ChittendenBurlington_2  

 

 

 


      There was still but one dock at the lake -- a small affair covering a part of the area now occupied by the south wharf, and owned by Curtis HOLGATE, or HULGATE, who had built it several years before the period of which we are speaking. Owing to the shallowness of the water at the end of this alleged dock -- the depth was not more than six feet -- the larger craft on the lake could not reach it, and were obliged to unlade the merchandise which they brought from the upper end of the lake, and to lade the produce of the country which they took south to exchange for merchandise, by means of lighters, while the lighters were filled and emptied by means of wagons driven a short distance into the water. Liquor casks and molasses barrels, the former more frequently than the latter, were thrown from the vessels into the water and floated ashore.

      Burlington then presented a far less pleasing aspect to the sightseer on the lake than it now affords. The original forests, which had been cleared away, were not yet replaced by trees of growth sufficient to obstruct the view. The irregular terraces which have since been made beautiful by persistent grading, the rough ravine, and several monotonous groups of small old-fashioned dwelling houses, constructed with a view to affording protection from sun and storm, without a thought of the ulterior and beneficent uses of beauty -- all relieved only by two or three splendid structures like that of Thaddeus TUTTLE, were exposed to the sight. The pine grove, before mentioned, at that time concealed a considerable portion of the town north of Pearl street. South of Main street and embracing the site now occupied by the residence of J. D. KINGs land, was the famous and beautiful sugar grove of William C. HARRINGTON. Lombardy poplars had been planted here and there for shade, mingled with an occasional locust, which not long after suffered extermination from borers.

      At the lake, near the foot of King street, lived Captain Gideon LATHROP, afterward commander of the “Congress.” Captain WINANS, the builder of the “Vermont,” lived in the same neighborhood, as did also Curtis HOLGATE, the builder and owner of the old wharf. Admiral Richard FITTOCK lived close to the water's edge, at what is now the foot of Maple street. The jail limits of the town were defined on the west by the water line, and FITTOCK was once disturbed when his house was invaded by the lake, lest the submerged portion should be guilty "of breaking the jail bonds." Joseph KING, brother of the "Admiral," lived with him in the house formerly occupied by their father, who died in 1804. Hamlin JOHNSON had a slaughter-house on King street, on the site of the present POWERS house. Consider SEVERANCE, a cooper, lived in a small house on the southeast corner of King and Pine streets, where John BROOKS now lives. His shop was just south of his house on Pine street. He afterwards moved to the rear of the old White church on White street, now Winooski Avenue. Elias NYE lived across from him on the corner of Pine and King streets. Justus WARNER occupied a little wooden building on the south side of King street, on the site of the house in which Miss Louisa HOWARD recently died. George Robinson, a "witty, fun-loving, kind, generous hearted lawyer," born at Taunton, Mass., on the 26th of August, 1775, who came to Burlington about the year 1800, began the study of law in the office of Elnathan KEYES and afterwards earned the title of "honest George ROBINSON," lived at the time of which we are speaking on the northwest corner of King and St. Paul streets, in the house now occupied by William H. LANE, and at a later day moved to Pearl street. He held many important positions in the town and county-was town clerk and judge of probate for years. He went to Michigan about the year 1833, and died there on the 15th of December 1838.

      Peter B. SMITH, a tailor, lived on the southwest corner of King and St. Paul streets, and Silas MOULTHROP was in company with him. Stephen Mix MITCHELL, a lawyer, lived on the north side of Main street below the square. Dr. John POMEROY occupied a brick building, still standing, on the east side of Battery street, about half way between Main and King. He was a leading physician, well known throughout the State, and always had eight or ten students in his office. About this time James VAN SICKLEN was one of his students. Samuel COLLAMER, father of Senator Jacob COLLAMER, was a carpenter and joiner, and lived in a house which stands to-day where it did then, on the northwest corner of Main and Battery streets. He had a large family and was poor. The story is told that one of his sons, afterward the famous senator, who was an early student at the college, was reproved by one of the professors for coming to college barefooted, and told that he must wear shoes. This the boy succeeded in doing; but economized by carrying the shoes in his hand until he reached the college park, and there putting them on for the day. Elnathan KEYES occupied a house that stood on the northeast corner of Main and Pine streets. He was one of the first two lawyers to practice in the county, and was a man of very unusual ability. Shortly after this period he removed to New York, near Rochester, where he remained until his death. He was a brother of Mrs. Dr. John PECK.

      On the southwest corner of Main and Pine streets, just west of the VAN NESS house, lived Nathan B. HASWELL, in the house which he built, and which stands there yet. Mr. HASWELL was a prominent man in Burlington for many years, and deserves more than a passing mention. He was born in Bennington on the 10th of January, 1786. His father, Anthony HASWELL, a native of Portsmouth, England, established the Vermont Gazette at Bennington, in 1783. After having had experience in a printing office and as a student of law, young HASWELL came to Burlington with the object of finishing his education in the University; but the loss of his father's newspaper and press by fire determined him to engage in active business at once. In 1805 he received from Dr. Jabez PENNIMAN, collector of customs, the office of inspector, which he retained until 1809, and then resigned. In 1812-13 he was the issuing commissary for the distribution of army rations. He was also a part of the time the public storekeeper, and superintended the taking of an inventory of the public property of Burlington. In 1814 he actively assisted in forwarding troops to Plattsburgh. From 1818 to 1836 he was respectively county clerk, clerk of the Supreme Court, notary public, master in chancery, etc. In 1836-7 he represented Burlington in the Legislature, and in the same year was appointed by the United States government agent to build the breakwater and to superintend the cleaning of the channel between North and South Hero. For more than forty years he was an active member of the Masonic order, and held the highest offices within its gift. He died at Quincy, Ill., on the 6th of June, 1855, while there on a business visit. His remains were buried in Burlington. "Amiability and kindness were his characteristics." In personal appearance he much resembled Martin Van Buren. For many years he carried on an auction store on the north side of City Hall Park, near the site of the Commercial Bank building. David RUSSELL, whose influence was instrumental in bringing Mr. HASWELL to Burlington, lived on the ground now occupied by the dwelling house of Joel H. GATES.

      Opposite David RUSSELL's, on the southwest corner of Main and Pine streets, lived another prominent man in Burlington, Samuel HITCHCOCK. He came to Burlington in 1786, and began the practice of law. He died before the war was over-November 30, 1813, aged fifty-eight years. He held all the highest offices which the town could bestow upon him, and ever acquitted himself to the satisfaction of his constituents.

      A small private house, occupied either then or a little later by a musician named Harvey MILLIKEN, stood on the site of the VAN NESS house. Moses JEWETT, a saddler, had erected what now forms the west end of the American Hotel, where he lived. He plied his trade in the upper story of a building which occupied the site of the Merchants' National Bank, on the north side of the square. David A. SMALLEY, a brief sketch of whom appears in the chapter devoted to the history of the legal profession, was one of Mr. JEWETT's apprentices in the saddlery trade. JEWETT afterwards sold his dwelling house to C. P. VAN NESS. East of this house was Mills' Row, from which the Northern Centinel was issued for years. This was a long row of two-story buildings facing Main street, white, wooden and surrounded by a balcony. Here many of the soldiers and officers were quartered during the war. The site of the court-house and postoffice buildings was occupied by Seth POMEROY, who shortly afterwards sold the place to his brother, Dr. John POMEROY. The house was a small cottage building facing Main street, from which it was separated by a neat yard. Behind it was a large garden and an orchard. It was after this time that the MILLS brothers (Samuel and Ephraim) built the house now standing on the corner of King and Church streets. The ravine at this place had not been filled with earth. William C. HARRINGTON resided some distance back from Seth POMEROY's in a large building still standing, which was afterwards the middle seminary building on Church street. As Church street was not then open south of Main, Mr. HARRINGTON was obliged to reach Main street by the way of Shelburne or St. Paul street.

      Where the Exchange block now is was then a small story-and-a-half, unpainted, wooden, dwelling house. It occupied a knoll eight or ten feet high, faced Main street, and stood forty or fifty feet away from it. North of it was a garden, and a little south of the corner on the site now occupied by the store of A. N. PERCY & Co., were the barns for the tavern kept then by Major Abram BRINSMAID, and afterwards by Captain Henry THOMAS. ABBOTT & WOOD were the first to build there after this, their building still standing on the same site. This inn stood on the ground now covered by the Strong block, and was a little, square, wooden, white, two-story house. The old framed court-house was where the Fletcher Library building now stands, fronting west, and was remarkably well suited to the purposes of its construction. South of the courthouse, near the southeast corner of the city hall, was a small pond or marsh about a hundred feet long, filled in summer with willows and cat-tails and in winter affording a place on which the boys could skate.

      Church street was far from being the main business street of the village. There were no blocks and few dwelling houses, only five or six stores and tinshops. The more substantial business of the place was transacted around the square and at the head of Pearl street, though considerable mercantile business was done along the western part of Pearl street, as it was then counted, viz., in the vicinity of the present residence of Edward C. LOOMIS. Although the square was the liveliest portion of the place, it presented to the stranger an altogether different appearance from what it now has. The most popular resort for strangers and those who loved not the life of the soldier was the comfortable hostelry of "Uncle John HOWARD." John HOWARD came here from Addison in 1812, and exchanged his Addison farm for the tavern with Arza CRANE, the preceding proprietor. This building was already an old structure and could hardly be entitled to a more dignified appellation than that of a country tavern. Although three stories in height, it was not so high as many buildings now are at a two story altitude. Being very old it was of course a framed house. It occupied about the site now covered by the store of B. TURK & Brother, next east from what was then the shoe shop of Lemuel PAGE. In the rear of the main building extended two wings, one behind the other. The principal entrance was reached from College street by an ascent of several steps; but on the west side was a smaller entrance, which could not, in those days of respectable reveries, have much significance. There was a broad covered piazza in front of the second story, and the summit of the roof was surmounted the whole length by a platform surrounded by a balustrade. Immediately east of the main building was a covered driveway, separating the tavern from a little two-story building just beyond. As early as 1825 a dancing-hall was built over this driveway. The spacious tavern yards and barns were reached by this opening. What anecdotes were related and side-splitting jokes played in that old inn; what comedies of real life were enacted there; what laughter at the keen witticisms of Barty WILLARD came from the lips of the old-time guests who arrived by the latest stage from Boston, Troy, Montpelier, or perhaps Canada, we can never know; but from the hearty, genial nature of John HOWARD, and the smiles that illumine the faces of the "old settlers" whenever they hear or tell of the place, we are safe in assuming that a Boswell's life of Uncle John would be well worth the reading. The back yard of the inn took up nearly an acre of ground. The shoe shop of Lemuel PAGE, before mentioned, which was on the corner west of the tavern, was only one of several shops situated in a square hip-roofed building, erected years before by James SIMMONS.

      On St. Paul street west of the park was a brick building, still standing, next north from the site of the Evarts House, erected and then owned by Gideon KING, who used the upper story for a sail-loft. This room was afterward occupied as a Masonic lodge room. The building now occupied by N. K. BROWN, still farther north, was the store of Samuel HICKOK, who dwelt in a two-story framed house built many years earlier by Moses CATLIN, on the site now covered with the ruins of the Evarts House. Mr. HICKOK was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county, Mass., on the 4th of September, 1774, and at the age of eighteen years came to Burlington from Lansingburgh, N. Y. After the death of his brother and partner, William, he succeeded to a trade carried on in a little store that stood near the site afterward occupied by the Rutland depot. His second store stood on the site of the present dwelling house of Hon. Daniel ROBERTS. He soon after erected the large brick building next east from Mr. ROBERTS's, where he resided for some time and until his removal to the corner. At the same time he built the brick store now occupied by Mr. BROWN, which by good authorities is said to be the oldest brick building now in the city. He was always one of the foremost in every undertaking for the public good, and was highly and justly esteemed by his townsmen. He died on the 4th of June, 1849.

      On the southwest corner of College and St. Paul streets was the general store of Ebenezer T. ENGLESBY, an extensive land owner possessed of a farm in what is now the southwest portion of the city, still owned largely by his lineal descendants. A brief sketch of his life appears on a subsequent page of this chapter. Mr. ENGLESBY had a keen wit, and when once urged to purchase stock in a proposed railroad company when railroads were first projected, on the ground that the enterprise would add to the value of his land, is said to have replied that the ground of the proposition was no inducement, as the value of his land had been so great for years that no one could be persuaded to buy it.

      Thaddeus TUTTLE then lived in the house of his own construction, lately occupied by Lawrence BARNES. TUTTLE was a very wealthy man and built this house in 1804. He afterwards sold the entire property to C. P. VAN NESS, who rendered it historic by his entertainment of General Lafayette in 1825. Mr. TUTTLE kept store in a house which he built on the site of the present residence of William L. BURNAP; the walls of which have never been taken down. TUTTLE was at one time in New York trading, so the story runs, and was asked by his mercantile friends what per cent. profit he made on the goods which he purchased of them. "One per cent.," answered he. "No more than that!" exclaimed his questioner; "we cannot give you credit on so small a profit." "Wait a minute," said Mr. TUTTLE; "my method is this: What I buy for a dollar I sell for two dollars, and easily live on the profit." He obtained credit. Mr. TUTTLE was a large property owner in the towns of Westford and Shelburne, and sold the farm on Shelburne Point to Nathan WHITE, a soldier of the Revolution, whose descendants have ever since been prominent in all the affairs of that town.

      College street towards the lake was very sparsely populated, and, as we have said, did not answer the description of a street at all. On the site of the house now occupied by Dr. L. M. BINGHAM, and in a building which still forms a part of that house, lived during the war Phineas, a brother of Ebenezer LYMAN. Church street north of College was sparsely inhabited and possessed few business houses. Trade had but just begun to set that way. Samuel H. PEASLEE, a saddler, had a shop on ground now covered by Scully's store. South of him some distance, and about on the site of the old buildings recently torn down by Mrs. WHEELER, Lewis CURTIS had opened a jeweler's store. He lived with his father on the corner of Bank and Church streets, across from the Union block. Between this part of Church street and the lake were a few houses occupied as dwellings. On the corner of Pine and Bank streets, where Mrs. COLE now lives, dwelt a man named Nathaniel DOAK. Moses BLISS lived on the southeast corner of Bank and Pine streets, where Mr. LUCAS now lives. He was a very prominent man in the county and was deputy sheriff and also sheriff for years. On the southeast corner of Cherry and Champlain streets, in a low and time-stained building, lived one Richard CORNING. John B. WETMORE lived on the east side of St. Paul street, not far from the present residence of Mrs. VAN NAMEE. Nearly opposite the house now occupied by Captain ANDERSON, on St. Paul street, Dr. Truman POWELL dwelt. Willard ROCKWELL, a cabinet-maker, lived on the northeast corner of Bank and St. Paul streets. Judge John LAW lived on Champlain street about three houses south of Pearl, nearly opposite the present grocery store. Opposite the present residence of General HENRY, at the foot of Pearl street, were the four "Pell houses," all alike, built and occupied by William F. PELL, and also occupied to some extent by the officers of the forces here during the war. Dr. Lazarus TOUSEY built the house now occupied by Albert PIERCE on the corner of Church and Pearl streets, and kept an "apothecary shop," in the building next west of the Baptist chapel. The site of the Unitarian Church was then a part of the pine wood before described. Beyond the wood, in the house now occupied by Albert E. JONES, towards Mallet's Bay, Stephen RUSSELL lived. Near the mouth of the Winooski River lived two brickmakers by the name of FARWELL. They settled on the well-known BIGELOW farm, and were here some time previous to 1812. On what is now the northeast corner of Pearl street and Winooski avenue was the distillery of the popular and energetic sheriff, Daniel STANIFORD. He lived in a stone house, still standing, on the northwest corner of Winooski avenue and Grant street, though then it was a solitary building not very near any street, but facing Pearl, some distance from it. On the southwest corner of Winooski avenue and Pearl street dwelt Job REED, a hatter, who afterwards drowned himself in the lake. Another hatter, and a more prosperous one, William I. SEYMOUR, had a large business at his house on the south side of Pearl street, a little north and east of the First Congregational parsonage. Farther east on the same side of Pearl street, Horace LOOMIS had a tannery and leather store just opposite his dwelling. This leather store was built of stone, and remained on the ground for many years after the period of which we speak. In the house east of Phineas LOOMIS, the same building now occupied by Miss Diantha TAFT, Dr. Elijah HARMON lived and practiced in an office then standing just west of the house. He erected these buildings and set out the splendid elm tree that now casts its shade over that part of the street. Dr. HARMON was postmaster some time while the office was on Pearl street, and afterwards moved to Chicago, in time to be counted an early settler in the then infant Queen City of the West. The house in which Mayor WOODBURY now lives was after this time erected by George MOORE, a brother of Luther MOORE.*


[* Eli BARNARD, afterward the proprietor of the Green Mountain House, was step-father to William, Polly, Luther and George MOORE, two or three of whom are well remembered, and who leave numerous descendants in Burlington and elsewhere. George MOORE was born in 1789, and while yet a young man he and the others named came to Burlington and moved into the Green Mountain House. He was a merchant on Pearl street, his store being between the site of the Vilas House and that owned and occupied by Mayor U. A. WOODBURY. He had nine children, of whom four, Horace Loomis MOORE, of Burlington, Charles T. and Jacob Williams MOORE, of Rochester, N. Y., and Samuel C. MOORE, of Williamsport, Pa., are now living. George MOORE was a commissary in the War of 1812-15, and was interested in all enterprises looking to the improvement of this place. He was one of the originators of the woolen mills at Winooski. William MOORE, brother to George, went from here to Jericho, and thence to Lyons, N. Y. He died at Geneva, in that State. Luther MOORE built the structure known as the Vilas House, on Pearl street, and lived there some time. He died in Washington, D. C.]
      The farm which then embraced the place now owned by Mr. WOODBURY, was then the property of Moses FAY, attorney. On the site of the Vilas house, so called, opposite the Catholic College, Adolphus WALLBRIDGE kept a tavern. The house now owned and occupied by Henry LOOMIS was after this built by Luther LOOMIS, who then lived with his father, Horace. On the north side of Pearl street, where Willard street now leads, and including the land owned by Mrs. TUCKER, Eleazer H. DEMING kept a store and lived directly west of it. Ozias BUELL, another prominent merchant of the times, was then engaged in mercantile business in the house yet standing on the Henry HICKOK lot on the north side of Pearl street. Colonel BUELL was born in Litchfield, Conn., April 8, 1769, and died in Burlington August 5, 1832. After receiving a thorough business education under his uncle, Julius DEMING, of Litchfield, he first established himself in Kent, Conn., where he remained ten or twelve years, and in 1804 removed to Burlington. Being a man of great energy of character, he and his brother-in-law, Moses CATLIN, exerted a beneficial influence on the moral and business growth of the place. He was the leading spirit and contributor in the erection of the first house of worship in 1812, and was also treasurer for twenty-one years of the University of Vermont. He was a man of fine personal appearance, and in the days when riding on horseback was common was conspicuous for his skill and grace on horseback. His brother-in-law, Moses CATLIN, was born in Litchfield, Conn., in 1770, and early married Lucinda, daughter of Heman and niece of Ethan ALLEN. Mr. CATLIN came to Burlington with his family several years before Colonel BUELL, and erected the house on the west side of the square, afterwards the residence of Samuel HICKOK, where they lived several years. They then removed to an eminence back of the university grounds, near the present site of the Mary FLETCHER Hospital. By erecting the mills and manufactories at Winooski Falls he gave the first impetus to the growth of that flourishing little place. He was kind and gentle in his domestic relations, and was a man of active and discriminating benevolence. He died in 1842. His younger brother, Guy CATLIN, who was intimately associated with him in all his business and public affairs, was born in Litchfield in 1782, and died in Burlington in 1853. He took an active interest in the affairs of the University of Vermont.

      On the northeast corner of Pearl and North Prospect streets was the store of Colonel James SAWYER. His house stood between the store and the site of the Medical College. Alvan FOOTE, a prominent attorney, lived on the south side of Pearl street opposite the present residence of Colonel PETERSON, but he subsequently removed to the site of Colonel PETERSON's residence. John STORRS lived in the first house west of the Green Mountain House. George ROBINSON afterwards married his widow and removed to the same house. Hon. Daniel FARRAND occupied the same house on Prospect street now occupied by G. G. BENEDICT. Just south from him dwelt Dr. John PEERAGE, who erected the house that stands there now. In a small white house on the site of the present dwelling of Charles RIPLEY on Prospect street, lived the famous Dr. Daniel COIT, inventor and industrious circulator of "COIT's Pills," then deemed a panacea. Advertisements for COIT's pills were published in almost every paper in the State. It occupied nearly a column in the Rutland Herald of those times. William COIT, father of the doctor, surveyed and laid out the village in the spring of 1790. John JOHNSON, a surveyor, and one of the ablest and most prominent men of the times, from 1807 to his death, in 1842, occupied the large brick house at the northeast corner of College Green, overlooking the whole length of Main street to the west. On the north side of College Green and south side of Pearl street, just opposite the site of the Medical College, was the large two-story white building built by Giles T. CHITTENDEN and used by him for a store. It was an elaborate structure, which those who remember say was decorated with extensive interior galleries. EDDY, MUNROE & HOOKER, the prominent merchants and lumbermen of later days, followed CHITTENDEN in the occupation of this building. South of the store of Thaddeus TUTTLE there was only one house on Prospect street, viz., the little house of Noadiah KELLOGG on the east side of the street.

      Some of the most prominent residents of that portion of the town now comprised within the limits of South Burlington were the following: Eliab FOBES, Pelatiah HOLBROOK, John ELDREDGE, Samuel BLINN, Nathan SMITH, Thomas COMSTOCK, Ebenezer BROWN, Samuel FULLER, Theodore CATLIN on the farm now owned by Lemuel S. DREW, Rufus CROSSMAN, Gershom HOLMES, Levi JOHNSON, and Alexander DAVIDSON, the hermit.

      The prominent offices then held by residents of the county were distributed as follows: Chief judge of the County Court, Heman ALLEN, then of Milton, afterwards of Burlington; assistants, Joel BROWNSON and John JACKSON; judge of probate, Truman CHITTENDEN, of Williston; sheriff, Heman LOWRY, of Burlington; State's attorney. George ROBINSON; high bailiff, James ENOS; justices of the peace for Burlington, Samuel HITCHCOCK, David RUSSELL, Ozias BUELL, Rufus CROSSMAN, Ebenezer BROWN, John ELDREDGE, John JOHNSON, Ellick POWELL, George ROBINSON, and Amos WEEKS. Martin CHITTENDEN, of Jericho, it will be remembered was governor of the State, and issued a proclamation ordering the troops from Vermont to Plattsburgh, which met with a sharp reception in the rendezvous across the lake. William C. HARRINGTON was one of the councilors, and George ROBINSON was representative from Burlington. The practicing attorneys in Burlington were as follows: William C. HARRINGTON, Samuel HITCHCOCK, Elnathan KEYES, George ROBINSON, Stephen Mix MITCHEL, Alvan FOOTE, Cornelius P. VAN NESS, Phineas LYMAN, Moses FAY, Charles ADAMS, Warren LOOMIS, James L. SAWYER, Archibald W. HYDE, David STONE, John BROWNSON. Rev. Daniel C. SANDERS was president of the University of Vermont. Nathaniel CHIPMAN, of Tinmouth, was chief judge of the Supreme Court, and Daniel FARRAND was one of the assistant judges. The grand list of Burlington was $23,768.20.


SOLDIERS OF 1812

      We have not been able to obtain the complete list of soldiers enlisting from Chittenden county during this war. Of the companies made up at Burlington we have the names of two which were composed of residents of Burlington and two neighboring towns. One company, commanded by Captain Samuel BLISS, was made up partly of the following men from Burlington and Williston: Samuel BLISS, Truman HAWLEY, Asahel SPEAR, Chester BLISS, Jonathan LUGAN, Joshua READ, jr., Jed HIGBE, Samuel FAIRPOINT, John LYON, Zacharias DREW, John JOHNSON, Samuel MINOR, Benjamin BITGOOD, Heman VANORNAM, John HADLEY, Samuel PAYN, Lyman DAVIS, Truman DAVIS, Jonathan BLISS, Aloe PARMER, William PITCHER, Adryas BLISS, Joseph TUCKER, David STRAW, John MEAKER, Silas HARTSHORN, Joseph JONES, John DEARNS.

      Another company, commanded by Captain John PARMER, was made up partly of the following men from Burlington and Shelburne: John PARMER, Edmund SHERMAN, Moses ALLEN, Charles HUBBELL, Jonathan COLE, Simon GOODWIN, Elisha KEELAR, Dyer WISTCOTT, William BARKER, Benjamin SIMONS, Stephen RUNNELS (REYNOLDS), Andrew CURRIER, Amos CASTLE, Benjamin WISTCOTT, Chas. MARTIN, David SMITH, Edmund P. STEDMAN, Elijah PEAS, Eli HASKINS, Hyson RICK, Herman HERLBRET, John KENT, John FRAZIER, John WISTCOTT, Stephen LOOMIS, jr., John TUCKER, John EDDY, Lyman HOLLIS, Milo BYINGTON, Ora DUGGET, Reuben S. MARTIN, Roger ROSEFORD, Richard TURNER, William MARTIN.


SMUGGLING

      From the earliest period after the admission of Vermont into the Union until the present date there has always been more or less open and defiant evasion of the revenue laws, though for many years the practice has ostensibly diminished and almost disappeared. During the War of 1812-15, however, smugglers were very bold and active, and there is a current belief among those who are old enough to remember the times that privateers were fitted out and even granted letters of marque and reprisal with the apparent two-fold object of embarrassing the movements of the British on the lake and of running down and exterminating smugglers from the Canadian markets; which, nevertheless, connived with the smugglers and even aided and abetted them under agreements for a division of the profits. Undoubtedly much of this evil was done away with at the close of the war.


COLD SEASON OF 1816

      The year 1816 is remarkable in the annals of the entire Champlain valley as well as of other portions of the country, for the fact that frosts occurred every month in the year and a heavy snow storm took place on the 9th of June. Corn, which was then the principal crop in Vermont, was wholly destroyed, and vegetables and cereals generally were extremely scarce. Owing to the fact that transportation was then slow and laborious, and money, by reason of the effects of the recent war, was more of a curiosity than a legal tender, the inhabitants of the entire valley suffered privations which cannot be described. Many families which in ordinary times were counted well-to-do, would resort to the grist-mills of their neighborhood and collect the dust that fell from the stones, from which a little nourishment could be obtained. The following summer produced greater suffering still. Wheat was sold in small quantities at $3.50 per bushel, and was brought up from Connecticut and other parts of the "south." There were hardly enough potatoes for seed. The scarcity of corn produced a scarcity of pork. A barrel of what was called "whole-hog pork" sold for $40 a barrel, four times what it was worth in ordinary times. The sailors on the lake, who, in the summer of 1816 wore overcoats and mittens every evening, were accustomed to traverse all parts of Grand Isle county for provisions in 1817, and could seldom obtain at any price anything besides milk. These hardships moderated considerably after the harvest time of 1817, and interrupted activities were resumed.


BURLINGTON IN 1825

      Between the close of the War of 1812-15 and the year 1825 many changes took place in the general appearance of Burlington and in the amount and nature of business transacted within its limits. Ten years of peace had proved a benefit to the place. The most important change was to be noticed in the appearance of College street and vicinity. Business houses of considerable importance had been established and were increasing the value of real property in the entire neighborhood, and indeed in the town. The other streets were not so much changed. Water street had fallen into its normal inactivity, while upper pearl street retained its former volume of business.

      George ROBINSON was still town clerk; he and Alvan FOOTE and Samuel HICKOK were selectmen; Nathan B. HASWELL and George MOORE, overseers of the poor; John N. POMEROY was treasurer; Alvan FOOTE, Philo DOOLITTLE and John VAN SICKLEN, jr., were listers; Phineas ATWATER was first constable and collector; highway surveyors were Philo DOOLITTLE, district No. 1; John Peck, No. 2; Simon WILLARD, No. 3; Stephen JOHNSON, No. 4; Abel OWEN, No. 5; Joseph BOSTWICK, No. 6; Thomas ATWATER, No. 7; Stephen RUSSELL, No. 8; Dwight DEAN, No. 9; the fence viewers were Eleazer H. DEMING, Luther LOOMIS and John VAN SICKLEN, jr.; James H. PLATT was pound-keeper; Lemuel PAGE and Luther MOORE were sealers of leather; Jesse J. STARR was sealer of weights and measures; John N. POMEROY, Benjamin F. BAILEY and Elijah D. HARMON were tythingmen; John M. MORSE, Himan LANE, John ABBOTT, Joseph BROWNING, Harry HATCH, William F. WICKER, John LATHROP and John W. PATRIDGE were haywards; John ELDREDGE was trustee of schools; Samuel NICHOLS, Jasper BECK and Samuel R. BROWN were sextons.

      The names of the grand jurors and pettit jurors of this year are the names of the most prominent men of that period, many of them having been prominent through the period of the then last war. The grand jurors were Ozias BUELL, Horace LOOMIS, Samuel HITCHCOCK, Ebenezer T. ENGLESBY, Luther LOOMIS, Guy CATLIN, John PECK, Job REED, Wm. I. SEYMOUR and John HOWARD. The pettit jurors were Henry MAYO, John VAN SICKLEN, jr., Samuel MILLS, George MOORE, Philo DOOLITTLE, William C. HARRINGTON, Abel OWEN, J. J. STARR, Henry THOMAS, Samuel DINSMORE, John HERRICK and Sion Earl HOWARD.

      Montpelier had been the State capital for seventeen years. The governor was a Burlington man, Cornelius P. VAN NESS, at that time residing in the house lately owned and occupied by Lawrence BARNES, on Main street, where Thaddeus TUTTLE resided in 1812. Two years later John C. THOMPSON, of this town, was one of the governor's councilors. The representative of Burlington for the year ending in the fall of 1825 was Charles ADAMS; his successor, Benjamin F. BAILEY. Hon. Timothy FOLLETT was chief judge of the Chittenden County Court; Heman LOWRY was sheriff; Moses BLISS, high bailiff; Benjamin F. BAILEY, State's attorney; and George ROBINSON, judge of probate for the district of Chittenden.

      The justices of the peace were Daniel FARRAND, David RUSSELL, George ROBINSON, Alvan FOOTE, Nathan B. HASWELL, John N. POMEROY, John C. THOMPSON, Andrew THOMPSON, Isaac T. HYDE, Samuel CLARK, Benjamin F. BAILEY, James L. SAWYER, Truman SEYMOUR, Phineas LYMAN, John VAN SICKLEN, jr., Charles ADAMS, and HENRY MAYO.

      David RUSSELL was then clerk of the Supreme Court and Nathan B. HASWELL clerk of the County Court. William A. GRISWOLD was United States district attorney for the District of Vermont. The practicing attorneys were Daniel FARRAND, George ROBINSON, John N. POMEROY, Alvan FOOTE, Charles ADAMS, James L. SAWYER, Luman FOOTE, William A. GRISWOLD, John C. THOMPSON, Benjamin F. BAILEY, Gamaliel B. SAWYER, William BRAYTON, Jacob MAECK, George F. PORTER, Warren LOOMIS, and George PEASLEE.

      There were three churches in town; the First Calvinistic Congregational, with Rev. WILLARD Preston for pastor, the Unitarian, George G. INGERSOLL, pastor, and the Methodist society, Truman SEYMOUR, local preacher. The only church buildings in the place were owned by the first two, the Unitarian house of worship being very much as at present, and the Congregational house being the old "White church," which had given the street now known as the southern end of Winooski avenue the name of White street. It stood about on the site of the present chapel of this church and fronted towards Pearl street Burlington was then but six years possessor of its first bank, the old Bank of Burlington, which occupied the site of the Howard Opera House.


LAFAYETTE'S VISIT 

      It was on the 29th of June, 1825, that General LaFayette favored the village of Burlington with a visit, which has become a part of the history of the place. The Northern Centinel of July 8, 1825, contained a description of the event, of which the following is an abstract

      The general and his suite arrived about two o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, accompanied by Governor VAN NESS, his secretary and staff, and a deputation from the committee of arrangements, who had waited upon him at Montpelier, and in behalf of the citizens of Burlington requested the honor of a visit from him on his passage through the State.

      A detachment of cavalry under command of Major Erastus MEECH met the general at Williston and escorted him to the heights near the college, where he was received by the committee of arrangements and the "Independent Greys," under command of Captain H. THOMAS. The arrival was announced by a salute from the artillery under the direction of Captain CORNING, the ringing of bells and hearty cheers from an immense multitude assembled on the occasion. A procession was formed under the direction of the sheriff of the county, Heman LOWRY, Marshal of the day, assisted by fourteen deputy Marshals, in the following order: 1. escort of cavalry; 2. instrumental music; 3. military band; 4. Independent Greys; 5. General LaFAyette and his excellency in an open barouche drawn by four elegant gray horses; 6. George Washington, LaFayette, Mr. Le Vasseur, the general's secretary, and the governor's secretary and staff in a coach drawn by four bay horses; 7. committee of arrangements; 8. judges of courts and civil authority; 9. president and officers of college; 10. Revolutionary officers and soldiers; 11. students of the college; 12. citizens generally.

      The procession then moved to the head of Pearl street, down Pearl to Church street, then to North street, now Bank, thence to First, now Champlain street, thence south to Main and east to Court-House Square. On arriving in front of GOULD's Hotel, known as HOWARD's Hotel (on the site now occupied by the clothing store of B. TURK & Bros.) LaFayette alighted and, supported by the governor's aids, proceeded to the apartments which had been provided for his reception. Pursuant to arrangement, General LaFayette and his suite appeared shortly after on the piazza, accompanied by the governor and his suite, where William A. GRISWOLD delivered an address of welcome. The Revolutionary soldiers, numbering about 100, were directly in front of the piazza, surrounded by a vast concourse of people. After LaFayette's reply to the address of welcome, the soldiers were introduced to him in Mr. GOULD's long room. Then followed the usual addresses. Dinner was given by Mr. GOULD, at which Horace LOOMIS presided, supported by Timothy FOLLETT, Samuel HICKOK, Guy CATLIN, A. W. HYDE, and John C. THOMPSON, vice-presidents. After dinner the party repaired to College Hill, and were received in front of the north wing. After the ceremony of laying the corner-stone of the college the general returned to GOULD's Hotel. He passed the evening at the residence of Governor VAN NESS (in the house recently owned and occupied by Lawrence BARNES, on Main street), who generously opened his doors for the reception of the public. The reception lasted from about eight o'clock until eleven, and was a brilliant affair. The "court-yard" presented an elegant appearance, lamps and chandeliers being suspended from the branches of trees and shrubbery, and a transparent arch thrown across the gate at the foot of the avenue leading to the house, bore the inscription, "Welcome to LaFayette." At eleven o'clock the general was escorted to the wharf, where the Phenix was in waiting under Captain G. BURNHAM. The Phenix and Congress, the latter under Captain J. R. HARRINGTON, greeted the hero with salutes. The guest then went to Whitehall on the Phenix, accompanied by Governor VAN NESS and secretary and council, and the committee of arrangements.

      At the time of this reception the VAN NESS place on Main street embraced a tract of land which extended south far enough to include the mansion of Colonel CANNON and thirty acres of land adjacent, in all eighty-one and a half acres. Governor VAN NESS purchased the property of Thaddeus TUTTLE on the 9th of April, 1824, and owned it until July 12, 1845, when he deeded it to HENRY LEAVENWORTH, who opened streets through it.


BUSINESS CENTERS IN 1827

      The following description of the square and Pearl street, and other portions of Burlington in 1827, is substantially the same as given by Mr. Frederick SMITH, who made Burlington his home in that year. North of Pearl street there was not more than half a dozen houses, and they were small The only street that was opened north of Pearl was North avenue, which was then inhabited chiefly by several colored families in shanties of the most rude construction. Water street was also inhabited by the lowest families between the Battery and Main street, while south of that were a number of the most respectable families in town. There were the same two hotels mentioned in the description of the street of a former period, kept in 1827 by the father of the late Miles EVARTS, and by CADY & DOOLITTLE, respectively. The principal store on the street was that of MAYO & FOLLETT, which occupied the site now covered by the stone store of VAN SICKLEN, SEYMOUR & Co. The square was surrounded by some of the most important of the business houses in town. Lemuel PAGE still occupied the old two-story framed dwelling house that stood on the northeast corner of College and St. Paul streets, and made shoes after the fashion of those times. The next building east of that was HOWARD's tavern. After passing the driveway just east of this hotel the visitor would see the story-and-a-half framed store building of Isaac WARNER, which was entered by a short stairway. On the site of the Merchants' National Bank was the two-story brick store built by Jireh DURKEE, and occupied until about this time by him. He was soon after succeeded by BURDICK & SOUTHGATE. The next building east was of about the same proportion, and was occupied by Dr. John PECK, who at that time occupied it solely as a drug store.

      Dr. John PECK was a native of Litchfield county, Conn., and came to Burlington in 1804. He always lived on the premises now owned and occupied by his son, Edward W. PECK, No. 326 College street. At first his dwelling was a framed house, but he built, after years, the house in which his son now lives. He was one of the most extensive land owners in the town, and at different times had title to the best land in all parts of the town. At one time he owned a tract of about twenty-five acres, embracing the corner of Maple and Willard streets, and the residence of Hon. E. J. PHELPS. He bought it of William C. HARRINGTON. In the spring of 1816 he made his first purchase of land on the north side of the square, and from about that time until 1830 conducted an extensive drug business. In that year he enlarged the building which he had before occupied, or rather rebuilt it entire, with such an outlay of pains and expense that the block was called the best in the State. It then, as now, included the buildings east and west of the store, which he and two of his sons occupied under the firm name of J. & J. H. PECK & Co., viz., the building now occupied by R. B. STEARNS & Co. and that occupied by the Merchants' National Bank.

      From this block E. A. STANSBURY issued the Burlington Courier, and afterwards SAXE the Sentinel. Stimulated by the sharp rivalry between the square and Water street, between the wholesale store of FOLLETT & BRADLEY at the south dock and that of J. & J. H. PECK & Co., at the square, the latter became the most extensive house in Vermont, and scenes of great business activity were frequently presented, while the six-horse and eight-horse "land-ships" were lading for the different interior towns of the State. About 1854 this firm was succeeded by E. W. PECK & Co. In 1868 the fourth story was added to the building by the present owner, who also lowered the front in the spring of 1875. Dr. John PECK died in 1863, aged seventy-seven years.

      EMERSON & ORVIS occupied the next store to the east as a dry goods store. Frederick ORVIS, who managed the business, occupied the same dwelling house in which we found Moses JEWETT during the war, on the corner now occupied by the American Hotel. From the store of EMERSON & ORVIS to the corner of Church street would have been a vacant lot but for a little 8 x 12 barber shop kept by James SOUTHARD. Even as late as 1830 it was a fashion universally observed for the men to be closely shaven. No beards were to be seen, so that we may suppose Mr. SOUTHARD had the opportunity for making a comfortable living from his occupation. A second story was added to this building in later days, which extended over a greater area than the first. The structure now stands on the south side of Battery street just above Maple.

      The northeast corner of Court-House Square was occupied by the tavern of Captain Henry THOMAS. Church street ended at College street, and Captain THOMAS's barn stood south of the store of A. N. PERCY & Co.; south and west of the barn was the frog pond mentioned before. There was a deep hole, still to be seen north of this barn on College street, and to the east some distance was a knoll the summit of which was about on a level with the square. On this elevation were two buildings, the one on the south side being a little framed carpenter shop, and across from it the brick building which stands there yet, the property now of S. BEACH, who occupies the basement as a bakery and confectionery store.

      South of THOMAS's Hotel was a driveway running east and west from the hotel barn to the square. Captain THOMAS had by this time obtained license from the town to build a public or dancing hall over and a little south of this driveway, which was already quite a popular resort during winter evenings for dancing parties and dancing-schools. A few yards south of this hall was the old court-house, facing west. The pine tree whipping-post was still there, though it was not frequently called into requisition. The site of the present city hall had been taken up by Nathaniel MAYO, who had built a little brick meat market there and carried on the business himself. The place formerly occupied by Seth POMEROY on the site of the post-office building was at this time in the possession of John N. POMEROY. MILLS' Row was the same as during the war. Charles ADAMS had erected a small brick dwelling just south of it where he dwelt, Harvey MILLIKEN lived across St. Paul, then Shelburne street, from Frederick ORVIS, on the site of the VAN NESS house, Samuel HICKOK still resided on the northwest corner of Main and St. Paul streets, and carried on a mercantile business two doors north of his house. HASWELL's auction store was at this period between HICKOK's dwelling and store. The next building north of HICKOK's store was used by Philo DOOLITTLE as a store. Next was the store of E. T. ENGLESBY, while a small harness shop was on the corner. E. T. ENGLESBY had now completed his garden, which he laid out in 1819. It was called the finest garden in the State and took up the entire block north and west of the house. Mr. ENGLESBY came to Burlington from the city of New York in November, 1797, after a journey by way of Whitehall and the lake of eleven days, and began a mercantile career as clerk in the store of Captain Thaddeus TUTTLE, with whom he boarded. Several of his mother's brothers bore a conspicuous and honorable part in the Revolution. The family came from Massachusetts. In the spring of 1798 Mr. ENGLESBY was initiated into the first degree of Freemasonry in the Washington Lodge at Burlington. He remained with Captain TUTTLE two years and then formed a partnership with Joshua ISHAM, of Shelburne Falls, a store being opened at both Shelburne and Burlington. He assumed sole control of the business in the spring of 1802, and, from a position in the rudiments of financial success, in a few years attained wealth and prominence. He was made president of the Bank of Burlington in 1820 and officiated in that capacity until 1849, retiring then with the confidence and regards of his associates. He was four times married, his first wife being a sister of John N. POMEROY, his second and third wives, daughters of Colonel E. S. KEYES, and his fourth wife, the mother of L. B., E. C., and Rosalind P. ENGLESBY, was Adela BRUSH, of Massachusetts. Mr. ENGLESBY died in February, 1854, aged seventy-seven years.

      The first building north of College street on the west side of Church street was the same one now occupied by H. E. ADAMS & Son, jewelers.

      North of the ground where the Chinese laundry now is was the jewelry store of PANGBURN & BRINSMAID. A little way north of that was the tailor shop of Uriah DUBOIS, in the same building now occupied by BRINSMAID & HILDRETH. Next was the low, two-story white framed store of Sion E. HOWARD, who was really the first proprietor of a cash store in Burlington. Previous to the system which he inaugurated here, the custom was for purchasers to run accounts with the several stores for a period of not less than six months, and to pay their bills in farm products, such as wheat, cattle, etc., at the market prices. Money was scarce, and our ancestors, civilized though they were, were forced to resort in their trade to the exceedingly primitive method of barter, without the intermediation of money. HOWARD's store stood about on the site of Frederick BURRITT's drug store. The building was a small one with low rooms, and "bulls'-eye" windows. Mr. HOWARD lived on the site of the brick house still occupied by his widow, on the southeast corner of St. Paul and Bank streets.

      On the corner of Bank and Church streets, next north of HOWARD's store, was the historic Bank of Burlington, which had elegant furniture, and the chairs of which are now distributed among the heirs of the old directors. These chairs were equal in number to the directors of the bank, and were decorated on the back with paintings of the most prominent buildings in the town, chiefly residences of the directors themselves. The bank building was constructed of brick, with the entrance to the bank on Church street. In the rear were apartments elegantly fitted up for the home of the cashier, who at this period was Andrew THOMPSON. The entrance to this part of the building was from Bank street.

      On the northwest corner of Bank and Church streets was the handsome two-story dwelling house of William A. GRISWOLD. It was constructed of brick and faced Church street. The next building north was the little wooden tin-shop of Jesse J. STARR, who then dwelt in the same building in which James A. SHEDD now lives on the southwest corner of Church and Cherry streets. The widow of Hawley DURKEE, recently deceased, kept tavern in what is now Rowe's Hotel. North of that on Church street were several small houses devoted to various purposes, the only dwelling being the same building now standing on the southwest corner of Church and Pearl streets.

      South from Pearl street, on the east side of Church, the first building was the same one now standing in the same place, on the southeast corner of Church and Pearl streets. Some time after this George P. MARSH dwelt in this house. On the southeast corner of Church and Cherry streets was a brick building used by John MORSE as a paint shop. The jail was the next structure, and appeared nearly the same as it does now excepting that it was a trifle smaller. Between the jail and Bank street were a number of little shops, and the dwelling house of Dubois the tailor stood on the corner. Just across Bank street, in a wooden building, Samuel H. PEASLEE carried on his trade as a harness-maker, or “saddler." The jewelry establishment of CURTIS & DUNNING was in the brick building that stood next south from PEASLEE's, and beyond their store was another cluster of rookeries. In a framed house on the corner now occupied by the Howard National Bank lived a grocer named Samuel WAINWRIGHT, who conducted his trade in the basement of this house.

      The old store on the north end of College Green, erected and first occupied by Giles T. CHITTENDEN, and afterwards occupied by the firm of EDDY, MUNROE & HOOKER, was vacant in 1827. The framed house of Colonel James SAWYER stood on the site of the Medical College, and his store was just west of his house on the corner. Harry BRADLEY subsequently carried on trade in a large brick store on this ground. On the northwest corner of PEARL and North Prospects streets, where the VILAS house now stands, afterwards lived Luther MOORE, who carried on his business of harness-making in a brick building west of his dwelling. Arabart FORBES had a store immediately west of this harness-shop, and some time later George MOORE, brother to Luther, conducted a store in a two-story brick building west of FORBES. George MOORE subsequently lived in a large framed house on the site of the present residence of Hon. U. A. WOODBURY. Continuing towards the lake, the next house was the brick dwelling house of Truman SEYMOUR, wheelwright, whose shop was some distance farther south on the same side, near the ravine. On the site of Henry LOOMIS's present dwelling was the framed house in which Luther LOOMIS lived, whose store was just west of his house. Forty or fifty rods north of this store Mr. LOOMIS carried on a distillery, a perfectly respectable business in those days. Harry BRADLEY was some time after this a partner with LOOMIS in the distilling of whiskey. Horace LOOMIS lived next west of the store of Luther LOOMIS, in the same building now occupied by his daughter, Mrs. BROOKS. Farther west was the store formerly owned by Eleazer H. DEMING, in 1827, conducted by Sidney BARLOW. This was a large brick structure, which stood about where Willard street now crosses Pearl. E. H. DEMING's house was the next building west, and was the first one east of SEYMOUR's wheelwright shop. Colonel Ozias BUELL lived a short distance west of SEYMOUR's shop in a fine looking framed house, and carried on a mercantile business west of his house. Across from the old White church, and about on the site of the present residence of L. G. BURNHAM, was the furniture shop of SMITH & PANGBURN, an old, unpainted two-story building, with "the sign of the table," as they advertised.

      Let us now start west from the head of Pearl street and enumerate, as well as possible, the buildings on the south side. The old Green Mountain House was then at the summit of its popularity, under the proprietorship of Eli BARNARD, an inventive man, who was ever trying to invent what would now be called a “Kelly motor." Mrs. FOLLETT, mother of Timothy FOLLETT and of Mrs. E. H. DEMING, lived in the next house, a small one built of brick. The little framed house next west, which stands yet, was occupied by George ROBINSON. Dr. HARMON's drug store and dwelling, which was described in a former page, were next. Then the eye of the visitor fell upon the old landmark, then as now bearing the stains and wrinkles of antiquity, the residence of Phineas LOOMIS, and now of Edward C. LOOMIS, his grandson. The LOOMIS tan-yard was just west of this house. About 1796 or '97 Horace LOOMIS built a tannery just west of the present garden of E. C. LOOMIS, where a series of depressions now indicate the location of the old vats. The tannery building was of stone, two stories and a half in height, with a frontage of about twenty-five feet and a depth of about twenty. A brick currying shop adjoined it on the west, and a wooden extension was added to the rear. Horace LOOMIS operated the tannery from the time that it was erected until 1832, when his son, E. C. LOOMIS, took charge of the business and operated it until about 1872. It was after that used several years for a basket factory, and finally torn down. Somewere “in the sixties" steam-power took the place of the old style of operation.

      Below the tan-yard stood the house in which George P. MARSH, and afterwards President WHEELER, lived at different times. West of Willard street was the building then occupied by Frederick, son and partner of Colonel Ozias BUELL. He died soon after this. The house is now occupied by Edward HUNGERFORD, whose wife is a daughter of Frederick BUELL. Where Mrs. Marcia B_ FOLLETT now lives was then the home and office of Benjamin F. BAILEY. The next house, now occupied by Dr. CARPENTER, was then the residence of William I. SEYMOUR, the hatter, whose shop was still in the building next east of the church grounds, now occupied as a residence. On the southwest corner of Pearl street and Winooski avenue, in the house now occupied by Dr. S. WAGER, lived a Mr. WADSWORTH, which stood immediately east of the residence of Rev. George G. INGERSOL, pastor of the Unitarian Church. There was no other building between that and Church street except the one already mentioned, on the corner.

      Many of the prominent citizens living here during the War of 1812-15 had, passed away by this time, and a few had emigrated to other parts. Elnathan KEYES had removed to New York State. During the year 1813 had died. Samuel HITCHCOCK, Dr. Cassius F. POMEROY, General Ira ALLEN, and William C. HARRINGTON. Dubartis WILLARD and Colonel Stephen PEARL died in 1815 and 1816 respectively. Job REED and Daniel FARRAND passed away in 1825; Captain Gid. KING died in 1826. This year, 1827, was quite fatal too, carrying away Colonel James SAWYER, aged sixty-six years; the brilliant young attorney, Warren LOOMIS, aged thirty-nine years; HARVEY DURKEE, former proprietor of the hotel on the northwest corner of Church and Cherry streets, and others.


THE GLASS FACTORY

      The year 1827 was remarkable for the introduction of the first extensive manufacturing concern in the town, the Champlain Glass Company, of which that pioneer in all kinds of enterprise in Burlington, Dr. John PECK, was president, and Professor James DEAN was treasurer. The erection of the buildings was begun in the fall of 1827, on the northeast corner of Battery street and Smith's Lane, now occupied by the dwelling house of Frederick SMITH. The buildings, numbering about a dozen, covered two acres of ground. John S. FOSTER, of Boston, was the superintendent of the works, and had under his control about 100 hands. In 1834 Frederick SMITH, after an absence of two years, hired the concern for three years, and during that time made the establishment a decided success. The result was that in a few years he bought the property. He took in with him several partners, and conducted the business under the several names of LOOMIS, SMITH & Co., JANES, SMITH & Co., SMITH, WILKINS & LANDON, and SMITH & WILKINS. They manufactured glass for many cities of the West, and had an agent in Chicago for years. In 1850, however, owing to the high prices of fuel, the enterprise was abandoned. This business was the prime cause of the extension of the village to the north. Under the pressure of necessity, the town contracted with Mr. SMITH for the laying out of Battery street, north of Pearl, in 1842, and of Front street, and the several avenues then opened. The greater number of inhabitants of Burlington now live north of Pearl street.


BURLINGTON IN 1850

      During the period intervening between 1827 and 1850 Burlington had suffered many changes, some of which seemed to be adverse to her prosperity and growth. At this time the railroads had but recently been opened, and the event seemed ominous for the future of the town. During the previous years Burlington had attained great importance throughout the northern part of the State by reason of her natural position on the lake. Everything that went from Montreal or New York, or even Boston, to the interior towns was unloaded at Burlington and transhipped to its destination. From the earliest history of the mercantile business of Burlington until that time, it had been the custom of most of the merchants throughout the county, and even as far east as Montpelier, to order their goods of Burlington merchants. All this was changed by the new system of traffic, and the commercial importance of the town, it was feared, was ruined forever. The railroads even discriminated adversely to the best interests of Burlington, and the wholesale houses of Canada, New York and Massachusetts, began to prosper at the expense of this village. Real property depreciated to ruinous prices. For example, when Henry LEAVENWORTH erected in 1847 the block that bears his name, the value of the property was $20,000; in 1860 the same property sold for $5,200. Fortunately the erection of the Pioneer Mechanics' Shops, and the creation of a lumber market here averted the calamity that was dreaded, and introduced a period of unprecedented prosperity, which it may be hoped has but just begun.

      Other changes have taken place. The men that were in their prime a quarter of a century before, had relinquished their activity and bequeathed to their sons the business which they had established. Many, it is true, still lived who were prominent when LaFayette visited the village, but only a few of these had continued in the practice of their vocations. E. H. DEMING died in 1828, at the age of forty-three years; Hon. William BRAYTON died the same year at the age of forty-one years. Among those who had passed away between 1830 and 1850, we may mention the following: Hon. John C. THOMPSON, 1831, aged forty-one years; Benjamin F. BAILEY and Colonel Ozias BUELL, in 1832, aged respectively thirty-six and sixty-three years; Captain Thaddeus TUTTLE in 1836, aged seventy-eight years; John M. ELDREDGE in 1839, aged sixty-three years; John VAN SICKLEN in i840, aged eighty-one years; Hon. Stephen HAIGHT in 1841, aged fifty-eight years; Luther LOOMIS in 1844, aged sixty-three years; Dr. John POMEROY, 1844, aged eighty years; Hon. William A. GRISWOLD, 1846, aged seventy years; and Samuel HICKOK, 1849, aged seventy-five years. Among the more prominent men who had wholly or partly relinquished the active pursuits of life were Hon. Heman ALLEN, Dr. William ATWATER, John HOWARD, E. T. ENGLESBY, Nathan B. HASWELL, Hon. Timothy FOLLETT, and Phineas ATWATER.

      The year 1850 will be remembered as a part of the period of agitation of such political questions as free soil and loco-focoism; when the slavery question was complicating all political calculations. At the beginning of the year Zachary Taylor was President of the United States, and Millard Fillmore succeeded to this position on Mr. Taylor's decease, in July. Southern senators were pushing forward bills for the restitution of fugitive slaves. The schemes for the invasion of Cuba had but recently subsided. The people were not yet quieted in their apprehensions concerning the cholera, which had raged with fearful fatality during the preceding summer throughout France and England, in New Orleans and New York, and most of the principal cities of the country. Even Burlington was visited by this pestilence, and fourteen deaths had occurred here from cholera. Small-pox added its terrors to the ravages of cholera. Burlington had nine cases, though none of them was fatal. The California gold fever (not altogether so dreadful in its effects) was at its height. Notwithstanding all this, however, Burlington continued to grow. Between the years 1840 and 1850 the population of the town increased more than three thousand souls, and during the ten years following 1850, the population increased, but only about 125 persons.

      On the 5th of MARCH, 1850, at the "town room" under the court-house, the following officers were chosen for the year ensuing: C. F. DAVEY, town clerk; Henry B. STACY, Seth MORSE, William Weston, selectmen ; Isaac Sherwood, constable; Alvan FOOTE, treasurer; John B. HOLLENBECK, Samuel B. ISHAM, Bostwick TOWSLEY, listers; John N. POMEROY, Philo DOOLITTLE, Nathan B. HASWELL, auditors; Joseph D. ALLEN, Burrell LANE, John W. PATTRIDGE, fence viewers; Charles ADAMS, grand juror; D. M. VARNEY, sealer of weights and measures; Samuel H. PEASLEE, sealer of leather; Edward PARADY, pound keeper; Charles ADAMS, town agent; D. K. PANGBURN, Nahum Shattuck, DOXEY, William SEYMOUR, sextons; George B. Shaw, Carlos Baxter, Joseph HATCH, trustees of the surplus revenue deposited in Burlington; John K. CONVERSE, H. I. PARKER, and Solon W. BUSH, town superintendents of schools.


BUSINESS INTERESTS IN 1850

      Following is a list of the more prominent business houses of Burlington and their location. To the kind assistance of Samuel HUNTINGTON the writer is greatly indebted for many of the following facts:

      The oldest dry goods establishment was that of Sion E. HOWARD, who occupied the same wooden building on the site of the "Beehive," on Church street, that he did twenty years earlier. North of this store was a garden, and on the corner was the Bank.of Burlington. E. & E. LYMAN had a dry goods and carpet store on the southeast corner of Church and College streets, where A. N. PERCY & Co. now are. The firm of LYMAN, ALLEN & Co. is a lineal descendant from E. & E. LYMAN. I. D. BIXBY conducted a dry goods store in the Strong block; J. H. ROBINSON in the store now occupied by George I. HAGAR; C. F. STANIFORD & Co. in a brick building on Church street, just north from the present store of ROBERTS & PERKINS; Nichol's cash store was on Church street across from the jewelry store of BRINSMAID & HILDRETH; and M. NOYES & Co., at an earlier day at the head of Pearl street, but in 1850 on Water street between the Lake House, then kept by Moses L. HART, and the stone store of WALKER, SMITH & Co. One of the two largest groceries in town was the wholesale store of J. & J. H. PECK & Co., in the PECK building, where WALKER Brothers now are. The other wholesale store was that of WALKER, SMITH & Co., at the south wharf, in the stone store erected by Timothy FOLLETT. S. B. ROCKWELL & Co. were grocers at the "old post-office building," two doors east of the American Hotel. A. S. DEWEY carried on a grocery on the west side of the square; R. LILLIE, on the east side of Champlain street, at the corner of Peru; H. S. MOORE, on the north side of Pearl street, two or three doors below the corner of Prospect, in a building long since torn down; and PIERCE & DAVEY, on College street. The hardware merchants were STRONG, DOOLITTLE & Co., on the east side of the square in the STRONG block; HAGAR & ARTHUR, on the corner east of where George I. HAGAR, son of the senior member of that firm, now carries on the hardware business; and EVARTS & BROWNSON, in the Blodgett building. BELYCA & BROWN dealt chiefly in crockery in the Leavenworth block on College street. The three principal dealers in boots and shoes were E. J. FAY & Co., where ROBERTS & PERKINS now are; L. A. EDGELL, on the site of the Y. M. C. A. rooms on Church street; and R. BATCHELDER, in the building now occupied by the hardware store of RIPLEY & HOLTON. Merchant tailors were M. G. RATHBUN & Co. (C. F. WARD), on the north side of the square, in what is now the office of E. W. PECK; Daniel KERN, just north of the present store of F. W. BURRITT, on Church street; James MITCHELL, in the building now occupied by the POWELL Manufacturing Company, on College street; and Joel H. DIX, on Church street. T. A. PECK carried on a drug store one door west of George I. HAGAR's, on the north side of the square.

      There were three book stores in the place, that of Samuel HUNTINGTON, in the same room which he now occupies; of E. SMITH & Co., successors to G. B. EDWARDS, where the Merchants' Bank now is; and of C. GOODRICH, in the Leavenworth block. BRINSMAID & Brothers were proprietors of the principal jewelry store, about on the site of the Chinese laundry, on the west side of Church street. J. V. RANDALL also dealt in jewelry, and repaired watches and clocks in a little apartment set off in the northeast corner of Mr. HUNTINGTON's store. On the west side of the square, just north of the present burnt district, was the furniture store of N. PARKER. In addition to these establishments were the general stores of Harry BRADLEY, on the corner next west of the Medical College, and his house, on the site of that building; George PETERSON, on the southwest corner of College and St. Paul streets; G. S. WARNER, in the building on Church street now occupied by H. E. ADAMS & Son, jewelers; and CATLIN & SPEAR, opposite the Lake House, on Water street. At this time Salmon WIRES was the one prominent insurance agent in town, in the office now occupied by General T. S. PECK. He advertised himself as agent for the Northwestern Insurance Company. Two express companies had offices here, VIRGIL & RICE, predecessors of the National Express Company, having their office in the same building now occupied by the latter company, and Bigelow's Boston & Burlington Daily Express, represented by S. M. POPE, on the same side of the square.

      Among the manufacturing interests, great and small, may be mentioned the Burlington foundry, H. WHEELER, proprietor, on the west side of Water street, at the foot of Main; RUSSELL & SPAULDING, wagon manufacturers, just south of the site of the VAN NESS house, and John K. GRAY, the same, on the southwest corner of Champlain and King streets; manufacturers of furniture, S. NICHOLS, on the west side of Center street, then Catlin's Lane; Charles L. NELSON, on St. Paul street, near the corner of Pearl, a few doors north of the Catholic Church; Jacob GREEN was an undertaker on College street, on the site of the grocery store of Dolan Brothers; S. & W. PATTEE were builders, the first building east of the Catholic school on Cherry street; J. S. MUNSON made pianos on the corner of Champlain and King streets, in the building now occupied as a dwelling house by S. BEACH; Warren HATCH, gun manufacturer, had his office one door south of the jail; S. S. SKINNER carried on the manufacture of saddles and harnesses on College street, a few yards east of the present Free Press office; Samuel H. PEASLEE occupied the same building in which we found him in 1827, on the site of the store now occupied by James B. SCULLY & Co.; R. D. CORNWALL was a saddler on the east side of Church street, opposite the present Y. M. C. A. rooms, and J. H. WALTON was what may be termed a saddler itinerant. BALLARD & Brothers carried on the pottery on Pearl street, now in the hands of Frank WOODWORTH ; C. S. ADKINS was a book-binder, occupying the site of the confectionery of KENT & Brother, on Church street; E. C. LOOMIS manufactured leather extensively, in the old leather store west of his present residence on Pearl street, his competitors being JOHONOTT & BLANCHARD, on the west side of Church street, near Pearl; J. A. KINSMAN made cigars on Church street, about where FLETCHER & BOYNTON's shoe store is; and Moody HASKELL manufactured clocks in the same building now occupied by BELROSE & GRANT. The largest tin shop was that of James A. SHEDD & Co., which occupied the site of Vincent's drug store.


ATTORNEYS AND PHYSICIANS IN 1850

      At this period the legal fraternity was ably represented in Burlington, as it has always been. They may be enumerated as follows, though a few of those named were not in active practice.

      Alvan FOOTE had his office at his house, the first building above the site of the Medical College; Timothy FOLLETT lived in the building now occupied by Dr. NICHOLS, which he built; John N. POMEROY lived on the site of the post office building, and of the old cottage of his uncle, Seth POMEROY; Asahel PECK, a former partner of A. W. HYDE, had his office on Main street, one door west of the present Clipper office; W. W. PECK's office was on the second floor of the PECK block; Henry LEAVENWORTH's office was on the second floor of the building now occupied by FERGUSON & ADSIT, on College street; Lyman CUMMINGS practiced over the store of Samuel HUNTINGTON; S. M. Parsons, in the office with Asahel PECK; George B. SHAW, over the Commercial Bank; William WESTON, on the second floor of the STRONG block; Wyllys LYMAN, on the second floor of the PECK block; L. E. CHITTENDEN, over the Commercial Bank; Salmon WIRES, in the office now occupied by General T. S. PECK; Charles D. KASSON, on the second floor of the PECK block; L. B. ENGLESBY, in the upper story of the building now occupied as a shirt factory; Charles ADAMS, then retired from practice and. living on a farm near Rock Point, with his son Sullivan; Charles RUSSELL, one door east of the residence of Henry LOOMIS, on Pearl street; Torrey E. WALES, over JOHONOTT & BLANCHARD's leather store, at the head of Church street; M. L. BENNETT, at the corner of Pine and Bank streets. Other attorneys who though already prominent were hardly settled permanently in any office, were David A. SMALLEY, Levi UNDERWOOD, E. J. PHELPS, C. F. DAVEY and E. A. STANSBURY.

      The practicing physicians were William ATWATER, who lived and practiced on the corner of St. Paul and Cherry streets, opposite the Catholic Cathedral; Horace HATCH, at the head of Bank street, in the building now occupied by G. S. BLODGETT; Nathan WARD, in a little old building on the northeast corner of Main and Church streets, on the site of E. P. SHAW's clothing store; Thomas CHAMBERLAIN, at the corner of Maple and St. Paul streets; Leonard MARSH, at the extreme southwest corner of Prospect street and College Green; A. S. PITKIN, at the corner of George and Pearl streets; and Dr. BARBER, on Main street, in the house now occupied by Hon. Daniel ROBERTS.

      The postmaster was Luther P. BLODGETT, and the office in the present shirt factory building.

      Among the gentlemen who have been of great service to the editor in the compilation of the early descriptions of Burlington are Captain Dan LYON, John, B. HOLLENBECK, Captain Henry MAYO, Frederick W. SMITH and E. C. LOOMIS; the eldest of them, judge HOLLENBECK, is the oldest man in Burlington. He was born on land now embraced within the limits of the town of Richmond, but originally a part of Jericho, on the 11th of February, 1792, and is consequently at the present writing more than ninety-four years of age. He resided at his birth-place until 1807, when he removed to Charlotte with his father, and remained there until his removal to Burlington, in 1824. He was, however, a volunteer from Burlington in the War of 1812, and took an active part in the engagement on land at the battle of Plattsburgh. Notwithstanding his extreme age and the infirmity super induced by an injury recently disabling his hip, he has a clear and distinct recollection of the events of that memorable battle and of the whole war; he was personally acquainted with Commodore MacDONOUGH, whom he first saw while that officer was constructing his fleet at Vergennes. He remembers the execution of DEAN, which is described briefly in a note in the chapter relating to the Bench and Bar, and, what is of greater interest, he affirms a distinct recollection of having seen two men in the pillory near the old pine tree whipping-post on the Court-House Square in 1808, one receiving thirty-nine stripes for blasphemy, and the other a proportionate number for counterfeiting money.

      Captain Dan LYON was born in the town of Shelburne, Vt., on the 10th of May, 1803. He received a common school education, and when his father, Timothy, died of the epidemic of 1813, in March of that year, he went to live with his uncle, Robert WHITE, of Shelburne Harbor, and afterwards in Burlington village. He served in .various capacities on a sailing vessel until 1825, when he became captain of the steamer General Green. He remained on this steamer until 1835, when he became captain of the Phenix, the trip extending the entire length of the lake. From 1836 to 1839 he commanded the Winooski, of the same line, and at the latter date began to command the new (500 ton) steamer Whitehall, which he retained for five years. He then left the lake permanently and retired to his present residence, where he has ever since remained, with the exception of two years as proprietor of a hotel in Detroit, Mich. (1855-56), and about a year in partnership with Daniel HOWARD in charge of a hotel in New York city. He has had an interest in a number of Burlington enterprises, notably the old Commercial Bank, of which he was director eight years and president four. He has been twice married, the first time to Elvirah H. LYMAN, who died in 1837, and the second time to Mary G. GRANT, of New Hampshire, who is still living. They have one daughter, an only child, Lucia E., wife of George I. HAGAR. In accuracy and grasp of detail Captain LYON's memory is most remarkable, and he has the ability to tell what he knows in an interesting manner.

      Nathaniel MAYO, father of Captain HENRY MAYO, came from Orwell, Vt., to Burlington in February, 1812, and with his brother successfully undertook to do all the baking for the American forces stationed at Burlington during the War of 1812. He died about 1864. He had relinquished the mercantile business in 1818, and directed his attention to farming. His brother Henry was here some time before him, and was by trade a hatter, in company with one Hosea CATLIN, with a shop on Pearl street near the present Winooski avenue. In 1813, as has been stated, he went in with Nathaniel. Captain HENRY MAYO was born at Orwell, Vt., on the 15th of December, 1802, and came to Burlington with his father, Nathaniel. He began steamboating in 1825, as steward of the Phenix, retaining that position until 1828. He commanded the Congress from 1832 to 1834 inclusive, and from 1847 to 1849 inclusive, served as clerk of the Burlington. Nearly all the time from 1852 until 1883 he was captain of either the Sherman, Montreal, or Williams. He was married on the 18th of October, 1837, to Elizabeth ELDREDGE, of Bridport, Vt. They have nine children, all living.

      Frederick SMITH was born in Williston on the 3d of June, 1812. He lived there until the fall of 1812, receiving a common school education in his native town. He then entered the employment of Arabart FORBES, a merchant at the head of PEARL street, in Burlington, with whom he remained nearly a year. He first became connected with the glass factory in 1827, as office boy, and, with the exception of two years, remained with it until it wound up. He was proprietor from 1834. On the 30th of October, 1836, he married Mary Curtiss FOOTE, of St. Albans. She died in the spring of 1883, three only of her eight children surviving her. Frederick SMITH is a grandson of Caleb SMITH, a prominent early settler in both Shelburne and Williston.

      Edward C. LOOMIS, son of Horace LOOMIS, was born in Burlington on the 7th of August, 1810; was married on the 2d of August, 1832, to Serotia, daughter of Solomon and Sarah WEATHERBY, and passed his business career in the tannery which his father operated before him. Mr. and Mrs. LOOMIS have occupied their present dwelling house ever since their marriage -- a period of more than half a century.