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    Conducted every 10 years in the U.S. since 1790, the U.S. census attempts to enumerate the population.  Federal & State, Free, Slave, Mortality, Agriculture census records are among one of the best and most often utilized tools for genealogy research. In addition to counting the inhabitants of an area, the census generally collects other vital information, such as name, age, citizenship status, ethnic background, names of household members, occupations, education, and address.  Census records remain essentially private for 72 years; therefore, the latest census available for genealogy research is the 1940 census.  Each census can paint an invaluable portrait of a family at a particular place and time.

   Many censuses are recorded or transcribed online.  Locating free census records online can present a challenge.  With a bit of patience, you can find thousands of census links to free census transcriptions, census indexes and census images.        Also included on this webpage are city directories, and voter lists as these are records that contain much of the same type of  information, i.e. year, names, addresses, etc., as is found in a typical census document. 


1. Can’t Find My Ancestor In The Census -  Use your ancestor's street address in a city directory published close to the census year to determine the enumeration district (ED) for that census. Then browse census records by ED looking for your ancestor.

2. Look For Alternate Sources Of Birth Information. If you can't get a birth certificate, check city directories for places of worship where a baptism may have taken place. Directories also will list newspapers that may have published an announcement.

3. Narrow Down A Marriage Date. Nineteenth- and early 20th-century marriages almost always involved a change in residence by at least one of the parties. Compare city directories from year to year, looking for a man newly listed with a wife or a woman disappearing from her parents' listing.

4. Find land records. Most city directories denote whether a person owns his property, or indicate otherwise with terms such as "renter" or "boards with." A shift from renter to owner status tells you to look for deeds.

5. Narrow down a death date. Death is only one of the possible explanations for your ancestor's disappearance from city directories—but it should be one of the possibilities you explore. Widows frequently are listed as "Mrs." or labeled "wid" or "widow."

All of the records and databases listed below are FREE and can be accessed and searched without having to pay for a subscription.   We try not to list any sites that have only a few records for the purpose of getting you to a website that will charge a fee to actually see the record beyond just a name.  


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Puerto Rico

U.S. Virgin Islands


Looking For A Specific Place or Keyword ??

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Use the “Find” function in the Edit pull down menu.  You can also access this function by holding down the Control key while pressing the F key (Ctrl+F) on your keyboard.  For the best search results: PLACE = type in the first three or four words of the title; KEYWORD = type in only one word for each search.

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Census Finder


Follow the CENSUS FINDER LINK to a categorized directory of over 33,840 links to free census records online. 

States, Territories and Local Records

Arrow (red up) ALABAMA:

·         Alabama Census Data Records Online

·         Alabama State Census, 1855

·         Alabama State Census, 1866

·         Alabama Census Records

·         Alabama - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Alabama Online Historical Directories

·         Alabama Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) ALASKA:

·         Alaska Census Transcriptions

·         Alaska City and Town Directories

·         Alaska - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Alaska Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) ARIZONA:

·         Arizona Directories

·         Arizona - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Arizona Online Historical Directories

·         Arizona Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) ARKANSAS:

·         Arkansas Census Records

·         Arkansas - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Arkansas Online Historical Directories

·         Arkansas Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) CALIFORNIA:

·         California, State Census, 1852

·         California Census Records

·         California City and Town Directories

·         California - USGenWeb Census Project

·         California Online Historical Directories

·         California Directories

·         California Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) COLORADO:

·         Colorado State Census, 1885

·         1870 Federal Census Index: Colorado

·         Colorado Census Records

·         Colorado - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Colorado Census Images (USGENWEB)

·         R.L. Polk & Co.'s Pueblo city directory, 1899-1900

·         Colorado DirectoriesDistantCousin

·         1866 Denver/Auraria City Directory

·         Colorado 1900 Census Indian Industrial Schools Index

·         Colorado Online Historical Directories

·         Colorado City and Town Directories


Arrow (red up) CONNECTICUT:

·         Connecticut Census Transcriptions

·         Connecticut - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Connecticut Directories

·         Connecticut City and Town Directories

·         Meriden, Connecticut 1890 Residential, Street and Business Directory

·         Connecticut Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) DELAWARE:

·         Delaware Directories

·         Delaware - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Delaware Online Historical Directories

·         Delaware Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington, DC:

·         District of Columbia - USGenWeb Census Project

·         District of Columbia Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) FLORIDA:

·         Florida Census Transcriptions Online

·         Florida State Census, 1885

·         Florida State Census, 1935

·         Florida State Census, 1945

·         Florida Census Records

·         Florida City and Town Directories

·         Florida - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Florida Online Historical Directories

·         Florida Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) GEORGIA:

·         Georgia Directories

·         Georgia Census Transcriptions

·         Cherokee Indian Censuses, 1893-1913

·         Georgia Census Records

·         Georgia - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Georgia Online Historical Directories

·         Georgia Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) HAWAII:

·         Hawaii - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Hawai`i Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) IDAHO:

·         Idaho Directories

·         Idaho Census Online

·         Idaho City and Town Directories

·         Idaho 1890 reconstructed census file

·         1870 "non population" schedule: Idaho

·         1880 "non population" schedule: Idaho

·         Idaho - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Idaho Online Historical Directories

·         Idaho Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) ILLINOIS:

·         Illinois State Census, 1855

·         Illinois State Census, 1865 

·         Illinois Census Transcriptions

·         Illinois Directories

·         Illinois Census Records

·         Kankakee City, Illinois Directory, 1876

·         Prairie Farmers 1917 Directory of Livingston County, IL

·         Illinois - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Illinois Online Historical Directories

·         Illinois Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) INDIANA:

·         Indiana Census Records

·         Indiana - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Indiana Census Transcriptions

·         Indiana Census Images (USGENWEB)

·         Foster Children 1892-1910 

·         Census Abstracts, 1840-1910 – Allen County

·         List of Residents for Rush County, Indiana (1921)

·         Index to Census of White Males (1853) – Hendricks Co.

·         Clark County Negro and Mulatto Register

·         Clark County Negro Register

·         Franklin County Negro and Mulatto Register 

·         Orange County Negro and Mulatto Register 

·         Switzerland County Negro and Mulatto Register

·         Vigo County Negro and Mulatto Register

·         Indiana Directories

·         Allen Co., City Directories:  1858-70, 1873-77, 1889-90, 1910

·         Directory of Businesses in Hendricks Co., IN (1858)

·         Directory of Businesses in Hendricks Co., IN (1868)

·         Indiana Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) IOWA:

·         Iowa Census Transcriptions

·         Iowa Census Images (USGENWEB)

·         1836 Territorial Census: Dubuque & Des Moines

·         1838 Census of Iowa from Wisconsin Territorial Census

·         1873 State Census of Madison County, Iowa

·         Iowa State Census, 1885

·         Iowa State Census, 1895

·         Iowa, State Census, 1905

·         Iowa - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Iowa Online Historical Directories

·         Iowa Directories

·         Iowa City and Town Directories


Arrow (red up) KANSAS:

·         1855 Kansas Territorial Census

·         Kansas 1895 State Census

·         Kansas Directories

·         Kansas Census Transcriptions

·         Kansas Telephone and City Directories

·         Kansas Census Records

·         Kansas - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Kansas Census Images (USGENWEB)

·         Kansas Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) KENTUCKY:

·         Kentucky Directories

·         Kentucky Census Transcriptions

·         Kentucky Census Links

·         Kentucky Census Records

·         Kentucky - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Kentucky Online Historical Directories

·         Kentucky Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) LOUISIANA:

·         Louisiana Census Transcriptions

·         Louisiana Census Records

·         Louisiana - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Louisiana Online Historical Directories

·         Louisiana Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) MAINE:

·         Maine Directories

·         Maine Census Images (USGENWEB)

·         Maine Census Transcriptions

·         Maine Census Records

·         Maine - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Maine Online Historical Directories

·         New Portland, Somerset Co., ME, 1902 Census


Arrow (red up) MARYLAND:

·         Maryland Directories

·         Maryland Census Transcriptions

·         City Directories, Annapolis

·         City Directories, Baltimore

·         City Directories, Baltimore, Coleman Directories

·         Boyd's Business Directory for Maryland, 1875

·         Allegany County Directory 1895-96

·         Hagerstown City Directory, 1893

·         Hagerstown Telephone Directory, 1907

·         Maryland - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Maryland Online Historical Directories

·         Maryland Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) MASSACHUSETTS:

·         Massachusetts State Census, 1855

·         Massachusetts State Census, 1865

·         Massachusetts Census Records

·         Massachusetts Census Images (USGENWEB)

·         Massachusetts Census Transcriptions

·         Massachusetts Directories

·         Massachusetts County Census: Various Years

·         Massachusetts Online Historical Directories

·         Boston Directories

·         Plymouth Co., MA: Directory and Historical Register

·         Lowell, Massachusetts 1893 City Directory

·         Chicopee, Massachusetts 1927 City Directory

·         Taunton, Bristol Co., MA, Heads of Household, 1675


Arrow (red up) MICHIGAN:

·         Michigan State Census 1894

·         Michigan Directories – Distant Cousin

·         Michigan Census Transcriptions

·         Michigan: Directories

·         Michigan - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Michigan Online Historical Directories

·         Michigan Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) MINNESOTA:

·         Minnesota Directories

·         Minnesota Territorial and State Censuses, 1849-1905

·         Minnesota Territorial Census 1857

·         Minnesota, State Census, 1865

·         Minnesota State Census, 1875

·         Minnesota State Census, 1885

·         Minnesota State Census, 1895

·         Minnesota State Census, 1905

·         Minnesota State Census Records Index

·         Minnesota - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Minnesota Census Images (USGENWEB)

·         Clay Co., Minn., School Census Records 1909-1962

·         Minnesota Census Records

·         Berlin Twp., St. Clair Co., MI - 1883 Directory

·         Berlin Twp., St. Clair Co., MI - 1888 Directory

·         Berlin Twp., St. Clair Co., MI - 1893-94 Directory

·         Berlin Twp., St. Clair Co., MI - 1919 Directory

·         Minnesota Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) MISSISSIPPI:

·         Mississippi Census Transcriptions

·         Mississippi School Censuses (1850-92, 1908-57)

·         Lawrence Co., Miss: 1850 Census Transcription

·         Mississippi - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Mississippi Online Historical Directories

·         Mississippi Census Images (USGENWEB)



Arrow (red up) MISSOURI:

·         Missouri Directories

·         Missouri Census Transcriptions

·         Missouri Census Records

·         Missouri: 1940 Census

·         Missouri - USGenWeb Census Project

·         Hannibal, MO: City Directories (1859-1925)

·         Tri-County Directory for 1892-93 (Adams,IL; Marion & Lewis, MO)

·         Missouri Online Historical Directories

·         Missouri Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) MONTANA:

·    Montana Directories

·    Montana Census Transcriptions

·    Montana - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Montana Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) NEBRASKA:

·    Nebraska Directories

·    Nebraska Census Transcriptions

·    Nebraska Telephone Directories

·    Nebraska Census Records

·    Nebraska City and Town Directories

·    South Omaha, Nebraska 1914 City Directory

·    Nebraska - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Nebraska Online Historical Directories

·    Nebraska Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) NEVADA:

·    Nevada Census Database

·    Nevada Census Transcriptions

·    Nevada Census Records

·    Nevada Territorial Census Records 1861-1864

·    Nevada City and Town Directories

·    Nevada Directories

·    Nevada - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Nevada Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) NEW HAMPSHIRE:

·    New Hampshire Census Transcriptions

·    New Hampshire Directories

·    Nashua, New Hampshire 1892 City Directory

·    New Hampshire - USGenWeb Census Project

·    New Hampshire Online Historical Directories

·    New Hampshire Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) NEW JERSEY:

·    New Jersey State Census 1885

·    Passaic County and Atlantic City Census, 1885

·    New Jersey Directories

·    New Jersey Census Transcriptions Online

·    New Jersey Census Records

·    New Jersey, State Census, 1905

·    New Jersey - USGenWeb Census Project

·    New Jersey Online Historical Directories

·    New Jersey Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) NEW MEXICO:

·    New Mexico - USGenWeb Census Project

·    New Mexico Online Historical Directories

·    New Mexico Census Images (USGENWEB)


Arrow (red up) NEW YORK:

·    New York Census Transcriptions

·    New York State: Census Records

·    New York - USGenWeb Census Project

·    New York, State Census, 1855

·    New York State Census, 1865

·    New York, State Census, 1875

·    New York State Census, 1892

·    New York State Census, 1905

·    New York State Census, 1915

·    New York State Census, 1925

·    New York Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    New York Directories

·    Binghamton, New York 1900 City Directory

·    Seneca County, New York 1914 Farm Directory

·    Tompkins County, New York 1914 Farm Directory

·    Schuyler County, New York 1914 Farm Directory

·    Yates County, New York 1914 Farm Directory

·    Troy, New York 1877 City Directory

·    Middletown, New York 1913 Residential Directory

·    Poughkeepsie, New York 1904 City Directory

·    Rochester, New York 1918 City Directory

·    New York Online Historical Directories

·    Civil List of New York, 1693

·    Ulster Co., NY, Male Inhabitants, 1689


Arrow (red up) NORTH CAROLINA:

·    North Carolina Directories

·    North Carolina Online Historical Directories

·    North Carolina Census Records

·    North Carolina Census Transcriptions

·    North Carolina - USGenWeb Census Project

·    North Carolina Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Buncombe Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    Craven Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    Cumberland Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    Durham Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    Guilford Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    Mecklenburg Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    New Hanover Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    Randolph Co., NC Online Historical Directories

·    Wake County, North Carolina Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) NORTH DAKOTA:

·    Territorial Census, 1860

·    Dakota Territory 1885 Census

·    North Dakota Census Transcriptions

·    North Dakota - USGenWeb Census Project

·    North Dakota Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    North Dakota Directories

·    North Dakota City and Town Directories

·    North Dakota Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) OHIO:

·    Ohio Census Transcriptions

·    Ohio Census Records

·    Ohio - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Ohio Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Ohio Directories

·    Ohio City and Town Directories

·    Fremont, Ohio 1927 Residential and Business Directory

·    Walsh's 1928 Dover Ohio City Directory

·    Ohio Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) OKLAHOMA:

·    Oklahoma Census Transcriptions

·    Oklahoma - USGenWeb Census Project

·    1890 Oklahoma Territorial Census Index

·    Oklahoma Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    1896 Applications for Enrollment – Dawes Commission

·    School Reports from Dawes Commission Records

·    Smith's First Directory of Oklahoma Territory

·    Oklahoma City and Town Directories

·    Oklahoma Directories

·    Oklahoma Territory Directory 1890-91

·    Oklahoma Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) OREGON:

·    Oregon Historical Census Records Index

·    Oregon Census Transcriptions

·    Oregon Census Records

·    Oregon - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Oregon City and Town Directories

·    Oregon Directories

·    Oregon Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) PENNSYLVANIA:

·    Pennsylvania Census Records

·    Pennsylvania - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Pennsylvania Census Transcriptions

·    1927 Triennial Agriculture Census

·    Pennsylvania Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Pennsylvania Directories

·    Du Bois, Pennsylvania 1929 City Directory

·    Pennsylvania Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) PUERTO RICO:

·    Puerto Rico - USGenWeb Census Project


Arrow (red up) RHODE ISLAND:

·    Rhode Island Census Transcriptions

·    Rhode Island - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Rhode Island, State Census, 1885

·    Rhode Island, State Census, 1905

·    Rhode Island State Census, 1915

·    Rhode Island State Census, 1925

·    Rhode Island State Census 1935

·    Rhode Island Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Rhode Island Directories

·    Rhode Island Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) SOUTH CAROLINA:

·    South Carolina Census Records

·    South Carolina Census Transcriptions

·    South Carolina - USGenWeb Census Project

South Carolina Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    South Carolina Directories

·    South Carolina Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) SOUTH DAKOTA:

·    South Dakota - USGenWeb Census Project

·    South Dakota Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Territorial Census, 1860

·    Dakota Territory 1885 Census

·    South Dakota State Census, 1905

·    South Dakota State Census, 1915

·    South Dakota State Census, 1925

·    South Dakota State Census, 1935

·    South Dakota State Census, 1945

·    South Dakota City and Town Directories

·    South Dakota Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) TENNESSEE:

·    Tennessee - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Tennessee Census Transcriptions

·    Tennessee Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Memphis Census 1865

·    Tennessee Directories

·    Memphis City Directories 1859-1918

·    Nashville City Directories

·    Tennessee Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) TEXAS:

·    Texas Census Transcriptions

·    Texas Census Records

·    Texas - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Texas Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Matagorda Co., TX, School Census, 1923-1946

·    Texas Directories

·    Texas City and Town Directories

·    Texas Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) UTAH:

·    Utah - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Utah City and Town Directories

·    Utah Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) VERMONT:

·    Vermont Census Transcriptions

·    Vermont - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Vermont Directories

·    Saxtons River Census, 1920

·    Vermont Online Historical Directories

·    Fairfield, Franklin Co., VT, Census


Arrow (red up) VIRGINIA:

·    Virginia - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Virginia Census Records

·    Virginia Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Jamestown City, VA Census - 1624

·    Virginia Directories

·    Virginia Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) WASHINGTON:

·    Washington - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Washington Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Washington Census Transcriptions

·    Washington Directories

·    Washington Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) WEST VIRGINIA:

·    West Virginia - USGenWeb Census Project

·    West Virginia Census Transcriptions

·    West Virginia Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    West Virginia Directories

·    West Virginia Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) WISCONSIN:

·    Wisconsin Census Transcriptions

·    Wisconsin - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Wisconsin Census Images (USGENWEB)

·    Wisconsin State Census, 1855

·    Wisconsin, State Census, 1865

·    Wisconsin State Census, 1875

·    Wisconsin State Census, 1885

·    Wisconsin State Census, 1895

·    Wisconsin State Census, 1905

·    Wisconsin Directories

·    Wisconsin Online Historical Directories


Arrow (red up) WYOMING:

·    Wyoming - USGenWeb Census Project

·    Wyoming Online Historical Directories


World, National and Regional Records

Arrow (red up) UNITED STATES:

·    Estimated European Population of American Colonies 1620 to 1780

·    United States Census, 1790 

·    United States Census, 1800 

·    United States Census, 1810 

·    United States Census, 1820 

·    United States Census, 1830 

·    United States Census, 1840 

·    United States Census (Mortality Schedule), 1850

·    United States Census (Slave Schedule), 1850

·    United States Census, 1850

·    United States Census, 1860

·    United States Census, 1870

·    United States Census, 1880

·    1880 United States Federal Census

·    United States Census, 1890

·    United States, 1890 Census of Union Civil War Veterans & Widows

·    United States Census, 1900

·    United States Census, 1910

·    United States Census, 1920

·    United States Census, 1930

·    United States Census, 1940

·    U.S. Japanese Americans Relocated During WWII, 1942-46

·    U.S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, 1850-1880

·    City Directories Database – at Rootsweb

·    Native American - USGenWeb Census Project

·    U.S. Military & Naval Forces - USGenWeb Census Project

Arrow (red up) WORLD:


·    1881 England Census


·    1881 Wales Census

Isle of Man:

·    1881 Isle of Man Census

Northern Ireland:

·    Street Directories, 1819 to 1900


·    1901 and 1911 Censuses of Ireland

·    Griffith’s Valuation; 1847 - 1864

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The following are links to websites that may provide you with specific genealogical information to assist with organizing and evaluating your research.

Record Research

·    U.S. Census Bureau: FAQs

·    Records of the Bureau of the Census

·    CensusTools - Quality Genealogy Spreadsheets for Census ...

·    The Basics of Using Federal Census Records

·    City Directories for Genealogy | ProGenealogists

·    Census - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

·    United States Census Analyzing Census Data

·    Organize, Store and Display Census Data

·    Guide to Family History Research: Federal Census Records

·    Directories: City, County, Address, etc.



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-- This webpage was last updated on --

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Dig for Roots

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