In the paragraphs immediately following it is proposed to give brief sketches of the more prominent men of the town or city in the past, who have not been mentioned elsewhere. Sketches of greater length would undoubtedly be of interest, but cannot be included in the plan of a work of this nature.


      The history of the last twenty years of this hero's life may be said to form almost the warp and woof of the history of Vermont during that period. His father, Joseph ALLEN, was a resident of Litchfield, Conn., as early as 1728, and on the 11th day of MARCH, 1736, married Mary BAKER. Succeeding this time the town records of Litchfield contain the following statement: " Ethan ALLEN ye son of Joseph ALLEN and Mary his wife was born January ye l0th, 1737." Joseph ALLEN removed to Cornwall, Conn., about the year 1740, in which town were most of his children born, and there he died on the 4th of April, 1755. Soon after his death his son Heman engaged in the mercantile business in Salisbury, and his house became the home of the family. Joseph ALLEN had eight children -- six sons and two daughters, their names being as follows in the order of their birth: Ethan, Heman, Lydia, Heber, Levi, Lucy, Zimri and Ira. Ethan ALLEN's educational advantages were quite limited, his whole attendance at school not exceeding three months. It is supposed, however, with reason, that he at one time contemplated fitting for college, and may have studied a short time with the Rev. Mr. LEE, of Salisbury, with that object. This opinion is corroborated by the frequent occurrence of Latin phrases in his numerous writings. His infidel penchant was probably derived from an intimate acquaintance with the noted infidel and historical writer, Dr. Thomas YOUNG. From the few facts which have been preserved in memory respecting the early life of Ethan ALLEN, it may be supposed that he was always looked upon as a bold, spirited, reckless young man, a natural leader, who never for a moment seemed to consider the possibility of remaining in a subordinate position, and who by his dauntless mettle became an acknowledged leader in all his undertakings. He was, therefore, just the man to be opposed to the rapacious New York "land jobbers," and to defend the independence of Vermont against the calculating and vacillating resolutions of the early Congress.

      About the year 1762 he was married to Miss Mary BRONSON, of Woodbury, Conn., and first resided with his family at Salisbury, Conn., and afterward at Sheffield, Mass. He came to Vermont, then the New Hampshire Grants, about 1766, leaving his family at Sheffield, and from that time regarded this State as his home. His activity and effective courage in opposition to the claims of the royal government of New York have been sufficiently detailed in the chapter devoted to the history of the controversy, in a previous part of this volume. During this same period he was also active in patriotic efforts against the exorbitant claims of the mother country. An outline of his gallant services has also been given in the chapter entitled "The War of the Revolution." After his capture on the 25th of September, 1775, he was a prisoner in the hands of the British for two years and eight months, and suffered the most inhuman cruelties and indignities. But his thorough independence and his native wit never permitted him to be humiliated, and his persecutors always came out second best. On the 6th of May, 1778, he was exchanged for Lieutenant John CAMPBELL, and after waiting upon General Washington at Valley Forge he returned to his friends in Vermont, where he was everywhere greeted with ovations. In reward for his services Congress conferred upon him the rank and emoluments of lieutenant-colonel in the service of the United States, though he never after rejoined the Continental army. He continued to engage in the support of Vermont against her enemies, and in carrying on the negotiations with the British in Canada, by which the operations of their powerful army were for three years made harmless. He was brigadier-general of the State militia. His family removed from Sheffield, Mass., to Sunderland, Vt., in 1777, and ten years later took up their residence in Burlington. Ethan ALLEN came to Burlington in the spring of 1787, with the intention of devoting himself to farming, having selected for his home the beautiful tract of land north of the present city, still generally known as the VAN NESS farm. At this time there was a distressing scarcity of food in the community, due to a partial failure of crops and a numerous immigration of settlers. Colonel Ebenezer ALLEN, who commanded a company of rangers during the Revolution, and made himself famous by his daring exploits, then lived at the south end of South Hero, and became an intimate friend of Ethan ALLEN. On the l0th of February, 1789, he and his man drove over the ice to South Hero, upon the urgent invitation of his friend, in whose house he passed that afternoon and evening, recalling, with a number of old acquaintances, past events and in telling stories. He had intended to return that evening, and a load of hay, which he was to take back with him, was in readiness for their return, but upon the urgency of Colonel Ebenezer ALLEN he remained until nearly morning, when he and his black man started for home. The negro called to him several times during the journey and received no answer, but suspected nothing unusual until he arrived at Ethan's residence on the intervale. He then found him dead, or, as it is thought by some, in a fit in which he soon died. Apoplexy was probably the proximate cause of his death. On the 16th of February his remains were interred, with the honors of war, in the graveyard at Winooski Falls, not far, probably, from the present site of the splendid monument which tersely recites his characteristics.

      Ethan ALLEN was twice married. By his first wife he had five children one son and four daughters, all of whom were born before the family came to Vermont. His first wife, an excellent and pious woman, died in Sunderland early in 1783. He married his second wife, Mrs. Fanny BUCHANAN, on the 9th of February, 1784, and by her had two sons and a daughter. After his death his widow became the wife of Jabez PENNIMAN, of Colchester. The subject of this sketch was not only a military hero, but a prolific and independent writer.

      Eleazer Hubbell DEMING was one of the most successful among the early merchants of Burlington. His father was Pownall DEMING, of Litchfield, Conn., a captain in the United States navy, and his mother Miss Abby HUBBELL, of Bridgeport, Conn., who at the early age of eighteen years died in Bridgeport, February 13, 1785, in giving birth to the subject of our notice. The child was thrown upon the care of his mother's parents, who, when he was twelve years of age, removed to Jericho, Vt. There he received a limited common school education, and at an early age came to Burlington, residing for a time with the family of the distinguished surveyor, John JOHNSON, from whom he took lessons in mathematics, surveying, etc. For some time he was also clerk in the store of Samuel HICKOK, and afterwards, 1804 and 1805, received a valuable experience in a store in New York city. He then returned to Burlington, where, on the 5th of September, 1805, he began trading in a small way. He died of consumption on the 5th of May, 1828, two years after his retirement from business. His success was largely owing to his unerring method in doing everything. He was a man of untiring energy and perseverance, always persistently carrying out what he had undertaken; plain and simple in his tastes, having a marked dislike to display; unobtrusive in manner, of quiet humor, and "fond of a good joke;" of great exactness in business, and of sterling honesty and uprightness in its transactions. Mr. DEMING was married to Miss Fanny FOLLETT, daughter of Timothy FOLLETT, of Bennington, and a sister of the Hon. Timothy FOLLETT, of Burlington, on the 18th of October, 1807. He had eight children, five of whom were living at the time of his death; one of these, however, an infant daughter, died soon after his decease. He left but one son, his eldest child, Charles FOLLETT DEMING, who, after having received every advantage of a finished education, and entered upon the practice of the legal profession with a bright promise of success, was cut off at the early age of twenty-four years, by the same fell disease which had terminated the life of his honored father.

      Sidney BARLOW, the son of David BARLOW, was born in Fairfield, Vt., May 12, 1801. In 1817 he came to Burlington, a boy of sixteen, to be clerk in the store of E. H. DEMING. In 1822, at the age of twenty-one, he went into business for himself, in a small building near the head of pearl street, on the north side of the street. The upper half of Pearl street was then one of the chief business centers of this region; and in the stores (all of which have long since disappeared) of E. H. DEMING, Luther LOOMIS, Luther and George MOORE, VILAS & NOVES, and Harry BRADLEY, on Pearl streets, between the streets now known as Willard and Prospect streets, a large and widely extended business was transacted, and not a little money made, in those days. After the death of Mr. DEMING, in 1828, Mr. BARLOW bought the DEMING store at the head of Willard street, in which he had his first business training, and succeeded to the business. In the year 1828 he married and began housekeeping in the house on Willard street occupied by him for the remainder of his long life. His business grew and thrived under his enterprise and care, and at successive times he established branch stores in Winooski, Westford and Grand Isle. He was one of the organizers and stockholders of the Burlington Woolen mills at Winooski, and was the agent of the company when it built the large factory and the dam, and for several years after, and he remained one of the larger owners of the property till it was purchased by the HARDINGs, shortly before the late war. Mr. BARLOW's capacity for work, in his prime, may be inferred from the fact that he at the same time conducted the business of the woolen Mills, as its agent, and carried on three stores, doing a general mercantile trade in as many towns. Mr. BARLOW remained in business at Winooski till April 1, 1850, when he retired. He was for a number of years one of the directors of the old Bank of Burlington. He was one of the founders of the Merchants' Bank, and a large stockholder in it. In his day he held various minor town offices, and did his share of public and political work in the community. He was a constant attendant at the Unitarian Church from his first residence in Burlington, and one of the liberal supporters of the church and society. He was thrice married, to Miss Harriet REED, to Miss Caroline WHITE, and to Miss Mary POPE. He left six children, Frances, Ellen, and Harriet by his first marriage, and Edward, Horace, and Mary by the last. Mr. BARLOW suffered from the usual infirmities of declining years, to which was added in latter years a disease (cataract) of the eyes, for which he underwent an operation three years before his death; but he was about his house and often out on the streets, till two WEEKS before, when his powers of body and mind began to fail, and gradually sank until in May, 1882, he passed away. He was a man of simple tastes, strong will and thorough honesty. "His word was as good as his bond." He was a good neighbor and a worthy citizen, and possessed the trust and respect of all who knew him.

      Timothy FOLLETT was born at Bennington on the 5th of January, 1793, and was a grandson, on the maternal side, of John FAY, who was killed at the battle of Bennington on the 16th of August, 1777. When but ten years of age, he, with two sisters, was left by the death of his father to the care of his mother, who came to Burlington to educate her children. He received a baccalaureate degree from the University of Vermont on the 1st of August, 1810; after passing several years in preparatory work, was admitted to the Chittenden county bar in February, 1814. After nine years of practice he was obliged to abandon his professional labors by a pulmonary complaint, and at once became a partner with HENRY MAYO, at South Wharf. From 1832 to 1841 he was actively engaged in the settlement of an insolvent estate at Montreal, at the end of which time he became the senior partner in the large mercantile house of FOLLETT & BRADLEY. His subsequent connection with the Rutland and Burlington Railroad is incidentally noticed in the excellent sketch of the life of Thomas H. CANFIELD. In December, 1819, he was appointed State's attorney in the place of Sanford GADCOMB, deceased, and was elected to the same office by the Legislatures of 1820, '21, and '22. He received the election of judge of the County Court in 1823, which office he was forced to relinquish by the difficulty before mentioned. In 1830, '31, and '32 he was chosen to represent Burlington in the Legislature. He died on the 12th of October, 1857.

      Harry BRADLEY, eldest son and third child of Lemuel and Mercy BRADLEY, was born at Sunderland, Vt., MARCH 23, 1793. His father died when he was but seven years of age, leaving a young and helpless family. At the age of fourteen he came to Burlington and commenced work under Horace LOOMIS, to learn the business of tanner and currier. He remained with Mr. LOOMIS until he was twenty years of age, when he formed a partnership with Luther LOOMIS, his brother-in-law, and removed to Williston, where he carried on the same business ten years. He married, in 1817, Maria MILLER, youngest child of judge Solomon MILLER. In 1827 he gave up business in Williston and returned to Burlington, again entering into partnership with Luther LOOMIS. While at Williston he took an active part in public affairs, twice representing the town in the Legislature. On his removal to Burlington he was active in both town and State affairs, representing the town a number of times, after which he was elected to the State Senate. He was one of the originators of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, and afterwards of the Commercial Bank, of which he was the first president. He was long a director in the United States Branch Bank at Burlington, and president of the Rutland and Burlington Railroad for two years. He was for many years engaged in a wholesale mercantile business at the lake, also carrying on a large lumber business at Essex, and was one of the greatest sufferers in the losses which befell our business community in the woolen factory at Winooski Falls. He died at Burlington April 7, 1857, aged sixty-four years.

      Philo DOOLITTLE was born in Wallingford, Conn., on the 1st of October, 1793. He was the son of Theophilus DOOLITTLE and was descended from Abraham DOOLITTLE, who came to America from England in 1640, settled in New Haven, Conn., and removed to Wallingford in 1669. When three or four years of age he came to Vermont, and soon after reaching his tenth birthday lost, by death, his father. He found a home with Judge Lemuel BOTTOM, of Williston, Vt., with whom he lived until 1808, when he had received what schooling he could, and during which year he began a clerkship in the store of E. T. ENGLESBY, in Burlington, remaining six years. In 1815 he entered into partnership with Henry MAYO in the mercantile business, and continued those relations until 1822. From that time until the close of his mercantile life, in 1852, he remained without a partner, with the single exception of the years from 1843 to 1847, when his son, H. H. DOOLITTLE, was associated with him. He was one of the corporators of the Champlain Ferry Company, which was chartered on the 18th of November, 1824, and upon the subsequent organization of that company (November 29) he was chosen one of the first directors. In 1825 he was elected clerk and treasurer of this company, holding all these appointments until the ferry company was incorporated with the Champlain Transportation Company of January 24, 1825. He was one of the original stockholders of the Champlain Transportation Company which was organized on the 26th of October, 1826, and on the l0th of November following was chosen a director and appointed clerk and treasurer of the company. When the books of the company were removed to St. Albans, in February, 1827, he resigned his position as clerk and treasurer. On the 31st of January, 1828, the books were brought back to Burlington and Mr. DOOLITTLE was reinstated in these offices, which he held during the remainder of his life. On the 22d of March, 1827, he was chosen one of the board of directors of the Bank of Burlington, and on the 29th of January, 1849, was unanimously elected president of that board in place of E. T. ENGLESBY, resigned, and was in this manner connected with the institution during the entire thirty-five remaining years of his life.

      On the 11th of July, 1820, Mr. DOOLITTLE married Harriet E., daughter of Newton HAYES, then of Burlington. She died August 1, 1837, and on the l0th of July, 1839, Mr. DOOLITTLE married her sister, Eliza C. HAYES, who died November 11, 1843. On the 16th of September, 1846, he married Catherine Esther, daughter of Reuben BRUSH, of Vergennes. Mr. DOOLITTLE's character was marked by a confiding frankness and an unaffected kindness in all his intercourse with his friends. He was an earnest and consistent Christian, and an active member of the Episcopal Church. He died on the 19th of January, 1862, from the effects of a stroke of paralysis.

      John HOWARD, the progenitor of the Burlington family of HOWARDs, who have done so much for the city, was born at Providence, R. I., in 1770, and traced his ancestry back to Roger WILLIAMS, the sturdy refugee from religious persecution, and the founder, practically, of the colony of Rhode Island, in 1637. John HOWARD made several sea voyages in his early youth, and on that treacherous element lost his father. He resided then a few years at Pittstown, N. Y., and afterward six years or more at Addison, Vt., and came to Burlington in 1812, to assume the proprietorship of what was ever after known as HOWARD's Hotel. He retired from this business about 1847, and died on the 24th of February, 1854. He was on board the steamer Phenix when it was burned, on the night of September 5, 1819, and distinguished himself by his energetic efforts to save the passengers. Possessed of a stalwart, upright character, he became the terror of thieves and impostors of every description; being so interested in the public weal that he not infrequently sat up all night watching for some suspicious character who had attracted his attention.

      He had four sons, the eldest of whom, Sion Earl, was long known in Burlington as a merchant, and who accumulated a handsome fortune, and died in 1866. The third son, Sidney SMITH, died June 30, 1839, aged thirty-three years. The other two sons, Daniel Dyer and John Purple, in early life went to New York city to seek their fortune, depending on their brains and hands alone. After various smaller undertakings, they had the foresight and boldness to lease for a term of twenty years a block of buildings on the west side of Broadway, a little above the City Hall Park, and to transform it into an extensive hotel, fitted up and furnished with an elegance extraordinary for that time. This was the first up-town hotel of the first rate, and in this respect these brothers were enterprising pioneers, and by their liberal management, careful and courteous attention to every want of their guests, made the Irving Hotel for many years the most popular in New York; and they retired therefrom with over a half a million dollars.

      John P. HOWARD crowned his later years with honor by his munificent gifts to several of the educational and eleemosynary institutions in this city; which have received particular mention in other pages of this chapter, and in the chapter prepared by Professor John E. GOODRICH, relating the history of the educational institutions of the county.

      Henry Baldwin STACY, long known as one of the most successful journalists, was born at Orange, Vt., on the 23d of August, 1804, the youngest, save one, of a family of twelve children. His father was a farmer of limited means, and the training which resulted from the practice of a rigid economy was the sole capital with which he began life for himself. At the age of fourteen he left the farm and went to Bennington to learn the printer's trade in the office of the Vermont Gazette. He had previously only a common school education, but was a ready scholar, possessing a quick,. penetrating mind, rare powers of investigation, and had within him the germ of self-culture, which developed itself more and more through his life. He subsequently worked at his trade in Middlebury and Montreal, and came to Burlington July 27, 1827, to be a journeyman for Luman FOOTE, who had just started the Burlington Free Press in the interest of the "National Republican Party," and in support of the administration of John Quincy ADAMS. He took sole charge of the mechanical work until January 28, 1828, when he became associated with Mr. FOOTE as editor and publisher.

      In 1832 Mr. STACY purchased and took entire control of the establishment, the first issue of the paper in his name alone being on the l0th of July, and he shortly after erected the present Free Press building, the upper stories being occupied as his residence. He conducted the paper until 1846, when he sold the establishment to D. W. C. CLARKE, devoting himself afterwards to agricultural pursuits. He was an earnest politician of the old Whig party, and afterwards an equally earnest Republican. Being a strong and ready writer, the Free Press, under his control, was always influential and respected.

      He represented the town in the Legislature during the years 1843, '44, '5I, and '56, the last time with special reference to the rebuilding of the Statehouse. He was an influential legislator, having a strong working influence without the House, as well as legislative influence within. His speaking was nervous and often eloquent, his sentences being usually short, animating, and full of life. He was also a selectman of Burlington six years, from 1847 to 1852, and as such was always a friend of improvement and a careful guardian of the interests of the town. In 1861 he accepted an appointment as United States consul at Revel, Russia. As a consul, his reports showed him to be an observant student of affairs, and a patriotic and faithful public servant. He remained abroad until November, 1868, when he returned to visit his family and home. Meanwhile, under the new administration, another consul having been appointed to Revel, Mr. STACY returned to close up the affairs of his consulate as well as his own private affairs, sailing from New York direct to Hamburg May 4, 1869, intending to return home in August. He arrived in Revel May 27, and was suffering from the effects of a cold contracted while crossing the Baltic Sea, which resulted in an inflammation of the lungs, from which he died after an illness of nine days, on June 18, 1869.

      Zadock THOMPSON was the second son of Captain Barnabas THOMPSON, of Bridgewater, Vt., where he was born May 23, 1796. His father was a farmer of limited means, and as young THOMPSON showed an ability for study, the Rev. Walter CHAPIN, of Woodstock, took notice of his studious nature, received him into his own family, and assisted him in procuring an education. In 1819 he entered the University of Vermont, and was graduated with honor in 1823, at the age of twenty-seven years. The following year, September 4, he was married to Phoebe BOYCE. His career as an author commenced in 1819. In 1824 he published his “Gazetteer of Vermont,” a duodecimo of 312 pages. In 1825 he was chosen a tutor in the University of Vermont, and during the same year published the “Youth's Assistant in Theoretical and Practical Arithmetic.” In 1828 he edited a magazine entitled “The Iris and Burlington Literary Gazette,” and in 1832 “The Green Mountain Repository,” both of which were published at Burlington. In 1838 he removed from Burlington to Hatley, C. E., and there continued his literary labors until 1837, when he returned to this town. In the mean time having been pursuing theological studies, he was admitted to the pastorate of the Protestant Episcopal Church May 27, 1835. After his return to Burlington he engaged in teaching in the Vermont Episcopal Institute, and preparing his “National, Civil, and Statistical History of Vermont,” which was published in 1842. In 1845, and for three succeeding years, he was assistant State geologist. In 1851 he was appointed to the professorship of chemistry and natural history in the University of Vermont. In 1853 he published an appendix to his history of Vermont, containing the results of his later investigations, and during the same year was appointed State naturalist, continuing in that office until his death, which was occasioned by ossification of the heart, January 10, 1856.

      Horace LOOMIS was born in Sheffield, Mass., on the 15th of January, 1775, and came with his father's family to reside in Burlington on the 17th of February, 1790, from which time he resided for seventy-five years on Pearl street, within speaking distance, it has been said, of where the family first located. During forty years of that time he was actively engaged in the leather business, either in the employment of his father or on his own account. He was twice married and at his death left a widow, three children, seven grandchildren and one great-granddaughter. He celebrated his golden wedding in 1855, and died (April 6, 1865) within a month of the sixtieth anniversary of his second marriage. He was a remarkable man, over six feet in height, with a large, well-built frame, and, by reason of his thoroughly practical nature, was well fitted to perform a leading part in the clearing and settlement of a new country, and in the organization of methods of town organization. He was distinguished by a wonderful memory, strong judgment, an intuitive knowledge of human nature, and a high regard for integrity, truth and exact justice. He began his political life as a Democrat, but afterward joined the Federal party and became a great admirer of Hamilton. He was a personal friend of Henry Clay, whom he entertained at his home, and had unwavering faith in Abraham Lincoln. Notwithstanding his lively interest in politics, he persistently refused to become a candidate for any public office, and never held one.


       Previous to the incorporation of the city of Burlington its civil affairs were not, as would be supposed, managed by a village government, but was always under the jurisdiction of the town. An attempt was made in the fall of 1852 to bring the village portion of the town and that part lying north of the village under either a village or city charter; but the citizens voted against both, and the civil government remained what it was at the beginning. On the 22d of November, 1864, however, the Legislature passed another act, incorporating the northern portion of the town of Burlington into a city. The corporation is embraced in the following limits:

“Beginning at the east shore of Lake Champlain, at the northwest corner of one-hundred-acre lot number 163, thence easterly in the north line of said lot to the northeast corner thereof; thence northerly in the west line of one-hundred-acre lot number 155, to the northwest corner of said lot number 155, thence running easterly in the north line of said lot number 155, to the east line of the stage road from Burlington to Shelburne; thence northerly in the east line of said stage road, to the northwest corner of one-hundred-acre lot number 165; thence easterly in the north line of one-hundred-acre lots numbers 165 and 183, to the east line of Spear street; thence northerly in the east line of Spear street, to the south line of Winooski turnpike; thence easterly in the southerly line of said turnpike, to a point opposite the angle formed by the north line of said turnpike and the east line of the road leading northerly from said turnpike to Colchester avenue, east of the residence of Henry W. CATLIN ; thence crossing said turnpike northerly to said angle; thence from said angle in a straight-line to the center of Winooski River, at the northern termination of the east line of one-hundred-acre lot number 18; thence, in the center of Winooski River, down said river to Lake Champlain; thence southerly on the lake shore, at low water mark, to the most western point of Appletree Point; thence in a straight line to place of beginning."
      On the 18th of January, 1865, a town meeting was held in the town hall to vote by ballot on the acceptance or rejection of this act, and William G. SHAW was chosen moderator. Albert L. CATLIN, James A. Shedd, Russell S. TAFT and Nathaniel PARKER were appointed tellers to assort and count the ballots. The result was the acceptance of the charter by a majority of 233 votes, 671 votes being cast. The first city election was held on the l0th of the following month, in pursuance of the charter. At first the city was divided into three wards -the north, center and south wards, but in 1873 it was re-divided into five wards, designated by numbers.

      During the first ten years of the city's history many changes took place, in the increase of population, in the grading and curbing of streets, the beautifying of lawns, the extension of thoroughfares, and especially in the removal of old buildings and rookeries, and the erection in all parts of the city of new, substantial and tasteful structures. Along the lake front the wharfing was greatly extended and acres of land made by filling along the shore. In the place of tangled ravines and disused brickyards appeared extensive lumberyards. During that period the Central Vermont depot was completed at the foot of College street, which wrought an unimaginable change in the appearance of that part of the city. The city market was also erected, at a cost of $10,000; and three of the finest church edifices in the State -- the Cathedral Church of St. Mary's, the Third Congregational Church, and the First Methodist Episcopal Church, were built, adding greatly to the beauty of the city as a whole. The improvement did not cease, however, at the close of the first decade of years of the city's experience, but has continued in all departments, and promises to continue indefinitely.


      At the time of the organization of the city the water supply was anything but satisfactory. An official statement, made in 1865, showed that "there were 650 who depended upon the lake for their entire supply of water, which is mostly hauled in casks; 1,828 persons who depended entirely upon cisterns; 1,214 upon cisterns and wells, fifty-seven upon springs and the lake; forty-eight were entirely dependent on their neighbors, and 1,000 persons received water from the Aqueduct Company." The cause of this deficient supply was the great difficulty of sinking wells deep enough to strike a water vein. Though the lake and river afforded an abundant supply, little had been done towards distributing pipes through the village for the accommodation of the inhabitants. In 1827 the Champlain Glass Company laid a line of log pipes from springs that were near the site of the residence of Henry LOOMIS, on Pearl street, to their factory near the Battery. This line was in use until 1850. On the 7th of November, 1849, Frederick SMITH and his associate proprietors procured the incorporation of the Burlington Aqueduct Company, the incorporators being Frederick SMITH, William H. Wilkins, jr., Ralph LANDON and John MCDONALD, jr., for the "purpose of constructing, laying, repairing and maintaining" an aqueduct to supply the inhabitants of the village of Burlington with pure water for culinary and domestic uses, and for extinguishing fires ; the water to be taken from the lake or “Onion" River. The village was granted the power of buying stock in the company at any time after the lapse of ten years at an advance of ten per cent. on the stock paid in. The old log pipes were superseded by those of iron, of which about three miles were laid during the first year. A reservoir forty feet square and twelve feet deep was constructed on Pearl, near Williams street, which is still in existence. It was supplied by four springs, two being situated on the lot now owned and occupied by George L. LINSLEY, at that time owned by Warren ROOT, and two just above. him, one in the center of the street. About 1855 an arrangement was made with the old Pioneer Shop Company, by which water was pumped from the lake. But even then the growth of the community had made the supply wholly inadequate to the demand; consequently, the city took the affair in hand and issued bonds to the amount of $150,000 for the construction of new works, bought the property of the Aqueduct Company for $24,000, and came into possession October 1, 1866. A resolution for the construction of new works was adopted by the City Council on the 2d day of April, 1867, and the city now has one of the finest supplies in the State. The reservoir is situated at the junction of the old Winooski turnpike and University Place, a distance from the pump-house of 8,362 feet, with a head of 289 feet and a capacity of 2,236,000 gallons. The pump-house and machinery are situated at the foot of Pearl street, and were first put into operation December 25, 1867.

      According to the last report of the superintendent of the water department there are now a little more than twenty-eight miles of pipe in use, over a third of which are iron, and the remainder cement. Through these during the year 1885 was pumped 209,026,325 gallons of water, the smallest amount pumped in the past six years. This diminution is accounted for partly by the number of frozen services during the winter, and the frequent rains during the summer, but more to the use of meters and the care taken to prevent the reservoir from overflowing. There are 239 meters now in use, of which forty-nine are the property of the city; 162 hydrants, of which 142 are public. The disbursements of the Burlington City Water Works in 1885 were $19,663.28.


      The Burlington Gaslight Company was incorporated on the 5th of November, 1852, with John PECK for president; Charles F. Ward, treasurer; and Salmon WIRES, secretary. The construction of the works at the corner of Bank and Battery streets was begun in the following year, and completed in 1854 The contract was let to DUGAND, CARTWRIGHT & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., who constructed works for the manufacture of gas from coal; but in 1879 the process was changed, and petroleum gas is now made in its place. The village was first lighted with gas on the 15th of May, 1854 Movements are now in progress to light the city with electricity.


      The first evidence of an organized effort to resist the dreaded element in Burlington appears in the laws of Vermont for 1808. On the 11th of November of that year, Phineas LOOMIS, Stephen PEARL, Thaddeus TUTTLE, Daniel FARRAND, Samuel HITCHCOCK, Ozias BUELL, "and their associates," were incorporated into a company by the name of the Burlington Fire Company. The organization resulting from this act of the Legislature was very incoherent, however, and nothing of great moment was accomplished for a number of years. The equipment of the company consisted of leathern buckets, blankets and ladders. Every man owned and kept ready for immediate use a fire bucket, and nearly every man had a ladder. When a fire threatened any part of the town the neighbors and the members of this company hastened to the scene with their buckets and other apparatus, and formed a line from the source of water supply to the fire. The buckets were filled by one man and passed along the line to the last man, who dashed it where he supposed it would do the most good. Adjacent buildings were protected by wet blankets and pieces of carpet. It must not be supposed that this primitive method of extinguishing fires was altogether contemptible, for in those days the buildings were not so thickly crowded, and the flames were more easily subdued. Moreover, the smaller structures that characterize the times were more easily reached without engine or hose, and the activity and determination of the pioneer firemen, when they were able to reach the scene in time, usually conquered the flames. For many years after this time the management of the fire department was left wholly to private enterprise, the idea that it should be sustained by the town apparently having never occurred to any one.


      The burning of the old court-house on the 16th of June, 1829, aroused the attention of the people to the necessity of providing a more efficient means of putting out fires. On the day of the fire fifty-six of the prominent citizens of the village subscribed $281.50 "for the purpose of purchasing fire engines and apparatus for the use of the village of Burlington." The largest subscriptions were made by H. THOMAS and Ebenezer T. ENGLESBY, each twenty dollars. Other subscribers were Adelia A. MOODY, John N. POMEROY, John B. HOLLENBECK, Edgar HICKOK and Dan LYON. The funds subscribed were made payable to Nathaniel MAYO, Alvan FOOTE and John PECK. The ownership of property necessitated the organization of a body to control the same and render it valuable to the village. Therefore, on the 29th of October, 1829, the Burlington Fire Company (the second of the name) was incorporated by the following persons: John PECK, James DEAN, Luther LOOMIS, Guy CATLIN, John S. FOSTER, George MOORE, Nathan B. HASWELL, Charles ADAMS, Chauncey GOODRICH, Lyman SOUTHGATE, Andrew PLYMPTON, William F. GRISWOLD, Alexander CATLIN, Gamaliel B. SAWYER, and Henry MAYO. By the terms of the charter the company was permitted to hold property to the value of $3,000, besides the land on which to build an engine-house. Ten fire wardens were to be chosen, who were to be provided with some distinguishing badge of office, and were endowed with authority to demand the aid of the inhabitants in extinguishing fires, to cause to be pulled down or removed such buildings as in their discretion it would be necessary to pull down or remove, and to suppress with force, if necessary, all tumults and disturbances which should occur at fires. The members of the engine companies formed under this company were declared to he exempt from military duty under the militia laws of the State.

      Meetings were held in Howard's Hotel at different times for the establishment of by-laws and the appointment of proper officers for the new company. By-laws were adopted on January 1, 1830, and among other provisions required that besides the engine and its appurtenances which were to be kept in the village, the trustees should keep with it twelve good leathern buckets always ready for use and present at every fire. Each member was required to keep two such buckets or pails, labeled with his name, to be ready for use at a minute's notice at his residence or place of business, enginemen being excused from carrying any except those attached to the engine. To secure the proper observance of this requirement, the wardens were made to visit the residences of the members once every quarter and inspect the manner with which they had provided themselves with buckets.

      The articles of association, dated January 1, 1830, were signed by all who ever became members of the company. The first signers were Guy CATLIN, Benjamin F. BAILEY, Luman FOOTE and Sion E. HOWARD, and the last were Edward LYMAN, William BRINSMAID, James A. SHEDD and Artemas KILBURN, who affixed their signatures later than 1851.

      Not until about the year 1850 did the idea become prevalent that the town should contribute to the support of the fire department. In 1852 the town of Burlington appropriated the sum of $500. This unheard-of appropriation was resisted by those living at a distance from the business center of the village, who succeeded in getting the question into the courts; but the result vindicated the claims of those who believed that the department should be maintained by the town. The Legislature then established the most thickly inhabited portion of the town into fire district No. 18, which was organized on the 10th of January, 1855, by the choice of George W. BENEDICT, Charles F. WARD and George G. CATLIN, prudential committee, William H. ROOT, clerk, and Samuel HUNTINGTON, collector. In consequence of the organization of this district the old Burlington Fire Company died, its last meeting being held on the 13th of January, 1857. The district performed its functions until the organization of the city in February, 1865, when the present fire department was established.

      It is a fact that there was no engine in town previous to 1829. The “Burlington Free Press” of Friday, June 19, 1829, speaking of the burning of the court-house and the saving of the "Burlington Hotel," owned by Captain Henry THOMAS, now Strong's block, contained the following: "Providentially the direction of the wind, a steady and gentle breeze from the northwest, was most favorable. To this circumstance, and one of COOPER's excellent fire engines," (which had been left with Captain THOMAS two or three days before, for sale) "together with the active, persevering and (considering the want of all organization) well-directed exertions of our citizens, may be attributed the preservation of Captain THOMAS's buildings."

      The engine mentioned in this notice was soon after purchased for $300, and two other engines were bought soon after the purchase of the first, which was then named “Boxer.” On the 9th of February, 1830, the trustees appointed three persons to raise and organize an engine company for each engine, and report at the next meeting. The committee consisted of Nathan B. HASWELL for the engine on the square; Albert DAY for the engine at the falls; and John PECK for the engine at the glass house, which stood near the present residence of Frederick SMITH, and was owned by the Champlain Glass Company. According to the report of this committee the “Boxer” was to be placed at the disposal of the Burlington Fire Company, and the other two engines, the Champlain and the “Hero,” were to be placed respectively at the Glass House and the falls. These "machines" were crank engines, without suction hose, the water being carried to them in buckets and pails. They were manufactured at Windsor, Vt. A company was organized for each engine March 8, 1830, the “Boxer” company being officered as follows: George A. ALLEN, captain; John WICKWARE, first lieutenant; John D. PERRIGO, second lieutenant; Pliny M. CORBIN, clerk. On the same day the fire company passed a resolution that engine No. 3 (Boxer) be located in or near the square, and that the wardens of district No. 3 be directed to procure by loan or lease a suitable shelter for the engine, at the expense of the proprietors. As a committee for the fire company Mr. HASWELL appointed twenty-five persons to compose the engine company No. 3, as follows: Chauncey GOODRICH, J. SINCLAIR, G. C. Worth, Edward SMITH, S. E. HOWARD, G. PETERSON, A. PLIMPTON, E. D. SLOCUM, John H. PECK, H. B. STACY, H. W. CATLIN, W. Weston, E. L. B. BROOKS, J. J. LANDON, P. M. CORBIN, W. WELLS, S. HICKOK, C. WICKWARE, J. WICKWARE, G. A. ALLEN, Z. R. Green, Horace LANE, J. H. PERRIGO, J. D. PERRIGO, and Henry LEAVENWORTH.

      The “Boxer” engine served this company until 1843, when it was replaced by a new and improved one from HUNNEMAN & Co., of Boston, and itself took the place of the “Hero” at the falls. The “Champlain” was also practically useless as early as 1840. For a number of years the village was allowed to remain undisturbed by fires of any importance, and the “Boxer” company, "for the lack of argument," disbanded on the 1st of June, 1853. A year and a day from that time occurred a destructive fire at the foot of Main street, which consumed the old foundry, machine shops and last factory, and demonstrated the need of a well-organized company. Accordingly, on the 7th of January, 1854, a meeting was held to discuss the matter. On the 31st of the same month the old company was reorganized as follows: Moses L. CHURCH, foreman; Selding PATEE, first assistant; Charles P. HIGBEE, second assistant; H. H. DOOLITTLE, clerk; Carolus NOYES, auditor. This company and the present “Boxer No. 3” are identical.

      In 1857 the purchase by the fire district of a new engine for the “Ethan ALLEN” company stimulated the “Boxer” company to procure one with which they could more equally compete with their rivals, and on the 28th of April, 1858, the present “Boxer” was shipped by HUNNEMAN & Co., from Boston. The price of the new engine with all its appurtenances was $1,056.50, towards the payment of which the second “Boxer” went at a valuation of $525.

      The “Boxer” engines have had four resting places during the career of the company. In January, 1831, the old engine was kept in HOWARD's shed on the north side of Court-House Square, for the annual rental of three dollars. It remained there until a year or two before the burning of Howard's Hotel, January 2, 1846, after which for a short time it was kept in Mr. LIMA's barn, on Pine street. It was then placed in the basement of the old court-house now occupied by the Fletcher Free Library. The next change brought it into its present quarters.

      The company is officered for 1886 as follows: Foreman, Thomas E. DOOLEY; first assistant, George McCANNON; second assistant, Daniel MITCHELL; clerk, W. A. RODDY; treasurer, Patrick RITCHIE; auditor, D. E. FLYNN; stewards, Geo. MUNSON and Daniel MITCHELL; committee on membership, Patrick RITCHIE, L. J. RUSH, H. S. LANE.


      The charter of this old and well-tried company was granted on the 15th of November, 1839, to the following corporators: E. C. LOOMIS, F. C. VILAS, Henry HYDE, M. B. BENNETT, John K. GRAY, Henry LOOMIS, William R. VILAS, A. W. ALLEN, Stephen RICE, William A. HIBBARD, Silas SPEARs, D. A. KIMBALL, Daniel KIMBALL, jr., William E. CROOKER, Antoine DECELLS, H. M. GEDDINGS, Joseph MAGENNIS, H. L. MOORE, Charles BENNS, jr., William BAILEY, Charles P. BRADLEY, James B. MOORE, Chas. BENNS, Joseph CUBLEY, Heman A. CLARK, John McILLROY, George H. MOORE, J. W. LIVOCKS, Joseph LITTLE, John LITTLE, Samuel CROOK, jr., John RUSSELL, J. B. JOHNSON, Erastus C. DAVIS, Joseph COOK, Laban HARRIS, Isaac BARNUM. The incorporation of the company was the result of several destructive fires which had occurred in rapid succession: the burning of the Green Mountain House on the site of the present Catholic College, the French Catholic Church, the old White church, which fronted on Pearl street from the northwest corner of the present grounds of the First Congregational Church, the American barns at the rear of the American House, and FISK's Hotel. The first meeting of the company was held on the first Wednesday of December, 1839, at the leather store of Edward C. LOOMIS. Some time previous to that date George MOORE had heard of a new engine of HUNNEMAN & Co., of Boston, and had purchased it for $300, together with seventy-five feet of hose. He then convoked a meeting at the store of E. C. LOOMIS on the 22d of October, 1838, at which the unincorporated company was organized by the election of E. C. LOOMIS as captain, John K. GRAY, lieutenant, and HENRY HYDE, secretary; George H. MOORE was made treasurer, and M. B. BENNETT, engineer. Mr. LOOMIS officiated as captain for six years.

      On the 10th of May, 1869, the following members were transferred to form the organization of the Volunteer Hose Company : J. W. CHASE, C. P. CURRIER, George M. DODGE, William GREEN, George R. LOOMIS, H. L. LOOMIS, C. H. LEWIS, N. LAWRENCE, W. S. LANGWORTHY, G. S. MOORE, Charles H. MURRAY, Sayles NICHOLS, George T. SMITH, James STONE, L. C. STEVENS, James B. SCULLY, T. S. PECK, William M. VILAS, Ernest SPEARS, H. R. CONGER, Marione LEPROND, Alexander TATRO, and S. C. AVERY. The Hose Company operates under the charter of the Volunteer Engine Company, and has practically superseded it. The engine fell into disuse when the city began to use hydrants, but the organization is kept up. Sayles NICHOLS was the first foreman of this company for four years. The present foreman is Joel LINSLEY.

      The engine of this company was kept in the storehouse of E. C. LOOMIS, on the northeast corner of Pearl and Willard streets, until it was laid up. The company is independent and has never been connected with the regular department of the city.


      This company was incorporated by the Legislature on the 23d of October, 1846. The corporators were as follows George K. PLATT, Stephen H. RUSSELL, Daniel B. BUCKLEY, James H. ALLEN, Nathaniel A. TUCKER, John A. ARTHUR, jr., and James M. M. SHAFTER. The corporators met first at the American Hotel on the 5th of December, 1846. It appears from the fragmentary condition of the early records that not much was done for several years beyond drafting, accepting and amending by-laws, and admitting new members into the company. The first election of which there is a record was held on the 2d of January, 185o, and George H. PLATT was chosen foreman, John McCULLY first assistant, Denison RAXFORD second assistant, and Robert CONOLLY clerk. On the 6th of January of the following year a vote was passed that a subscription list be circulated for the purpose of raising money to enable the company to procure the necessary equipment, and to head the list with a subscription of forty dollars by the company. Lemuel S. DREW was then, and for several years after, foreman. About that time the company was practically disbanded. In the spring of 1858 it was reorganized with a somewhat different personnel, new by-laws were adopted, and the old truck brought again into requisition. The present officers are J. W. DALY foreman, F. H. McCARTY first assistant, M. GARVEY second assistant, C. E. KENNEDY clerk, and E. M. SUTTON treasurer. The committee is composed of William POWERS, P. FITZSIMMONS and J. J. SULLIVAN.

      Ethan ALLEN Engine Company No. 4 was formed in the spring of 1857, and the first meeting was held in the second story of the old concert hall building on the evening of April 12, 1857. The company was originally composed of Edward W. PECK, Bradley B. SMALLEY, Albert G. STRONG, Robert J. KIMBALL, Gardner S. WAINWRIGHT, Edward B. BENTON, Joseph W. ROBY, Sayles NICHOLS, Edward BRADLEY, George H. BIGELOW, William BRINSMAID, Cornelius W. MORSE, and D. B. PECK. William H. ROOT took an active interest in the company from the first and was the nineteenth signer of the constitution. The first officers were: E. W. PECK foreman, A. G. STRONG first assistant, B. B. SMALLEY second assistant, William H. ROOT clerk, G. S. WAINWRIGHT auditor. Mr. ROOT declining to act as clerk, was followed at once by R. J. KIMBALL. The engine was made by William JEFFERS & Son, of Pawtucket, R. I., arrived in Burlington on the 23d of February, 1858, and was placed in the rooms of the hook and ladder company under the court-house. It weighed 2,250 pounds and cost $1,000. An act of incorporation received from the Legislature in 1858 was not accepted by the company. The present officers of this company are: J. C. Rutherford captain, W. H. ZOTTMAN first assistant, F. E. BURGESS second assistant, W. L. BURNAP president, George E. JOHNSON secretary, C. H. CLARK treasurer, Robert ROBERTS vice-president, and F. H. WELLS, F. E. PERKINS, and F. L. TAFT auditors. The engine and apparatus were first kept a year in the basement of the Fletcher Library building. In 1879 they were taken to the present quarters in BURRITT's block.

      Star Hose No. 2 was organized on the 18th of September, 1871, by the election of the following officers: Moses PINE foreman, Wilbur C. SPEAR first assistant, HENRY SPEAR second assistant, Charles E. McEWEN clerk, Louis PINE treasurer, and Hoyt SALLS auditor. The present first assistant is Louis SEQUIN; second assistant, Theophile LEPOINT; clerk, Charles H. LANE; treasurer, A. H. DUHAMEL; and auditor, Henry LEE.

      HOWARD Hose No. 5 was organized on the 17th of October, 1871, and was then officered as follows: Edward WILLARD, foreman; A. A. DREW, first assistant; P. R. ROWLEY, second assistant; J. W. RUSSELL, secretary and treasurer; P. H. CATLIN, auditor; and A. A. TAYLOR, trustee. The present officers are: Foreman, M. C. GRATON; first assistant, T. MORRISON; second assistant, J. P. McGRATH; clerk and treasurer, Thomas COFFEY; auditor, A. A. DREW; trustee, John BLACK; steward, Alexander MORRISON.

      Clipper Hose No. 6 was organized on the l0th of November, 1871, by the election of the following officers: Foreman, J. B. MORSE; first assistant, John MURDOCK; second assistant, E. E. BEAVENS; clerk and treasurer, R. D. WHEELER; foreman of hose, G. A. RUMSEY; auditor, Orville SINCLAIR. The present foreman is John W. LOUTHIER, and the other officers are: First assistant, Israel MAYO; second assistant, Frederick BROUILLARD; treasurer, Leslie JEWELL, and clerk, Nap. POUQUETTE.

      BARNES Hose Company No. 7. -- The organization of this company was effected in 1873, when the following officers were elected: Foreman, D. R. BRACKEN; first assistant, John H. WATERS; second assistant, Edward O'NEIL; clerk and treasurer, W. H. LEE; auditor, Dennis FLAHERTY. William G. HUDSON is the present foreman, and the other officers are: First assistant, M. WALL; second assistant, Ed. HUDSON; clerk, G. L. NEAL; treasurer, J. H. FINNERAN; auditor, Joseph WOODS; trustee, Alexander CROSBY, and executive committee, B. E. RILEY, Antoine ALAPA, and P. KENNEDY.

      In addition to the companies above briefly mentioned, three companies, named the Greene Independent Hose Company, the Sutton Hose Company, and the Garry-Owen Hose Company were organized, one about twelve years ago, one eleven years ago, and the other one year later. These three companies continued their organization for several years, and then discontinued from lack of occasion for employment.

      By the original charter of the city the old fire district No. 18 ceased to exist and all the property and funds theretofore belonging to the district were vested in the city. On the organization of the fire department of the city, C. L. NELSON became the first chief engineer, in the spring of 1866. His successors have been, P. D. BALLOU, Robert S. STYLES two years, W. W. HENRY, Edward MURPHY, Charles L. NELSON, Hiram S. WHITE three years. George P. FOSTER, Albert S. DREW five years, Alexander CROSBY, and Lowell C. GRANT, who has entered upon his third term.


      In March, 1787, the Legislature of the State passed an act providing for the support of the poor, one section of which reads as follows: "That each town in this State shall take care of, support and maintain their own poor." The poor were first cared for by being "let out at auction"; in other words, the residents would agree to take care of a certain pauper for a sum named, which the town would pay. The lowest bidder "succeeded." The expenses of caring for the poor of Burlington during the year ending March, 1809, were $47.64. In October, 1816, Henry MAYO and Lemuel PAGE were appointed a committee to examine and report upon the propriety of building or hiring a building for a "work-house." At the adjourned meeting held the same month, the committee reported "that four rooms in the high barracks can be rented for a small rent, that the rooms above mentioned will require but little repairs to make them suitable for the business. At present no water can be procured for the use of the rooms short of the lake. Your committee consider the above named room by far the most eligible for the purpose of a work-house that can at present be obtained." The report was accepted. The succeeding spring it was ascertained that the expenses of the poor department were becoming heavy, being nearly $1,000, and treble those of the previous year. In 1821 a committee was appointed to ascertain the terms upon which a suitable house could be procured for a work-house, and in accordance with power subsequently vested in them they adopted a set of rules and regulations, and provided for the appointment of a superintendent or keeper of the poor, with power to "fetter, shackle or whip, not exceeding twenty stripes, any person confined therein who does not perform the labor assigned him or her, or is refractory or disobedient to the lawful commands," and also that "no person so confined shall be permitted the use of any ardent spirits unless the physician who may be employed to attend on any person so confined and sick shall deem the same necessary for the health of such person." This establishment was abandoned in two years. On the 9th of April, 1824, Charles ADAMS deeded to the town a portion of the land lying on the southwest corner of the present Union and College streets, now occupied by the Third Congregational Church. In the spring of 1836 a committee was appointed to examine the expediency of purchasing a town farm, but nothing effectual was done until the following September, when a town farm of seventy acres was purchased from Frederick PURDY, which was situated about two and a half miles from the village, on the Shelburne road. The purchase price was $2,000. A new building was erected on this farm in the latter part of the year 1859, at a cost of nearly $4,000, which, with subsequent improvements, has made a very pleasant home for the unfortunate poor of the town and city.


      Vermont was considerably behind the neighboring States in establishing a bank, a majority of the inhabitants being opposed to the issue of paper money. But as bills became the circulating medium in other States, it was impossible to exclude them from Vermont, and the people were frequently imposed upon by counterfeit bills and the failure of banks, without sharing the profits flowing from banking operations. The only remedy, it was acknowledged, was the establishment of a State bank, which would tend to prevent the circulation of spurious bills, and those of insolvent foreign banks. In April, 1781, the Legislature resorted to the emission of bills of credit, for the purpose of carrying on the war, paying the State debts, and enlarging the quantity of circulating medium. Matthew LYON, Edward HARRIS and Ezra STYLES were appointed a committee to make "a form and device for said bills and superintend the printing." In October, 1786, the Legislature passed an act submitting to the people the question of the establishment of a bank. They decided it in the negative in the following January. In 1803 the Legislature was petitioned to establish a bank at Windsor and another at Burlington. In spite of strenuous opposition the House of Representatives passed a bill in favor of the former; which, by reason of the non-concurrence of the Governor and Council, failed to become a law. The clamor for banks continued, however, and in 1805 two bills passed the House of Representatives establishing banks respectively at Windsor and Burlington. The Governor and Council again refused to concur In 1806 plans for the establishment of a State bank were matured, and on the 10th of November of that year the Vermont State Bank was established by the Legislature under the legal title of "The President and Directors of the Vermont State Bank." The bank consisted at first of two branches, one at Woodstock and the other at Middlebury. All the stock and profits were declared to be the property of the State, and under the direction of the Legislature forever. There were to be thirteen directors, from whom the president should be chosen. The directors were to reside, "six in the two eastern and six in the two western districts of this State, and the other where prudence may dictate." Deposits were not to exceed $300,000. In 1807 two additional branches were established, one at Burlington and the other at Westminster.

      On the 11th of November, 1808, the salaries of the officers of the bank were fixed as follows: Each director was to receive $1.50 a day for all the time actually spent in performing his duties as director; the president was to receive twenty-five cents for every 100 sheets of bills signed by him, and when necessarily attendant on business at some branch away from his residence, he was to receive $2.50 for every forty miles traveled, in lieu of other emolument. The cashiers were to receive not more than $500 a year. On the same day the treasurer of the State was directed to make the following payments for services during the previous year: To Titus HUTCHINSON, as president and director, $459; James TARBOX, director, $84; Mark RICHARDS, $79.50; Alexander CAMPBELL, $73.50; Oliver CHAPIN, $60; William C. HARRINGTON, $73.50; Noah CHITTENDEN, $111; John CURTIS, $25-50; Elias LYMAN, $45; Daniel CHIPMAN, $82.50; John WILLARD, $75; Horatio SEYMOUR, $90.

      The anticipations of the friends of this institution were not to be realized. Notwithstanding the efforts of the State government to maintain it by repeated legislation, its affairs were soon found to be greatly embarrassed and the institution insolvent. On the 7th of November, 1809, an act was passed making its bills a legal tender in payment of land taxes. Within five years from its establishment measures were adopted with a view to the winding up of its concerns. The Westminster branch was removed to Woodstock in 1811, and the Burlington and Middlebury branches followed in I812. Among the directors of the Burlington branch were Noah CHITTENDEN, John CURTIS and William C. HARRINGTON; the cashier was Samuel HICKOK. By receiving the outstanding bills of this bank for taxes they were about forty years ago all called in and destroyed.

      The scheme of conducting banking operations under the immediate supervision and ownership of the State was thus discovered to be impracticable, and the work of establishing banks was left to individual enterprise. The failure of the State Bank did not seem to discourage the advocates of the institution, for by the year of 1838 there were twenty banks in Vermont, having an authorized capital of $2,200,000, of which the sum of $1,304,530 was paid in. Two of these concerns were in Burlington, viz., the Bank of Burlington and the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank. The demand had been rather more than supplied, and a number of the experiments proved to be failures. In 1844 there were only seventeen banks in operation in the State. Four years later there were twenty-one, three of which, including the Commercial Bank, were in Burlington. In 1860 there were in the State forty-two banks, besides ten savings banks. The act of Congress introducing the national system created a new era in the financial world. Its advantages were patent to financiers throughout the country. In 1870 there were forty national banks in Vermont, two in Burlington-the total capital in the State being $6,960,012.50.

      The Bank of Burlington. -- After the removal of the Burlington branch of the Vermont State Bank to Woodstock, in 1812, the residents of Chittenden county felt the necessity of an establishment of the kind here, and in 1816, through their agency, application was made to the Legislature for another branch at Burlington; but nothing was accomplished until November 9, 1818, when the Bank of Burlington was incorporated. We have not been able to procure all the information which we wished in regard to this institution. It wielded a most beneficent influence in the entire State for nearly half a century. By the provisions of its charter its legal title was the "President, Directors, and Company of the Bank of Burlington," and its privileges were to continue until January 1, 1834. The capital stock of $150,000 was divided into 3,000 shares. Books for receiving subscriptions to stock were opened at Rutland and Burlington in January, 1819, under the direction of James D. BUTLER, Robert TEMPLE, and Apollos AUSTIN, at the former place, and Ebenezer T. ENGLESBY, Guy CATLIN, and Luther LOOMIS, at Burlington. The directors, numbering seven, were all to be residents of the State. Six per centum of the profits were to be paid semi-annually into the treasury of the State. On the 5th of November, 1830, the charter of the bank was extended to January 1, 1849, and at two different periods after that the existence of the corporation was protracted by legislative grace -- viz., on the 8th of November, 1847, and on the 20th of November, 1861. The first president of the bank was Cornelius P. VAN NESS, who was succeeded in 1820 by Ebenezer T. ENGLESBY. In 1849 Mr. ENGLESBY was succeeded by Philo DOOLITTLE. The last president was Hon. Levi UNDERWOOD. The first cashier was Andrew THOMPSON, who remained in the office thirteen years and was then followed by R G. COLE. His successor, Charles A. SUMNER, was the last incumbent.

      In consequence of the establishment by Congress of the national banking system, the Legislature of Vermont, on the 22d of November, 1864, passed an act providing that any bank under State laws which should "become an association for carrying on business under the law of the United States should be deemed to have surrendered its charter," after complying with certain requirements therein specified. It was further provided that every such bank should be continued a body corporate for a term of three years after the time of the surrender, for the purpose of prosecuting or defending suits brought by or against it, and of enabling it to close its concerns and dispose of its property, but not to continue the regular business of banking under the laws of the State. This act, in conjunction with the policy pursued by Congress of taxing the issues of State banks so highly as to effect a considerable diminution in their profits, conduced to the more rapid establishment of national banks. “The Daily Times” of Burlington, on the 17th of February, 1865, contained the following: "The Bank of Burlington, we learn, is now engaged in winding up its affairs preparatory to changing to a national bank. It is understood that the new bank will have a capital of $300,000, to be increased to $500,000." The institution went out of existence on the 1st of January, 1868, by the proclamation of Governor Paul DILLINGHAM, annulling the charters of all State banking institutions in Vermont. The last officers were as follows: Directors, Levi UNDERWOOD, L. M. HAGAR, O. J. WALKER, C. M. SPAULDING, W. W. HOYT, E. C. LOOMIS, O. A. DODGE; president, Levi UNDERWOOD; cashier, C. A. SUMNER; teller, Charles A. CONVERSE.

      The Bank of Burlington started upon its career on the north side of the square, and shortly afterward occupied a two-story building on the site of the Howard Opera House.

      The First National Bank of Burlington. -- -The Bank of Burlington was reorganized in 1859, and its bills were called in. As we have seen, measures were taken in 1865 to convert it into a national bank. "Accordingly, in the early part of 1865, the First National Bank was organized by the election of the same officers that last served the Bank of Burlington. It had a capital of $500,000. It occupied the site of the Howard Opera House for a year or two, and in 1867 erected the building now occupied by the Howard National Bank. It was absorbed by the Merchants' National Bank in 1870.

      United States Branch Bank.-In 1830 a branch of the United States Bank was established here, and continued business until the expiration of the charter of the parent bank, in 1840. It was situated in the building now occupied by the Burlington Savings Bank. Its officers were Heman ALLEN, president, and Thomas HOCKLEY, cashier.

      The Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank.-This institution was incorporated on the 6th of November, 1834, with a capital stock of $150,000, divided into 3,000 shares. The charter named as commissioners to receive subscriptions William A. GRISWOLD, Archibald W. HYDE, John PECK, Harry BRADLEY, and George P. MARSH, of Burlington, John SMITH, of St. Albans, and Joseph CLARK, of Milton. The business of this bank was conducted in the building now occupied by the Burlington Savings Bank. Its several presidents, in order, were John PECK, Frederick FLETCHER, and Torrey E. WALES, now judge of the Probate Court. Its cashiers were Thomas HOCKLEY and Charles F. WARNER. It wound up its affairs in January, 1868.

      The Commercial Bank. - The Commercial Bank was incorporated on the 8th of November, 1847, with a capital stock of $150,000. The commissioners appointed to receive subscriptions to stock were Silas H. JENISON, of Shoreham, Harry BRADLEY, Asahel PECK, Charles D. KASSON, and Charles RUSSELL, of Burlington, Hampden CUTTS, of Hartland, Joseph CLARK, of Milton, Lawrence BRAINERD, of St. Albans, and Erastus FAIRBANKS, of St. Johnsbury. It continued in business until December 31, 1867, when it closed up, and on the following day returned its capital stock to the shareholders. The presidents of this bank were Harry BRADLEY, Dan LYON, L. E. CHITTENDEN, Carolus NOYES and Samuel HUNTINGTON; cashiers, Martin A. SEYMOUR, Charles P. HARTT and Vernon P. NOYES. The last teller was Samuel A. DREW. Immediately after the winding up of the affairs of this institution Vernon P. NOYES established a private bank, and purchased the building and effects of the Commercial Bank. This business terminated by the death of Mr. NOYES in September, 188 5. The several cashiers were Robert WRIGHT, David N. BURTON, and John E. LAVRELL. The banking house is on the north side of the square.

      The Burlington Savings Bank. -The oldest banking institution now doing business in Burlington is this savings bank, which was chartered on the 6th of November, 1847, the corporators being John N. POMEROY, Wyllys LYMAN, Henry P. HICKOK, Carlos BAXTER, Henry LOOMIS, Dan LYON, William W. PECK, Sion E. HOWARD, William H. WILKINS, jr., Thomas H. CANFIELD, Edward C. LOOMIS, John H. PECK, Philo DOOLITTLE, Henry LEAVENWORTH and James W. HICKOK. The presidents of the corporation have been John N. POMEROY, Geo. W. BENEDICT, Henry LOOMIS, L. B. ENGLESBY, Moses MORSE, W. R. VILAS, Nathaniel PARKER, Morillo NOYES, and Henry LOOMIS, present incumbent. The president of the board of trustees is S. M. POPE. The trustees are S. M. POPE, Henry LOOMIS, C. F. WARD, W. G. SHAW, John L. MASON, C. P. SMITH and Geo. W. WALES. The list of treasurers is as follows: James W. HICKOK, A. S. DEWEY, William L. STRONG, and the present treasurer, C. F. WARD, who began his official duties in January, 1865, and is the oldest trustee in the bank.

      The deposits of this institution now amount to about $1,500,000 to be distributed among about 4,800 depositors. The business was at first conducted in a building on the west side of Court-House Square, owned then by James W. HICKOK. It was removed from the upper story of that building to the ground floor. Thence it was taken to the store of A. S. DEWEY, on Church street, and from there to a room over the hardware store of A. G. STRONG. The next removal was to the tailor shop of C. F. WARD, now forming a part of the Merchants' National Bank. In 1868 it followed the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank in the present building, which is the property of the treasurer. The building was erected by the United States government for the Branch Bank in 1830, and contains one of the finest vaults in the State.

      The Merchants' National Bank. -This bank is the successor of the Merchants' Bank, which was chartered by the State of Vermont on the 10th day of November, 1849, with a capital stock of $150,000. The commissioners appointed to receive subscriptions to stock were the following: Timothy FOLLETT, of Burlington, Stephen S. KEYES, of Highgate, Porter BAXTER, of Derby, Erastus FAIRBANKS, of St. Johnsbury, Paris FLETCHER, of Bridport, Samuel ADAMS, of Grand Isle; and John BRADLEY, David A. SMALLEY and William L. STRONG, of Burlington. The first directors were Timothy FOLLETT, Eli CHITTENDEN, Albert L. CATLIN, Timothy F. STRONG, George B. SHAW, David A. SMALLEY, and Nathan B. HASWELL.

      The business was started in a building erected by the corporation on the lower part of Water, now Battery, street. In 1857 it was removed to the building now occupied by its successor, the Merchants' National Bank. On the 25th of April, 1865, the State bank was reorganized as a national bank, with a capital of $300,000, which in 1870 was increased by the absorption of the First National Bank to $700,000, and in 1876 reduced to its present capital of $500. Among the directors of this concern have been such men as Sidney BARLOW, Joseph CLARK, J. D. ALLEN, H. L. NICHOLS, Lemuel B. PLATT, S. M. POPE, William L. STRONG and George F. EDMUNDS. For more than thirty years HENRY P. HICKOK was president. As a State bank the dividends paid amounted to $180,000, and under the national system they have been more than $900,000. The present organization is as follows: Directors, Edward LYMAN, George MORTON, Hon. Torrey E. WALES, Charles W. Woodhouse and Lorenzo G. WOODHOUSE. Charles W. WOODHOUSE is president and L. E. WOODHOUSE cashier.

      The Howard National Bank was chartered on the 16th of June, 1870, with a capital of $200,000, which was increased in the following year to $300,000, the present amount. The first officers were Lawrence BARNES, president, F. M. VAN SICKLEN, vice-president, C. A. SUMNER, cashier; directors, Lawrence BARNES, Obadiah WALKER, Cyrus M. SPAULDING, Joel H. GATES, F. M. VAN SICKLEN, Alonzo W. ALLEN, Edward C. LOOMIS, Amos SPEAR and Charles A. SUMNER. The building occupied by this institution was constructed by the First National Bank in 1867, and is well adapted for the purposes of banking, being fire-proof, neat and commodious, and furnished with spacious vaults lined with walls of railroad iron. The present surplus and profit and loss fund is $54.500; loans amount to $501,221, and deposits range from $350,000 to $400.000. The affairs of the bank are managed with the most consummate care and ability, making the institution one of the most trustworthy in the State. The present officers are: Directors, Lawrence BARNES  [Since the above was written Mr. BARNES's death has occurred.], F. M. VAN SICKLEN, C. M. SPAULDING, Joel H. GATES and Edward WELLS; president, Lawrence BARNES; vice-president, F. M. VAN SICKLEN; cashier, Curtis WELLS, and assistant cashier, F. H. FISHER.

      The Farmers' and Mechanics' Savings Institution and Trust Company, on College street, was chartered by the Legislature on the 11th of November, 1870, with a capital of $100,000, and with power to increase the same to $500,000, and to receive moneys on deposit or in trust, at such rate of interest or on such terms as may be agreed upon, the rate of interest to be allowed for deposits not to exceed the legal rate. The institution is at present officered as follows: Edward LYMAN, president, and C. W. WOODHOUSE, treasurer.

      The Burlington Trust Company was incorporated on the 8th of November, 1882, by the Legislature of the State, the corporators being F. M. VAN SICKLEN, Edward WELLS, M. D. COOK, and B. B. SMALLEY, of Burlington, and A. C. SPAULDING, of Jericho. Of the authorized capital of $50,000, $40,000 is paid in, and the residue will be paid in by February, 1887. The first officers were: President, C. M. SPAULDING; vice-president, B. B. SMALLEY; treasurer, Curtis WELLS. According to the terms of its charter this company is authorized to receive and hold moneys and property in trust and on deposit from courts of law or equity, executors, administrators, assignees, guardians, trustees, corporations, and individuals, upon such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon. Upon all individual deposits interest is allowed at the rate of four per cent., payable semi-annually, the interest compounding if not withdrawn. All deposits not in excess of $1,500 are exempt from taxation to the depositor, the tax being paid directly to the State by the company. As with national banks, the stockholders of this company are liable for twice the amount of their stock. The affairs of the company, although transacted in the Howard National Bank office, are entirely distinct and separate from those of the bank.

      The present officers are William WELLS, president; B. B. SMALLEY, vice-president; H. L. WARD, treasurer; C. M. SPAULDING, B. B. SMALLEY, M. D. COOK, Joel H. GATES, William WELLS, Edward WELLS, and D. W. ROBINSON, directors. The executive board elected by the directors consists of William WELLS, C. M. SPAULDING, and B. B. SMALLEY. The deposits now in the hands of this concern amount to $432,294.23. There are about 1,157 depositors.