McFarlands who served in the Confederate Forces
Fannin County TXGenWeb

A Short History of the 22nd, 31st and 34th Texas Cavalries
of North Texas

Photographs from Mary Helen Haines

A Short History of the 22nd, 31st and 34th Texas Cavalries of North Texas

With Emphasis on the Fannin County McFarlands 
(and their neighbors and relations) in the Civil War
By Mary Helen Haines

In February, 1861 the Confederate States of America had been formed and Texas had joined, even though Gov. Sam Houston was opposed. James McFarland, pioneer settler in Fannin County in 1837, was 71 years old and had also voted against secession as did many people of the North Texas area. In April, war became a reality after the firing at Ft. Sumter. The first real battle of the Civil War was fought at Bull Run in Virginia in July, 1861 and demonstrated that both armies needed training. Far to the west, in Texas, serious recruiting began as local loyalties superseded loyalty to a distant capital in Washington D.C. 

In our family of James McFarland’s sons and sons-in-law, the men who could possibly serve in 1861 were: 

A. Jackson McFarland: 43 yrs. old 

Howard Etheridge: 46 yrs. old – husband of Anna McFarland 

Elijah Sebastian: 37 yrs. old – husband of Sarah Jane McFarland – died June 12, 1863 

Albert McFarland: 36 yrs. old – died April 13, 1862 

George Wilkerson: - 32 yrs. old -2nd husband of Rebecca McFarland 

Jasper McFarland: 32 yrs. old 

James Collin Tucker: 35 yrs. old – husband of Cynthia Anne McFarland 

James McFarland: 28 yrs. old – died coming home 1865 

L. T. Cunningham: 22 yrs. old – 3rd husband of Mary Jane McFarland 

Newton McFarland: 22 yrs. old 

Arthur Rodney McFarland: 16 yrs. old 

James Franklin McFarland: 13 yrs. old - he signs up before the end of the war 

Other McFarland families in Fannin County in 1860 were: 

1. Yelverton (?), age 20, and his brother Joseph, age 16, both born in Texas, sons of Samuel McFarland, age 46, born in Ireland. 

2. Thomas, age 15, born in Tennessee, son of Robert McFarland, 48, born in North Carolina. 

3. James O. McFarland, 34, born in Tennessee. 

Of those men the records researched so far show

A. Jackson – served in the Texas State Troops 

Howard Etheridge, Albert and James and Arthur joined the 22nd Cavalry, 

L.T. Cunningham was in the 34th Cavalry, 

Jasper and Newton and Arthur (again) served in the 31st Cavalry, and

James Franklin did brief duty guarding prisoners in Bonham at the very end of the war. 

In Orangeville, the Orangeville Independent Home Guard was organized on May 25, 1861 and James O. McFarland, and a John McFarland joined up. This James is not directly related to the Ladonia group and there is a S. McFarland from Ireland, age 46, in the 1960 census in Orangeville, who is Samuel, so I am not sure who this John refers to. James O. goes on to be a member, and Sergeant, in Co. A, of the 22nd Cavalry. 

On July 6, 1861, many men of the Ladonia, Honey Grove, and Wolfe City area signed up to be a part of the Texas State Brigade, 14th Regiment of the Texas State Troops, Beat #4. This brigade was centered in Fannin and Hunt counties. As far as I can tell, this regiment was never activated, but the men went on to become part of the regular CSA and other Texas State Troops in 1862. 

14th Brigade:

E. Sebastin (I think this would be Elijah Sebastian-it is the only reference I have to his service during this war, although he dies during the war.) 

J. McFarland, age 43 ( A. J. McFarland in the 1860 census- Andrew Jackson) 

J. R. McFarland, age 31 (James Robert, I believe) 

The lists above came from transcriptions completed by Patricia Armstrong Newhouse in her Fannin County, Texas: Enlistees in the War Between the States. Bonham Public Library

On December 14, 1861 our Fannin County McFarland men (along with many of their friends and neighbors) enrolled at Honey Grove, and then rode to Ft. Washita, across the Red River about 50 miles away, (near Durant Oklahoma) and were mustered in on December 27, 1861 (National Archives). Ft. Washita had been in existence since 1842 as an outpost next to Indian Territory, built to protect the area’s Chickasaw and Choctaw against Comanche raids and serve as a base for the U.S. Indian Agency. On April 16, 1861 it had been abandoned by the Union Army after the capture of Ft. Sumter, and Confederate forces from Jefferson, Texas moved in the next day. During the war, the fort was mostly used as a supply depot for Confederate troops in the Indian Territory (Ft. Washita History). 

There is some archeological evidence at the fort that suggests they were under attack at least once, although no official battles are recorded. There is also a graveyard on the grounds with over 200 unmarked graves of Confederate soldiers.

Ft. Washita

Below are photographs taken by the author in 2004. This fort never had a walled perimeter, it was open to the surrounding plains. The entrance today was built during renovation when the fort became property of the Oklahoma Historical Society in 1962. In the background of this photo you can see the rebuilt barracks on the left.

There are ruins of original structures in place at the fort as well. These ruins are the West Barracks, built in 1856 of limestone. Before they burned in 1917, they were the residence of the Colbert family, who lived here after the fort was abandoned in 1870.

General Douglas Cooper, who served as the Chickasaw/Choctaw Indian Agent, then as Colonel of the Chickasaw/Choctaw Regiment and Brigadier General in the C.S.A. lived in this log cabin until his death in 1879. He is buried on the grounds.

There are several cemeteries on the grounds, but at this location are the unmarked graves dating for the Confederate occupation of the fort.

Map of Texas, Indian Territory, Arkansas, Louisiana Camps and Battle Sites

For the 22nd, 31st, and 34th Texas Cavalries 


Our Fannin County men were part of Robert H. Taylor’s Regiment of Texas Mounted Rifles when they gathered at Ft. Washita in December. On January 16, 1862, the 22nd Regiment Texas Cavalry was organized and our men were members of Company C. They were called the 1st Indian Regiment Texas Cavalry at this time. The members of this regiment were largely from Fannin, Collin, and Grayson counties and Taylor was a lawyer in Bonham, a former company commander in the Texas Rangers during the Mexican War, and a member of the Texas legislature, both before and after the war. He, like many of his North Texas neighbors, had also opposed secession until the war began. The original orders were for a 12 month enlistment to “serve between Kansas and Texas” (Barr 2). 

Albert, J.R., Arthur McFarland, and Howard Ethrage (Etheridge) all enlisted in Co. C, 22nd Texas Cavalry on Feb. 25, 1862 and were enrolled by J. W. Piner (National Archives). 

Albert Pike, a journalist and lawyer living in Arkansas, had been commissioned by the Confederate government to enlist the Indian tribes to their cause. Although the tribes would have preferred to stay out of this conflict, they also had monetary interests in this war, and some were slave owners as well. The tribes were divided in their loyalties, not knowing who would honor the millions of dollars still owed them for the sale of their lands in the East (when they were removed in 1832 as part of the Indian Removal Act). Early Confederate victories helped sway many toward the Southern cause. The southernmost Choctaw and the Chickasaw Nations signed with the Confederacy first. Then other tribes signed treaties with Pike, who assured them they would not be called upon to fight unless their territory was invaded by the Union. When Pike took the signed treaties to the Confederate capital in Richmond, Virginia, he was named Brigadier General of the Indian Territory with Col. Douglas Cooper in charge of the 1st Regiment of Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, stationed at Ft. Washita. Cooper was assisted by Col. James Bourland, a well-known military leader and business man from Lamar and Cooke counties in North Texas (Cottrell 13-25).

In February and March, 1862, the 22nd Cavalry moved to camp at the North Fork of the Canadian River because the forage was better, and the presence of white troops might deter the threatened civil war within the Cherokee Nation as tribes within that Nation had different feelings about taking sides in this war (Cottrell).

Before much training could take place in the Texas and Indian cavalries, a force of 12,000 Union soldiers were moving to secure Missouri. Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, commander of the Trans-Mississippi District sent word to Gen. Pike to lead his Indian troops out of Indian Territory to join other Confederates in Missouri. The Indian regiments would not go into battle until certain monies had been paid. They then rode to Arkansas and fought at Pea Ridge on March 6, 7. Reports indicate some of the Cherokee celebrated a little early and took a few scalps—a move that enraged Union troops, and surely embarrassed Gen. Pike. Early appearances at success turned, and after the Confederate defeat at Pea Ridge and retreat, Pike led them back into Indian Territory and the 22nd joined him, moving southwest (Cottrell 37-40).

On April 13, 1862, Albert McFarland died. No cause of death is mentioned in his documents; however, there was a raging measles epidemic that spread through troops that were moving with Gen. Pike. This was reported in a letter home by one of the afflicted soldiers that survived. Many of these soldiers are buried at the camp at Middle Boggy (Atoka, OK - today in the grounds of the Confederate Memorial Museum and Cemetery).

Taylor’s Regiment was joined by the 34th Texas Cavalry under Col Almerine M. Alexander, a merchant in Bonham and Sherman. On April 17, 1862 the 34th Texas Cavalry Regiment was created at Ft. Washita. Several Fannin County men joined Co. I. This cavalry was composed of companies mostly from the North Texas area, and like the 22nd, were not that enamored with the war. The men were from counties that were either divided or against secession. They had scant influence in state politics compared to south and central Texas, and they were not big slaveholders. They had joined this movement once war had actually started, with the idea that their home territory might be invaded. They also had been promised during recruitment that they would not be fighting away from their homes (Barr 2-3).

In May, 1862 a report on troop strength in the Indian Territory shows that Col. Alexander’s (the 34th), and Col. Taylor’s (22nd) regiments were at Ft. McCulloch. Gen. Pike had ordered an earthen works fort to be built and named to honor Gen. Ben McCulloch, a Texan hero who had died at Pea Ridge. Pike was convinced there would soon be a Union invasion, yet Gen. Van Dorn had been ordered to transfer his troops east beyond the Mississippi. This left the Western sector with few provisions or troops (Cottrell 42). Present at the roll call at Ft. McCulloch were a mere 829 men, half of the 1,679 on the rolls. Various reasons exist for this: sickness, furloughs to farmers to bring in their crops, and absences caused by anger at the violation of the original recruitment promises that they would not be sent beyond the frontier at Ft. Washita and Ft. Arbuckle (Barr 3-4).

On June 28, due to the conscription act, reorganization took place. James G. Stevens replaced Taylor as Colonel of the 22nd. Arthur McFarland, and Howard Etheridge were discharged on July 16, 1862 from the 22nd by orders of Albert Pike, in compliance with the Conscription Act.* Arthur was not yet 18, and Howard was over 35, both outside the age requirements for service (National Archives).

On July 12, Gen. Pike was ordered to go to Ft. Smith, Arkansas to join the new army being organized for the invasion of Missouri. He refused the order because it violated the promises made to Indian recruits and Texans to not move beyond defense of their immediate homelands, and he then resigned. Although his arrest was ordered by Gen. Hindman, who considered this treasonous, and Pike peacefully complied, nothing came of it because the Confederate headquarters accepted his resignation. (Cottrell, p. 52) Pike, probably justifying his decision to resign, wrote a letter to President Jefferson Davis on July 31, 1862 referring to his Texas cavalries as “even more worthless and troublesome together than I supposed” (Barr 4). Col. Cooper, however, did comply with Gen. Hindman’s request for troops, and the 22nd and 34th began moving north toward Ft. Gibson.

In the meantime the 31st Texas Cavalry, organized in Dallas County in May, 1862, and led by Col. Trezevant C. Hawpe, a Dallas businessman, started moving north. It is at Ft. Washita that on August 9, Jasper, Newton, and Arthur McFarland join the ranks of Co. I.Arthur, who had been discharged a month earlier from the 22nd , was mere days away from being 18, so now was allowed to rejoin—this time with his other brothers (National Archives). 

All three regiments were in the area of northeastern Oklahoma (Ft. Gibson) on the eastern border with Arkansas (Ft. Smith) in July and August. It seems the 31st was sick and going through that early adjustment period every new group goes through while their immunities build up to the rigors of camp life. In early August, the 34th, on a reconnaissance mission out of Ft. Gibson, participated in a skirmish at Park Hill with Pin Indians who had sided with the Union. In late August, the brigade stopped at Camp Osage, while the measles epidemic raged through the troops and put 88 men in the hospital (Barr 6).

In early September, the 22nd and 34th Cavalries moved to Camp Caudle near Bentonville, Arkansas, five miles from the Missouri state line and joined Cooper’s Indian Brigade. There was a typhoid outbreak also at this time at Camp Myrick near McDonald, Missouri. Part of the 34th and the 31st rode north to attack the main camp of the 2nd Indian Home Guard (Union- composed of Osage warriors with a fierce reputation). The Confederates captured wagons and cattle and killed between 60 and 120 men, according to one report. 

They continued to move toward Newtonia, Missouri, where the 22nd performed picket guard duty nearby. On Sept. 27, Col. Cooper sent the 31st and an Indian battalion to Newtonia as an advanced post. The 22nd was ordered to Granby and the 34th marched for Granby to relieve the 22nd on the morning of Sept. 30, the day of the battle of Newtonia. The Union troops withdrew from Newtonia and the 31st was put in charge of securing Newtonia. All three regiments ended up fighting at Newtonia, mostly dismounted. Although the Confederates did well at Newtonia, on October 4th they were forced to withdraw when more Union troops arrived. This was the last of Confederate troops in Missouri for the war (Barr 7-8).

In October, the 22nd and 34th Texas Cavalries were detached from Cooper’s Indian Brigade, and were reorganized into a new Texas brigade under Col. Thomas Coke Bass. This was very short-lived, and soon Col. William R. Bradfute was put in charge of the brigade, which was to resist the Union advance into Indian Territory and Arkansas. Confusion caused by the change of commands and the retreat led to even more confusion. Col. Bradfute fell ill and turned over command to Col. Jesse L. Craven without reporting it to Gen. Hindman. On Nov. 1, General Hindman, who felt the Texas regiments were “worthless as cavalry,” ordered them dismounted, and their horses sent to Texas (Barr 8-9). On Nov. 21, Col. Hawpe resigned and returned to Dallas. He then began hauling supplies to these forces until he was killed in a quarrel in Dallas on Aug. 14, 1863. (Harper).

On Dec. 7, a clash occurred at Prairie Grove, Arkansas as Gen. Hindman attempted to retake this part of Arkansas for the Confederacy. During the battle, the Texas regiments helped repulse three different Union attacks and followed them with counterattacks of their own. Lt. Col. Guess of the 31st wrote home to his wife: 

Our Brig(ade) was posted on the extreme left wing of the army and was not called into prominent action but a short time, but not a boy or man of them showed any disposition to flinch. The cannon balls and shells flew and burst around them and the Minnie(sic) ball whistled about their ears, but they stood calm and determined to die or win the victory. (Barr 10)

Although they held their ground, the lack of ammunition forced Hindeman to withdraw. According to historian, Alwyn Barr “morale fell to a new low and numerous desertions followed a near mutiny in the 31st Texas when Bradfute ordered a man punished by bucking**” (11).

On Dec. 31, the 22nd and 34th were at Camp Roan, 4 miles southeast of Ft. Smith, Arkansas. However, the McFarlands were not present at the muster. According to records for the 22nd, J.R. McFarland had been absent without leave since Dec. 28, 1862. In the 31st Dismounted Cavalry, J.M. and J.H. (?) were also shown as absent without leave since Nov. 28, 1862 when the Jan. & Feb. muster occurs. J. McFarland shown as absent since Dec. 31, 1862, when the March and April muster occurs. Newton is absent since Dec. 28, 1862 in the Jan. & Feb. muster (National Archives). 


It seems that the problems with these regiments were felt by many, and our McFarland family members decided to go home, whether temporarily or permanently, only they knew. On January 7, 1863 the three dismounted cavalries, the 22nd, 31st, and 34th, along with the 15th Texas Infantry and the 20th Dismounted Cavalry, were put under the command of Col. Joseph Warren Speight, the commander of the 15th Infantry from Waco, Texas. The brigade spent January and February wintering in Indian Territory under terrible conditions (although is looks like our McFarlands had wisely gone home for the winter.) A letter home from Alfred T. Howell of the 34th described what they were missing: 

…lived for three weeks on cold flour (parched corn, ground to meal) and water. No tents, no blankets, hardly anything to leek life and soul together….Men died every day. They laid themselves down. They would not move and they died. …From Ft. Smith to the Mouth of the Kiamichi (River) where we camped, our trail was a long graveyard. (Barr 15-16) 

Considering home was only 50 plus miles away, one can see why they came home. As spring arrived, however, new marching orders began. Alexander and Speight were faced with trying to round up their missing troops, and judging from the McFarland archival records, everyone began showing back up. Newton and Arthur in the 31st were present for the muster roll for March and April, 1863, although Jasper was still absent. J. R., (James) of the 22nd is also back for that muster roll. Many were hoping to be sent East to the center of the major battles and were not looking forward to continued service in Indian Territory. Their luck changed with a change in command at the top. 

In late April, Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, the new commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department, ordered the Texas brigade to join the army of Major General Richard Taylor in Louisiana. Union forces under Gen. Nathaniel Banks were advancing and possibly threatening Shreveport, the location of department headquarters on the Red River (Barr 18).

Col. Guess and Col. Alexander had to advertise and send officers to Texas counties to forward the missing soldiers to Alexandria in Louisiana. Col. Alexander resigned this month due to poor health. The men began arriving by foot or even steamers from East Texas. The brigade numbered around 1600 men, one-third of them unarmed.When Kirby Smith inspected his reinforcements, he decided that the 15th and the 31st were acceptable, but the 22ndand the 34th needed to remain in camp and be disciplined and drilled as infantry (Barr 18-19). George W. Merrick, who began his career as a fellow private of Co. C of the 22nd Texas Cavalry had risen up the ranks and was promoted to Major by Lt. Gen. Kirby Smith at Camp Allston in June. He probably was the officer responsible for returning to Fannin County and rounding up the missing men (National Archives).

It seems that accepting their new role as foot soldiers was hard to bear for many of the proud cavalrymen. The next few months seem devoted to marching all over Louisiana, getting sick in camp, an occasional skirmish here and there, and brigade reorganizations. 

Newton was one of the many who fell sick. His records show him as being “sick at Kiametia, May 2, 1863. This continued into the last muster roll for him in February, 1864, where he was still listed as sick at Kiametia (National Archives). Kiametia was near the Red River close to Ft. Towson, Indian Territory (today this is just north of Paris, Texas). Newton never did fully recover his health, and died in 1872 at the age of 33. Sometime during this period he must have gone home to wife Sarah because she gave birth to a son, James Robert, in March, 1864. L. T. Cunningham was listed as AWOL since April 5 (National Archives).

On July 4, 1863, after a 48 day siege, Vicksburg, on the Mississippi River, surrendered to the inevitable, and five days later, the Confederates at Port Hudson, above Baton Rouge also surrendered after a six week siege. The Mississippi was now in Union hands and the Western Confederate states were cut off. The Red River Campaign could begin in earnest. 

The next battle of any note for our brigade was at Stirling’s Plantation near the Mississippi River, which had become a Federal Command Post. On September 29, a surprise attack was launched by the 15th Texas Infantry, the 11th Texas Battalion and the 31st Dismounted Cavalry, led by Major Frederick Malone. It was a huge success, the Union men had 453 captured of the total 854 men present. Of the total of 121 Confederate casualties, the brigade under Speight had 104 (Barr 27).

A new brigade had been formed and put under the command of Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac, son of the last prime minister of Charles X of France. In fact the father, Prince de Polignac was known for his arch-conservative views in support of nobility and authoritarian monarchy. Polignac’s views were so conservative that it prompted the revolution of 1830 that led to King Charles X’s resignation and exile. Camille was a professional soldier who had fought in the Crimean War, was in Central America when the Civil War began, and offered his services to the Confederacy.In his new post, Polignac was faced with the task of raising morale and discipline in the 22nd and the 34th Dismounted Cavalries. John H. Caudle was now in command of the 34th and Robert D. Stone replaced Stevens who had resigned because of his inept handling of the regiment. In October, Polignac’s command was merged with Speight’s command, joining Taylor’s army. Speight went home due to ill health, so now Polignac was commanding the 15th Texas Infantry, the 22nd, 31st, and 34th Texas Dismounted Cavalries, and the 11thTexas Battalion, and the 17th Texas Consolidated Dismounted Cavalry. The next several months were relatively quite, filled mostly with moving from camp to camp, and little or no fighting (Barr 28-29). 


On January 1, 1964 the brigade was camped in the slave quarters of the Richardson Plantation, east of Monroe, about 80 miles due east of Shreveport. (Barr 35) They moved to Harrisonburg and made camp near the Ouachita River for January and February. In February, Polignac led his men on a raid against Vidalia on the Mississippi River across from Natchez. This was their first experience with their new brigade leader, so it was very important for him that it go well. The purpose was to collect horses and mules from the Union garrison located there. They accomplished their goal and returned to camp with almost 400 head of cattle, horses, and mules, and a new respect for the commander they called “Polecat” (Barr 37).

The Union Army was continuing to make a slow thrust up the Red River Valley. This became known as the Red River Campaign. The goal was to take Shreveport, and from there move into Texas. Union gunboats were moving up river and shelling the towns as they came. At one point Harrisonburg was shelled on March 2 before being driven out by the 31st Dismounted Cavalry. On March 8, the entire brigade was ordered out of Harrisonberg to move west to meet the Union advance. 

The showdown took place near Mansfield, about 30 miles south of Shreveport. The Texas troops, along with Louisiana brigades, charged the Union lines on April 8, and pushed them into a rout. This was followed by more charges on the April 9 that ended in a stalemate, but the Union army retreated even further. The total casualties for the Texas brigade were 213. The 22nd lost four men, the 31st lost three, and the 34th lost seven, the 15th lost two, and the 17th had 23 dead - obviously the regiment that bore the brunt of the battle (Barr 41).

Polignac was promoted to Major General over the division, and Wilburn Hill King, former colonel of the 18th Texas was promoted to Brigadier General and put in charge of the Texas brigade. King, however, was wounded, so the actual command went to the senior colonel, Robert D. Stone of the 22nd Texas Dismounted Cavalry. The next month, the Texas troops were moving, following the retreating Union gunboats and ironclads. On May 14 at Bayou de Glaise, a battle was fought against Union forces, 18,000 strong. During the battle, Col. Robert Stone, brigade commander, was killed while he was reporting to General Wharton. Two hundred and eight men from the Texas brigade were killed or wounded, including 18 officers. The men later questioned whether this battle had even been necessary, given that the Union was retreating anyway (Barr 44-46). On May 18, Major George W. Merrick, leader of Co. C of the 22nd was promoted to Lt. Colonel over the battalion, and was called Merrick’s battalion till the end of the war. (National Archives)

With the conclusion of the Red River Campaign, Confederate leaders in Shreveport began considering what to do next.Gen. Bragg in Georgia wanted Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor to lead Polignac’s and Major General John G. Walker’s infantry divisions across the Mississippi. This was not a popular decision with the north Texas men who felt going that far was beyond the defense of their homeland and began deserting. Polignac’s division lost two hundred men, and Kirby Smith decided to rescind that idea because of morale issues and the Mississippi being controlled by Federal gunboats (Barr 48-49).

The Texas division was then sent north into Arkansas in September. Long marches, shortages of blankets and tents, and increasing sickness led to smaller numbers. Polignac’s division now only numbered 1,132 privates in October. Gen. Kirby Smith decided however to not winter in Arkansas where supplies were short and weather more extreme. He ordered the division to return to Louisiana to camp, where they spent time working on the road out of Shreveport. Occasionally a deserter or two would be shot. There seemed to be little attempt at keeping muster rolls during these last months of the war. The last muster roll for the Fannin county McFarlands was in the summer of 1863. They do not appear as absent or present on any documents, so their whereabouts cannot be confirmed. 

In January in Louisiana, the decision to dismount nine cavalry regiments, due to lack of forage, led to a split in the Texas brigade. Kirby Smith wanted experienced infantry to be the core of two brigades, one led by King and the other by newly promoted James E. Harrison, who had risen from the ranks of the 15th Texas Infantry. On January 20, the new Texas brigade led by Harrison, was ordered to return to Texas, much to the delight of the Texas men I am sure. The 34thhowever, was to stay behind with King’s brigade (Barr 53).

It is hard to know if the McFarlands were still with their units or not. Lee (L.T.) Cunningham, husband of Mary Jane McFarland Cunningham, certainly went home around February, 1865, because Lee and Mary Jane have a son named James who is born in October, 1865. 

By March, Harrison’s brigade had reached Hempstead, Texas in Waller County, just northwest of Houston. Polignac had left for France to try to drum up support for the Confederates and the divisions were being reorganized and retrained as infantry. Harrison’s brigade was split and Major General Sam B. Maxey was to lead a new infantry division with the 22nd and the 31st being part of the 2nd Brigade. 

On April 5, the 34th also arrived in Hempstead, made camp and began to drill. News of the collapse and surrender of the armies of Lee at Appomattox on April 9 and the assassination of Lincoln on April 15, must have sent shock waves through the Texas troops. However, the men continued to drill, and on April 24th a meeting of the 15th, 17th, 22nd, and 31st, wrote and approved a resolution of loyalty to the Confederate cause and condemned desertion as treason. However, the tide had turned, and on May 24 Harrison issued his final order with the approval of district headquarters, commanding the regimental officers to march their troops home and discharge them. This was in acknowledgement of the reality, because many units had already gone home. Thus, there was never a formal mass surrender and laying down arms, as had happened in the Southeast. Instead there was just a quite trek home (Barr 54-56).

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