Selected Creek Letters 1825-1829

Selected Creek Letters 1825-1829

Abstracted by Thelma Nolen Cornfeld

                                              26 March 1825
Gena Ware
     My friend I have instructed my son John & Benj Derriso to get me 
fore or five hed of horses & to promis cattle of any discription for them 
being that I am in the Nation the people that is in my settlement might 
be afraid to trust me  I wish you to stand my security as you kno me before
I am in distress for horses at this time to collect my cattle with  So 
soon as I collect them I will give choice to anyman that will be good 
enough to trust me of cows & calves steers or baron cows & so I wish 
you to stand my security to any bargains that they may make   Nothing more 
but I remain
                                          Your Friend
                                          William McIntosh

William McIntosh, Creek Chief
by Charles Bird King

        May 3, 1825   Line Creek, Fayette County

To Col. D.G. Campbell  Maj'r Jas Meriweather
      United States Commissioners


     When you see this letter stained with the blood (the last drop of 
which is now spilt - for friendship he has shown for your people)
I know you will remember your pledge to us in behalf of your Nation, that 
in the worst events you would assist & protect us; And when I tell you 
that at day light on Saturday morning last hundreds of the hostiles 
surrounded our house and instantly murdered Gen'l McIntosh and Thomas 
Tustunnuggee by shooting near one hundred balls into them (Chilly and 
Moody Kinnard making their escape through a window) they then commenced 
burning and plundering in the most unprincipalled way - so that here I am 
driven from the ashes of my smoking dwelling, left with nothing but my 
poor naked hungry children who need some immediate ade from our White 
Friends, and we lean upon you, while you lean upon your government:  
About the same time of the morning that they continued the horrid act on 
Gen'l another party caught Col. Sam'l Hawkins and kept him tied until 
about 3 o'clock, when the Chief returned from our house and gave order 
for his execution in the same way, and refused to leave his wife any 
impliments to cover his body up with; so that it was left exposed to the 
fowls of the air and the beasts of the forrest and Jenny and her child 
are here in the same condition as we are   this party consisted of 
Oakfuskies, Talledgas and Muckfaws   tho there were others with them; 
the Chiefs that appeared to head the party were Intock chungo (of Mockfaw) 
and  Minnowaway, but  I know not where he was from, who said they were 
ordered to do it by the Little Prince and Hopthle Yoholo, and that they were
supported and encouraged in it by the Agent and Chiefs that were left 
after the Big Wariors death, in a council at Broken Arrow, where they 
decreed that they would murder all the Chiefs, who had any hand in 
selling the land and burn and destroy and take away all that they had, 
and then send on to the President that he should not have the land.  I 
have not heard of the murders of any others, but expect all are dead 
that could be catcht, but by reason of a great Freshett on the 
Chattahooche, they could not get Col. Miller or Hagy McIntosh, nor the 
Darisaus, and they and Chilly are gon to the Govornor, our country is 
in a most ruined state, so far as I have heard (tho by reason of the 
high waters - word has not circulated fast) all have fled from their homes 
in our parts and taken refuge among their White Friends & I learn they 
are now at Gen'l Wares (near his place) from 150 to 200 of them are 
afraid to go to their homes to get a grain of what little corn they have 
to eat, and if you and your people do not assist us, God help us, we must 
die, either by the sword or by the famine - This moment Gen'l Ware has 
come in & will in a few minutes start with a few men and a few Friendly 
Indians to try to get a little something for us to eat - I hope so soon as 
you read this you will lay it before the Govornor and the President -,
that they may know our miserable condition and afford us relief as soon 
as possible.  I followed them to their camp about 1 1/12 miles, to try to 
by of them something to cover the dead with but it was denied me; I tried 
also to get a horse to take my little children, and some provisions to 
last us to the White settlement, which was given up to me and then taken 
back, and had it not been for some White men, who assisted in burrying 
the dead and getting us to the settlement, we should have been worse off 
than we were, if possible.  Before I close I must remark that the whole 
party so far as I know them were hostile during the late ware (sp).

                                      Peggy and Susanna McIntosh
Col Campbell & Maj'r Meriwether


                                   Washington (City) May 17, 1825

         We have come to request our Father the President to protect us 
against a hostile party of Indians, as was promised by the Commissioners 
at the treaty of Indian Springs when we ceded our land to the United States.
         The Commissioners gave us a good talk from our Father the 
President:  They told us that they were bound, by the compact of 1802, to 
procure our lands for the State of Georgia.  We listened to the talk of 
our Father and did all he desired.  We made a fair treaty for the sale of 
our lands which publickly passed the Senate and was ratified by our 
Father the President.
         Since then a hostile party has attacked the house of our 
father, General McIntosh and killed him and Etomme Tustunuggee.
         The Commissioners told us against any attempt to injure us; and 
also that you would send a garrison to Chatahouchie River to prevent any 
incrouchment on our lands, before wem ove west of the Mississippi.  This 
never was done, and we did not ask for it, because it was not thought 
necessary.  Now we need assistance and claim a performance of your promises.
         We ask to have revenge for our blood spilt by a hostile party of 
Indians, and that the murder of our father, General McIntosh and Etomme 
Tustanugge may be investigated and the ringleaders punished.
         Without your assistance we cannot settle our disputes.  We ask 
you to investigate them and to aid in removing our difficulties.
         We now look for your protection as it was promised by the 
Commissioners, without it we cannot prepare to go West of the 
Mississippi - about one thousand troups will be necessary.
         If our Father the President does not protect his red children we 
shall be oppressed and many of us will be killed, we hoe he will not deny 
us his protection as promised by the Commissioners.  We have trusted his 
promises and think he will not deceive us --
To                               Chilly McIntosh
The Honorable                    Interlifkey X McIntosh
James Barbour                    Ben Dourozow
Secretary of War                 Jim X Dourozow


                        Washington (City) May 17th 1825

          We beg leave to state that the authorized Agent for the U.S. for 
the Creek Nation, Col'n John Crowell, is not trusted by us & we do not 
think ourselves safe in his hands.
          Col'n Crowell has always been opposed to General McIntosh since 
1823; when he tried to have him broke as Chief of the Creek Nation & 
threatened to destroy his property.  He was offended at Gen'l McIntosh for 
refusing to give up a man named Stinson, without an order from the head 
chiefs of the Nation.  Stinson was afterwards delivored into the Agent's 
custody & was tried for selling goods in the Nation without a license - of 
which he was acquitted by the Federal Courts in Georgia.  Coln'n Crowell 
drew a knife & threatened to cut the throat of a man called Cells; who had 
been adopted by the Creek Nation.
        Col'n Crowell was opposed to the treaty at the Indian Springs & 
tried to prevent the Creeks from selling their land to the United 
States.  He sent William Hambly, United States interpreter to the 
Council to say that he wanted to see the Chiefs but was jealous of the 
Commissioners.  He told them that they should not give any long answers to 
the Commissioners, but only say "they had no land to sell".  That the 
Commissioners would threaten but their threats would all end in words as 
soon as they heard from the government.  Even after the Treaty was freely 
agreed to he did not cease his opposition.  He sent a message by Wm. 
Hambly, the Interpreter, to tell some of the Indians that they shoul'd go 
away across the line that night or they wou'd be taken & shut up until 
they signed the Treaty.  This party went off into the night as they were 
told.  The next morning three men were sent after them to know why they 
had gone away.  They told these men the message they had received from 
Col'n Crowell which was the reason for their going.  One of these 
messingers is now in Washington.  
        After Col'n Crowell returned from Washington a Council of the 
Nation was called.  When the broken hour was out Chilly McIntosh & 
several of the friends of Gen'l McIntosh attended.  They called on Col'n 
Crowell for rations, which were refused to the friends of Gen'l McIntosh 
but were furnished by Col'n Crowell to all others.  Within eight days 
after this Council a hostile party attacked the house of Gen'l McIntosh & 
killed him & Etomme Tustenuggee.
        Col'n Hawkins & Gen'l Mitchell were equal & kind to all the Creek 
Nation and favoured its civilization.  Since Col'n Crowell has been Agent 
he has ben good only to his friends & favorites & to effect his own purposes.
        Now Sir, we beg our Father the President to send an Agent who 
will be a friend to all the Nation equally, & one in whose hands we can 
feel safe to go West of the Mississippi.  If Col'n Crowell is continued 
as Agent we fear the friends of General McIntosh will be sacraficed.

                             signed; Chilly McIntosh
The Hon'l                    signed; Interlefkey X McIntosh
    James Barbour            signed; Ben X Darozou
      Secretary of War       signed; Jim X Dourozou   


The Savannah Republic - 26th of June 1825

FRIENDS AND BROTHERS:  If after you hear our request and consider of it, 
you should think that we are not entitled to your consideration, 
generosity, or liberality, and that as we are about to leave you forever, 
and that you now have a legal claim and right to our late country - And 
that you owe us nothing, still we will remain strong in our former 
friendship to you.  We do not ask of you anything as a matter of right, 
or of any legal claim we have on you, but merely desire to recommend 
ourselves to your generosity and charity.

FRIENDS AND BROTHERS, we finally assure you that our attachment toward 
our old friends and neighbors shall never cease, and that we will carry 
with us the feelings of true and devoted friendship towards the State of 
Georgia, to the United States and the Legislature of Georgia.  If we would 
be so happy as to experience any token of their regard, we will teach our 
children to remember it with gratitude, and cause it to be handed down to 
the succeeding generations of our Nation, that they may forever know that 
Georgia was their friend in the hour of distress.

                                    William McIntosh
  William Miller, his X mark
  Ahlyucky, his X mark
  Aubeckah, his X mark
  Ispogormothe, his X mark
  Hothe Mara Tustunuggee, his X mark
  Nustunnuggee, his X mark
  Hogy McIntosh, his X mark
  Jas. Dearosou, his X mark
  Chas Miller, his X mark
  Wolobock Hajo, his X mark
  Michothe Homothe, his X mark
  Chowgie Micco, his X mark
  Jno Harrod, his X mark
  Muree Homattogee, his X mark
  Samuel Hawkins
   April 12th 1825


From the Head Men & Warriors of Coweta, To the Chief Men of Georgia:

          Our situation is not unknown to you & when the hand of sorrow 
has pressed heavily on us, we have been comforted by knowing that our 
white brothren felt for our troubles & wished us well.  Our fathers 
formerly owned a large & beautiful country (---- torn---) with fish &
game & every thing that they wished & we are now without a foot of land 
that we can call our home, or a place where we can keep our wives & 
children in safety.  Our lands we have voluntarily sold to you in a 
number of fair & honorable treaties.  In the late treaty held at Indian 
Springs, by the advice of our great father, we yielded to the wishes of 
the Georgians & gave up the last that remained of the land of our 
fathers, except the part in Alabama which is in the hands of our enemies, 
and we do not now object to a treaty which we voluntarily & deliberately 
signed.  But in the day of our trouble we now call on our White neighbors 
& brothern of Georgia, to be our friends and protectors.  When we signed 
the late treaty, we had a Chief under whose protecting hand we felt 
safe.  He had wisdom to guide us thro' the many difficulties of a long 
journey to a distant land.  He had courage to lead us, if we should be 
attacked by any of the powerful Nations in that far Western Country.  
McIntosh was our head & we were the body, & the hands & feet - But our 
head is now cut off; and we cannot move to that distant country & put 
ourselves in the hands of our enemies.  The Nations who live there 
would watch an opportunity to destroy us, before we could have time to 
procure the aid of our great father.  The people of our own nation have 
now become our deadly enemies.  After killing McIntosh & several other 
distinguished Chiefs, they have driven us from our homes, plundered our 
property, & threatened our lives.  They first became our enemies because in 
the late war, we were the friends of the whiteman; because we fought by the 
side of the white man & hazarded our lives, & spilt our blood in the same 
cause.  They now threaten, & rob, & kill us, because we have followed the 
advice of our great father, the President & sold our land to the Georgians.  
We are not safe with them, even near our White friends in Georgia; and we 
cannot be so blind as to put ourseves in their power in a distant land.  
We have now no shelter left us, but in the bosom of our White neighbors.
While we hold the treaty sacred, we earnestly request you not to leave 
us, & our wives, & our little ones to starve to death, or to fall by the 
hands of our enemies.  We propose to you to allow us, out of the late 
purchase, a small spot where we can lie down in safety, & get a living 
by our own labour.  We are but few in number, & expect to find our safety 
only in peaceful conduct among you.  We are moderate in our desires, & 
do not wish for the best of your land.  We will be satisfied with a tract 
of country, on the east of the Chattahoochee, extending from some point a 
few miles above the High Shoals, to the Horse Path, about forty miles in 
length, & extending about twenty miles east from that river.  The larger 
part of this tract is poor & mountainous.  In exchange for this 
settlement, we will give up our share of the purchase money under the 
late treaty held at Indian Springs.  We wish to raise stock, cultivate 
the soil, & learn the useful arts of the White men.  We will live quitely 
under our laws, & will faithfully perform any civil or military duties 
which you may tell us.  In exchange for protection, we will fight with you 
against all yolur enemies.  From being a powerful nation, we shall be 
only a handful of men.  From owning a large & rich country, we will settle 
down on a narrow strip of mountainous land.  but hereafter we will be 
content, if we can find safety & subsistence.  We pray to the Great 
Spirit, to put kind & generous sentiment & feeling into the hearts of the 
people of Georgia; & to tell them not to let an unfortunate & afflicted 
people be entirely ruined by friendship for them.  We trust that the head 
men of Georgia, after making a great state out of lands that formerly 
belonged to us, will leave to men who have long been their friends, a little 
corner in which they live.

Attached memo:

The foregoing M.S. of the Memorial of the McIntosh Party of Indians to 
the Legislative of Georgia in May 1825.  The Copy was signed by the 
party, but was repressed at Milledgville.  It was drawn up by Jno. A. 
Cuthbert, Esq., a Lawyer of high standing, formerly of Congress in his 
professional capacity, this manuscript being in his proper hand writing.

                                       T. P. Andrews
                                       Special Agent
                                       Milledgville - July 1825


We the undersigned Chiefs & Warriors of the Creek Nation of the McIntosh 
Party authorized & appoint the following Chiefs & Secretary our lawful 
Delagation to go on to Washington City to arrange and settle with our 
Father the President - all matters concerning the late disturbances in 
the Creek Nation.

To wit:  Chilly McIntosh, Rowley McIntosh, Ben Derizo, Hothla Marta 
Tustunuggie, Cowoo Cochee Fmarthla, Nehar yar holar (of Coweta), 
Huspartee harjo, Alec Lassley (of Delitago), Arpekee Tustunuggee, Hoabb 
Lassayar Tustunuggee (of Broken Arrow), Benjamin Hawkins to be 
interpreter - John E. Denney Secretary.

Creek Nation 26th October 1825

Joseph Marshall of Coweta                 Coness Emauthla of San Town
Jacob Beaver of Coweta                    Tochee Lustee Emauthla of San Town
Fock ken lusto Harjo of Coweta            Concharte Hajo of San Town
Mor har thocco Harjo of New York          Ispico Hajo of Taladigo
Nenihnnaras tochee of New York            Daniel Laslee of Taladigo
Oakfuskee Tustanuggee
       of Acorn Bluff                     Hotuckey Fmuthla of Broken Arrow
Joseph Marshall of Acorn Bluff            Tus hutchee Yarholar of San Town
Nocososa Tustinuggee
       of Acorn Bluff                     Arpe kee Tustanuggee of Coweta
Charwocla micco of San Town

         Coppy of the original signed in the Creek Nation
         Test:  John E. Denney, Sec'y of the McIntosh Party


The Savanna Republic -- November 22, 1825

General Gains I understand has gone on to Washington.  Crowell who was here
a day or two since with a deputation of hostiles, has also proceeded for 
the  same place.  A portion of the deputation of friendly Chiefs will go 
tomorrow for the same destination.  The ______ of their _____ the death of 
McIntosh ____ their forlorn situation - their determination to obtain 
justice upon the murderers.  Chilly McIntosh, Roley, Durasso, and 
Tustinnuggee, Speaker of the Nation, are among those here and bound to 
Washington - They are to be passed.


                                    Washington 10th Dec'r 1825

The undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of the Creek Nation make haste to 
announce to the Secretary of War for the information of the President of 
the United States that they have arrived in the the City of Washington as 
a Delagation from the Creek Nation with full powers.
         They are anxioous to lay before their Father a Statement of the 
situation and grievances and to ask his protection and they pray the 
Secretary of War to appoint a time when he will receive them.

                        Chilly McIntosh
                        Rowley McIntosh  X
                        Hothe marta Tustunuggee  X
                        Ben Derrozau  X
                        Cowacco chee Fmarthla  X
                        Nehar yar holar   X  of Coweta
                        Arpehe Tustunuggee  X
                        Hothla po yar Tustunuggee  X
                        Hos par oc Harjo  X  of Broken Arrow 
                        Alec Lasley  X  of Deletago
                        Benjamine Hawkins  Interpreter


                             Washington D.C.
                            26th Janurary 1826

Friend & Brother
       We have received from Col. McKenny a letter dated January 25th, 
1826 in which he observes that he esteems it proper to correct an error 
into which he say we have fallen -- He tells us we were neither asked to 
sign the treaty which you have recently concluded with our adversaries, 
nor any notes that might be affixed to the same, but as that we had given 
an anamious but verbal consent to certain conditions on which we would 
emigrate to the Mississippi which had in all respects been complied with 
it was thought that it would look better, not for us to sign the treaty, 
or notes to be affixed to the same, but a seperate paper sustaining that 
assent with our names --  Sir, We are desireous of correcting the error 
of this statement & for purpose we are making the following ----
         When we were first invited to talk to Gov. Cass whether we were 
willing to emigrate & and if so on what terms, we answered that we were 
willing to do so in terms of the Treaty of the Indian Springs -- It was 
the request from us if that Treaty was annulled, on what terms we would 
be disposed to go, & we answered saying that we would take time to 
consider, but still insisted on the validity of the former Treaty -- We 
then requested that the proposition of Gov. Cass should be given to us in 
writing, which was refused us -- If this our request had been complied 
with, no dispute wuld now occure, as to what had passed between us, we 
subsequently gave in our propositions and when we afterwards met Gov. 
Cass & Col. McKenney at the office of Indian Affairs & have read what they 
proposed, we thought it correct -- They then read to us from a small 
sheet of paper which we afterwards found when they read the Treaty was a 
different instrument from what we understood it to be, we then found that 
provisions were inserted in a Treaty made with our enemies, by which you 
had declaired that the Acts of our Great Chief & and other Chiefs of the 
Treaty of Indian Springs to be null & void & and by which you, as we 
understood, had departed from the terms which they had been recently 
read, by providing that the compensation for property & improvents in the 
ceded lands.  They then required us to sign an instrument in the following 
terms. --- 

                           Washington Jan'y 24th, 1826
      The undersigned Friends & Followers of the late Gen'l William 
McIntosh having red (sp) to them a Treaty concluded this day between 
James Barbour Secretary of war & the Delagation now in Washington, from 
the Creek Nation hereby subscribe their assent to such articles in said 
Treaty so far as they are interested.  We refused this and the conference 
was broken up, they declaired that it was immaterial whether they (we) 
signed it or not --  We declined signing it, first because we believe it 
made us to declair that our great Chief & our other Chiefs had acted 
without authority in signing the Treaty of Indian Springs -- and second 
because the compensation for property & improvements was limited, to such 
as was in the ceded lands.  No consideration will tempt us to degrade 
the memory of our great Chief nor to empeach the rightful acts of those 
who survived and our claim to compensation in our property is we think, 
not to be denied on principal of Justice --  Our Interpreter Hawkins at 
the close of the above conference took the paper they required us to sign 
- and on the way down to our logings told Gov. Cass that he had taken it 
to interpret to the Chiefs of the Delegation, which Gov. Cass said he 
might do, but told him not to show it to any body else -- It was for this 
purpose & this only that the paper was taken by Hawkins --  for we could 
not think of signing such a paper, aney more than we could recouncile it 
to our feelings to take by the hands the murderers of our Chief as they 
proposed to us --
          We will add a single remark -- Col. McKenney addressed us 
simply as representatives of the friends & followers of the late General 
William McIntosh & speaks of our adversaries as "The Delagation of the 
Creek Nation".  Now we think it necessary to distinctly say to you, that 
we are not mearly the Friends and Followers of Gen'l McIntosh, but that 
we are & have been for many years acknowledged Chiefs of the Creek Nation, 
and that we have not, nor have those whom we represent delagated any 
power to those whom he has distinguished as the Delagation of the Creek 
Nation. --

Witness                              We remain your
John P. Denney                             Friends & Brothers
Secretary to the McIntosh Party      Chilly McIntosh
                                     Rowley  X  McIntosh
                                     Hathla Marta  X  Tustanuggee
                                     Ben  X  Derrozow
                                     Okin Occ a chee  X  Emartla
                                     Ni hi o hadu  X  Coweta
                                     Arreb ca  X Tustanuggee
                                     Husput  X  Harjo
                                     Aleck  X  Lassley
                                     Benjamin Hawkins  Interpreter


                                   Council House August 5th 1827

To The Honorable
     James Barbour  Secretary of War
           We have met Co. Brearley the agent of Indian Affairs for the 
Emigrating Party of Creek Indians.  We have heard his talk and we are 
much pleased of the discription he has given us of our intended location 
over the mighty river & we are willing to go, but there are obstacles 
almost insurmountable throne in our way.  We have run into debt & that no 
small amount, for necessaries which we were compelled to have.  We cannot 
emigrate unless those debts are paid, & we think our Father the President 
has it fully in his power to assist his red brethern in the discharge of 
these debts.  The Treaty of Washington we have been told & indeed we have 
always understood, that if there were three thousand of us to emigrate we 
were to receive the sum of one hundred thousand dollars on our arrival at 
our please (sp) of location, be lest in proportion to imigrants.  Now Sir 
we are aware at least we believe, that there will not be as many as three 
thousand of us that will imigrate immediately, and we think it will make 
no difference with our Father the President to advance us the money that 
we are to receive on our arrival or some part thereof to discharge our 
just debts, if our Father will & we think he can, we will be ready to 
emigrate, but if he does not advance it to us we cannot removed.  We owe 
just debts & we will not go away with not paying them.
            We have requested our agent to report to you moore minetely then
we can our situation & circumstances.  We are to meet at the Creek Agency 
the 15th September to enroll our names, as the emigrating Party and if 
our debts were paid we would be willing and ready to remove immediately.  
We trust and hope that our Father will comply with this our request.
            We also farther request our Father that appoint some 
proper & discreet person to assest the value of our improvement & pay us 
over the money immediately.
            We als further beg our Father the President that appoint 
John Grace a depudy agent for Indian affairs for the immigrating Party.  
The honor the indegrity and talent of John Grace in an officer we 
recommend that the said Grace be appointed a depudy agent for Indian affairs 
for the immigrating Party.

We are respectfully yours

Rowly McIntosh                               Tulsa  X  Harjo
Chilly  X  McIntosh                          Has par toc  X  Harjo
Arp if lar  X  Tustonuggee - Speaker         Benjamin Derrisaw
Holboboy ar  X  Tustanuggee                  Ishococa  X  Emarthla
Conif  X  marthla
War har locca  X  Harjo

                             Benjamin Hawkins


I the undersigned of part Indian Blood, do certify that I was personaly
present at my Father's Camp near Line Creek, then on our way to Arkansas 
- when an Indian Chief called Tuskeenhaw came there and used insulting 
languige to the family on account of our going to Emigrate - he said for 
a trifle he would cut our throats -- I not well understand the Indian 
languige - but what he stated was then interped by my brother and another 
Indian - who did understand him well - 

May 1st 1828                     his
Witness                     John X Berryhill
John Reed                       mark


I the undersigned Indian of half blood do Certify that I was personaly 
present at the time when William I Wills and myself was at my mothers 
near Line Creek when two Indian Chiefs Tuskeenau and Jim Boy came there 
and in a very insulting manner talked about and objected to the 
Emigration -- and Tuskeenau drew a sword out of a cane and pointed it at 
Wills and signified he would kill him and at an other time and previous - 
the said two Chiefs was at this other hous the said I was rong for going 
and that I ought not to go and ordered me out of the hous - and used 
languge extreamly insulting - I can speak English and Indian and 
understand them well.  I fully believe there hole objection was becaus 
we were about to Emigrate --

                              May 18th, 1828
                              John Reed


(On the way west, the Chilly Mcintosh Party stopped at Tuscumbia Alabama)

"On our way to our location west of the mighty river -- passed through 
many villages, and arrived at Tuscumbia, where we camped for a few days, 
intending to take boats down the waters of the Tennessee, and so on to the 
Mighty River.  Here we have remained several days, and have received all 
kind of hospitality and good treatment.  The citizens of Tuscumbia have 
treated us like brothers and our old helpless women were furnished by the 
good women of the town with clothing.  On Tuesday the 29th of November (1827)
the Law of our Great Father above was explained to us; and our people 
were glad to hear it.  As long as our nation remains upon the earth, we 
will recollect Tuscumbia." -- Chilly McIntosh


                         Western Creek Nation
                            March 7th 1829

To Dear Father
        The President

We the Chiefs Head men and Warriors of the Creek Nation now in Council 
assembled -- Petition the President of the United States to take into 
consideration the complaints which we lay before you - against Col. 
Brearley U.States Agent for the Creek Nation - It is with reluctance 
that we complain - and nothing but necessity - and repeated injustice 
compel us - we have been deceived by the Government - things which were 
promised to us are now denied us - We under stood by the Treaty that we 
were to receive on our arrival in the Territory of Arkansas at our place of 
residence  Thirty dollars a head - beaver traps - guns - Brass Kittles - 
butcher knives and blanketts - and many others not paid for improvements - 
Col Brearley promised us - that fifty days after his departure from this 
place the money should be paid - his son and Capt. Thomas Anthony now 
acting as Sub Agent - were the two appointed to pay us at the expiration 
of the fifty days - we attended at the Agency for the purpose of 
receiving our money but we were disappointed - and received for answer 
that no instructions nor money had been left - by the Agent - We have 
lost all confidence in Col Brearley and we regard him no more as our 
Agent - We sincerely hope that our Father the President will send us a 
man - in whom we can place confidence - and who will do us justice - we 
will rely upon him as the choice he may make -- Father, you are well aware 
that the laws prohibit men who are in the employ of the government from 
speculating in any manner whatsoever -- Co. Brearley seems to put your 
laws to defyance - for he has to our knowledge purchased all the cattle 
and hogs - in the country - and he has sold and continues to sell to the 
Indians at a very extravagant advance - flour at (which we believe he 
received from the Asst. Com. of Subsistance at Cantonment Gibson) ten 
dollars pr. pound - also spiritious liquors - which are most strictly 
prohibited by the laws ---  The first party that came were well furnished 
with beef & pork - this year Col Brearley has taken the contract - the 
contract was not let out as is generally done to the lowest bidder - but 
was taken by Col Brearley at three & half cents for beef - when there 
were persons offering to furnish us at two & two half cents per pound - 
Col Brearley having taken the contract and giving instructions to his son 
- to take out all the lard - and after selecting all the choice pieces 
for his own use the balance are issued to us - the lard taken from the 
hogs afterwards were sold to us for ten cents per pound -- Col Brearley 
never attends our Councils to advise us - We frequently called upon him - 
but generally found him intoxicated - so that no satisfaction could be 
obtained for the business which caused our visit - his Sub Agent Capt 
Anthony is far worse than himself - so as to render him totally unfit for 
business of any kinds - We could say much more about this Gentleman but 
we regard it as a loss of time --

Father we could say much more but we will trouble you no longer with our 
complaints - and we rest satisfied that you will pity our situation - 
that you will have justice done us for justice only we demand -  We have 
to call your attention again on a subject which we can not pass over in 
silence ---  The Emigration will certainly cease from the Old Nation 
should the news of the imposition practiced upon us reach their Ears - 
and the ill treatment which we received - the party that came by water
came as far as Fort Smith and the boat there stopped and a great portion 
of their property was left and destroyed ---  Col Brearley said he had 
got the people at their place of residence and they might get their 
property as they could. ---

Accept Father the sincere wishes of your children for your health and 
prosperity ---

We the undersigned do witness          1.  Rolly McIntosh   X
the thru first and fifth               2.  Chilley McIntosh  X
signatures to this paper.              3.  Fosh at chee X Micco
                                           William X Miller
Cantonment Gibson                      5.  Micco X Charta
9th March 1829                             Benj'in X Deresaw
                                           Hothopay an X Tustonuggee
N.G. Wilkenson                             Hothe marta X Tustonuggee
Capt.  7th Infy                            Warhar thocco X haujo
                                           Concharta X
John Stewart                               Samuel Miller
Capt. 7th Infy                             Cowocco ochee X Emartha
                                           Cosar X opoie
E.P. Hawkins                               Ar tus X opoie
Lt.   7th Infy                             Ar pif har X tustonuggee
                                           John Randal
Th. Johnston                               George Colbert
Lt.   7th Infy                             Charles Miller
                                           Tho cho X Haujo
                                           Nebar X thocco
                                           E marthlo Hutkey
                                           O chun Yarholar
                                           Mosses Perryman


Sam'l Sells              James Parker         David McKillop
John Berryhill Sr.       Sam'l Hopwood        Thos Posey
John Berryhill Jr        Andrew Berryhill     Dan'l Christin
Aleck Berryhill          Sam'l Berryhill      Edward Coulter
William Berryhill        Jas Edwards          John Porter
P.D. Austin              Rich'd Robertson     Edward Bradley
Pleasant Berryhill       Wm. I Wills          Ben' j Lott
Benj'n McGaha            David Colvin         Wm G. Jacobs
John Self                Jno Reed
Baxter Self              Jno Berryhill
Stephen Hawkins


                         Western Creek Agency
                         March 23'd 1829    


At the request of the Officers of Cantonment Gibson I beg have to 
state they wish it to be distinctly understood by the President of the 
United States that they were only witnesses to the acknowledgement of the 
signatures of the Creek Indians who signed the Memorial respecting their 
grievances;  as & also to disavow any participations, approval 
or belief that their charges and speculations are correct;  they 
disapproved of the charges but could not refuse to sign as witnesses to 
the signatures -- Whereas Mr. Lott, old Sam'l Berryhill and many others 
refused to sign - old John Berryhill opposed the Memorial in Council but 
was forced to sign by the Chiefs --

The Steamboat Facility, Capt Pennanette arrived here three days since and 
is now aground at the Mouth of the Grand River where she will probably 
remain for some time.  She has about 15 tons of freight (furs) on board 
belonging to Col Chouteau who is going down on  ______ to New Orleans --

Lt. Dawson was married to Miss Baylor on Tuesday night last and she is 
still alive --

We have just finished the issue of Rations to the 6th of April - And I 
have the pleasure to say we are all in good health --

God bless you and may you prosper in all your arrangements. - 

To Col. D. Brearley                   Sincerely, your friend
                                       Thos. Anthony


Please send any comments to David W. Morgan. Here are some of the pages I maintain.

Berryhill Family

Barber Family

Native American Resources

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