensive in New York as in Vermont.

      The wholesale grocery and provision trade of VAN SICKLEN, SEYMOUR & Co. was founded by VAN SICKLEN & WALKER in 1856. The present firm was formed in 1878. Ten men are employed. The store has been mentioned before, and is the oldest wholesale house in the city.

      The firm of JONES, Bros. & Co. is descended from the firm of WESTON & JONES, formed here about twenty years ago. They are jobbers in fruits and vegetables of all kinds, and general dealers in groceries.

      A.L. BARROWS established his trade in groceries and provisions about 1867. McWILLIAMS Brothers founded their business in 1868, and they have had no change in the membership of the firm since the beginning. They deal in general groceries, fine flours, teas, spices and coffees. C. E. GERMAIN, who does a considerable trade in groceries, started in Burlington about fifteen years ago, and has made a success of his store. ROWLEY & PRIOR, dealers in groceries and meats, began here in 1876. P. H. CORLEY established a trade in groceries, Catholic books and stationery, etc., on the 15th of December, 1877. His business is worth now over $30,000 a year. W. B. McKILLIP began dealing in fancy groceries and table delicacies in 18i7, and as specialist in this line is a pioneer. G. W. KELLEY deals in groceries and fruits, oysters, sugars and tobaccos. He started in Burlington in 1877. E. S. Spear, in the same line, began in 1878. His annual income is about $20,000.

      The firm of ROBERTS & PERKINS (W. H. ROBERTS and F. E. PERKINS) bought out the old firm of Ira RUSSELL & Co. in 1879, and established a good trade in all kinds of groceries, wooden ware and baskets, carrying the best goods in the market. DOLAN Brothers, who started here in 1880, carry now a stock valued at $4,000 or $5,000 of all kinds of provisions and country produce, making a specialty of flour. The firm of NYE & LAVELLE was established in 1880, and now do a large wholesale and retail business in cheese and meats, and general groceries. They have an income of more than $50,000 per annum. O'NEIL Brothers, established in trade two years ago, carry a full line of groceries, fancy baskets and willow ware, making a specialty of teas and coffees. The store of SPALDING & BEACH was opened on the 1st of May, 1885, and is provided with a good stock of groceries, canned goods and choice butter. The grocery of J. E. CORRIGAN was opened in June, 1885. Owing to his excellent goods and his local situation, he has a remarkable trade in groceries, fresh and salt meats, canned goods, cigars, overalls and fancy articles.


HARDWARE. ETC.

      The oldest hardware store in the State is that of George I. HAGAR, which was established more than fifty years ago. We saw in 1850 that prominent among the hardware merchants of that period were HAGAR & ARTHUR, the senior member of the firm being the father of the present proprietor. George I. HAGAR entered into partnership with his father about twenty-eight years ago. In 1872 he succeeded to the entire business. Mr. HAGAR now carries on a business worth about $40,000 a year, and has a stock of $20,000. His specialties are mill supplies, builders' and saddlery hardware, etc., though his stock is by no means limited to these.

      The hardware store of Albert G. STRONG also bears the mark of antiquity and solid worth. Mr. STRONG began business in Burlington in 1852, and carries at present, as always, an excellent stock in heavy shelf and carriage hardware and house trimmings, in addition to the varieties that are necessary to the thorough equipment of a wholesale and retail establishment of this kind.

      The hardware firm of RIPLEY & HOLTON was formed in 1871, and from a small retail concern the house has grown to be one of the largest of its kind in the New England States. They carry a large stock of shelf and saddlery hardware, paints, farmers' tools, powder, cordage, etc. The value of the stock is about $30.000 or more.

      FERGUSON & ADSIT, though the youngest firm of the kind in the city, are energetic and full of resources. They have already established an extensive trade both in Burlington and throughout this part of the country. They are manufacturers and jobbers of saddlery and carriage hardware, and deal largely in paints, besides having a heavy sale of ADSIT's patent rein supporter. Their business amounts to about $70,000 per annum.


BOOTS AND SHOES

      W.W. WOOD established a trade in this line of goods in Burlington in 1863, and is thus the oldest dealer in the city. He has manufactured considerably, but has relinquished that branch of the business and now confines himself to an extensive retail trade. His store is a model of elegance, and is the finest in the State in finish and appearance. It is finished in cherry.

      The wholesale trade of D. A. BRODIE had its origin in the formation of the firm of KELSIE & BRODIE, in April, 1873. This partnership was dissolved on the 1st of January, 1886, and Mr. BRODIE has since been sole proprietor. He carries a stock of about $20,000, and has three men on the road.

      C.A. HIBBARD's boot and shoe manufactory, located at 52 and 54 College street, was established at Troy, Vt., in 1865. In 1870 Mr. HIBBARD removed to Essex junction, and from there to Burlington in 1874. He manufactures none but hand-made goods, and turns out from 1,200 to 1,700 cases per annum, giving employment to fifty workmen. His whole trade, consisting of the sale of his own and other manufactured goods, amounts annually to $150,000.

      The business of FLETCHER & BOYNTON was established in 1876 by the present senior partner, F. G. FLETCHER. F. B. BOYNTON was admitted to an interest in September, 1885. These gentlemen carry an unusually fine stock of boots, shoes, and rubbers, procuring both ladies' and gentlemen's goods from the best manufacturers. Their trade is worth from $30,000 to $40,000 a year.

      M.D. McMAHON has been dealing in a general line of boots and shoes here since 1882. His prices range from the cheapest to the dearest. His stock is valued at $10,000. During the year 1885 his sales were more than $30,000, and have not diminished since.

      George H. SMILIE started a boot and shoe store in Burlington three years ago. He carries an extensive and an excellent stock suited to all purposes for ladies and gentlemen.

      W.H. HALE, a merchant of twenty years' experience, opened a boot and shoe store in this city in-1884. His stock is valued at $6,000 to $7,000.


DRY GOODS 

      The Beehive. -- James and John E. PECK, under the firm name of PECK Brothers, are large dealers in carpets, oil cloths, and lace curtains. They have been in business here together ever since the establishment of their trade in 1862, though until recently dealing in a general line of dry goods. They carry a stock of from $40,000 to $50,000.

      Edward BARLOW, in the Opera House block, has been in the dry goods trade in Burlington for twenty-three years. The business is now worth about $60,000 a year. His stock which is composed of everything in the dry goods line, foreign and domestic, is valued at $25,000 or $30,000.

      SAFFORD, WETHERBY & Co., wholesale jobbers of fancy goods, notions, hosiery, overalls, shirts, etc., first began business at Montpelier in 1870 under the title of E. S. FULLAM & Co., and in September of that year removed to Burlington, locating at their present site. About four years after this C. C. CHADWICK was admitted to the business, and the firm name changed to FULLAM, SAFFORD & CHADWICK, and so remained until 1875, when, owing to failing health, Mr. FULLAM sold his interest to SAFFORD & CHADWICK, and during the same season Mr. HUMPHREY became a partner, and the firm was known as SAFFORD, CHADWICK & Co.; but in the early part of 1876 Mr. CHADWICK died, and SAFFORD & HUMPHREY having purchased his interest, continued the business in their name until 1881, when Henry L.. WETHERBY was admitted, and the title changed to the one it has since borne. Although Mr. HUMPHREY is a member of the firm, his time is given to conducting a retail trade in Winooski village, which is owned by SAFFORD, HUMPHREY & Co. During these years the business has steadily increased, so that they now employ two traveling salesmen and a full corps of clerks at their store, their annual sales amounting to about $100.000.

      The extensive dry goods house of LYMAN, Allen & Co. was established in 1868 by the admission of H. W. ALLEN to partnership with the present senior member, Edward LYMAN. The trade was originally started in 1844 by Elias LYMAN, in the LYMAN block, as before noticed. On the 1st of January, 1848, Edward LYMAN became a partner of the founder. In 1851 Elias LYMAN retired. This is the largest wholesale dry goods house in the State, its success being due to the principle adhered to of dealing only in the best of goods, and representing them as they are. The trade extends throughout the State, and is by no means confined to Vermont. A more extended history of the concern appears in the biographical sketch of Mr. LYMAN on a subsequent page.

      M.D. COOK began dealing in fancy dry goods and carpets, and has enlarged his original business to its present proportions. He makes a specialty of carpets, and sells $80,000 worth of goods a year. In 1876 his sales amounted to $25,000.

      George H. KINSLEY, who now carries a stock of $25,000, first opened his store here in 1876. He carries a full line of dry and fancy goods, making a specialty of cloaks.

      J.B. SCULLY & Co. are successors to J. B. SCULLY, who founded the present flourishing business in 1881. They carry an excellent stock of general dry goods, silks, shawls, and domestics.

      George TOWLE and A. F. CHAYER entered into partnership and established their present trade in dry goods three years ago. They make a specialty of hosiery, underwear, and gloves.

      Bennett TURK established the trade in fine custom clothing, now carried on by the firm of B. TURK & Brother, in 1853, when only two or three of the houses now in business in Burlington had been started. They carry a stock of $40,000 to $50,000, and deal in hats, caps, and gentlemen's furnishing goods.

      In 1878 A. N. PERCY, after an already wide experience in St. Albans and Boston, came to Burlington and started the trade in ready made clothing, etc., now carried on by A. N. PERCY & Co., the junior being A. H. RICHARDSON. The income from their business is about $50,000 per annum.

      The business of E. P. SHAW, dealer in the same line of goods, was founded by the present proprietor in 1873. Mr. SHAW makes a specialty of fine clothing, and carries a stock of $15,000 to $20,000.

      The Blue Store, one of the largest establishments in the city, was opened in 1875 by SMITH & PEASE. Jerome B. SMITH and H. C. HUMPHREY formed their present partnership in 1885. They have an excellent line of clothing and furnishing goods.

      D.N. NICHOLSON began on the 1st of January, 1878, a trade in hats and furs, and has since added a general clothing, hat, cap, fur, and trunk business to his first enterprise. He manufactures furs, and makes them and hats a specialty.

      The firm of Miles & McMAHON, jobbers and retailers in millinery, ladies' furnishing and ready made goods, furs, notions, glassware, etc., was formed in July, 1884. Their sign is the "largest bonnet in the world." Mr. MILES has charge of the store in Burlington, and Mr. McMAHON of another owned by the firm at Stowe, Vt.

      The Globe Clothing House, D. M. MILES & Co., was opened on the 25th of April, 1885, with a general stock in men's, youths', and boys' clothing, etc., etc.

      The firm of POPE & PEASE began to trade in Burlington in the fall of 1885 - dealers in clothing, furnishing goods, hats, caps, etc.

      The glove store of A. N. JOHNS came into the present proprietor's hands in March, 1886, and is the only exclusive glove store in Vermont. He carries a stock of about $5,000 to $10,000, and sells the finest of gloves and mittens.


DRUGS, MEDICINES, ETC.

      The oldest drug store in the city is that of W. S. VINCENT, which was opened by Mr. VINCENT in 1865. From 1866 to 1875 it was VINCENT & Taft that ran the business, and from the latter date to the spring of 1881 the firm name was VINCENT, TAFT & Co. Since then Mr. VINCENT has again been sole proprietor.

      The enterprising firm of HENRY, JOHNSON & LORD commenced business at Waterbury, Vt., in 185 5, under the firm name of J. M. HENRY & Sons. Under various changes the firm continued in Waterbury until March, 1867, when they removed to Burlington. After this the addition of the wholesale drug business was made to their manufacture of proprietary medicines. In 1870 the firm divided, the present firm of WELLS, RICHARDSON & Co. taking the wholesale department under the firm title of HENRY & Co. and HENRY & JOHNSON retaining the proprietary medicine department, which they still continue, with the addition in 1879, of L. B. LORD to the company, making the firm as at present. The specialties which they manufacture are N. H. DOWNS's elixir, BAXTER's mandrake bitters, and arnica and oil liniment, besides a large line of toilet articles, extracts, essences, and other proprietary medicines. They have traveling salesmen in all New England and the Middle States, while their sales extend to all parts of the Union. They have a branch house in Montreal, which supplies an extensive demand in Canada.

      The drug firm of R. B. STEARNS & Co. are lineal descendants from the old PECK stand established in 1840. The present proprietors assumed the business in 1870. In addition to the drug trade, which is their specialty, they carry a good stock of surgical instruments, which they claim cannot be excelled in quality in the State.

      The well-known wholesale drug firm, WELLS, RICHARDSON & Co., succeeded to the business of HENRY & Co. in 1872. The first members of the firm were Edward WELLS, A. E. RICHARDSON and W. J. VAN PATTEN. In 1873 Henry WELLS was admitted as a partner, and in 1881 F. H. WELLS. They occupy two large stores, Nos. 125 to 133 College street The first store was built in 1874, and the later and larger one in 1883. The original business of the firm was simply that of wholesale druggists, but in- 1886 they began their successful enterprises as manufacturers of proprietary articles, by putting upon the market their celebrated butter color. This became, in a short time, very popular throughout the dairying sections of the country, and the sale has already extended to England and Australia. The next article which they put upon the market was the well known remedy, kidney-wort, which was advertised very extensively by means of newspapers and almanacs, and has had a deservedly high reputation for the diseases for which it is recommended.

      In 1881 the firm commenced the manufacture of the diamond dyes, which are now sold in almost all parts of the world. These very useful dyes are manufactured in thirty-six different colors, and are adapted to a wide range of uses, from coloring the most ordinary goods to the finest silks, ribbons, feathers, and for many artistic uses. The sale has probably exceeded that of any proprietary article now upon the market.

      The last enterprise of the firm is the manufacture of a very valuable food for infants and invalids, which they have called lactated food. As its name indicates, its basis is sugar of milk, or lactose, an article which is now manufactured in large quantities by the American Milk Sugar Company, under the patents of Prof. A. H. SABIN, of the University of Vermont. The importance of an article of this kind is conceded by all well-informed physicians, and the firm is in receipt of hundreds of letters from eminent members of the profession, indorsing this food as the best article of the kind with which they are acquainted. No doubt it will soon achieve as wide-spread popularity as have the other articles previously put upon the market.

      The demand for their goods induced WELLS, RICHARDSON & Co. several years ago to establish a branch house in Montreal, where a large business is done. Since then they have also established branches in London, England, and in Sidney, New South Wales, Australia. Probably no other one of the many enterprising houses of Burlington has done more to spread the name and fame of their beautiful city throughout the world than have WELLS, RICHARDSON & Co. In 1882, in order to handle their business to better advantage, the firm changed their style to that of a corporation under the name of WELLS & RICHARDSON Company, the stockholders in the corporation remaining the same as those in the partnership previously. Edward WELLS is president of the corporation; A. E. RICHARDSON, vice-president; Henry WELLS, treasurer; W. J. VAN PATTEN, secretary; F. H. WELLS, assistant secretary.

      The drug firm of B. W. CARPENTER & Co. began business here in 1875, the junior member, F. L. TAFT, having been with Dr. VINCENT for ten years previous to the formation of this firm. The senior member was a surgeon in the Ninth Vermont Regiment during the last war, and practiced in Burlington until 1874. The firm deal extensively in everything at all pertaining to this line of business, especially in TAFT's myrrhline, phosphated ginger cream, capsine cholera specific, etc.

      BURRITT Brothers started a drug store here in 1874, and in 1883 sold out to the present proprietor, F. W. BURRITT. He deals in all kinds of drugs and patent medicines, dentists' and surgical instruments, etc., and has a large trade.

      The Peoples' Drug Store, at 75 Church street, under the management of BEAUPRE & LOWREY, proprietors, was opened by these gentlemen in 1880, they having succeeded the old firm of JONES & RILEY. The business has grown steadily, until it is now one of the largest stores of its kind in the State.

      BELLROSE & GRANT have been in the drug business since 1881. Their stock includes a thorough line of drugs, surgical instruments, laboratory goods, reagent bottles, etc.

      The drug store of W. H. ZOTTMAN & Co. was opened on the 15th of January, 1885, and, in addition to a full line of drugs, makes a specialty of compounding prescriptions. They also have two of the best soda fountains in the State.

      The drug firm of SULLIVAN & CARRIERES was formed in April, 1886. They keep a complete line of patent medicines, drugs, perfumes, cigars and sundries. They are also proprietors of SULLIVAN's cough balsam.


JEWELERS

      The jewelry house of BRINSMAID & HILDRETH, of 99 Church street, is like a city landmark, and is the oldest of its kind in Burlington. It was established by Abram BRINSMAID in the year 1793, and during this lengthened period of more than ninety years the reputation of the house for responsibility and first-class workmanship has never been disputed. By the admittance of Moses BLISS as a partner the firm was known prior to 1824 as BRINSMAID & BLISS, and has been followed successively by PANGBORN & BRINSMAID in 1841; BRINSMAID Brothers in 1849; BRINSMAID, Brother & Co. in 18154; and in that year the present firm name of BRINSMAID & HILDRETH was adopted.

      They carry at all times a full and complete stock of foreign and American watches, clocks, jewelry of all kinds, silver and silver plated ware, and kindred goods, transacting a business that is not only local but extends all over this section of the State. The individual names of the proprietors are William BRINSMAID and Chester HILDRETH.

      The business conducted by H. E. ADAMS & Son (Mark W. ADAMS) was established in Burlington on the 1st of April, 1879, by the senior member of the present firm. At the beginning the stock was valued at about three thousand dollars, and only $5,000 worth were sold the first year. But the sales have increased until they now amount to $20,000 annually.

      L.X. FREMAU began dealing in jewelry in Burlington six years ago. He makes a specialty of repairing, though he carries a complete stock for sale.

      E.A. BRUCE has been in the jewelry business at No. 106 Church street for four years. The site, however, has been in use for a jewelry store for the last thirty-five years. Mr. BRUCE carries a full line of the best jewelry, watches, silverware, spectacles, eye-glasses, etc., and executes with great care and skill the resetting and mounting of diamonds and other precious stones: He gives special attention to the repairing and adjusting of fine watches. His predecessor in the building was C. W. WINGATE.


BOOKS, STATIONERY, ETC.

      In 1837 Samuel HUNTINGTON opened the first book and stationery store in town, in the building which he still occupies, and has been in business longer than any other merchant in the city. From a small country trade the business has grown to extensive proportions, and is constantly increasing. The present firm of S. HUNTINGTON & Co. manufactures blank books, keep a fine stock of writing materials of every sort, albums, scrap books, etc., as well as a large assortment of the best educational and other books. The store has for forty years been a depository of the American Bible Society. In view of the fact that Mr. HUNTINGTON is the only merchant in business to-day that was here when he began, his remarkable success must be gratifying.

      The Free Press Association opened a store of the same kind about six years ago, and have always kept a fine assortment of stationery, ruled and bond papers, inks, etc. The stock carried is valued at $10,000 to $15,000.


MISCELLANEOUS MERCHANTILE INTERESTS

      In 1872 C. R. NASH began the business of plumbing, gas fitting, furnace work and general jobbing in stoves, ranges and house-furnishing goods, making plumbing a specialty. The junior partner of the firm of NASH & ROCHE, P. A. ROCHE, was admitted to the position in 1885.

      JOHNSON Brothers began dealing in crockery, china, glass and silver plated ware, wall-paper, window-shades, lamp goods, etc., in 1879, succeeding to a business which was established about thirty-five years ago. C. G. PETERSON has been in the same line of trade for five years. He does considerable wholesaling. The Boston Bargain Store, Chester C. COLLINS, proprietor, was founded in 1884. The stock consists of tinware, crockery, glassware and fancy goods.

      A.G. PIERCE has, since 1873, conducted the business established by his father in 1845, and carried on from 1858 to 1873 by PIERCE & Son ; carries everything that is demanded in farm machinery, seeds, fertilizers, etc.

      C.P. SMITH succeeded in 1867 to the business which Frederick SMITH had founded ten or twelve years before. He is now a wholesale and retail dealer in flour, grain, feed, hay and seeds. “A good line of good goods."

      The store of JONES & ISHAM was opened in 1883 by the present members of the firm, J. W. JONES and C. S. ISHAM. Besides carrying a first-class assortment of oatmeals and grahams, they deal in field and garden seeds, flour, grain and feed, baled hay, grass-seed, oil meal, and ground bone. They also sell Nova Scotia plaster extensively.

      One of the best as well as oldest of the coal interests of the city is that of Elias LYMAN. Honorable dealing has increased a trade at first small to large proportions. In no case has misrepresentation as to quality or quantity been practiced, and his customers have come to regard his statements as in all respects trustworthy. His stock is of the best.

      J.W. HAYES, wholesale and retail dealer in hard and soft coal and wood, established his trade in Burlington ten or twelve years ago. It is enough to say that he handled 10,000 tons of coal during the last year, his trade reaching Canada and New Hampshire. He also keeps a general grocery at No. 165 South Champlain street.

      The firm of ADSIT & BIGELOW -- E. S. ADSIT and J. J. BIGELOW -- was formed in 1875. By reason of thrift and honesty these gentlemen have established a trade throughout Vermont and Eastern New Hampshire, requiring the handling of 10,000 tons of coal per annum. They also deal somewhat in hard wood.

      S. BEACH, baker and confectioner, began business here about 1854. He keeps a large assortment of the goods expected in his line, and has a wholesale business that embraces Northern New York and Eastern New Hampshire. His specialties are the Burlington and the Boston cracker. Two men are kept on the road, and for the retail trade two teams are required in Burlington and Winooski. His business is worth about $55,000 per annum and demands the continual employment of about twenty men.

      H.E. SAILS began business in Burlington in 1870, and keeps an excellent stock of tobaccos, cigars, fruits and confectionery. His ice cream parlors are also well patronized. Other confectionery stores are kept by G. B. KENT & Co. and Charles N. JONES, started respectively four years, and six months, ago. G. B. WOODWARD opened a news store and began keeping confectionery on the 1st of September, 1885.

      The firm of REED & TAYLOR became successors in 1884 to the old house of MURRAY & REED, who for twenty years had carried on a trade in teas, coffees, spices, tobacco and cigars. The business is now largely wholesale, extending throughout Vermont, Northern New York and a part of New Hampshire. Three men are kept on the road. Tobacco and cigars are with them a specialty, and two and a half million cigars were sold in 1885. The wholesale and retail tobacco store of C. N. MEAD, on the corner of Main and Church streets, is worth an income of from $25,000 to $40,000 a year.

      The immense wholesale trade in teas, coffees, spices, tobacco and cigars, now conducted by POPE, BERRY & HALL, was founded in 1866 by GREGORY & MEAD, T. W. GREGORY & Co., MINOR, POPE & Co., and the present firm successively followed, the last change occurring about nine years ago. The business is entirely wholesale, three men being kept continually on the road. Teas, coffees and spices are the specialty. The firm carry a stock valued at $25,000, and have annual sales of from $250,000 to $300,000.

      The New York and China Tea Company was formed three years ago, S. W. HENRY, manager. Their stock of $1,000 is of an excellent quality. A beginning has been made in a wholesale trade.

      H.H. DAVIS keeps a full line of artists' materials, books, musical goods, and apparatus for all games. He has been in trade in Burlington since 1873. He also carries a line of school-books, newspapers and periodical publications.

      BAILEY's music rooms, under the efficient management of H. W. HALL, has been opened in this city for seven years past. The main store, however, is at St. Johnsbury, under Mr. BAILEY's management. This business is worth from $60,000 to $80,000 per annum, six men being on the road. The stock is in pianos, organs and musical instruments of all kinds, musical merchandise and sheet music. The trade extends all through Northern Vermont and New York.

      For the last three years Mrs. H. E. SAILS has dealt in Kensington art work in all its branches, and in fancy goods of every description.

      The art store of L. G. BURNHAM is worthy of particular mention as being the best of its kind in the State. Everything in the nature of picture frames and mouldings is made here. A wholesale business is done in photographers' and artists' supplies, and an extensive trade carried on in artists' materials, plush goods, fancy articles and novelties. Mr. BURNHAM has been in a similar business in Burlington for the last ten years, and has conducted his art store since 1884. His line of etchings and engravings is unsurpassed in this part of New England.


WINOOSKI AND BURLINGTON HORSE 
RAILROAD COMPANY

      The charter for this, the first horse railroad company in the State, was obtained on the 31st of October, 1872, by F. C. KENNEDY, Lemuel B. PLATT, Charles W. WOODHOUSE, Edward W. PECK, and Levi UNDERWOOD, corporators, with a capital stock of $100,000. Nothing effectual was done until the summer of 1885, when C. D. HAINES, of Sandy Hill, N. Y., came to Burlington and organized the company. A contract was let to his brother, A. G. HAINES, to build an equipped road for $40,000. To extend the road as it now runs, it was bonded for $15,000, and stock paid up for $25,000. It is three miles in length. The road is not now quite a standard gauge road, but is to be widened from its present breadth of four feet, to four feet eight inches, and in the summer open cars are placed on the track. The capital stock is also yet to be increased. But the company have placed themselves on a solid footing and will undoubtedly make the road in every way a success. The first officers of the company were C. D. HAINES, president, U. A. WOODBURY, vice-president, and directors as now, except Jo D. HATCH in place of E. T. HAINES, resigned. The present officers and directors are as follows: President, U. A. WOODBURY; vice-president, F. C. KENNEDY; superintendent, K. B. WALKER; treasurer, L. E. WOODHOUSE; clerk, George W. WALES; directors, U. A. WOODBURY, C. D. HAINES, F. C. KENNEDY, K. B. WALKER, and Jo D. HATCH.


THE POST-OFFICE

      The first post route in Vermont was established on the 19th of June, 1781, when Samuel SHERMAN was employed to "ride post from His Excellency's in Arlington to Camp Headquarters at (Castleton) once a week three months from date hereof." He was to go one road by way of Tinmouth and return by way of Pawlet. For his “encouragement," he was allowed fourteen shillings a week out of the State treasury. In 1783 the Governor and Council established a weekly post between Bennington and Albany, and Anthony HASWELL, father of Nathan B. HASWELL, afterward a prominent Burlington merchant, was appointed postmaster-general. On the 5th of March, 1784, the Legislature enacted a law for the establishment of post-offices within the State, which was substantially re-enacted in March, 1787, with the following preamble:

     "Whereas, the business of promulgating the laws, conveying timely notice to the inhabitants of the State of all proprietary proceedings, and other matters of importance to the public, can in no other way be effected so extensively and with so small expense as by the appointment of regular posts for conveying the same to the different parts of this State;" therefore five post-offices were established, viz: At Bennington, Rutland, Brattleboro, Windsor, and Newbury, under such regulations as were established for the government of the post-offices of the United States. The post-rider from Bennington to Brattleboro was allowed three pence for every mile traveled, and riders on the other routes two pence per mile, "in hard money orders or hard money." The postmaster-general was empowered to employ a rider to travel from Rutland through Addison county (of which this county was then a part), at two pence per mile, "each fortnight for one-half the circuit, going one road and returning another." On the 15th of October, 1790, to the dissatisfaction of the public, who feared a suspension of the service, that part of the act which provided for the compensation of the riders was repealed. On the 21st of January, 1788, Daniel MARSH advertised himself as post-rider from Clarendon to Onion River, the northern terminus of his route being Jericho. There was no authority for the establishment of an office in Chittenden county, which then extended to the Canada line; and the conclusion is that there were no offices in the State except the five named in the act of 1787, until June 1, 1792, after the service had become a part of the economy of the general government. On that day, under the authority of Congress, additional offices were opened in Manchester, Vergennes, and Burlington. Congress was very slow in the extension of the service in Vermont, the first act, passed March 3, 1791, authorizing the postmaster-general to extend the carrying of the mail from Albany to Bennington; in other words, merely connecting the general service with that previously established in Vermont.

      Under an act passed on the 20th of February, 1792, only the following routes were established in this State: From Albany by way of Troy and Lansingburgh to Bennington, Manchester and Rutland, once a week; from Rutland to Burlington, once in two weeks, though proposals were invited for service once a week; from Springfield, Mass., by way of Northampton to Brattleboro, once a week; and from Brattleboro by way of Charlestown, N. H., and Windsor, Vt., to Hanover, N. H., once a week. In 1801 the Rutland “Herald”contained advertisements of the following routes, among others:

      From Windsor by way of Woodstock, Royalton, Randolph, Williamston, Montpelier and Jericho to Burlington, once a week, the rider leaving Burlington on Saturdays at six o'clock A. M., arriving at Montpelier by six P. M., and at Windsor on Mondays by ten A. M. Returning he would leave Windsor every Wednesday at two o'clock P. M., reach Montpelier on Thursdays at seven P. M. and Burlington seven P. M. on Fridays. Another route was from Rutland north by way of Pittsford, Brandon, Salisbury, Middlebury, Vergennes, Charlotte, Shelburne, Burlington, Colchester, Milton, etc., to Highgate, once a week, leaving Rutland at five o'clock every Monday morning, reaching Charlotte at ten on Tuesday mornings, Burlington by one on Tuesday afternoons, and Highgate at seven on Wednesday afternoons. Going south the carrier would leave Highgate at eight o'clock Thursday mornings, reach Burlington at eleven o'clock Friday mornings; leave Burlington at noon, reach Charlotte at two in the afternoon and Rutland at eight o'clock every Saturday afternoon. Fifteen minutes was allowed for the opening and closing of the mails at all offices where the time was not particularly specified. This system of transmission by stage was continued, of course, until the opening of railroads through the State, about 1850. Thompson's “Gazetteer” states that there were in 1840 three lines of mail stages through Burlington, which arrived and departed daily, one to the south, one to the east and one to the north.

      In 1804 there were sixty post towns in the State, seven of which were in Chittenden county, viz: Burlington, postmaster, John FAY ; Charlotte, W. BARNES; Hinesburg, Elijah BOSTWICK; Huntington, Jabez FARGO; Jericho, Roderick MESSENGER; Richmond ____ ____; and Williston, Eben JUDSON. In 1823, as shown by Walton's “Register,’ there were 163 post-offices in the State, and about $20,000 was annually paid on the postage of letters, papers and pamphlets by the inhabitants thereof, numbering 235,749 persons. The compensation of postmasters was on the basis of 30 per cent. on the first $100 of receipts, and 25 per cent. on the next $100. Brattleboro was the largest office in Vermont. Middlebury was second in importance and Burlington third. The salary of Ephraim MILLS, the postmaster at Burlington, was $333. All the other postmasters in the county received less than $l00. The rates of postage were for a single letter of one piece of paper, for any distance not exceeding thirty miles, six cents ; over thirty and not exceeding eighty miles, ten cents; over eighty and not exceeding 150 miles, twelve and a half cents; over 150 and not exceeding 400 miles, eighteen and three-fourths cents; over 400 miles, twenty-five cents. Letters composed of two pieces of paper were charged double those rates, three pieces were charged triple rates, and more than three pieces quadruple postage.

      The highest salary paid any of the 4,000 postmasters in the United States was then $2,000, and there were only ten who were paid that sum, while twenty-seven received $1,000 and upward. In 1845 the rates of postage were reduced, and letters weighing not more than half an ounce could be sent any distance under 300 miles for five cents, and any greater distance for ten cents. In 1851 the rates were again modified so that a single letter, that is, a letter weighing not more than half an ounce, would be carried 3,000 miles, or under, for three cents, if prepaid, and for five cents if not prepaid. The rates for a distance exceeding 3,000 miles were respectively six and twelve cents. Postage stamps and stamped envelopes were not used until 1852. The system of charging uniform rates on letters according to weight, and disregarding distance within the limits of the country, was established in 1863.

      In the earlier years of the existence of Burlington, and down to a period within the memory of living man, money was so scarce that a letter would frequently remain in the office several days or a week, until the person to whom it leas addressed could earn the twenty-five cents, or less, by labor for cash instead of pork, wheat, or pot-ashes.

      Following is a list of the postmasters of Burlington from the first appointment in 1792 to the present (for the first eight names credit should be given to Robert ROBERTS, esq., through whose influence they were obtained from the department at Washington): Amos HUTCHINS, appointed July 17, 1792; John FAY, March 20, 1793; Cornelius P. VAN NESS, July 1, 1809; Jason CHAMBERLIN, March 6, 1814; Dr. Elijah D. HARMON, January 22, 1816; Almon WARNER, October 17 1816; Ephraim MILLS, September 26, 1818; Henry B. STACY, May 12, 1841; Dana WINSLOW, 1843; William NOBLE, 1845; George H. PAUL, 1849; Luther P. BLODGETT, 1850; Douglas A. DANFORTH, 1854; G. Grenville BENEDICT, 1862 ; Samuel HUNTINGTON, 1866; William H. HOYT, 1867; George H. BIGELOW, 1868; G. Grenville BENEDICT, 1872; Buel J. DERBY, 1875.

      While Ephraim MILLS was postmaster the office was kept in a little room about twenty-five feet long and twelve wide, in Mills' Row, a building described in former pages as a long two-story wooden structure extending from the east end of the American Hotel to Church street and fronting the square. Behind it, instead of the buildings now to be seen, was a large garden. This post-office was distinguished less by "pigeon-holes," for the reception of mail matter, than by little shelves. The floor was usually and unavoidably littered with pieces of paper, for in those days envelopes were unknown; the writer would place the address of the person for whom the letter was intended on the back of the folded sheet itself, around which the postmaster would wrap an extra sheet, write upon it the name of the place for which the communication was destined, tie it and send it on. Letters received here were stripped of their outer covering by the postmaster and, when paid for, delivered to the person addressed. When Mr. STACY received the appointment he fitted up an office in a framed building that occupied the present site of the Commercial Bank building, on the north side of the square, and constructed pigeon-holes and letter boxes for the convenience of the public, an innovation that was generally appreciated. It is related that the painter who labeled the letter-box slits on the inner apartment and on the outer door, in his anxiety to please and perform more of a service than was expected of him, painted over the key-hole on the street door the title "key-hole," to the amusement of the many and annoyance of the postmaster. The office was kept for a number of years after Mr. STACY's retirement in the rear part of the building at present occupied as an office by the Burlington Shirt Company, on the southwest corner of College and St. Paul streets.

      The land now occupied by the post-office and custom-house building was deeded on August 27, 1816, by Seth POMEROY to John POMEROY for $3,000. John N. POMEROY derived his title from the latter, and on the 30th of March, 1855, sold the property, including the brick cottage, to the United States for $7,750. The deed describes the lot as extending 220 feet on  Main street and 316 on Church. On the 4th of August, 1854, Congress passed an act appropriating $40,000 for the construction of a custom-house, post-office and rooms for the judge of the United States District Court, at Burlington. This building was begun in the fall of 1855, and completed in the spring of 1857. In June, 1838, an additional appropriation of $4,000 was made for paving and grading the grounds and furnishing the building. It is composed of brick, iron and stone, only the doors, base-boards and the floors of the upper story being made of wood. Douglas A. DANFORTH, the first postmaster to occupy it, removed his office from the basement of the city HALL.


PRESENT PROFESSIONAL MEN

      Edward J. PHELPS, the subject of this sketch, was born in Middlebury, Vt., July II. 1822. He was the son of Samuel S. PHELPS, who, as lawyer, judge of the Supreme Court, and United States Senator, has left a reputation for distinguished ability. The son, Edward J., was graduated from Middlebury College in 1840. He studied law at the Yale College Law School and in the office of Hon. Horatio SEYMOUR, in Middlebury, and was admitted to the bar in 1843. He soon removed to Burlington and became a partner of Hon. David A. SMALLEY. The firm had a large business. Later in life he was for some time a partner with Hon. L. E. CHITTENDEN. In 1851 he accepted the office of second comptroller of the currency under President Fillmore, and served through this administration. From 1856 for two or three years he practiced his profession in New York city. Returning to Burlington he continued in active practice until 1880, when he was made professor in the Yale College Law School At this time he gave up most of his local professional work, retaining his connection only with the most important cases. For many years his legal business had been in quality and extent perhaps the most desirable of any in the State. In 1870 he represented Burlington in the constitutional convention. In 1877 he presided with his wonted grace over the centennial celebration of the Bennington battle, and delivered the opening address. In 1880 he gave a course of lectures on medical jurisprudence before the medical department of the University of Vermont. He was president of the American Bar Association in 1881. His printed report to that body, of the "changes in statute law," is a good example of his witty and sarcastic style of treating certain classes of subjects. As professor of law in Yale College he was extremely popular as a lecturer, his light and graceful touch embellishing the dryest of topics. In 1882 he also gave a short course of lectures before the law school of Boston University upon constitutional law.

      In politics Mr. PHELPS was a Whig, while the organization of that party continued vital. Later, he acted usually with the Democratic party, although taking little part in the business of politics. In 1880 he was the Democratic nominee for governor.

      Upon the accession of the Democratic party to power in 1884, he was nominated and confirmed as minister to England. Never having been in the National Legislature, his newspaper reputation was limited and the nomination was something of a surprise to active politicians; but his eminent fitness for the English mission has already been demonstrated.

      In August, 1845, Mr. PHELPS was married to Miss Mary HAIGHT. Of their four children two survive-Mary H., the wife of Horatio LOOMIS, of Burlington, and Edward P., now in London, a member of the legation. A son, Charles, died in boyhood, and Edward H. died in Detroit in 1884, at the age of thirty-seven, while occupying the position of chief engineer of the Michigan Central Railroad.

      Mr. PHELPS holds a high position at the bar. In the management of causes before the court and jury he is extremely skillful, facile and adroit; well equipped to meet all emergencies -- he is a dangerous antagonist and is notably successful in winning verdicts. He has a gift of graceful and fluent expression which has been carefully cultivated, so that as a speaker and advocate he has few superiors in point of neatness, elegance, finish and persuasiveness.

      George F. EDMUNDS. -- Vermont from its earliest history has wielded an influence in the national councils out of all proportion to her population and the extent of her territory. Her distinguished senatorial delegation for a century has added to her fame and prestige as a producer of great men. Mr. EDMUNDS holds a high place in the list of senators from this State, and no one of them has been recorded as having been the originator or promoter of so many important measures of legislation as he.

      Mr. EDMUNDS was born in Richmond, Vt., February 1, 1828. He was educated in the village schools, and also spent some time in study under a private tutor. He studied law in the office of his brother-in-law, A. B. MAYNARD, and afterwards in the office of SMALLEY & PHELPS, at Burlington. He was admitted to the bar in 1849, and began practice in Richmond in partnership with Mr. MAYNARD. In 1851 he removed to Burlington, and very early showed an aptitude for the profession, which brought him a good practice. He always had a civil business of good volume and character. In the Vermont Central Railroad litigation, which in one form or another was in the courts for many years, and which involved the large interests of various classes of security holders, he was one of the leading counsel. Mature in intellect as well as in personal appearance, his successes came early and have continually followed him. In August, 1852, he married Miss Susan MARSH LYMAN, daughter of Wyllys LYMAN, of Burlington. They have had two daughters, one of whom survives.

      In 1854, when twenty-six years of age, he was elected town representative as a candidate of the younger element in politics. He was a member of the House from 1854 to 1857 inclusive, and during the three last sessions was speaker. In 1855 he was chairman of the judiciary committee. In 1861 Mr. EDMUNDS was elected State senator from Chittenden county, and during this term was chairman of the judiciary committee. He was re-elected in 1862. In the State Legislature he was distinguished for his thorough acquaintance with the duties of every post to which he was assigned, and his close attention to the business of the day in every detail. In 1866 he was appointed by Governor Dillingham as the successor in the Senate of the United States of Solomon Foote, and was afterwards elected by the Legislature for the remainder of the term ending March 4, 1869. In 1880 he received his fourth election. His present term of service expired by limitation in 1886. From these data it will be seen that Mr. EDMUNDS has been in public service, either in the State or the National Legislature, every year but five since he became twenty-six years of age. In the United States Senate Mr. EDMUNDS early took an active and leading part. He has served in the committees on commerce, public lands, retrenchments, and appropriations. During the Forty-first Congress he was chairman of the committee on pensions, and in the third session of the Forty-second Congress he succeeded Mr. TRUMBULL as chairman of the judiciary committee. This position he held continuously until the accession of the Democratic party to power in 1885. In 1866 he reported a bill to regulate the term of civil offices. At the beginning of GRANT's administration he earnestly opposed the repeal of the tenure of office act. In 1876, at the crisis of the conflict over the electoral count, he submitted a draft of the constitutional amendment, which provided for the counting of the electoral votes by the Supreme Court of the United States. The proposition was rejected. He was afterwards chairman of the Senate committee which devised the bill providing for the electoral commission. Mr. EDMUNDS reported the bill and was made a member of the commission. In 1886 he framed, advocated, and pressed to their passage the resolutions which declared it to be the sense of the Senate that papers on file in the departments should be submitted to the Senate on demand, when they concerned the reputation of any public officer who was removed, or who was proposed for confirmation. The anti-polygamy bill was chiefly his work, and the bill providing for the presidential succession, which became a law January 9, 1883, was introduced by him. The foregoing are a few of the many legislative measures with which the name of Mr. EDMUNDS has been prominently identified. At the close of the last session of Congress he was chosen president pro tem. of the Senate.

      Although never a willing candidate for the office of president of the United States, his name was presented by the Vermont delegation to the National Republican Conventions of 1880 and 1884, and met the endorsement of a large and influential portion of the press and people.

      Mr. EDMUNDS is a very -Strong debater upon questions of law as well as politics, and has had during his senatorial term a large practice before the Supreme Court of the United States. Mr. EDMUNDS is recognized as one of the great leaders of the Republican party, and from his extensive and thorough information in all matters pertaining to the public service, he has become at Washington the guide and counselor of Republicans and Democrats alike, in questions of political administration, wherever considerations of party may chance to have no place.

      Next to Mr. PHELPS, the attorney of longest standing in Burlington is E. R. HARD, who was admitted to practice in the Chittenden County Court at the March term of 1845. He was born at Essex, Vt., on the 17th of February, 1824; secured his education by private study, and took his preliminary course of law study in the office of David A. SMALLEY.

      William G. SHAW was born at Danville, Vt., on the 9th of August, 1831; was graduated from the University of Vermont in 1849; began the study of law with William W. PECK and David A. SMALLEY, of Burlington; was admitted to practice at Burlington in 1853. He held the position of secretary of civil and military affairs of the State in 1856-58; was reporter of the decisions of the Supreme Court from 1858-64; member of the House of Representatives from Burlington in 1862-63; alderman of this city in 1868; judge of the City Court of Burlington 1868-72; in 1856 he was chosen a member of the board of trustees of the Burlington Savings Bank, and has retained the office ever since. He is a member of the board of trustees of the University of Vermont, to which position he was called in 1881; and he is also a member of the board of trustees of the permanent fund of the Home for Destitute Children, to which position he was appointed December 20, 1876.

      Daniel ROBERTS, for a more extended sketch of whose life the reader is referred to a subsequent page, was born in Wallingford, Vt., on the 25th of May, 1811; received a collegiate education at Middlebury, was admitted to the bar of Rutland county in September, 1832, and came to Burlington in 1856.

      Russell S. TAFT was born in Williston, Vt., on the 28th of January, 1835, was educated at the common schools and academies, and after a due course of study was admitted to the bar of Chittenden county in 1856. He was selectman of the town from 1861 to 1864, and alderman of the city of Burlington from 1865 to 1869; was State's attorney for Chittenden county in 1862, '63, and '64; senator from this county in 1865-66, and lieutenant-governor of the State in 1872-74. In 1880 he represented the city in the Legislature and was elected associate judge of the Supreme Court, and in 1882 was appointed fifth associate judge by Governor FARNHAM, vice Wheelock G. VEAZEY, promoted. He was elected fifth associate judge in 1882.

      C.J. ALGER was born at Hinesburg, Vt., on the 20th of December, 1829, and was graduated from the University of Vermont in 1854. In 1856, after a two years' service as principal of the Franklin, Vt., Academy, he began the study of law in the office of Hon. George F. EDMUNDS. In 1857 he entered the office of Hon. Asahel PECK as student and in April, 1858, was admitted to practice in the courts of this State. He followed his profession somewhat irregularly, owing to his activity in public affairs. He became interested in the public schools of the city, was elected school commissioner and served seven years as clerk of the school board, and after a year's retirement was called to the position of superintendent of schools for six successive years, when he resigned further service. He was then devoted to the interests of the city as alderman for five years, during the last two of which he was chairman at the same time of the street and water committees. These positions were never before held simultaneously by the same person. In the spring of 1886, owing to his increasing labors as editor and publisher of the “Burlington Independent” (an able and a fearless exponent of good morals and clean politics), which he had a few months previously established, he relinquished the duties of this office. He had never abandoned the practice of his profession, but had continually been engaged in the transaction of legal business, especially in the collection of claims, etc. A growing defect in hearing prevented his frequent appearance before the courts in litigation.

      A.V. SPALDING was born on the 1st day of February, 1835, at Bridgewater, Vt. He received his education at West Randolph Academy, and pursued his law studies in the office of Hon. Jefferson P. KIDDER, once lieutenant-governor of Vermont, and lately United States district judge of Dakota. He was admitted to practice at the June term of the Orange County Court, in 1859.
      Henry BALLARD was born on the 20th of April, 1839, in the town of Tinmouth, Vt.; was graduated from the law department of the University of Albany in 1863, and in September of the same year was admitted to the bar of Chittenden county. A more detailed sketch of Mr. BALLARD's life appears in a later page.

      Hon. BRADLEY B. SMALLEY was born in Jericho on the 26th of November, 1836, and removed to Burlington in 1839. He received a common school and academic education; studied law with his father, the late Hon. David A. SMALLEY; was appointed clerk of the District Court of Vermont in 1861, and admitted to the bar of Chittenden county in 1863. He represented the city of Burlington in the Legislature of 18i4 and again in 1878, besides holding various offices in the city. During the presidential campaign of 1884 he was chairman of the State Democratic committee, and in 1886 was appointed by President Cleveland collector of the port for the district of Vermont.

      W.L. BURNAP was graduated from Dartmouth college in the class of 1863, and soon after entered the law office of WALES & TAFT of Burlington. He was admitted to the Chittenden county bar at the September term of 1886. As will be seen by reference to the civil list, he served as State's attorney for three years; he was county senator in 1882, and is now professor of medical jurisprudence in the medical department of the University of Vermont.

      George B. SHAW was born on the 27th of July, 1845, at Burlington; was graduated from the University of Vermont in 1865; studied law at the University of Albany and with his brother, judge William G. SHAW, and was admitted to the bar in April, 1 868. He has practiced in Boston, New York city, and for nine and a half years in Burlington.

      A.G. WHITTEMORE was born in Milton on the 23d of January, 1844. After receiving his degree from the University of Vermont in 1867, he entered the law office of C. W. WITTERS, of Milton, and was admitted to the Chittenden County Court at the September term of 1870. In the following spring he came to Burlington and shortly afterward entered into partnership with Henry O. WHEELER, a relation which subsisted until the 1st of January, 1886. Mr. WHITTEMORE represented the town of Milton in the Legislature in 1870, and was president of the Burlington Board of Aldermen from 1876 to 1880.

      E.F. BROWNELL was born in Williston on the 15th of May, 1846; studied law in the office of Hon. Daniel ROBERTS, was graduated from the Albany Law School in 1870, and admitted in Burlington in September, 1870.

      Robert ROBERTS, the junior member of the firm of ROBERTS & ROBERTS, was born on the 1st of January, 1848, and became a graduate of the University of Vermont in 1869. After the usual course of study, part of which he took at the Columbia College Law School, he was admitted to the bar of Chittenden county in September, 1871. Since that time, with the exception of one year in Europe immediately after his admission to practice, and two years in practice in Chicago, he has been regularly engaged in practice in Burlington. He represented the city in the Legislature from 1882 to 1884.

      J.W. RUSSELL was born on the 1st of September, 1846, at Moira, Franklin county, N. Y., and was graduated from Yale College in the class of 1868. He studied law in the office of Judge William G. SHAW, in Burlington, and was admitted to the bar of Chittenden county at the September term of 1871, after a course in the Columbia Law School. He was afterward admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of the State, and in the United States Courts. From December, 1882, to December, 1884, he was State's attorney for Chittenden county.

      Henry O. WHEELER was born on the 7th of October, 1841, in the town of Williston. He was educated in the University of Vermont. He entered this institution in the class of 1860, but owing to the Rebellion, in which he rendered his country gallant service, he was not graduated until 1867. During the war he fought in the ranks of the First Vermont Cavalry, and was promoted first lieutenant of Company A, and afterwards brevetted captain. He was wounded while engaged in the battle of the Wilderness by a ball which seriously affected, and, to all appearance at least, penetrated the left lung, but he was able to enter the action at Shenandoah Valley on the 7th of October, 1864, when he was taken prisoner and confined in Libby prison until the following February. He was then exchanged. After his graduation from the university, he began the study of law in the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and continued his course with CONGAR & SLOAN, of Janesville, Wis. There he was admitted to practice on the 1st of June, 1868. He removed to Iowa, was admitted to the District Court of that State on the 11th of May, 1869, at Fort Dodge, and to the Supreme Court on the 13th of November, 1871. He came to Burlington in the spring of 1872 from Winooski, where he had been for a few months. He was appointed superintendent of schools in I880, after serving several years before that on the school board, and retains the position still. He is also treasurer of the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, to which place he was appointed in July, 1881.

      Chauncey W. BROWNELL, jr., was born in Williston on the 7th of October, 1847. He is a graduate from the University of Vermont, class of 1870, and of the Albany Law School in 1872. He also studied for a time in the office of WALES & TAFT. He was admitted to the Chittenden County Courts in September, 1872. He was assistant secretary of the State Senate from 1874 to 1880, since which time he has been the secretary of that body. He is also State's attorney for Chittenden county.

      Elihu Barber TAFT was born on the 25th of March, 1847, at Williston He was educated at the Williston Academy and the University of Vermont, from the latter of which institutions he was graduated in 1871. He studied law with the firm of WALES & TAFT, and was admitted to practice at the April term of 1873.

      Hamilton S. PECK was born on the 22d of October, 1845, at Royalston, Worcester county, Mass., and is a graduate from the University of Vermont. He pursued his course of study with WALES & TAFT, and L. L. LAWRENCE, of Burlington, and was admitted to practice in the courts of Chittenden county at the April term of court 1873.

      Seneca HASELTON was born on the 26th of February, 1848, at Westford, in this county. After his graduation from the University of Vermont in 1871, he entered the law office of WALES & TAFT, and completed his course of study in the law department of the University of Michigan, from which he was graduated in 1875. In the same year he was admitted to practice in the courts of Chittenden county. He was elected city judge in 1878, and in consequence of annual re-election held the office until 1886.

      W.H. HARE, born on the 12th of May, 1848, at Cedars, P. Q., and graduated from the Montreal College at the age of twenty years, came to Burlington in 1872, and commenced. the study of law with the Hon. Levi UNDERWOOD. He was admitted at the May term of 1876, after completing his course with L. L. LAWRENCE. From 1877 to 1880 he was clerk of the City Court; has been city grand juror three years in succession; was again clerk of the City Court in 1885, and in 1886 was elected city judge.

      L.F. ENGLESBY was born on the 3d of August, 1854, in Burlington. He received his education at the High School in this city and at the University of Vermont, and prepared himself for the practice of law at the Boston Law School, in the offices of S. H. DUDLEY, of Boston, and Henry BALLARD, of Burlington. He was admitted at the April term, 1879. He has served as grand juror, clerk of the City Court, and is now alderman from the first ward.

      J.J. ENRIGHT was born in what is now South Burlington on the 6th of April, 1861, received his education in Burlington, studied law in the office of Hon. Henry BALLARD and was admitted to the bar in the spring of 1882. He is still a resident of South Burlington, for which he has been town agent for the last three years.

      D.J. FOSTER born in the town of Barnet on the 27th of June, 1857, educated at the St. Johnsbury Academy and at Dartmouth College, from which he was graduated in the class of 1880, and began his law studies with J. W. RUSSELL, of Burlington. He was admitted to practice at the April term of court, 1883. He has held the offices of city grand juror and school commissioner since 1885.

      Orman P. RAY was born in Irasburgh, Vt., on the 21st of May, 1837, and was admitted to the Coos county (N. H.) bar in November, 1886. His home had always been in Vermont until 1865, when he went to New Hampshire. He removed to Winooski in 1872. On the 6th of September, 1882, he was appointed county clerk, a position which he now fills. He removed to Burlington in May, 1883.

      James A. BROWN was born on the 23d of November, 1840, at Grand Isle, Vt. He completed a regular course in the University of Vermont in 1863; began the study of law in the office of Hon. George F. EDMUNDS ; went one term to the law department of the Albany University, and was admitted to the bar at Plattsburgh, while in the office of G. M. BECKWITH & Sons, in 1865. He then practiced several years in Milton, Vt., and removed to his old home, Grand Isle. He represented that town in 1880, and also served it in the capacity of State's attorney. He came to Burlington in July, 1885, and is deputy collector of internal revenue for the district of Vermont.


PRESENT PHYSICIANS

      Dr. H. H. ATWATER was born on the 17th of February, 1828, at Norfolk, St. Lawrence county, N. Y., and came to Burlington with his father, Dr. William ATWATER, in 1829. He was graduated from the University of Vermont in 1847, and from the medical college at Woodstock, Vt., in 1851, and immediately began his practice in this town. He was in partnership with his father until the death of the latter in 1853. Among the offices -- all of them professional -- which he has held may be mentioned that of commissioner of the insane for the State two years; health officer of the city six years in all; city physician, etc. He is now instructor in obstetrics during the winter terms of the medical department of the University of Vermont, and consulting physician of the Mary Fletcher Hospital. He is the author of the chapter on medical men and institutions in former pages of this work.

      Dr. S. WAGER was born in New Jersey in 1818, received his education in New York and New Jersey, and came to Burlington thirty years ago. Since that time lie has continuously practiced in this city.

      Dr. Hiram CRANDALL was born at Royalton, Vt., December 4, 1804, was educated at Royalton Academy, studied medicine with Dr. Benjamin P. SMITH and was graduated from the Woodstock Medical College in 1832. He took up his residence in Burlington in 1865.

      Dr. H. A. CRANDALL was born at Hartford, Vt., on the 6th of August, 1831, and received an academical education at the Kimball Union Academy of Meriden, N. H. He attended the medical college at Castleton, Vt., from which he was graduated in June, 1859. His medical preceptors were Dr. Hiram CRANDALL, of Burlington, and Dr. A. WOODWARD, of Brandon, Vt. He began to practice medicine and surgery in Burlington in 1865.

      Dr. W. B. LUND was born in Burlington on the 3d of April, 1841. He received a collegiate education at the University of Vermont, and graduated in medicine from the medical department of the University of Michigan. His medical preceptor in Burlington was Dr. H. H. ATWATER. He established his practice in Burlington in 1865.

      Dr. A. P. GRINNELL was born on the 26th of December, 1845, at Messena, St. Lawrence county, N. Y. He was graduated in medicine from the Bellevue Hospital in 1869, and first practiced in Ogdensburgh, N. Y. Twelve years ago he came to Burlington and has ever since been dean of the medical department of the University of Vermont. He is now professor of theory and practice in this institution and also in the Long Island Medical College at Brooklyn, N. Y.; medical director of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York for Vermont and New Hampshire; acting assistant surgeon of the United States Marine Hospital Service in the district of Vermont; attending physician at the Mary Fletcher Hospital; and president of the Board of Pension Examiners for this district.

      Dr. J. E. MONTMARQUET was born in Montreal, Canada, in 1845, studied medicine with Dr. DORSONNS, of that city, and was graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, at Montreal. He began to practice in Burlington in 1872.

      Dr. L. M. BINGHAM was born at FLETCHER, Vt., on the 10th of April, 1 was educated at the Normal School, JOHNSON Academy at Stowe, and institute at Fairfax, and was graduated in medicine from the medical department of the University of Vermont in 1870. He has practiced in Burlington eleven years.

      Dr. A. J. WILLARD was born in Harvard, Mass., on the 19th of March, 1832. From 1853 to 1857 he studied theology at the Yale and Andover Seminaries, and from 1857 to 1865 preached at Upton, Mass. He then removed to Burlington and preached at Essex Center and Essex junction until 1870. He studied medicine at the University of Vermont and received the degree of M. D. in 1879. He has practiced medicine in Burlington since that time. He has been for some years chiefly occupied as superintendent of the Mary Fletcher Hospital.

      Dr. H. E. COLVIN was born in Essex county, N. Y., on the 20th of March, 1854, and was educated at Keeseville, in that county. He was graduated from the Chicago Homeopathic College March 30, 1880, having also studied with E. H. PRATT, A. M., M. D., professor of anatomy in that college, from 1877 to 1880. He began his practice in Burlington in November, 1880.

      Dr. Jo H. LINSLEY, born at Windsor, Vt., on the 29th of May, 1859, and educated at the Burlington High School, was graduated from the medical department of the University of Vermont in June, 1880, his preceptor being Dr. A. P. GRINNELL. He first practiced in Burlington in 1881.

      Dr. John B. WHEELER was born at Stowe, Vt., in 1853. He was graduated from the University of Vermont in 1875, and in medicine at Harvard in 1879. He began practice in Burlington in 1881.

      Dr. J. C. RUTHERFORD was born in Derby, Vt., on the 29th of January, 1857, received a high-school education and was graduated in medicine from the proper department of the University of Vermont in June, 1882. He immediately began to practice in this city. He acted as demonstrator of anatomy in the medical department one year, was appointed city physician in 1884 and again in 1885, was the first commander of Vermont Division, Sons of Veterans, was commissioned, June 30, 1884, assistant surgeon First Regiment National Guards. He was elected school commissioner from the fourth ward in 1885, and chosen captain of the Ethan ALLEN Engine Company in January, 1886.

      Dr. D. CARRIERES was born at St. Scholastique, P. Q., in 1856, educated at St. Therese College, P. Q., and was graduated in medicine from the University of Quebec in 1880. He established his practice in Burlington in 1882.

      Dr. John M. CLARKE was born at Concord, Vt., in September, 1847, and received his education in Massachusetts and Vermont, taking a regular course of study in the University of Vermont. He studied medicine with Dr. D. W HAZELTON, of Vermont, and began to practice in 1873. For nine years he was assistant physician at the Vermont State Asylum, and in October, 1882, opened the Lake View Retreat at Burlington as a private institution for the treatment of nervous and mental disease, and has continued it successfully ever since.

      Dr. H. C. TINKHAM was born in Brownington, Orleans county, Vt., on the 7th of December, 1856, and received an academical education at Derby. He received the degree of M. D. from the medical department of the University of Vermont in June, 1883, his preceptor being Dr. Albert RICHMOND, of Rochester, Vt. He opened an office in Burlington in August, 1883.

      Dr. L. HAZEN, born at Bridgton, Me., September, 1856, received his general education at the Hebron (Me.) Academy, and his medical education at the University of Vermont, from which he was graduated in 1883. He commenced practice here in the fall of that year.

      Dr. William B. GIBSON was born at Clarenceville, P. Q., on the 9th of August, 1856, was graduated from the University of Vermont in 1876, and from McGill University of Montreal in 1878. He opened an office in this city in 1885.

      Dr. Charles A. A. BISSONNETTE was born at St. Johns, P. Q., in 1853, was educated at St. Marie De Monnoir, P. Q., and admitted to practice on the 25th of June, 1885, his preceptor being Dr. LAKOCQUE, of St. Johns. He began practicing in Burlington in August, 1885.

      Dr. D. C. HAWLEY was born on the 31st of October, 1855, at FLETCHER, Vt., and was educated at the New Hampton Institute at Fairfax, and Barre Academy at Barre, Vt. He also took an academical degree from the University of Vermont, in the class of 1878, and the degree of M. D. from the medical department thereof in 1884. He studied medicine with Dr. C. F. HAWLEY, of Fairfax, Vt., and Dr. L. M. BINGHAM, of Burlington. His practice in Burlington began January 1, 1885.

      Mrs. M. A. CAMPBELL, corner of Union and Main streets, is a pioneer in the curative use of magnetism, manipulation, electricity, dietetics, out-of-door exercise, and all natural means of restoring and promoting health. She has practiced in Burlington for three years and a little more. Her theory is based on the conviction that all drug-produced action, or suspension of action, is a direct interference with organic law, to be expiated by suffering and often death.