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Creation of Knox County

In 1786 the first habitation was erected on the present site of Knoxville. At the time affairs in the West were in a state of deep ferment and grave uncertainty, Indeed such was the condition all over the country. The germ of Knoxville lay in White's Fort which was founded by Col James White upon the extreme border land of the Indian country. He had entered the region thereabout as payment for his services in the Revolutionary war. To reward the valor and heroism of her officers and soldiers in that war, North Carolina gave of her immense domain westward large grants of land for their services, reserving only as hunting grounds for the Cherokee Indians, the region included within the Tennessee, French Broad, and Big Pigeon Rivers, east to the North Carolina line and south to that of Georgia.

Immediately after the passage of this act by the North Carolina legislature in 1783, James White, in company with Robert Love, FA Ramsey, who was a practical surveyor, and others, began an exploration to select the most advantageous regions open for the location of land warrants. This party, beginning its work on the French Broad river not far from where Newport now stands, followed its valleys southwestward to the mouth of Dumplin creek where they crossed over into the lands lying between the French Broad and Holston rivers. Crossing the Holston several miles above the present site of Knoxville, and entering Grassy valley, they examined the lands adjacent to the Holston as far as its confluence with the then Tennessee river opposite the present Lenoir City, thus passing through the territory which was to include the future Knoxville. It is maintained that this exploration was continued as far down the river as Southwest Point now Kingston.

With the passage of the act of the North Carolina legislature in May, 1783, for the sale and disposition of western lands and with the entry of much of these by May, 1784 in the land office at Hillsboro, the strong tide of emigration from North Carolina poured into what is now Tennessee, thus counterbalancing that influx of population which had hitherto flowed from Virginia. Returning to his North Carolina home Col White made preparation to move. In 1784 he went to Fort Chiswell, Virginia, where he made a crop. By 1785 he had settled in the new territory and was sitting in the councils.

The years intervening between the establishment of White's Fort and the formation of the Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio, (1786 to 1790) were full of keen interest to the settlers. Despite Indian depredations and murders the conflicts of state and national authorities internal dissensions and factional differences, the settlement of James White continued to grow until by the time Governor William Blount had fixed upon it as the seat of territorial government, it had become a somewhat densely populated community. The year 1786 was particularly favorable for growth bringing comparative freedom from Indian incursions and outrages, in view of the concessions made by the Hopewell treaty. The immigrant profited by it and swelled the increasing tide of population, or pushed on beyond.

In view of its urgent necessity Col White erected on the creek just east of the fort a small tub mill, the infant industry of Knoxville. The same year that saw the building of White's Fort, John Adair's station was established five miles northeast as a supply store for the Cumberland guards who were entrusted with the safe conveyance of settlers through the wilderness to the Cumberland settlements. Stations were founded further westward in rapid succession so that by 1787 the cutting and opening of a wagon road, by way of Campbell's station and the lower end of Clinch mountain to the Cumberland country became a matter of legislation on the part of the North Carolina legislature.


A step of far reaching consequence to the young settlement was now taken. In 1789, North Carolina, as payment of all obligations incurred in the Revolutionary war which were to be assumed by the general government, ceded to the United States all right and title to the Tennessee country. In the spring of 1790, the transfer was completed. While James White is justly regarded the father and founder of Knoxville by his side as the next most conspicuous figure in her early history stands. William Blount, commissioned governor of the Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio by Washington on June 8, 1790, Blount from the largeness of his ideas and the wisdom of his policy may be termed appropriately the Pericles of Tennessee. His appointment was an auspicious event for Knoxville as subsequent events proved.

The court took immediate steps to make Knoxville accessible to all portions of the county by opening roads and highways, a wise measure which the present generation has sought to improve upon by the construction of thoroughfares that are models. Alexander Cunningham was granted permission to keep a public ferry at his landing opposite Knoxville and south across the Holston roads were laid out leading to Col Alexander Kelly's mill, and to David Craig's on Nine Mile creek, north to the ford of the Clinch river, west to Campbell's station, and east to the mouth of French Broad river.

Likewise to meet the ends of justice at the same time January 26, 1793, the court authorizes the same commissioners to let contract for building a courthouse. Two months before this, the governor and territorial judges Campbell and Anderson, had passed an act authorizing the courts of the several counties to levy taxes for the repairing or building of court houses, prisons, and stocks, and for other expenses incurred.

Knox County was created on  June 11,1792 by Territorial Governor William Blount from parts of Greene and Hawkins counties. Governor Blount designated Knoxville as the capital of the Territory South of the River Ohio.

In 1793, the first National troops were stationed in Knoxville under the command of Captain Carr, a Revolutionary War officer. His lieutenant wa named Rickard. It is said that the convention of 1796 was held in the barracks, across from the courthouse. This same year Col Christy, commander of the US troops in Knoxville died and was buried at College Hill.

December 30, 1793: Letter from John Stagg to Samuel Hodgdon: Since the Delaware River is obstructed with ice, Hodgdon is directed to forward the clothing for the troops at Knoxville by land carriage to Andrew Nicholson, the merchant at Manchester. Instructions will be forthcoming relative to the transport from that place to Knoxville. Hodgdon is also to forward a chest of medicines, marked for Capt. Kerr's company, at present commanded by Lt. William Rickard. (Source:

The first Territoral Assembly met at Knoxville on the 4th Monday of February, 1794. The were thirteen members present, representing nine counties.

The move toward statehood:

In accordance with the act of enumeration a census was ordered by the governor and taken by the sheriffs in their respective counties. By November 28th all returns were made and the governor announced to the President the result. The population 77,262 was found to exceed greatly the required number. There were nine thousand voters and sixty-five hundred of these expressed preference for the organization of the state. Wherefore Governor Blount issued a proclamation calling upon each county to choose in December five delegates to a constitutional convention called to meet in Knoxville on January 11, 1796. Elections were held Knox county sent a delegation composed of William Blount, James White, Charles McClung, John Adair, and John Crawford, the delegates met and drafted a constitution characterized by Thomas Jefferson as the least imperfect and most republican of any of the constitutions adopted up to that time. After some delay in congress, caused by political jealousy, on June 1, 1796, Tennessee was admitted into the Union with its capital at Knoxville.

November 23, 1796: James MacHenry to John Harriss: Letter, directs delivery of stores and medicines to Samuel Hodgden, for transport to Knoxville. Subscript by Hodgden, asking that the above be delivered to Colonel Henry's wagoner.

November 23, 1796: James MacHenry to John Harriss: Letter, directs delivery of stores and medicines to Samuel Hodgden, for transport to Knoxville. Subscript by Hodgden, asking that the above be delivered to Colonel Henry's wagoner.

March 8, 1798: Requests James McHenry to John Harriss: Directs issue of a horse, tack, harness, holsters, and pistols for an officer at Knoxville.

June 29, 1798 Samuel Hodgdon to James McHenry: Enclosed are lists of tools wanted at Pittsburgh and Knoxville, noting those that are in the public store and those that must be purchased.

December 12, 1798: Sugar and coffee needed at Knoxville.

April 14, 1799 Request for issue of tents to Knoxville: James McHenry to John Harris: Directs tents to Knoxville. (Source:

June 21, 1799 Request for armorer's tools James McHenry to John Harriss

November 11, 1799: James McHenry to John Harriss: Directs issue of clothing to troops near Knoxville, TN for cavalry, the 1st Regiment of Artillery and the 3rd and 4th Infantry Regiments



 . Knoxville served as the capital of the State of Tennessee from 1796 to 1812, with the exception of one day in 1807, when the legislature met in Kingston to fulfill a treaty obligation with the Cherokee, and again from 1817-18. Frontier leader General John Sevier, a resident of Knox County, served as governor of Tennessee from 1796-1801 and 1803-1809, most of Knoxville's years as the state capital. Since no state capitol building was constructed until 1845, when work began on the capitol building in Nashville, the general assembly met in taverns and public buildings.  Blount Mansion (1792), the home of Territorial Governor Blount, is the most historically significant dwelling surviving in Knox County from the pre-statehood era. It is the only National Historic Landmark in the county (See full list here). It was one of the original counties when Tennessee was admitted  as the 16th state on June 1st, 1796.  It is located just below where the French Broad and Holston rivers combine to form the Tennessee river. Knox County is a land of lakes and rivers, it is cradled by mountains. From several locations in Knox County one can look to the East and see the Great Smokey Mountains and look to the West and see the Cumberland Mountains.  One of the best places to do this is Pellissippi Parkway.

Early Forts and Stations