XX indexVermont  





 "One of the county towns. Situated between the Green Mountains on the east, and Equinox Mountain on the west. The latter is 3,706 feet above the sea. There are two neat villages in this valley; the county buildings are in the south village.  The scenery here is very beautiful.  The town is watered by the Battenkill and its branches, and affords good mill sites. 

     "The soil along the water courses is good, but the principal part of the town is better for grazing than for tillage. Here are large quarries of beautiful marble, some manufactures, and a curious cavern. 

      "The settlement of Manchester was commenced in 1764 by Samuel Rose and others, from Dutchess County, NY."

Gazetteer of Vermont, Hayward, 1849.


      With the possible exception of the town of Bennington, there is no locality within the whole county that is more rich with historic events, or that has borne a more prominent part in the county's affairs than the township of Manchester. But before entering upon a narrative of the events of this town a brief description of its geographical situation and of its natural physical characteristics will be proper.

      The town of Manchester is in latitude 43° 10', and longitude 40° and 1'. In Bennington county it occupies a central location in the northern part; and for this reason is the half shire town in the north part, or one of the two seats of justice for the county.

      The town is bounded on the north by the town of Dorset, on the east by Winhall, south by Sunderland, and west by Sandgate. In both length and breadth it measures six miles, therefore it has an area of thirty-six square miles.


      On the east and west boundaries extend the ranges of mountains, the Green and Taconic mountains, as they are respectively known, although the latter is a parallel auxiliary chain, a part of the former range. That portion of the Taconic chain that separates the towns of Manchester and Sandgate is known as Mount Equinox, and towers hundreds of feet above its fellows in this part of the State. At the highest point Equinox attains an elevation of more than three thousand feet above the porch of the Colburn House, at Manchester Center, and more than thirty- eight hundred feet above tide water.

      From the summit of Mount Equinox the visitor obtains a view of the surrounding country as remarkable as it is attractive; and from a given position there can be discerned no less than a score and a half of villages in the States of New York and Vermont. The famous "Rocking Stone" and the “Devil’s Wagon Road" and "Table Rock" are among the striking natural characteristics of Equinox. The first named is a massive bowlder, seventeen feet long, eight feet wide, and five feet in thickness, and is so nicely poised upon its foundation as to rock or sway under the pressure of the hand. The estimated weight of this huge store is about thirty-five tons.

      The general range of the Green Mountains, although of less altitude, presents to the eye a view no less attractive; and while the woodman's ax has stripped the high hills of many of the taller and more valuable forest trees, still an abundance remains, and the wild, rural beauty is undisturbed.

      On the north of the town and in Dorset there stands boldly in view the tall peak called "Mount Eolus," but by the townsfolk usually designated as "Dorset Hill." From the southern slope of this hill, and it extends into Manchester, is presented a most beautiful panorama of nature; the whole valley of the Battenkill River in the town is unfolded to sight. And here, in this fertile valley, and between the high mountain ranges on the east and west sides, is situated the improved portion of the town of Manchester with its three villages-Manchester, Manchester Centre, and Manchester Depot.

      The Battenkill River, the largest waterway of the town, flows a generally southwest course along the base and on the west side of the Green Mountains, across the town, passes into Sunderland on the south, crosses Arlington, thence into Washington county, New York State, and discharges its water into the Hudson in the county last named. The chief tributaries of the Battenkill in Manchester are Stony Brook, Bourne Brook, Lye Brook, Mill Brook, and the West Branch, with other and smaller streams.

      The town of Manchester, the events of which it is the purpose of this chapter to narrate, was brought into existence by a charter granted by his excellency, Benning WENTWORTH, governor of the province of New Hampshire, in the year 1761; and inasmuch as this document has never appeared in any of the historical works heretofore published, it is thought advisable to present the same in these pages. And as that charter made provision for the government of the town its reproduction may be of value in explaining the performance of subsequent acts on the part of the proprietors and their successors. The charter is as follows:


“George the Third, By the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.

     "To all to whom these presents shall come: Greeting. Know ye that we, of our special grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, for the due encouragement of settling a new plantation within our said province, by and with the advice of our trusty and well-beloved Benning WENTWORTH, esq., our governor and commander-in-chief of our said province of New Hampshire, in New England, and of our council of our said province: Have, upon the conditions and reservations hereinafter made, given and granted, and by these presents our heirs and successors do give and grant, in equal shares, unto our loving subjects, inhabitants of our said province of New Hampshire, and our other governments, and to their heirs and assigns forever, whose names are entered on this grant* to be divided to and amongst them into seventy equal shares: All that tract or parcel of land situate, lying and being within our said province of New Hampshire, containing by admeasurement twenty-three thousand and forty acres; which tract is to contain six miles square and no more; out of which an allowance is to be made for highways and unimprovable lands by rocks, ponds, mountains and rivers, one thousand and forty acres free, according to a plan and survey thereof made by our said governor's order, and returned into the secretary's office and hereunto (to the grant) annexed ; butted and bounded as follows, viz.: At the northeast corner of Arlington, from thence due north by Sandgate, six miles to the northeast corner thereof; from thence due east six miles; from thence due south six miles to the northeast corner of Sunderland; from thence due west by Sunderland aforesaid; being the bounds began at _____; and that the same be, and hereby is, incorporated into a township by the name of Manchester. And the inhabitants that do and shall hereafter inhabit the said township, are hereby declared to be enfranchised with and entitled to all and every the privileges and immunities that other townships in our province by law exercise and enjoy.

     "And further, that the said town, as soon is there shall be fifteen families resident and settled thereon, shall have the liberty of holding two fairs, one of which shall be held on the ______ and the other on the ______, annually; which fairs are not to continue longer than the respective ______, following the said ______; and that as soon as the said town shall consist of fifty families a market may be opened, and kept one or more days in each week, as may be thought most advantageous to the inhabitants. Also, that the first meeting for the choice of town officers, agreeable to the laws of our said province, shall be held on the first Tuesday of October next; which said meeting shall be notified by Ephraim COWEN, who is hereby also appointed the moderator of the said first meeting, which he is to notify and govern agreeable to the laws and customs of our said province. And that the annual meeting forever hereafter for the choice of such officers for said town shall be on the second Tuesday of March, annually.

     "To have and to hold the said tract of land as above expressed, together with all privileges and appurtenances to them and to their respective heirs and assigns forever, upon the following conditions, viz.:

     "I. That every grantee, his heirs and assigns, shall plant and cultivate five acres of land, within the term of five years, for every fifty acres contained in his or their share or proportion of land in said township, and continue to improve and settle the same by additional cultivation on penalty of the forfeiture of his grant or share in the said township, and of its reverting to us, our heirs and successors to be by us or them regranted to such of our subjects as shall effectually settle and cultivate the same.

     "II. That all white and other pine trees within said township fit for making our royal navy be carefully preserved for that use, and that none be cut or felled without our special license for so doing first had and obtained, upon the penalty of the forfeiture of the right of such grantee, his heirs and assigns, to us, our heirs and successors, as well as being subject to the penalty of any act or acts of Parliament that now are or shall hereafter be enacted.

     "III. That before any division of the land be made to and among the grantees, a tract of land as near the center of the township as the land will admit of, shall be reserved and marked out for town lots, one of which shall be allotted to each grantee of the contents of one acre.

     "IV. Yielding and paying to us, our heirs and successors, for the space of ten years, to be computed from the date hereof, the rent of one ear of Indian corn only, on the twenty fifth day of December, annually, if lawly demanded; the first payment to be made on the twenty-fifth day of December, 1762.

     "V. Every proprietor, settler or inhabitant shall yield and pay unto us, our heirs and successors, yearly, and every year forever from and after the expiration of ten years from the above said twenty-fifth day of December, namely: On the twenty-fifth day of December, which will be in the year of our Lord 1772, one shilling, proclamation money for every hundred acres he so owns, settles or possesses, and so in proportion for a greater or less tract of the said land ; which money shall be paid by the respective persons above said, their heirs or assigns, in our council chamber, in Portsmouth, or to such officer or officers as shall be appointed to receive the same; and this shall be in lieu of all other rents and services whatsoever.

                    “In testimony whereof we have caused the seal of our said province to be hereunto affixed. Witness, Benning WENTWORTH, esq., our governor and commander in-chief of our said province, the 11th day of August, in the year of our Lord, 1761, and in the first year of our reign.

"By his excellency's command, B. WENTWORTH.
  with advice of council,

[* Inasmuch as the original grantees under this charter did not become residents of the township granted them, their names are omitted from this record.]
      The grant of the township tract also contains the names of the grantees, some sixty-four in number; and is followed by certain reservations of land: "His Excellency, Benning WENTWORTH, esq., one tract of land to contain five hundred acres, as marked `B. W.' on the plan; which to be accounted two of the within shares, one whole for the incorporated society for propagating the Gospel in foreign parts; one share for a glebe for the Church of England as by law established; one share for the first settled minister of the Gospel; one share for the benefit of a school in said town."

      This, then, was the formidable document, with all conditions, penalties, reservations and restrictions, by which the town of Manchester was brought into existence. The grant assumes or infers that there might have been at that time residents or settlers already on the land; but if such had been the case no record or tradition exists as to who they were, and had there been, supposing the grant to have been wholly lawful and authorized, such settlers held no valid title to the soil they occupied.

      The tract set apart and reserved by his excellency, the governor, was located in the extreme northwest corner of the township, at the point where the latter touches Sandgate, Rupert and Dorset. This locality is unimproved to this day, and its selection by the worthy governor shows him to have been wholly fair in the matter of choice or altogether unacquainted with the topography of the region.

      The grant of the town to the beneficiaries therein named was made, it is believed, as a reward for political fealty, but it is not thought the same was made with the expectation that the grantees would themselves become actual settlers and occupants. This lot fell to a party of sturdy inhabitants of Duchess county, New York State, who, upon a pilgrimage in search for a future location, saw from the vicinity of Salem, in Washington county, the high mountains to the east, and slowly traveling from hill to hill at last reached the peaks of the ranges that run at either side of the beautiful valley of the Battenkill. They were satisfied with the locality, and ascertaining that the same had recently been granted by the governor of New Hampshire, and designated as Manchester, set about purchasing the proprietors' rights and acquiring title to themselves. Other persons also made purchases, so that within the brief space of less than four years more than three-fourths of the original proprietors' rights were disposed of to other parties. But whether the conditions of the charter or grant of the townships were ever enforced as against these purchasers of the proprietors' lands there stands no record. The fact, however, of subsequent conflicting claims of title to the soil between the governments of New York and New Hampshire, and the independent attitude maintained by the settlers, released them from obedience to or the satisfaction of the conditions imposed by the original grant.


      The first meeting of the proprietors of which there exists a record, was held at the house of Michael HOPKINS, in Amenia, Duchess county, on the 14th of February, 1764, at which time Samuel ROSE was chosen moderator, and Jonathan ORMSBY, clerk. It was then decided to have the township surveyed and laid out in lots of one hundred acres each. In May following, the survey being completed sufficiently for the purpose of the first allotment, the proprietors' committee visited the town and made the division in accordance with the survey, assigning, by lot, sixty-eight parcels of one hundred acres each. The land embraced by this division included the portion most easily to be improved between the mountains, and extending almost the entire distance between the north and south bounds of the township. The second division was agreed upon in 1766, the third in 1771, the fourth in 1773 but not finally carried out until 1784, the fifth in 1783, the sixth in 1786, and the seventh and final division in the year 1802.

      At a meeting of the proprietors held in December, 1764, it was decided that a road should be laid out through the town, under the direction of Jeremiah FRENCH and Gideon ORMSBY. This was a north and south thoroughfare, and afterward became known as the "main road." It was constructed in part, at least, during the year 1765.


      The town of Manchester was organized on the second Tuesday of March, 1766. Benjamin JOHNS was chosen moderator, Stephen MEAD, clerk, Benjamin PURDY, treasurer, and Samuel SOPER, constable. The records of the early officers of the town have become so much worn and mutilated as to be unreliable, and it is questionable whether the mention for the first few years prior to 1771 can be fully relied upon; nevertheless, in order that the names of those who were pioneers in the town may be provided, it is thought best that the officers be recorded, although the year of their incumbency may not be given.

      At another election at which Benjamin JOHNS was moderator, and Jeremiah FRENCH clerk, Thomas SOPER was voted treasurer, Moses SOPER and Gideon ORMSBY, assessors, Benjamin PURDY, constable, Benjamin JOHNS, Gideon ORMSBY and Thomas SOPER, road commissioners. Again, William MARSH was moderator, Jeremiah FRENCH clerk, Martin POWELL treasurer, Benjamin PURDY, Eliakim Weller and BULLESS selectmen, and Stephen MEAD, constable. In 1768 Benjamin JOHNS was moderator, and Jeremiah FRENCH town clerk and treasurer; selectmen, Timothy MEAD and Benjamin PURDY; constable, Jacob ODELL. A saw-mill was in operation in the town in this year. In 1769 William EMES was chosen moderator, Jeremiah FRENCH, town clerk, Martin POWELL, treasurer, Eliakim WELLER, Benjamin PURDY and Daniel JOHNS, selectmen; Jeremiah WHELPLEY constable, John ROBERTS and Jeremiah FRENCH, pathmasters for the main road, and Moses SOPER and Daniel JOHNS for the east road ; James MEAD and Benjamin PURDY committee on roads.

      The first settlement in Manchester was made in the summer or fall of 1764, in that part of the town now known as the Purdy District. The first house was built by Samuel ROSE, on the premises now occupied by John S. PETTEBONE, (now by John J. PETTEBONE). It is believed the houses built in 1764 [Another authority says that the first frame house was built in 1769], were permanently occupied the same Year, but possibly the settlers, after completing their buildings, returned to Amenia for the winter, and first brought their families to the township in the spring of 1765."Further the address aptly and truthfully continues: "Of the precise time of their arrival, of the number of families that came together, of the circumstances which attended their journey and settlement, there is no record or tradition."


      Moderator, William MARSH; town clerk, Jeremiah FRENCH; treasurer, Martin POWEL; selectmen. Thomas FRENCH, Martin POWEL, and Eliakim WELLER; constable, Stephen MEAD; pathmasters (both districts), Martin POWELL, Samuel ROSE, Nathan WHELPLEY, and Moses SOPER; committee on roads, William MARSH and John ROBERTS; fence viewers, Benjamin PURDY and Daniel BECKWITH; pound-keeper, Jeremiah FRENCH. At a meeting, held in April, 1781, Thomas FRENCH, William ROBERTS and Pelatiah SOPER were chosen a committee "to consult on some method to secure our land under the grant from New Hampshire."

[This record does not give the names of all township officers for each year; only those that held the leading positions.]

     1772 -- Moderator, William ROBERTS; town clerk, Jeremiah FRENCH; treasurer, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Pelatiah SOPER and Martin POWEL; constable, Nathan WHELPLEY; road commissioners, John ROBERTS, William MARSH and Samuel ROSE, jr.; pathmasters, Benjamin PURDY, Martin POWEL, John SOPER and Samuel SUTHERLAND; fence viewers, Samuel ROSE, Benjamin PURDY, John ROBERTS and Daniel BECKWITH. At this meeting it was "voted that hogs shall run free upon the common with good sufficient yokes;" also "that there shall be 'a pound built, and William MARSH be pound-keeper."

     1773 -- Meeting held at William MARSH's house. Moderator, Samuel ROSE; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Jeremiah FRENCH, Nathan WHELPLEY and Benjamin PURDY; treasurer, William MARSH; constable, Stephen SMITH; road commissioners, William MARSH, Jeremiah FRENCH and John ROBERTS; pathmasters, William MARSH, John ROBERTS, Samuel ROSE, jr., Benjamin MC INTYRE and Moses SOPER. In September the freemen voted "that we will not pursue the getting the jurisdiction back to New Hampshire at the present."

     1774 -- Freemen's meeting at Eliakim WELLER's house. Moderator, Samuel ROSE; clerk, Martin POWELL; selectmen, Timothy MEAD, Gideon WARREN and Eliakim WELLER; treasurer, William MARSH; constable, Jeremiah FRENCH; road committee, William MARSH, Jeremiah FRENCH and John ROBERTS; pathmasters, south district, Gideon WARREN; middle district, John ROBERTS; north district, Thomas Bull; northeast district, Timothy MEAD; southeast district, John SOPER. At this meeting it was voted “that we lay a petition before the General Assembly at New York to have our charter privileges confirmed according to our grant; and that William MARSH, Ebenezer BRISTOL, Martin POWEL and Samuel ROSE, jr.; make the petition."

     1775 -- At Martin POWEL's house, moderator, Samuel ROSE; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Timothy MEAD, Gideon WARREN and Eliakim WELLER; treasurer, William MARSH; constable, Jeremiah FRENCH; road committee, William MARSH, Jeremiah FRENCH and John ROBERTS; pathmasters, Benjamin PURDY, south; John ROBERTS, middle; Benjamin HAMMOND, north; Jeremiah WHELPLEY, northeast; Stephen SOPER, southeast; Daniel JOHNS, on road from his house to Dorset line, and Daniel ALLEN from his house to Winhall line. "Voted, that we do not think proper to pay a certain note given to James BRECKENRIDGE by William ROBERTS and Martin POWEL, at Arlington, to enable him to hire money at Portsmouth; said ROBERTS and POWEL being a committee at that time for said Manchester; and said BRECKENRIDGE never hired said money as proposed."

     1776 -- Moderator, Joseph LOCKWOOD; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Nathan WHELPLEY, Benjamin PURDY, sr., and Stephen SOPER; treasurer, John ROBERTS.; constable, Seth KEYLER; road committee, John ROBERTS, Martin POWEL and Samuel ROSE, jr.; pathmasters, Joseph LOCKWOOD, John ROBERTS, Ebenzer BRISTOL, Philip MEAD, Timothy MEAD, sr., Daniel JOHNS and Seth ALLEN. "Voted, that Joseph LOCKWOOD, Gideon ORMSBY, Daniel BEARDSLEY, and Martin POWEL be a committee to act with the other committees upon the New Hampshire Grants with regard to the title of our land." "Voted, that Samuel ROSE, sr., William MARSH and Eliakim WELLER be continued a committee of correspondence with the other committees of Charlotte county' for the ensuing year." At a freemen's meeting held February 17, 1777, at the house of Christopher ROBERTS, it was voted, "That William MARSH and Martin POWEL be chosen delegates to the convention at Dorset. Also voted that it is not best at present to raise a sum of money for a bounty for soldiers on the New Hampshire Grants."

     1777 -- Moderator, Nathan SMITH; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Joseph BAKER, Gideon BARBER and Timothy MEAD; treasurer, Gideon ORMSBY; constable, Seth KEELER; road commissioners, John SMITH, Captain Nathan SMITH and Thomas BARNEY; committee of safety, Martin POWEL, Gideon ORMSBY, Thomas BULL, Stephen WASHBURN and Elisha TRACY. To this committee of safety were added in November, 1777, the names of Thomas BARNEY, Felix POWEL and Jeremiah WHELPLEY.

     1778 -- At the annual meeting officers were chosen as follows : Moderator, Nathan WHELPLEY; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, John SMITH, Nathan WHELPLEY, Timothy MEAD; treasurer, Gideon ORMSBY; constable, Jonathan SEXTON; road commissioners, John SMITH, Thomas BARNEY, Nathan SMITH; committee of safety, Martin POWEL, Stephen WASHBURNE, Gideon ORMSBY, Thomas BARNEY, Jeremiah WHELPLEY, Thomas Bull, Robert LOGGAN.

      On the 9th of April, 1778, was held a meeting of the freemen, agreeable to a resolution of the General Assembly of the State, at which time the officers chosen at the last preceding election were continued in office for the remainder of their term. This action was necessitated from the fact that during the year 1777 Vermont, through her Assembly, had declared her independence as a State, although it was several years afterward that the National Congress ratified that action and received Vermont into the Union of States. The acts of Assembly made provision for other town officers beside those formerly chosen, and at this meeting they were selected as follows: Listers, Martin POWEL, Gideon ORMSBY; grand jury, Thomas BARNEY, Thomas BULL, Timothy MEAD; tithingmen, Jeremiah WHELPLEY, Gideon ORMSBY, John SMITH; additional selectmen, Benjamin PURDY and Nathaniel BOORN. "Voted to offer a bounty for nine men to guard the frontier to the northward; and that `Lieut.' Gideon ORMSBY and Martin POWEL be assessors to make a rate to raise $1,450; and that Christopher ROBERTS and Robert LOGGAN be collectors to gather said rate."

      At a meeting held at the house of Anna WELLER, in 1778, the following officers were chosen: Moderator, Captain Nathan SMITH; clerk, Thaddeus HARRIS; representatives to General Assembly, Captain Gideon ORMSBY and Stephen WASHBURNE. At another meeting held in August, 1778, Martin POWEL was chosen justice of the peace. Captain Jesse SAWYER was moderator of the meeting.

      On the 8th of December following a meeting was held at which Major Jeremiah CLARK of Shaftsbury, Captain Daniel SMITH and Moses ROBINSON of Rupert, were appointed a committee to select a place for a meeting-house; said house to be thirty feet square. At this meeting it was voted that Thomas BARNEY, John SMITH and Nathaniel BOORN be a committee to build the meetinghouse.

     1779 -- Meeting held at Anna WELLER's. Moderator, Nathan WHELPLEY; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Benjamin PURDY, John SMITH, Thomas BARNEY, Jeremiah WHELPLEY, Nathaniel BOORN; treasurer, Captain Gideon ORMSBY; surveyors of highways, Daniel PURDY, Christopher ROBERTS, Benjamin HAMMOND, Arthur BOSTWICK, Samuel BEMAN, Stephen SMITH, Philip MEAD, Benjamin RULING; listers, Martin POWEL, Captain Gideon ORMSBY, Arthur BOSTWICK; leather sealers, Martin POWEL and Nathan COLLINS; collector and constable, Jonathan SAXTON; grand jury, Dr. John PAGE, Gideon BARBER, Captain Thomas BULL.

      At a meeting held June 14 it was voted to build a meeting-house forty by thirty-six feet and two stories high, as near Christopher ROBERT's houses "as the ground and circumstances will admit." The building committee were Nathaniel BOORN, Lieutenant Thaddeus MUNSON, Captain Zadoc EVEREST, Captain Stephen PEARL and Captain Thomas BULL. In September, 1779, Martin POWEL and Captain Gideon ORMSBY were chosen representatives to the General Assembly.

      In January, 1780, the freemen voted to raise one thousand pounds to supply the town treasury; and the selectmen were authorized to draw upon the fund thus created for the purpose of sustaining the militia upon the "northern frontier."

     1780 -- Annual spring election. Moderator, William HINE; clerk, Martin 'POWEL; selectmen, Thomas BARNEY, John SMITH, Nathan BOORN, Arthur BOSTWICK, Samuel PETTEBONE; treasurer, Captain Gideon ORMSBY; constables, Jeremiah WHELPLEY, Thaddeus MUNSON; listers, Captain Gideon ORMSBY, Martin -POWEL, Lieutenant Arthur BOSTWICK, Jonathan SAXTON, Captain Thomas BULL, Nathaniel COLLINS; grand juror, William HINE. At the fall election Gideon ORMSBY and Martin POWEL were chosen representatives to the General Assembly.

      On the 14th of September, 1780, Captain Silas GOODRICH, Captain David LEE, Dr. Lewis BEEBE, Captain Thomas BARNEY and William HINE were chosen a committee to prepare a remonstrance to lay before the General Assembly relative to the shire towns in the county. The committee was directed to send a circular letter to the northern towns of the county to instruct their representatives relative to a certain grant made to the town of Bennington for building a court-house and jail. (This latter part of the resolution was subsequently rescinded).

      At a meeting held February 19, 1781, Captain Silas GOODRICH and Dr. Lewis BEEBE were appointed a committee to prepare a vote (resolution) relative to paying militiamen that had turned out on alarms. It was as follows:

Resolved, That each soldier who turned out in the last three alarms be entitled to receive three shillings per day during the time they were in actual service; and officers in the same proportion; and for horse service at two pence per mile," etc.
     1781 -- Meeting at Martin POWEL's. Moderator, Major Gideon ORMSBY; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Arthur BOSTWICK, Nathaniel BOORN, William HINE, Timothy BLISS, Captain Silas GOODRICH; treasurer, Major Gideon ORMSBY; listers, Captain Thomas BARNEY, Martin POWEL, Captain Thomas BULL, Jonathan SAXTON, Nathaniel BOORN; grand juror, Major Gideon ORMSBY.

      Fall election, 1781 -- Representatives, Martin POWEL and Dr. Lewis BEEBE.

     1782 -- Town election: Moderator, William HINE; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, William HINE, Arthur BOSTWICK, Jared MUNSON, Captain Thomas BULL, Timothy MEAD; treasurer, Gideon ORMSBY; first constable, David STAUNTON; second constable, Robert LOGGAN; listers, Israel BOSTWICK, Enoch WOODBRIDGE, Timothy PEARL, John WHITE, Andrew RICHARDSON; grand jurors, Nathan RICHARDSON and Timothy BLISS; Christopher ROBERTS was chosen brander of horses; also to keep the key of the pound. In this year it was voted to raise two hundred and fifty pounds "in hard money and produce" for the purpose of raising ten men for service. At the fall election Gideon ORMSBY and Thomas BULL were chosen representatives.

      In the spring election of 1783 Jonathan BRACE was chosen moderator; Martin POWEL, clerk; Timothy BLISS. Thomas BULL and George SEXTON, selectmen; Major Gideon ORMSBY, treasurer; listers, Andrew RICHARDSON, John WHITE, John SMITH, Barnabas HATCH and Martin POWEL; grand jurors, Joseph DIXON and Jeremiah WAIT. During the fall of this same year Major Gideon ORMSBY and Timothy BLISS were chosen representatives to the General Assembly. The town this year was divided into five school districts.

     1784 -- Moderator, George SEXTON; clerk, Robert LOGGAN; selectmen, Arthur BOSTWICK, George SEXTON, Joel ROSS; treasurer, Jared MUNSON; constable, Robert LOGGAN; listers, Timothy MEAD, jr., John AIKEN, Reuben PURDY, Samuel FRENCH, jr., Nathaniel BOORN ; grand juror, Daniel JONES.

     1785 -- Moderator, Jonathan BRACE; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, John WHITE, John SMITH, Timothy MEAD, jr.; treasurer, Jared MUNSON; constable, Robert LOGGAN; listers, Captain Thomas BULL, Jonathan AIKIN, Dr. William GOULD, Captain Thomas BARNEY and Joseph DIXON; representative, Major Gideon ORMSBY.

     1786 -- Moderator, Timothy BLISS; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Gideon ORMSBY, Timothy MEAD, jr., Major Nathan SMITH; treasurer, Jared MUNSON; constable, Thaddeus MUNSON; listers, Timothy BLISS, John SMITH, Daniel PURDY, Truman POWEL, George SEXTON; grand jurors, Josiah SHELDON, Robert ANDERSON ; representative elected in the fall, Silas GOODRICH.

     1787 -- Moderator, Silas GOODRICH; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Gideon ORMSBY, Timothy MEAD, jr., and Job GIDDINGS; treasurer, Jared MUNSON; 1st constable, Thaddeus MUNSON; 2d constable, Andrew ANDERSON; listers, Joseph DIXON, Daniel ORMSBY, Silas GOODRICH, Jonathan AIKIN, David LEE, jr.; grand juror, Samuel HITCHCOCK.

     1788 -- Moderator, Enoch WOODBRIDGE; clerk, Martin POWEL; selectmen, Gideon ORMSBY, Timothy MEAD, jr., Job GIDDINGS; treasurer, Gideon ORMSBY; constables, Thaddeus MUNSON and Samuel SUTHERLAND; listers, Shadrock DANKS, David LEE, Captain Jonathan AIKIN, Joseph DIXON, Daniel ORMSBY; grand juror, John SMITH.

      The names of the above persons have been provided for this chapter, not solely for the purpose of making a record of the town office holders, but for the additional reason that the names of many of the pioneers of Manchester may be recalled which otherwise might be forgotten. And there were others, undoubtedly, who were among the early settlers, and whose names are not mentioned in the foregoing record -- persons who were as fully and thoroughly identified with the early history of the town as those mentioned, but who took no part in the affairs of town government. It will not be out of place in this connection to furnish the names of freemen found in one of the ancient records of the town; but as to why the names were placed there, there appears no satisfactory explanation. The roll purports to contain the names of qualified freemen with such additions as were made from year to year, as new settlers became qualified or young men became of full age. It is thought, however, that this roll is but partial, or at least that it has imperfections. The entry commences with the year 1778 and continues to the year 1800. The additions -for each year are indicated as the list will show. This may be of value in determining the names of some of the pioneers of the town, and for that purpose it is used here, although the names of many have already been given.
     1778 -- Thomas BARNEY, William SEXTON, Daniel ALLEN, Martin ALLEN, Timothy SOPER, ____ ALLEN, Nathan SMITH, ____ HAMMOND, Gideon BARBER, Nathan WHELPLEY, Daniel BECKWITH, Jeremiah WHELPLEY, Timothy MEAD, jr., Gideon ORMSBY, William DREW, Pelatiah SOPER, Solomon SOPER, Thaddeus HARRIS, John SELLECK, Samuel BEEMAN, Philip REYNOLDS, Benjamin PURDY, Christopher ROBERTS, Benjamin VAUGHN, Eleakim DEMMING, Eleazer ALBEE, Stephen WASHBURN, Timothy PAGE, Charles COLLINS, Daniel PURDY, Christopher COLLINS, James VAUGHN, Robert LOGGAN, Elijah MC INTYRE, William BEDELL, Stephen SMITH, Benjamin PURDY, jr., Jonathan SEXTON, Samuel SUTHERLAND, Arthur BOSTWICK, Lorain LARKIN, John SMITH, Thomas BULL, Joseph BAKER, Nathaniel BOURN, Benjamin BEAN, Captain Zadoch EVEREST, Captain Jesse SAWYER, Moses SPERRY, Jesse GRAVES, Bernard BOURN.
March 29th 1779.-Jared MUNSON, George SMITH, Thaddeus MUNSON, Stephen PEARL, William HINE.

      March 2d 1780 -- Samuel PETTEBONE, Timothy BLISS, Aaron MASON, Samuel HULL, Seth PETTEBONE, Simeon HINE, David LEE, Jr., Daniel SHAW, Timothy PEARL. Nathan RICHARDSON, Andrew RICHARDSON, jr., Nehemiah HINE, John WHITE, Abel PETTEBONE, Jonathan ORMSBY, Truman POWEL, Israel BOSTWICK, Enoch WOODBRIDGE, Peter PIXLEY, Jeremiah WAIT, Captain GILES WOLCOTT, Captain Silas GOODARD, Daniel ARNOLD, Asa FARRAND.

      March, 1781 -- Truman MEAD, Robert NICHOLS, John DAGGET, Amos RICHARDSON, Richard HEMENWAY, Isaac BURTON, Elias GILES.

      January, 1782 -- William WOODBRIDGE, Daniel ORMSBY, Billy HATCH, Timothy CRITTENDEN, Reuben SMITH, Prentice STORER, Solomon COLLINS, David PURDY.

      March, 1783 -- Abel PHELPS, James HOTCHKISS, John LANGDON, Daniel CHAMPION, Cornelius HAVENS, William BENNETT, Isaac MARCH, Barnabas HATCH, Josiah SHELDON, Jonah DANKS.

      September, 1783 -- Samuel FRENCH, jr., Jacob ORMSBY, Dorman DUNN, Abel BRISTOLL, Asa WELLER, Jabez WASHBURN, Caleb SHELDON, Job GIDDINGS, Thomas BULL, jr., Josiah TERRY, Joseph FRENCH, John ROBERTS, Charles BULLESS, Benjamin ROBERTS.

      September 5, 1786 -- Joseph PRINDLE, Richard MC INTYRE, Eli FREEMAN, Obediah VAUGHN, Aaron SEXTON, Jeremiah FRENCH, James HENNESSEY, Edmund WOOD, John JONES, John HOPKINS, Wallace SUTHERLAND, Elijah BURTON, Isaac BULL, Ebenezer WELLER, Nicholas WOOD, Henry BULLESS, Samuel BENEDICT, Joseph RAYMOND, Isaac TAFFT, ____ PARKER, ____ SQUIRES, Noah SMITH, Stephen SMITH.

      September, 1787 -- John DREW, Ezra BENEDICT, Nathaniel BOURN, jr., Samuel POWEL, Ezra BLAKESLEE, John LOGGAN, John PALMATER, Amos BOURN, John HOGABOOM, Perez WALTON, William GATES, Benjamin HICKS, Duncan DUNN, Moses SOPER, Ephraim KOILE, Joseph EDMUNDS, Simeon EELLS, Caleb SMITH, Jonathan BENEDICT, John SOLCUM, James HOLT, Daniel SPERRY, Isaac SQUIRES.

      September, 1788 -- Henry HEWITT, John ROBERTS, jr., ____ BARNEY, Joseph JONES, Nathan RICHARDSON, Samuel HITCHCOCK, Josiah LOCKWOOD.

      September, 1792 -- Timothy BROWN, jr., Jedediah SMITH, John VANDERLIP, Edward HOLMES, Thomas PATTERSON, Richard JONES, Israel WOOD, Warren MUNSON, ____ MUNSON.

      March 4, 1793 -- Walter HORENDEN, John SIDWAY, Ebenezer HITCHCOCK, Stephen STODDARD, Jacob ODEL, jr., Samuel ELWELL, Samuel PURDY, Abel HARRIS, Robert LOGGAN, jr., Roswell JONES, Stephen SOPER, David BROOKS, Samuel STRAIT, Isaac WHELPLEY, Daniel SUTHERLAND, Roger SUTHERLAND.

      Last Monday of June, 1793 -- Captain Jesse HOLLISTER, Zadoc BATES, William JAMESON, 2d.

      September, 1793 -- George BRITNALL, Richard HENNESSEY, jr., Solomon SOPER, John ROBERTS, 3d, Nicholas HOUGHTER, Charles THOMAS, Lazarus BEARDLEY, John PIERCE, John ALLEN, Nathan ANDREWS, Thomas SOPER, Joseph DUNN, George TANKARD, William BEDEL, James NEVENS.

      September, 1794 -- Oliver JEWELL, Ephraim MUNSON, Asa LOVELAND.

      December, 1796 -- Robert PIERPONT, Robbins BUQUETH, Erastus ABBOTT.

      September, 1797 -- Benjamin BOWERS- Patrick O'HARA,  RICHARDSON, Daniel VAUGHN, Charles D. HURD, William GOULD, jr., Dudley MASON, Benjamin PURDY. 3d, Stephen BOURN, Lyreus GIDDINGS, Eli MALLETT, Andrus COLLINS.

      September, 1798 -- ____ HOAR, PURDY, ____ BULLERS, 2d, ____ HOWE, ____ DOUGHTY, Nathaniel BACKUS, Samuel SUTHERLAND, Josiah BURTON, Elijah FRENCH, Abel ROSE, Daniel CUMBER, Napthala GLAZIER, Charles SOUTHWICK, Matthew LOGGAN, Frederick DEDRICK, Timothy HARRIS, Benjamin SUTHERLAND, James UNDERHILL, Josiah PIERCE, James COOK, Ralph BUCKLEY, Ezra DARBY, David TRUMAN, John BRITNALL, Oliver BUCKLEY, Asel HAWLEY, Abraham HOGABOOM, Abraham SMITH, Pelatiah SOPER, Isaac ROSE.

      December 4, 1798 -- Jesse SOUTHWICK, Josiah REYNOLDS, Elias RICHARDSON, Thomas FARR, John BUCK, Stephen WASHBURN, Simeon KIMPTON, Jabez HAWLEY, Smith PURDY, Timothy O’BRIEN, Daniel HAMMOND, Wells RICHARDSON, Samuel BURTON, David PURDY, Seth CURTIS, Alexander MCCOLLUM, John FAY, Levi COLLEY, Jacob MEAD, George WIGHTMAN, John AUSTIN, Noah PALMER, Samuel DEWEY, William CHAPMAN, Joshua FRENCH.

      March 27, 1799 -- Martin ROBERTS, Seth SMITH, William FULLER, Russell COLVIN.

      September, 1800 -- Moses GIDDINGS, Benjamin BULLESS, Truman PURDY, Thomas RICHARDSON, Charles BULKLEY, Silas HUBBEL, John WHEATON, Seth SPENCER, Benjamin CONKLING. Joseph BULKLEY, Leonard FOSTER, David VAUGHN, Samuel PETTEBONE, jr., Converse GILBERT, Alexander JOSLIN.

      It is believed that the foregoing record of early town officials and the roll of freemen includes the names of a great majority of the residents of the town of Manchester prior to the year 1800. They were the pioneers upon whom fell the burden of the work of clearing the land and cultivating the soil. They had not to contend against the American Indian for possession of the country hereabouts, as that form of pioneer hardship was endured by the settlers of New York and other provinces to the south and west. But the owners of the land in this region, those who held title under the grants of Benning WENTWORTH, as governor of New Hampshire, were compelled to suffer trials and persecutions from an enemy less murderously inclined than the Indians, though no less determined and obstinate in action.

      Scarcely had the settlers under the New Hampshire Grants become fully possessed of their lands than conflicting and adverse claims of title were interposed that were not finally settled until after the war of the Revolution had closed, and until after Vermont had declared her independence as a State, and that independence had been ratified and confirmed by the Congress of the United States. And instead of passing through an "era of unexampled prosperity” the sturdy pioneer was compelled to leave farm and shop, and repel the adventurous invaders who sought to deprive him of all his possessions; and from the year 1766 until after the close of the war all was uncertainty and doubt, and constant turmoil and strife. But notwithstanding all these hindrances the town, from the very first, enjoyed a steady, continuous growth in population and improvement, so that in the year 1791 it contained residents to the number of 1,296, and in 1800 of 1,397.

      The reader will remember that the town of Manchester was granted by the governor of the province of New Hampshire by the advice and consent of council, to grantees therein named for the purpose of encouraging settlement and improvement on the lands granted; and it will be remembered also that none of these grantees, according to the best knowledge upon the subject, ever became actual residents upon the soil, but sold their rights mainly to persons from New York province, and later to pioneers of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. Under the royal charter from the king of Great Britain the governor and provincial council of New Hampshire believed their territory to extend over and include this region, while by virtue of a similar charter from Charles the Second to the Duke of York, in 1664, the governor of New York claimed as that province, "all the land from the west side of the Connecticut River to the east side of Delaware Bay; and it was on account of these conflicting claims that the inhabitants of this town and elsewhere upon the grants were subjected to annoyances, hardships, and attacks from those who sought to deprive them of their title and possession. 

      "In May, 1765 Lieutenant-Governor COLDEN issued the patent of Princeton, which was the first grant made by New York in conflict with the previous charters of New Hampshire. . It extended along the valley of the Battenkill from Arlington to Dorset, embracing all the land of any value in the township of Manchester. Under this patent Attorney-General KEMPE of New York, James DUANE, a distinguished lawyer of New York City, and Walter RUTHEFORD, a merchant of the same place, claimed to own the lands which the settlers of Manchester had bought, paid for and improved." "Other settlers were placed in the same unfortunate situation by this and similar patents, and the towns united in various efforts to avert the impending danger. In December, 1765 the settlers sent a committee to New York to present their case to the governor and seek relief. One of the committee was Jeremiah FRENCH, a large owner of rights in Manchester, and then or soon after a settler in the town.

      In November, 1766 the inhabitants of Manchester, together with their brethren of other towns petitioned the king for a confirmation of their titles. Three years later a committee of settlers, of which Benjamin PURDY was a member, petitioned the governor of New Hampshire to interpose with the Crown in their behalf" These several appeals for protection and relief were productive of no favorable results to the settlers upon the grants. New York took the aggressive and organized courts, the jurisdiction of which was made to extend over the disputed territory, but each and every attempt to execute any legal process was not met with force sufficient to successfully thwart the efforts of the officers and retain possession to the settlers. It was in' the winter of 1770 that the sheriff of Albany county with a party of men from New York, and one or two others from the grants, undertook to take possession of the premises of Samuel ROSE, in the southern part of Manchester, and did in fact enter the house during the owner's absence; but upon the approach of the neighbors in superior numbers quietly left the locality.

      The committees of safety f or the several towns met in Manchester in 1772, at which time the acts of the "Green Mountain Boys" were commended for their service, and a firm but respectful letter sent to the governor of New York reasserting the rights contended for, and the belief that those rights would be maintained. Again, on October 21, 1772, a meeting was held in the town, at which it was resolved "that no person on the grants should accept or hold any office under the civil authority of New York; " and further, that all civil and military officers who accepted under the authority of New York were required to suspend their functions on the pain of being viewed;" "and that no person should take grants or confirmation of grants under the government of New York." In explanation of the above quoted resolutions it should be stated that the government of New York sought to gain favor among the settlers by appointing several of them to civil offices in the county of Charlotte; also by offering to confirm their titles is the hope of gaining their assistance in dispossessing others less easily conciliated.

      The inhabitants about this period had an inclination to become attached to New Hampshire, but the latter province seems to have offered but little relief to the settlements in their extremity. This enforced a spirit of independence which was made manifest at a meeting of the freemen of Manchester, at which it was resolved "that we will not pursue the getting the jurisdiction back to New Hampshire." The resolution was adopted in September, 1773. On March 1st, 1774 a general meeting of the committees of the several towns was held, at which it was voted to "lay a petition before the Assembly at New York to have our charter privileges confirmed according to our grant;" and for the purpose of preparing such petition William MARSH, Ebenezer BRISTOL, Martin POWEL, and Samuel ROSE were appointed a committee. This meeting, so far as it related to a discussion of the events uppermost in the minds of the settlers, was adjourned to meet at Arlington, where a joint discussion was held and a determined resistance against the New York usurpers agreed upon.

      The defensive proceedings for the year 1775 appear to have been confined to the resolutions adopted at the meeting held at Martin POWEL's, heretofore referred to, at which it was voted, "that Joseph LOCKWOOD, Gideon ORMSBY, Daniel BEARDSLEY, and Martin POWEL be a committee to act with the other committees upon the New Hampshire Grants with regard to the title of our lands;" also voted "that Samuel ROSE, sen., William MARSH, and Eliakim WELLER be continued a committee of correspondence with other committees of Charlotte county for the year ensuing." While not recognizing the correctness of the authority by which the province of New York claimed jurisdiction over the territory of Manchester the freemen fully recognized the fact that such claim was made and an attempt made to exercise such jurisdiction, hence the reference in the resolution to the county of Charlotte.

      The events of ten years preceding the year 1776 were indeed troublesome and unfortunate for the pioneers of Manchester, but the animosities of the period were now laid aside and all factions united in the common cause against Great Britain that in after years resulted in the independence of America and the termination of British rule in the provinces. For the time being the authorities of New York ceased their prosecutions and persecutions, and the Green Mount tin Boys and the New York provincial troops fought side by side on the battlefields of the Revolution.

      This subject is so fully commented upon in the earlier chapters of this work that nothing beyond a mere record of the part taken by the town of Manchester will be necessary at-this time. The great majority of the inhabitants of the town remained faithful to the cause of the American colonists, and took an active part in the scenes in the county, while a considerable number entered the service and shared the vicissitudes of the war in other localities. There were a few, however, who felt greater friendship for the mother country than for the independence of the provinces; and while all such did not, perhaps, actively engage with the British, they nevertheless lent such assistance, by sympathy, unfair information, and other contributions to the enemy's cause as to be regarded by the Americans as dangerous foes, and were by them called Tories. The names of several who hitherto had been prominent in all local,-affairs were found to favor British rule, among them MARSH, ROSE, LOGGAN, BULLIS, and FRENCH. Their lands were confiscated, and in nearly all cases sold, but there are instances-one at least-in which the land was afterward conveyed to the wife of the unfaithful servant, she having proved entirely true to the patriots' cause. Referring again to judge MUNSON's address, "As the contest went on ominous preparations were made for the disposal of inimical persons. In September, 1776, a convention at Dorset resolved to build a jail at some point on the west side of the mountain for securing Tories. The matter was referred to a committee, who reported in favor of building the jail in Manchester, a few rods east of the dwelling-house of Martin POWEL; and recommended that it be made of logs and earth, with an inside dimension of twenty by thirty feet. Their report was accepted, and Martin POWEL chosen jail-keeper."

      The first action on the part of this town during the war was taken on the 17th of February, 1777, at a freemen's meeting held at the house of Christopher ROBERTS, at which it was voted "that it is not best at present to raise a sum of money for a bounty for soldiers on the New Hampshire Grants." Also voted "that William MARSH and Martin POWEL be chosen delegates to the convention at Dorset." And at the freemen's regular meeting of the same year Martin POWELL, Gideon ORMSBY, Thomas BULL, Stephen WASHBURN, and Elisha TRACY were chosen the town committee of safety. In November following Thomas BARNEY, Felix POWEL, and Jeremiah WHELPLEY were added to the committee. On the 15th of July, 1777 was held at the tavern of William MARSH, in Manchester, a meeting of the Council of Safety. This meeting had previously been arranged to be held at Windsor, but on account of Burgoyne's threatened invasion of the region it was prematurely dissolved. The record of the proceedings of this council have been lost, but it is known, However, that it was there agreed "to raise all the men they could to oppose the enemy who were then advancing toward Fort Edward. They at the same time wrote in the most urgent terms to New Hampshire and Massachusetts to send on a body of troops to their assistance." 

      This year, 1777, was the most exciting for the people of Manchester of any during the Revolutionary period. The militiamen of the town were with various armies engaged in active service, and, after the fall of Ticonderoga there seemed to be no effectual means of staying the approach of Burgoyne's army of Britons with what appeared to be still worse, his Indian allies. Soon after the news of the disastrous conflict reached the vicinity came St. Clair's retreating force. The commander himself came to Manchester in quest of provisions and reinforcements, and passed on down the valley. Seth WARNER's command, or what was left of it after the battle at Hubbardton, made a stand here, determined upon the defense of the town, but the British troops kept to the valley of the Hudson on their conquering tour, and no enemy's troops came in force to this locality.

      "WARNER," says Judge MUNSON's address, "established his camp on the hill southwest of the village, on the premises now generally known as the Swift farm. There his regiment was rejoined by the stragglers who had been separated from it in the confusion of retreat, and was supplied with ammunition and clothing from the depots of the northern department.

      During this period of suspense the Council of Safety were in almost constant session, in the hope that some plan for raising and maintaining troops might be devised, but nothing was accomplished until the intrepid young statesman and patriot, Ira ALLEN, one of the youngest members of the council, proposed the plan of confiscating the estates of the Tory inhabitants, selling them, and using the proceeds for military equipments. This was done, and the lands and chattels of the Tory residents of Manchester were the first seized for the proposed purpose. Within thirty days from the time of the decree of confiscation and sale of property there were organized, armed and equipped, ready for active duty, two full companies of effective men. They were called the "Rangers." Subsequent recruits from the locality, and a considerable body of men from east of the mountains, added to the force, so that on the l0th of July there were about five hundred troops in the town. Soon after the 1st of August General LINCOLN assumed command. Two days later Colonel CUSHING's Worcester county regiment reached the town.

      It was the original intention of Burgoyne to make a campaign against Manchester, where Colonel Seth WARNER's force was known to have come and supposed to remain, and, after having overcome such opposition as should be shown, to push on toward Bennington and the much coveted military stores supposed to be at that place; but the British commander afterward countermanded this order and directed his course toward Bennington by way of the Hudson and not through this valley.

      On the 7th of August General STARK reached Manchester, and on the next day left for Bennington, to which place he was followed by the militia. The battle of Bennington was fought on the 16th of August, the enemy was defeated, and the Vermont troops again went into camp at Manchester.

      In September the Rangers made a successful raid north toward Ticonderoga after which they returned to Manchester. General LINCOLN was soon called to another field of operations, but left a small force in town under command of General BAYLEY. On the 17th of October Burgoyne surrendered, active operations in this locality for a time ceased, and the Vermont soldiery returned to their homes.

      The township of Manchester furnished to the campaigns of this and later years a considerable number of men of whom there appears no reliable record or tradition; still, the names of some can be recalled. They were Josiah BURTON and Elijah, his son, John ROBERTS and four sons, Peter, John, William and Benjamin, George SEXTON, Nathan BEAMAN, Truman MEAD, Penuel STEVENS, Amos ALLEN, Prince SOPER, Edward SOPER, Nathan SMITH, Benjamin VAUGHN, Gideon ORMSBY. There were others, undoubtedly, of whose service nothing can now be recalled. The old town records furnish titles for a number who were residents during the Revolutionary period, among them Captain Jesse SAWYER, Captain Thomas BULL, Captain Zadoc EVEREST, Captain Stephen PEARL, Lieutenant Thaddeus MUNSON, Lieutenant Arthur BOSTWICK, Captain Silas GOODRICH, Captain David LEE, Captain Thomas BARNEY, and possibly others whose names and titles have been overlooked; but whether all of these were actually in the service from the town, and in fact held the rank their title would seem to indicate, is a matter concerning which there is room for doubt, but that there was a number whose names are not mentioned, there can be no doubt.

      After the important events of the year 1777 were passed there were no active defensive or aggressive military operations in the town of Manchester, but, nevertheless, local organizations were maintained and the town authorities were alert to the necessities of the frontier. For the year of 1778 the Committee of Safety was as follows : Martin POWEL, Stephen WASHBURN, Gideon ORMSBY, Thomas BARNEY, Jeremiah WHELPLEY, Thomas BULL and Robert LOGGAN; and on the 9th of April the freemen voted "that we make a rate of $4.50 for a bounty for nine men to guard our frontier to the northward." Again, in 1780 the gross sum of one thousand four hundred and thirty one pounds was raised for defensive operations on the frontier. In 1781 provision was made for the payment of the militiamen who had turned out on the last three alarms. In 1782 the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds was voted for the purpose of raising ten men for the service.

      With the close of the Revolution and the extinguishment of British rule in America -- the result of the war -- the inhabitants on the grants were at liberty to resume their accustomed labors; and there seems to have been not so much determination on the part of the New York authorities to obtain absolute control over the Green Mountain region. The public mind at this period seems to have been absorbed in the proceedings looking to the recognition by Congress of the independence of Vermont as a State, and of her admission to the Union of States.