Florida Tribe Index
Cherokee Chief
Cherokee Chief
Flordia Tribes Index


Acuera tribe: Meaning unknown (acu signifies "and" and also "moon").

Acuera tribe: Connections - This tribe belonged to the Timucuan 
or Timuquanan linguistic division of the Muskhogean linguistic family.

Acuera tribe: Location - Apparently about the headwaters of the 
Ocklawaha River.

Acuera tribe: Towns - (See Utina.)

Acuera tribe: History - The Acuera were first noted by De Soto in 
a letter written at Tampa Bay to the civil cabildo of Santiago de 
Cuba. According to information transmitted to him by his officer Baltazar 
de Gallegos, Acuera was "a large town . . . where with much convenience 
we might winter," but the Spaniards did not in fact pass through it, 
though, while they were at Ocale, they sent to Acuera for corn. The 
name appears later in Laudonniere's narrative of the second French 
expedition to Florida, 1564-65 (1586), as a tribe allied with the 
Utina. It is noted sparingly in later Spanish documents but we learn 
that in 1604 there was an encounter between these Indians and Spanish 
troops and that there were two Acuera missions in 1655, San Luis and 
Santa Lucia, both of which had disappeared by 1680. The inland position 
of the Acuera is partly responsible for the few notices of them. The 
remnant was probably gathered into the "Pueblo de Timucua," which 
stood near St. Augustine in 1736, and was finally removed to the Mosquito 
Lagoon and Halifax River in Volusia County, where Tomoka River keeps 
the name alive.

Acuera tribe: Population - This is nowhere given by itself. (See 

Aguacaleyquen tribe: see Utina.

Ais tribe: Meaning unknown; there is no basis for Romans' (1775)
derivation from the Choctaw word "isi" (deer). Also called:

Jece tribe: form of the name given by Dickenson (1699).

Jece tribe: Connections - Circumstantial evidence, particularly 
resemblance in town names, leads to the conclusion that the Ais language 
was similar to that of the Calusa and the other south Florida tribes. 
(See Calusa.) It is believed that the Jece tribe  was connected 
with the Muskhogean stock.

Jece tribe: Location - Along Indian River on the east coast of the 

Jece tribe: Villages
The only village mentioned by explorers and geographers bears  some 
form of the tribal name.

Jece tribe: History - Fontaneda (1854) speaks of a Biscayan named 
Pedro who had been held prisoner in Ais, evidently during the sixteenth 
century, and spoke the Ais language fluently. Shortly after the Spaniards 
made their first establishments in the peninsula, a war  broke out 
with the Ais, but peace was concluded in 1570. In 1597 Governor Mendez 
de Canco, who traveled along the entire east coast from the head of 
the Florida Keys to St. Augustine, reported that the Ais chief had 
more Indians under him than any other. A little later the Ais killed 
a Spaniard and two Indians sent to them by Canco for which summary 
revenge was exacted, and still later a difficulty was created by the 
escape of two Negro slaves and their marriage with Ais men. Relations 
between the Floridian government and these Indians were afterward 
friendly but efforts to missionize them uniformly failed. An intimate 
picture of their condition in 1699 is given by the Quaker Dickenson 
(1803), who was ship-wrecked on the coast farther south and obliged, 
with his companions, to travel through their territory. They disappear 
from history after 1703, but the
remnant may have been among those who, according to Romans (1775), 
passed over to Cuba in 1763, although he speaks of them all as Calusa.

Jece tribe: Population - Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians 
on the southeastern coast of Florida in 1650, including this tribe, 
the Tekesta, Guacata, and Jeaga, to have been 1,000. As noted above, 
the Ais were the most important of these and undoubtedly the largest. 
We have no other estimates of population applying to the seventeenth 
century. In 1726, 88 "Costa" Indians were reported in a mission farther 
north and these may have been drawn from the southeast coast. In 1728, 
52 "Costa" Indians were reported.

Jece tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The Ais 
were noted as the most important tribe of southeastern Florida, and 
they were probably responsible for the fact that the water course 
on which they dwelt came to be called Indian River.

Alabama tribe: Early in the eighteenth century the Pawokti, and 
perhaps some other Alabama bands, lived near Apalachicola River, whence 
they were driven in 1708. After the Creek-American War a part of the 
Alabama again entered Florida, but they do not seem to have maintained 
an independent existence for a very long period. (See Alabama.)

Amacano tribe: A tribe or band perhaps connected with the Yamasee, 
placed in a mission on the Apalachee coast in 1674 with two others, 
Chine, and Caparaz (q. v.). The three together had 300 souls. 

Amacapiras Tribe: see Macapiras tribe.

Apalachee tribe: Meaning perhaps "people on the other side" (as 
in Hitchiti), or it may be cognate with Choctaw apelachi, "a helper."

Apalachee tribe: Connections - These Indians belonged to the Muskhogean 
linguistic family, their closest connections having been apparently 
the Hitchiti and Alabama.

Apalachee tribe: Location - The Apalachee towns, with few exceptions, 
were compactly situated in the neighborhood of the present Florida 
capital, Tallahassee. (See also Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.)

Apalachee tribe: Villages
Aute, 8 or 9 days' journey from the main towns and apparently 
southwest of them.
Ayubale, 77 leagues from St. Augustine.
Bacica, probably near the present Waczssa River.
Bscuica, seemingly somewhat removed from the main group 
of towns.
Calahuchi, north of the main group of towns and not certainly 
Cupayca, location uncertain; its name seems to be in Timucua.
Ibitachuco, 75 leagues from St. Augustine.
Iniahica, close to the main group of towns, possibly the 
Timucua  name for one of the others given, since hica is the Timucua 
word for "town".
Ochete, on the coast 8 leagues south of Iniahica.
Ocuia, 84 leagues from St. Augustine.
Ospalaga, 86 leagues from St. Augustine.
Pstali, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.
Talimali, 88 leagues from St. Augustine and very likely 
identical with Iniahica.
Talpatqui, possibly identical with the preceding.
Tomoli, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.
Uzela, on or near Ocilla River.
Yapalaga, near the main group of towns.
Ychutafun, on Apalachicola River.
Yecambi, 90 leagues from St. Augustine.

A few other villiage names for the Apalachee tribe are contained 
in various writings or placed upon sundry charts, but some of these 
belonged to distinct tribes and were located only temporarily among 
the Apalachee; others are not mentioned elsewhere but appear to belong 
in the same category; and still others are simply names of missions 
and may apply to certain of the towns mentioned above. Thus Chacatos 
evidently refers to the Chatot tribe, Tama to the Tamali, and Oconi 
probably to a branch of the Oconee mentioned elsewhere. The Chines 
were a body of Chatot and derived their name from a chief. Among names 
which appear only in Spanish we find Santa Fe. Capola and Ilcombe, 
given on the Popple Map, were probably occupied by Guale and Yamasee 
refugees. A late Apalachee settlement was called San Marcos.

Apalachee tribe: History - The Apalachee seem to appear first in 
history in the chronicles of the Narvaez expedition (Bandelier, 1905). 
The explorers spent nearly a month in an Apalachee town in the year 
1628 but were subjected to constant attacks on the part of the warlike 
natives, who pursued them during their withdrawal to a coast town 
named Aute. In October 1539, De Soto arrived in the Apalachee province 
and remained there the next winter in spite of the unceasing hostility 
of the natives, who well maintained the reputation for prowess they 
had acquired 11 years before. Although the province is mentioned from 
time to time by the first French and Spanish colonists of Florida, 
it did not receive much attention until the tribes between it and 
St. Augustine had been pretty well missionized. In a letter written 
in 1607 we learn that the Apalachee had asked for missionaries and, 
although one paid a visit to them the next year, the need is reiterated 
at frequent intervals. It was not until 1633, however, that the work 
was actually begun. In that year two monks entered the country and 
the conversion proceeded very rapidly so that by 1647 there were seven 
churches and convents and eight of the principal chiefs had been baptized. 
In that year, however, a great rebellion took place. Three missionaries 
were killed and all of the churches with their sacred objects were 
destroyed. An expedition sent against the insurgents was repulsed, 
but shortly afterward the movement collapsed, apparently through a 
counterrevolution in the tribe itself. After this most of the Apalachee 
sought baptism and there was no further trouble between them and the 
Spaniards except for a brief sympathetic movement at the time of the 
Timucua uprising of 1656. The outstanding complaint on the part of 
the Indians was that some of them were regularly commandeered to work 
on the fortifications of St. Augustine. In 1702 a large Apalachee 
war party was severely defeated by Creek Indians assisted by some 
English traders, and in 1704 an expedition from South Carolina under 
Colonel Moore practically destroyed the nation. Moore claims to have 
carried away the people of three towns and the greater part of the 
population of four more and to have left but two towns and part of 
another. Most of these latter appear to have fled to Mobile, where, 
in 1705, they were granted land on which to settle. The Apalachee 
who had been carried off by Moore were established near New Windsor, 
S. C., but when the Yamasee War broke out they joined the hostile 
Indians and retired for a time to the Lower Creeks. Shortly afterward 
the English faction among the Lower Creeks became ascendant and the 
Apalachee returned to Florida, some remaining near their old country 
and others settling close to Pensacola to be near their relatives 
about Mobile. 

By 1718 another Apalachee settlement had been organized by the Spaniards 
near San Marcos de Apalache and close to their old country. In 1728 
we hear of two small Apalachee towns in this neighborhood. Most of 
them gravitated finally to the neighborhood of Pensacola. In 1764, 
the year after all French and Spanish possessions east of the Mississippi 
passed into the hands of Great Britain, the Apalachee, along with 
several other tribes, migrated into Louisiana, now held by Spain, 
and settled on Red River, where they and the Taensa conjointly occupied 
8 miles of land between Bayou d'Arro and Bayou Jean de Jean. Most 
of this land was sold in 1803 and the Apalachee, reduced to a small 
band, appear to have moved about in the same general region until 
they disappeared. They are now practically forgotten, though a few 
mixed-blood Apalachee are still said to be in existence. A few accompanied 
the Creeks to Oklahoma.

Apalachee tribe: Population - Mooney (1928) estimates 7,000 Apalachee 
Indians in 1650, a figure which seems to me to be ample. Governor 
Salazar's mission-by-mission estimate in 1675 yielded a total of 6,130, 
and a Spanish memorial dated 1676 gives them a population of 5,000. 
At the time of Moore's raid there appear to have been about 2,000. 
The South Carolina Census of 1715 gives 4 Apalachee villages, 275 
men, and 638 souls. As the Mobile Apalachee were shortly afterward 
reduced to 100 men, the number of the entire tribe in 1715 must have 
been about 1,000 By 1758 they appear to have fallen to not much over 
100, and in 1814 Sibley reported but 14 men in the Louisiana band, 
signifying a total of perhaps 50 (Sibley, 1832). Morse's estimate 
(1822) of 150 in 1817 is evidently considerably too high.

Apalachee tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The 
Apalachee were mentioned repeatedly as a powerful and warlike people, 
and this character was attested by their stout resistance to Narvaez 
and De Soto. Thc sweeping destruction which overtook them at the hands 
of the Creeks and Carolinians mark an epoch in Southeastern history. 
Their name is preserved in Apalachee Bay and River, Fla.; Apalachee 
River, Ga., Apalachee River, Ala.; and most prominently of all, in 
the Appalachian Mountains, and other terms derived from them. Tallahassee, 
the capital of Florida, the name of which signifies "Old Town," is 
on the site of San Luis de Talimali, the principal Spanish mission 
center. There is a post village named Apalachee in Morgan County, 

Apalachicola tribe: At times some of the Apalachicola Indians lived 
south of the present Florida boundary line and they gave their name 
to the great river which runs through the panhandle of that State. 
(See Georgia.)

Calusa tribe: Said by a Spaniard, Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, 
who was a captive among them for many years, to mean "fierce people," 
but it is perhaps more probable that, since it often appears in the 
form Carlos, it was, as others assert, adopted by the Calusa chief 
from the name of the Emperor Charles V, about whose greatness he had 
learned from Spanish prisoners.

Calusa tribe: Connection - From the place names and the few expressions 
recorded by Fontaneda, I suspect that the Calusa were connected linguistically 
with the Muskhogean stock and particularly with that branch of it 
to which the Apalachee and Choctaw Celonged, but no definite conclusion 
on this point is as yet possible. 

Calusa tribe: Location - On the west coast of the Peninsula of Florida 
southward of Tampa Bay and including the Florida Keys. The Indians 
in the interior, about Lake Okeechobee, while forming a distinct group, 
seem also to have been Calusa.

Calusa tribe: Subdivisions - Unknown, except as indicated above.

Calusa tribe: Villages
In the following list the letters (S) and (I) indicate respectively 
towns belonging to the (S)eacoast Division and those of the (I)nterior 
Division about Lake Okeechobee Beyond this allocation the positions 
of most of the towns may be indicated merely in a general manner, 
by reference to neighboring towns.
Abir (I), between Neguitun and Cutespa.
Alcola (or Chosa), location uncertain.
Apojola Negra, the first word is Timucua; the second seems to be Spanish; 
location unknown.
Calaobe (S).
Caragara, between Namuguya and Henhenguepa.
Casitoa (S), between Muspa and Cotebo.
Cayovea (S).
Cayucar, between Tonco and Neguitun.
Chipi, between Tomcobe and Taguagemae.
Chosa (see Alcola).
Comachica (S).
Cononoguay, between Cutespa and Estegue.
Cotebo, between Casitoa and Coyobia.
Coyobia, between Cotebo and Tequemapo.
Cuchiyaga, said to be southwest from Bahia Honda and 40 leagues northeast 
of Guarungube, probably on Big Pine Key.
Custavui, south of Jutun.
Cutespa (I), between Abir and Cononoguay.
Elafay, location uncertain.
Enempa (I).
Estame (S), between Metamapo and Sacaspada.
Estantapaca, between Yagua and Queyhicha.
Estegue, between Cononoguay and Tomsobe.
Excuru, between Janar and Metamapo.
Guarungube, "on the point of the Martyrs," and thus probably near 
Key West.
Guevu (S).
Henhenguepa, between Caragara and Ocapataga.
Janar, between Ocapataga and Escuru.
Judyi, between Satucuava and Soco.
Juestocobaga, between Queyhicha and Sinapa.
Jutun (S), between Tequemapo and Custavui.
Metamapo (S), between Escuru and Estame.
Muspa (S), between Teyo and Casitoa.
Numuguya, between Taguagemae and Caragara.
Neguitun, between Cayucar and Abir.
No or Non (S).
Ocapataga, between Henhenguepa and Janar.
Queyhicha, between Estantapaca and Juestocobaga.
Quisiyove (S).
Sacaspada (S), between Estame and Satucuava.
Satucuava, between Sacaspada and Judyi.
Sinaesta (S).
Sinapa (S), between Juestocobaga and Tonco.
Soco, between Judyi and Vuebe.
Taguagemae, between Chipi and Namuguya.
Tampa (S), the northernmost town, followed on the south by Yegua, 
and probably on Charlotte Harbor.
Tatesta (S), between the Tequesta tribe and Cuchiyaga, about 80 leagues 
north of the latter, perhaps at the innermost end of the Keys.
Tavaguemue (I).
Tequemapo (S), between Goyobia and Jutun.
Teyo, between Vuebe and Muspa.
Tiquijagua (?).
Tomo (S).
Tomsobe (I), between Estegue and Chipi.
Tonco, between Sinapa and Cayucar.
Tuchi (S).
Vuebe, between Soco and Teyo, possibly the same as Guevu.
Yagua (S), between Tampa and Estantapaca.

Calusa tribe: History - Most early navigators who touched upon the 
west coast of Florida must have encountered the Calusa but the first 
definite appearance of the tribe historically is in connection with 
shipwrecks of Spanish fleets, particularly the periodical treasure 
fleet from Mexico, upon the Calusa coast. These catastrophes threw 
numerous Spanish captives into the hands of the natives and along 
with them a quantity of gold and silver for which the Calusa shortly 
became noted. Ponce de Leon visited them in 1513, Miruelo in 1516, 
Cordova in 1517; and Ponce, during a later expedition in 1521, received 
from them a mortal wound from which he died after reaching Cuba. Most 
of our early information regarding the Calusa is obtained from Fontaneda 
(1854), who was held captive in the tribe from about 1561 to 1669. 
At the time when St. Augustine was settled attempts were made to establish 
a post among these Indians and to missionize them, but the post had 
soon to be withdrawn and the missionary attempt proved abortive.

The Calusa do not seem to have been converted to Christianity during 
the entire period of Spanish control. While their treatment of castaways 
was restrained, in every other respect they appear to have continued 
their former manner of existence, except that they resorted more and 
more to Havana for purposes of trade. Outside of a steady diminution 
in numbers there is little to report of them until the close of the 
Seminole War. The Seminole, when hard pressed by the American forces, 
moved south into the Everglade region and there came into contact 
with what was left of the Calusa. Romans (1775) states that the last 
of the Calusa emigrated to Cuba in 1763, but probably the Indians 
who composed this body were from the east coast and were not true 
Calusa. The Calusa themselves appear about this time under the name 
Muspa, which, it will be seen, was the designation of one of  their 
towns. On the movement of the Seminole into their country they became 
involved in hostilities with the American troops, and a band of Muspa 
attacked the camp of Colonel Harney in 1839 killing 18, out of 30 
men. July 23 of the same year Harney fell upon the Spanish Indians, 
killed their chief, and hung six of his followers,. The same band 
later killed a botanist named Perrine living on Indian Key and committed 
other depredations. The Calusa may have been represented by the "Choctaw 
band" of Indians, which appears among the Seminole shortly after this 
time. The Seminole now in Oklahoma assert that a body of Choctaw came 
west with them when they were moved from Florida, but the only thing 
certain as to the Calusa is that we hear no more about them. Undoubtedly 
some did not go west and either became incorporated with the Florida 
Seminole or crossed to Cuba. 

Calusa tribe: Population  - Mooney's (1928) estimate of 3,000 Calusa 
Indians in 1650 is probably as near the truth as any estimate that 
could be suggested. No census and very few estimates of the population, 
even of the most partial character, are recorded. An expedition sent 
into the Calusa country in 1680 passed through 5 villages said to 
have had a total population of 960, but this figure can be accepted 
only with the understanding that these villages were principal centers. 
In the band that attacked Harney in 1839 there were said to be 250 

Calusa tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - When 
first discovered the Calusa were famous for the power of their chiefs, 
the amount of gold which they had obtained from Spanish treasure ships, 
and for their addiction to human sacrifice. Their name persists in 
that of Caloosahatchee River and probably also in that of Charlotte 
Harbor. Another claim to distinction is the adoption by their chief 
of the name of the great Emperor Charles- if that was indeed the case. 
The only similar instance would seem to be in the naming of the Delaware 
Indians, but that was imposed upon the Lenni Lenape, not adopted by 

Caparaz tribe: A small tribe or band placed in 1674 in connection 
with a doctrine called San Luis on the Apalachee coast along with 
two other bands called Amacano and Chine. Possibly they may have been 
survivors of the Capachequi encountered by De Soto in 1540. The three 
bands were estimated to contain 300 people.

Chatot tribe: Meaning unknown, but the forms of this word greatly
resemble the synonyms of the name Choctaw.

Chatot tribe: Connections - The language spoken by this tribe belonged, 
undoubtedly, to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock.

Chatot tribe: Location - West of Apalachicola River, perhaps near 
the middle course of the Chipola. (See also Georgia, Alabama, and 

Chatot tribe: Villages
From the names of two Spanish missions among them it would appear 
that there were at least two towns in early times, one called Chacato, 
after the name of the tribe, and the other Tolentino. 

Chatot tribe: History - The Chatot are first mentioned in a Spanish 
document of 1639 in which the governor of Florida congratulates himself 
on having consummated peace between the Chatot, Apalachicola, and 
Yamasee on one side and the Apalachee on the other. This, he says, 
"is an extraordinary thing, because the aforesaid Chacatos never maintained 
peace with anybody." In 1674 the two missions noted above were established 
among these people, but the following year the natives rebelled. The 
disturbance was soon ended by the Spanish officer Florencia, and the 
Chatot presently settled near the Apalachee town of San Luis, mission 
work among them being resumed. In 1695, or shortly before, Lower Creek 
Indians attacked this mission, plundered the church, and carried away 
42 Christianized natives. In 1706 or 1707, following on the destruction 
of the Apalachee towns, the Chatot and several other small tribes 
living near it were attacked and scattered or carried off captive, 
and the Chatot fled to Mobile, where they were well received by Bienville 
and located on the site of the present city of Mobile. When Bienville 
afterward moved the seat of his government to this place he assigned 
to them land on Dog River by way of compensation. After Mobile was 
ceded to the English in 1763 the Chatot, along with a number of other 
small tribes near Hak City, moved to Louisiana. They appear to have 
settled first on Bayou Boeuf and later on Sabine River. Nothing is 
heard of them afterward though in 1924 some old Choctaw remembered 
their former presence on the Sabine. The remnant may have found their 
way to Oklahoma.

Chatot tribe: Population.- I would estimate a population of 1,200-1,500 
for the Chatot when they were first missionized (1674). When they 
were settled on the site of Mobile, Bienville (1932, vol 3, p. 536) 
says that they could muster 250 men, which would indicate a population 
of near 900, but in 1725-26 there were but 40 men and perhaps a total 
population of 140. In 1805 they are said to have had 30 men or about 
100 people. In 1817 a total of 240 is returned by Morse (1822), but 
this figure is probably twice too large.

Chatot tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The Chatot 
are noted because at one time they occupied the site of Mobile, Ala., 
and because Bayou Chattique, Choctaw Point, and Choctaw Swamp close 
by that city probably preserve their name. The Choctawhatchee, which 
is near their former home, was probably named for them.

Chiaha tribe: A few Creeks of this tribe emigrated from their former 
towns to Florida before the Creek-American War and after that encounter 
may have been joined by others. In an early list of Seminole settlements 
they are credited with one town on "Beech Creek," and this may have 
been identical with Fulemmy's Town or Pinder Town located on Suwanee 
River in 1817, which was said to be occupied by Chiaha Indians. The 
Mikasuki are reported to have branched off from this tribe. (See Georgia.)

Chilucan tribe: A tribe mentioned in an enumeration of the Indians 
in Florida missions made in 1726. Possibly the name is derived from 
Muskogee chiloki, "people of a different speech," and since one of 
the two missions where they are reported was San Buenaventura and 
elsewhere that mission is said to have been occupied by Mocama Indians, 
that is, seacoast Timucua, a Timucuan connection is indicated. In 
the list mentioned, 70 Chilucan were said to be at San Buenaventura 
and 62 at the mission of Nombre de Dios.

Chine tribe: A small tribe or band associated with two others called 
Amncano and Caparaz (q.v.) in a doctrine established on the coast 
of the Apalachee country called San Luis. Other evidence suggests 
that Chine may be the name of a Chatot chief. Later they may have 
moved into the Apalachee country, for in a mission list dated 1680 
there appears a mission called San Pedro de los Chines. This tribe 
and the Amacano and Caparaz were said to number 300 individuals in 

Creek tribe: See Alabama, Chiaha, Hitchiti, Mikasukee, Muskogee,
Oconee, Sawokli, Tawasa, and Yuchi.

Fresh Water ("Agua Dulce") Indians: A name applied to the people 
of seven to nine neighboring towns, and for which there is no native 

Fresh Water Indians: Connections.- The same as Acuera (q.v.).

Fresh Water Indians: Location - In the coast district of eastern 
Florida between St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral.

Fresh Water Indians: Villages
The following towns are given in this province extending from north 
to south, but not all of the native names have been preserved:
Anacape, said to have been 20 leagues south of St. Augustine.
Antonico; another possible narne is Tunsa.
Equale, location uncertain.
Filache, location uncertain.
Maiaca, a few leagues north of Gape Canaveral and on St. Johns River.
Moloa, south of the mouth of St. Johns River (omitted from later lists).
San Julian, location uncertain.
San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed 
in 1600 by a flood.
Tocoy, given by one writer as 5 leagues from St. Augustine; by another 
as 24 leagues.

The names Macaya and Maycoya, which appear in the neighborhood of 
the last of these are probably synonyms or corruptions of Maiaca, 
but there seems to have been a sister town of Maiaca at an early date 
which Fontaneda (1854) calls Mayajuaca or Mayjuaca. In addition to 
the preceding, a number of town names have been preserved which perhaps 
belong to places in this province. Some of them may be synonyms of 
the town names already given, especially of towns like Antonico and 
St. Julian, the native names of which are otherwise unknown. These 
Cacoroy, 1 1/2 leagues from Nocoroco.
Caparaca, southwest of Nocoroco.
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.
Cicale, 3 leagues south of Nocoroco.
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.
Disnica, probably south of St. Augustine, though not necessarily in 
the Fresh Water Province.
Elanoguc, near Antonico.
Malaca, south of Nocoroco.
Mogote, in the region of Nocoroco.
Nocoroco, one day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet and on a river 
called Nocoroco River, perhaps Halifax River.
Perqumaland, south of the last mentioned; possibly two towns,
Perqui and Maland.
Pia, south of Nocoroco.
Sabobche, south of Nocoroco.
Tomeo, apparently near or in the Fresh Water province.
Tucura, apparently in the same province as the last mentioned.
Yaocay, near Antonico.

Fresh Water Indians: History - The history of this province differed 
little from that of the other Timucua provinces, tribes, or confederacies. 
Ponce de Leon made his landfall upon this coast in 1613. The French 
had few dealings with the people but undoubtedly met them. Fontaneda 
(1814) heard of the provinces of Maiaca and Mayajuaca, and later there 
were two Spanish missions in this territory, San Antonio de Anacape 
and San Salvador de Maiaca. These appear in the mission list of 1655 
and in that of 16,80 but from data given with the latter it is evident 
that Yamasee were then settled at Anacape. All of these Indians were 
converted rapidly early in the seventeenth century and the population 
declined with increasing celerity. The last body of Timucua were settled 
in this district and have left their name in that of Tomoka Creek. 
(See Utina.)

Fresh Water Indians: Population - There are no data on which to 
give a separate and full statement of the Timucua population in this 
district. In 1602, however, 200 Indians belonging to it had been Christianized 
and 100 more were under instruction. (See Acuera.)

Guacata tribe: Meaning unknown.

Guacata tribe: Connections - On the evidence furnished by place 
names in this section, the tribe is classified with the south Florida 

Guacata tribe: Location - On or near Saint Lucie River in Saint 
Lucie and Palm Beach Counties.

Guacata tribe: History - The Guacata are first mentioned by Fontaneda 
(1854), who in one place speaks of them as on Lake Mayaimi (Okeechobee) 
but this probably means only that they ranged across to the lake from 
the eastern seacoast. Shortly after his conquest of Florida Menendez 
left 200 men in the Ais country, but the Indians of that tribe soon 
rose against them and they moved to the neighborhood of the Guacata, 
where they were so well treated that they called the place Santa Lucia. 
Next year, however, these Indians rose against them and although they 
were at first defeated the Spaniards were so hard pressed that they 
abandoned the place in 1568. They were still an independent body in 
the time of Dickenson, in 1699, but not long afterward they evidently 
united  with other east coast bands, and they were probably part of 
those who emigrated to Cuba in 1763.

Guacata tribe: Population - No separate estimate has ever been made. 
(See Ais.)

Guale tribe: In relatively late times many of these Indians were 
driven from their country into Florida. (See Georgia.)

Hitchiti tribe: The ancient home of the Hitchiti was north of Florida 
but after the destruction of the earlier tribes of the peninsula, 
in which they themselves participated, Hitchiti- speaking peoples 
moved in in great numbers to take their places, so that up to the 
Creek-American War, the Hitchiti language was spoken by the greater 
number of Seminole. The later immigration, as we have indicated above, 
reduced the Hitchiti element to a minority position, so that what 
we now call the Seminole language is practically identical with Muskogee. 
True Hitchiti as distinguished from Hitchiti-speaking peoples who 
bore other names, do not appear to have been very active in this early 
movement though Hawkins (1848) mentions them as one of those tribes 
from which the Seminole were made up. The Hitchiti settlement of Attapulgas 
or Atap'halgi and perhaps other of the so-called Fowl Towns seem to 
represent a later immigration into the peninsula. (See Georgia.)

Icafui tribe: Meaning unknown.

Icafui tribe: Connections - They were undoubtedly of the Timucuan 
group though they seem to have been confused at times with a tribe 
called Cascangue which may have been related to the Muskogee or Hitchiti. 
On the other hand, Cascangue may have been another name of this tribe, 
possibly one employed by Creeks or Hitchiti. 

Icafui tribe: Location - On the mainland and probably in southeastern 
Georgia near the border between the Timucua and the strictly Muskhogean 

Icafui tribe: Villages
Seven or eight towns are said to have belonged to this tribe but the 
names of none of them are known with certainty.

Icafui tribe: History - Icafui seems to be mentioned first by the 
Franciscan missionaries who occasionally passed through it on their 
way to or from interior peoples. It was a "visita" of the missionary 
at San Pedro (Cumberland Island). Otherwise its history differed in 
no respect from that of the other Timucuan tribes. (See Utina.)

Icafui tribe: Population - Separate figures regarding this tribe 
are wanting. (See Utina.)

Jeaga tribe: Meaning unknown.

Jeaga tribe: Connections - The Jeaga are classed on the basis of 
place names and location with the tribes of south Florida, which were 
perhaps of the Muskhogean division proper.

Jeaga tribe: Location - On the present Jupiter Inlet, on the east 
coast of Florida.

Jeaga tribe:  Villages
Between this tribe and the Tequesta the names of several settlements 
are given which may have belonged to one or both of them, viz: Cabista, 
Custegiyo, Janar, Tavuacio.

Jeaga tribe: History - The Jeaga tribe is mentioned by Fontaneda 
(1854) and by many later Spanish writers but it was of minor importance. 
Near Jupiter Inlet the Quaker Dickenson (1803), one of our best informants 
regarding the ancient people of the east coast of Florida, was cast 
ashore in 1699. In the eighteenth century, this tribe was probably 
merged with the Ais, Tequesta, and other tribes of this coast, and 
removed with them to Cuba. (See Ais.)

Jeaga tribe: Population - No separate enumeration is known. (See 

Koasati tribe: Appearance of a "Coosada Old Town" on the middle 
course of Choctawhatchee River on a map of 1823 shows that a band 
of Koasati Indians joined the Seminole in Florida, but this is all 
we know of them. (See Alabama.)

Macapiras, or Amacapiras tribe: Meaning unknown. A small tribe which 
was brought to the St. Augustine missions in 1726 along with some 
Pohoy, and so apparently from the southwest coast. There were only 
24, part of whom died and the rest returned to their old homes before 

Mikasuki tribe: Meaning unknown.

Mikasuki tribe: Connections - These Indians belonged to the Hitchiti-speaking 
branch of the Muskhogean linguistic family. They are said by some 
to have branched from the true Hitchiti, but those who claim that 
they were originally Chiaha (q. v.) are probably correct. 

Mikasuki tribe: Location - Their earliest known home was about Miccosukee 
Lake in Jefferson County. (See also Oklahoma.)

Mikasuki tribe:  Villages
Alachua Talofa or John Hick'a Town, in the Alachua Plains, Alachua 
New Mikasuki, near Greenville in Madison County.
Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee Lake.

Mikasuki tribe: History - The name Mikasuki appears about 1778 and 
therefore we know that their independent status had been established 
by that date whether they had separated from the Hitchiti or the Chiaha. 
They lived first at Old Mikasuki and then appear to have divided, 
part going to New Mikasuki and part to the Alachua Plains. Some writers 
denounce them as the worst of all Seminole bands, but it is quite 
likely that, as a tribe differing in speech from themselves, the Muskogee 
element blamed them for sins they themselves had committed. Old Mikasuki 
was burned by Andrew Jackson in 1817. Most Mikasuki seem to have remained 
in Florida where they still constitute a distinct body, the Big Cypress 
band of Seminole. Those who went to Oklahoma retained a distinct Square 
Ground as late as 1912.

Mikasuki tribe: Population - Morse (1822) quotes a certain Captain 
Young to the effect that there were 1,400 Mikasuki in his time, about 
1817. This figure is probably somewhat too high though the Mikasuki 
element is known to have been a large one. They form one entire band 
among the Florida Seminole.

Mikasuki tribe: Connection which they have become noted - The Mikasuki 
attained prominence in the Seminole War. In the form Miccosukee their 
name has been applied to a lake in Jefferson and Leon Counties, Fla., 
and a post village in the latter county. In the form Mekusuky it has 
been given to a village in Seminole County, Okla.

Mococo, or Mucoco tribe: Meaning unknown.

Mococo, or Mucoco tribe: Connections - They belonged with little  doubt 
to the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock.

Mococo, or Mucoco tribe: Location - About the head of Hillsboro 

Mococo, or Mucoco tribe:  Villages
None are mentioned under any other than the tribal name.

Mococo, or Mucoco tribe: History - The chief of this tribe gave 
asylum to a Spaniard named Juan Ortiz who had come to Florida in connection 
with the expedition of Narvaez. When Do Soto landed near the Mococo 
town its chief sent Ortiz with an escort of warriors to meet him. 
Ortiz afterward became De Soto's principal interpreter until his death 
west of the Mississippi, and the Mococo chief remained on good terms 
with the Spaniards as long as they stayed in the neighborhood. There 
are only one or two later references to the tribe. (See Utina.)

Mococo, or Mucoco tribe: Connection in which they have become noted 
- The contacts of the Mocogo with De Soto and his followers constitute 
their only claim to distinction.

Muklasa tribe: A small Creek town whose inhabitants were probably 
related by speech to the Alabama and Koasati. They are said to have 
gone to Florida after the Creek War. (See Alabama.)

Muskogee tribe: The first true Creeks or Muskogee to enter Florida 
seem to have been a body of Eufaula Indians who made a settlement 
called Chuko tcati, Red House, on the west side of the peninsula some 
distance north of Tampa Bay. {1} This was in 1761. Other Muskogee 
drifted into Florida from time to time, but the great immigration 
took place after the Creek-American War. The new-comers were from 
many towns, but more particularly those on the Tallapoosa River. They 
gave the final tone and the characteristic language to the Florida 
emigrants who had before been dominantly of Hitchiti connection, and 
therefore the so- called Seminole language is Muskogee, with possibly 
a few minor changes in the vocabulary. (See Alabama.)

{1} A possible exception to this statement was the temporary
entrance of a small body of Coweta Indians under Secoffee, or the

Ocale, or Etocale tribe: Meaning unknown, but perhaps connected 
with Timucua tocala, "it is more than," a comparative verb.

Ocale, or Etocale tribe: Connections - (See Acuera.)

Ocale, or Etocale tribe: Location - In Marion County or Levy County 
north of the bend of the Withlacoochee River.

Ocale, or Etocale tribe: Villages
Uqueten (first village approaching from the south), and perhaps Itaraholata.

Ocale, or Etocale tribe: History - This tribe is first mentioned  by 
the chroniclers of the De Soto expedition. He passed through it in 
1539 after crossing Withlacoochee River. Fontaneda also heard of it, 
and it seems to appear on De Bry's map of 1591. This is the last information 
that has been preserved.

Ocale, or Etocale tribe: Population - Unknown. (See Acuera and Utina.)

Ocale, or Etocale tribe: Connection in which they have become noted 
- Within comparatively modern times this name was adopted in the form 
Ocala as that of the county seat of Marion County, Fla. There is a 
place so called in Pulaski County, Ky.

Ocita tribe: See Pohoy tribe.

Oconee tribe: After leaving the Chattahoochee about 1750 the Oconee 
moved into Florida and established themselves on the Alachua Plains 
in a town which Bartram calls Cuscowilla. They constituted the first 
large band of northern Indians to settle in Florida and their chiefs 
came to be recognized as head chiefs of the Seminole. One of these, 
Mikonopi, was prominent during the Seminole War, but the identity 
of the tribe itself is lost after that struggle. Another part of them 
seem to have settled for a time among the Apalachee (q.v.) (See Georgia.)

Onatheaogua tribe: In the narratives of Laudonniere and Le Moyne 
this appears as one of the two main Timucua tribes in the northwestern 
part of Florida, the other being the Hostaqua (or Yustaga). Elsewhere 
I have suggested that it may have covered the Indians afterward gathered 
into the missions of Santa Cruz de Tarihica, San Juan de Guacara, 
Santa Catalina, and Ajoica, where there were 230 Indians in 1675, 
but that is uncertain. (See Utina.)

Osochi tribe: A Creek division thought to have originated in Florida. 
(See Alabama.)

Pawokti tribe: Meaning unknown.

Pawokti tribe: Connections - They were probably affiliated either 
with the Tawasa or the Alabama. In any case there is no reason to 
doubt that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect, using Muskhogean in the 
extended sense.

Pawokti tribe: Location - The earliest known location of the Pawokti 
seems to have been west of Choctawhatchee River, not far from the 
shores of the Gulf of Mexico. (See also Alabama.)

Pawokti tribe: History - Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908) assigns the 
Pawokti the above location before they were driven away by northern 
Indians, evidently Creeks, in 1706-7. Although the name does not appear 
in any French documents known to me, they probably settled near Mobile 
along with the Tawasa. At any rate we find them on Alabama River in 
1799 a few miles below the present Montgomery and it is assumed they 
had been there from 1717, when Fort Toulouse was established. Their 
subsequent history is merged in that of the Alabama (q.v.).

Pawokti tribe: Population - (See Alabama.)

Pensacola tribe: Meaning "hair people," probably from their own 
tongue, which in that case was very close to Choctaw.

Pensacola tribe: Connections - The name itself, and other bits of 
circumstantial evidence, indicate that the Pensacola belonged to the 
Muskhogean stock and, as above noted, probably spoke a dialect close 
to Choctaw.

Pensacola tribe: Location - In the neighborhood of Pensacola Bay. 
(See also Mississippi.)

Pensacola tribe: History - In 1528 the survivors of the Narvaez 
expedition had an encounter with Indians near Pensacola Bay who probably 
belonged to this tribe. It is also probable that their territory constituted 
the prince of Achuse or Ochus which Maldonado, the commander of De 
Soto's fleet, visited in 1539 and whence he brought a remarkably fine 
"blanket of sable fur." In 1559 a Spanish colony under Tristan de 
Luna landed in a port called "the Bay of Ichuse," (or "Ychuse") undoubtedly 
in the same province, but the enterprise was soon given up and the 
colonists returned to Mexico. The Pensacola tribe seems to be mentioned 
first by name in Spanish letters dated 1677. In 1686 we learn they 
were at war with the Mobile Indians. Twelve years afterward, when 
the Spanish post of Pensacola was established, it is claimed that 
the tribe had been exterminated by other peoples, but this is an error. 
It had merely moved farther inland and probably toward the west. They 
are noted from time to time, and in 1725-6 Bienville (1932, vol. 3, 
p. 536) particularly describes the location of their village near 
that of the Biloxi of Pearl River. The last mention of them seems 
to be in an estimate of Indian population dated December 1, 1764, 
in which their name appears along with those of six other small tribes. 
They may have been incorporated finally into the Choctaw or have accompanied 
one of the smaller Mobile tribes into Louisiana near the date last 

Pensacola tribe: Population - In 1725 (or 1726) Bienville (1932, 
vol. 3, p. 536) says that in the Pensacola village and that of the 
Biloxi together, there were not more than 40 men. The enumeration 
mentioned above, made in 1764, gives the total population of this 
tribe and the Biloxi, Chatot, Capinans, Washa, Chawasha, and Pascagoula 
collectively as 251 men.

Pensacola tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - Through 
the adoption of their name first for that of Pensacola Bay and secondly 
for the port which grew up upon it, the Pensacola have attained a 
fame entirely disproportionate to the aboriginal importance of the 
tribe. There are places of the name in Yancey County, N. C., and Mayes 
County, Okla.

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy tribe: Meaning unknown.

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy tribe: Connections - They were evidently closely 
connected with the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic 
stock. (See Utina).

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy tribe: Location - On the south shore of Tampa 

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy tribe: Towns - (See History.)

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy tribe: History - This tribe, or a part of 
the same, appears first in history under the names Oc-ta or Ucita 
as a "province" in the territory of which Hernando de Soto landed 
in 1539. He established his headquarters in the town of the head chief 
on June 1, and when he marched inland on July 15 he left a captain 
named Calderon with a hundred men to hold this place pending further 
developments. These were withdrawn at the end of November to join 
the main army in the Apalachee country. In 1612 these Indians appear 
for the first time under the name Pohoy or Pooy in the account of 
an expedition to the southwest coast of Florida under an ensign named 
Cartaya. In 1675 Bishop Calderon speaks of the "Pojoy River," and 
in 1680 there is a passing reference to it. Some time before 1726 
about 20 Indians of this tribe were placed in a mission called Santa 
Fe, 9 leagues south of St. Augustine, but they had already suffered 
from an epidemic and by 1728 the remainder returned to their former 
homes. (See Utina.)

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy tribe: Population - In 1680 the Pohoy were 
said to number 300.

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy tribe: Connection in which they have become 
noted - The only claim of the Pohoy to distinction is derived from 
their contacts with the expedition of De Soto.

Potano tribe: Meaning unknown.

Potano tribe: Connections - (See Utina.)

Potano tribe: Location - In the territory of the present Alachua 

Potano tribe:  Towns
The following places named in the De Soto narratives probably belonged 
to this tribe - Itaraholata or Ytara, Potano, Utinamocharra or Utinama,, 
Cholupaha, and a town they called Mala-Paz. A letter dated 1602 mentions 
five towns, and on and after 1606, when missionaries reached the tribe, 
stations were established called San Francisco, San Miguel, Santa 
Anna, San Buenaventura, and San Martin(?). There is mention also of 
a mission station called Apalo. 

Potano tribe: History - The name Potano first appears as that of 
a province through which De Soto passed in 1539. In 1564-65 the French 
colonists of Florida found this tribe at war with the Utina and assisted 
the latter to win a victory over them. After the Spaniards had supplanted 
the French, they also supported the Utina in wars between them and 
the Potano. In 1584 a Spanish captain sent to invade the Potano country 
was defeated and slain. A second expedition, however, killed many 
Indians and drove them from their town. In 1601 they asked to be allowed 
to return to it and in 1606 missionary work was undertaken among them 
resulting in their conversion along with most of the other Timucua 
peoples. Their mission was known as San Francisco de Potano and it 
appears in the mission lists of 1655 and 1680. In 1656 they took part 
in a general Timucuan uprising which lasted 8 months. In 1672 a pestilence 
carried off many and as the chief of Potano does not appear as signatory 
to a letter written to Charles II by several Timucua chiefs in 1688, 
it is possible their separate identity had come to an end by that 
date. Early in the eighteenth century the Timucua along with the rest 
of the Spanish Indians of Florida were decimated rapidly and the remnant 
of the Potano must have shared their fate. (See Utina.)

Potano tribe: Population - Mooney (1928) estimates the number of 
Potano Indians at 3,000 in 1650 and this is probably fairly accurate, 
as the Franciscan missionaries state that they were catechizing 1,100 
persons in the 5 towns belonging to the tribe in 1602. In 1675 there 
were about 160 in the 2 Potano missions. (See Acuera and Utins.)

Potano tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The Potano 
tribe was anciently celebrated as, with one or two possible exceptions, 
the most powerful of all the Timucua peoples.

Saturiwa tribe: Meaning unknown.

Saturiwa tribe: Connections - (See Utina.)

Saturiwa tribe: Location - About the mouth of St. Johns River. Some 
early writers seem to include Cumberland Island in their jurisdiction.

Saturiwa tribe: Villages
Laudonniere (1586) says that the chief of this tribe ruled over 30 
subchiefs, but it is uncertain whether these subchiefs represented 
villages belonging to the tribe, allied tribes, or both The Spaniards 
give the following: San Juan del Puerto, the main mission for this 
province under which were Vera Cruz, Arratobo, Potayn, San Matheo, 
San Pablo, Hicnchirico ("Little Town"), Chinisca, and Garabay. San 
Diego de Salamototo, near the site of Picolata, on which no villages 
seem to have depended; and Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, 3 leagues 
from St. Augustine, may be classed here somewhat uncertainly.

Saturiwa tribe: History - The Saturiwa were visited by Jean Ribault 
in 1562 and probably by earlier explorers, but they appear first under 
their proper name in the chronicles of the Huguenot settlement of 
Florida of 1564-5. Fort Caroline was built in the territory of the 
Saturiwa and intimate relations continued between the French and Indians 
until the former were dispossessed by Spain. The chief, known as Saturiwa 
at this time, assisted De Gourgues in 1567 to avenge the destruction 
of his countrymen. It is perhaps for this reason that we find the 
Spaniards espousing the cause of Utina against Saturiwa 10 years later. 
The tribe soon submitted to Spain, however, and was one of the first 
missionized, its principal mission being San Juan del Puerto. There 
labored Francisco de Pareja to whose grammar and religious works we 
are chiefly indebted for our knowledge of the Timucua language (Pareja, 
1612, 1613, 1866). Like the other Florida Indians, they suffered severely 
from pestilence in 1617 nnd 1672. The name of their chief appears 
among those involved in the Timucua rebellion of 1656, and the names 
of their missions appear in the list of Bishop Calderon and in that 
of 1680. We hear nothing more of them, and they evidently suffered 
the same fate as the other tribes of the group.

Saturiwa tribe: Population - No separate figures for the Saturiwa 
have been preserved, except that a missionary states in 1602 that 
there were about 500 Christians among them and in 1675 San Juan del 
Puerto contained "about thirty persons" and Salamototo "about
forty." (See Utina.)

Saturiwa tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The 
prominence of the Saturiwa was due to the intimate dealings between 
them and the French colonists. Later the same people, though not under 
the same name, became a main support of the Spanish missionary movement 
among the Florida Indians.

Sawokli tribe: A division of Creek Indians belonging to the Hitchiti-speaking 
group. Anciently it seems to have lived entirely in Florida, but later 
it moved up into the neighborhood of the Lower Creeks. (See Alabama.)

Seminole tribe: Meaning "one who has camped out from the regular 
towns," and hence sometimes given as "runaway," but there is too much 
onus in this rendering. Prof. H. E. Bolton believes it was adopted 
from Spanish cimarron meaning "wild."
Ikanafaskslgi, "people of the point," a Creek name.
Ikanihksalgi, "peninsula people," own name.
Isti seminole, "Seminole people."
Lower Creeks, so called by Bartram (1792).
Ungiayo-rono "peninsula people," Huron name.

Seminole tribe: Connections - As implied above, the Seminole removed 
from the Creek towns and constituted just before the last Seminole 
War a fair representation of the population of those towns: perhaps 
two-thirds Creek proper or Muskogee, and the remaining third Indians 
of the Hitchiti-speaking towns, Alabama, Yamasee, and besides a band 
of Yuchi, latterly a few of the original Indian inhabitants of southern 

Seminole tribe: Location - The Seminole towns were first planted 
about Apalachicola River, in and near the old Apalachee country and 
in the Alachua country in the central part of the State, although 
a few were scattered about Tampa Bay and even well down the east coast 
as far south as Miami. They did not enter the Everglade  section of 
the State until toward the end of the last Seminole War. As a result 
of that war, the greater part were removed to the territory now constituting 
Seminole County, Okla. A few remained in the old territory and their 
descendants are there today.

Seminole tribe: Villages
Ahnpopka, near the head of Ocklawaha River.
Ahosulga, 5 miles south of New Mikasuki, perhaps in Jefferson County.
Alachua, near Ledwiths Lake.
Alafiers, probably a synonym for some other town name, perhaps
McQueen's Village, near Alafia River.
Alapaha, probably on the west side of the Suwannee just above its 
junction with the Allapaha.
Alligator, said to be a settlement in Suwannee County.
Alouko, on the east side of St. Marks River 20 miles north of St. 
Apukasasoche, 20 miles west of the head of St. Johns River.
Attapulgas first Iwation, west of Apalachicola River in Jackson or 
Calhoun Counties; second location inland in Gadsden County.
Beech Creek, exact location unknown.
Big Cypress Swamp, in the "Devil's Garden" on the northern edge of 
Big Cypress Swamp, 15 to 20 miles southwest of Lake Okeechobee.
Big Hammock, north of Tampa Bay.
Bowlegs' Town, chief's name, on Suwannee River and probably known 
usually under another name.
Bucker Woman's Town, on Long Swamp east of Big Hammocok.
Burges' Town, probably on or near Flint or St. Marys River, southwestern 
Calusahatchee, on the river of the same name and probably occupied 
by Calusa Indians.
Capola, east of St. Marks River.
Catfish Lake, on a small lake in Polk County nearly midway between 
Lake Pierce and Lake Rosalie, toward the headwaters of Kissimmee River.
Chefixico's Old Town, on the south side of Old Tallahassee Lake, 5 
miles east of Tallahassee.
Chetuckota, on the west bank of Pease Creek, below Pease Lake, west 
central Florida.
Choconikla, on the west side of Apalachicola River, probably in Jackson 
Chohalaboohulka, probably identical with Alapaha.
Chukochati, near the hammock of the same name.
Cohowofooche, 23 miles northwest of St. Marks.
Cow Creek, on a stream about 15 miles northeast of the entrance of 
Kissimmee River.
Cuscowilla (see Alachua).
Etanie, west of St. Johns River and east of Black Creek.
Etotulga, 10 miles east of Old Mikasuki.
Fish-eating Creek, F, miles from a creek emptying into Lake Okeechobee.
Fulemmy's Town, perhaps identical with Beech Creek, Suwannee River.
EIatchcalamocha, near Drum Swamp, 18 miles west of New Mikasuki.
Hiamonee, on the east bank of Ockiocknee River, probably on Lake Iamonia.
Hitchapuksassi, about 20 miles from the head of Tampa Bay and 20 miles 
south-east of Chukochati.
Homosassa, probably on Homosassa River.
Iolee, 60 miles above the mouth of Apalachicola River on the west 
bank at or near Blountstown.
John Hicks' Town, west of Payne's Savannah.
King Heijah's Town, or Koe Hadjo's Town, consisted of Negro slaves, 
probably in Alachua County.
Lochchiocha, 60 miles east of Apalaohicola River and near Ocklocknee 
Loksachumpa, at the head of St. Johns River.
Lowwalta (probably for Liwahali), location unknown.
McQueen's Village, on the east side of Tampa Bay, perhaps identical 
with Alafiers.
Miami River, about 10 miles north of the site of Fort Dallas, not 
far from Biscayne Bay, on Little Miami River.
Mulatto Girl's Town, south of Tuscawilla Lake.
Negro Town, near Withlacoochee River, probably occupied largely by 
runaway slaves.
New Mikasuki, 30 miles west of Suwannee River, probably in Madison 
Notasulgar, location unknown.
Ochisi, at a bluff so called on the east side of Apalachicola River.
Ochupocrassa, near Miami.
Ocilla, at the mouth of Aucilla River on the east side.
Oclackonayahe, above Tampa Bay.
Oclawaha, on Ocklawaha River, probably in Putnam County.
Oithlakutci, on Little River 40 miles east of Apalachicola River.
Okehumpkee, 60 miles southwest from Volusia.
Oktahatki, 7 miles northeast of Sampala.
Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee in Leon County.
Oponays, "back of Tampa Bay," probably in Hillsboro or Polk Counties.
Owassissas, on an eastern branch of St. Marks River and probably near 
its head.
Payne's Town, near Koe Hadjo's Town, occupied by Negroes.
Picolata, on the east bank of St. Johns River west of St. Augustine.
Pilaklikaha, about 120 miles south of Alachua.
Pilatka, on or near the site of Palatka, probably the site of a Seminole 
town and of an earlier town as well.
Red Town, at Tampa Bay.
Sampala, 26 miles above the forks of the Apalachicola on the west 
bank, in Jackson County, or in Houston County, Ala.
Santa Fe, on the river of the same name, perhaps identical with Washitokha.
Sarasota, at or near Sarasota.
Seleuxa, at the head of Aucilla River.
Sitarky, evidently named after a chief, between Camp Izard and Fort 
King, West Florida.
Spanawalka, a miles below Iolee and on the west bank of Apalaehicola 
Suwannee, on the west bank of Suwannee River in Lafayette County.
Talakhacha, on the west side of Cape Florida on the seacoast.
Tallahassee, on the site of present Tallahassee.
Tallahassee or Spring Gardens, 10 miles from Volusia, occupied by 
Talofa Okhase, about 30 miles west southwest from the upper part of 
Lake George.
Taluschapkoapopka, a short distance west of upper St. Johns River, 
probably at the present Apopka.
Tocktoethla, 10 miles above the junction of Chattahoochee and Flint 
Tohopki lagi, probably near Miami.
Topananaulka, 3 miles west of New Mikasuki.
Topkegalga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River near Tallahassee.
Totstalahoeetska, on the west side of Tampa Bay.
Tuckagulga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River between it and Hiamonee.
Tuslalahockaka, 10 miles west of Walalecooche.
Wacahoota, location unknown.
Wachitokha, on the east side of Suwannee River between Suwannee and 
Santa Fe Rivers.
Wakasassa, on the coast east of the mouth of Suwannee River.
Wasupa, 2 miles from St. Marks River and 18 miles from St. Marks itself.
Wechotookme, location unknown.
Weliks, 4 miles east of the Tallahassee town.
Wewoka, at Wewoka, Okla.
Willanoucha, at the head of St. Marks River, perhaps identical with 
Withlacoochee, on Withlacoochee River, probably in Citrus or Sumter 
Withlako, 4 miles from Clinch's battle ground.
Yalacasooche, at the mouth of Ocklawaha River.
Yulaka, on the west side of St. Johns River, 35 miles from Volusia 
or Dexter.
Yumersee, at the head of St. Marks River, 2 miles north of St. Marks, 
a settlement of Yamasee. (See Georgia.)

Seminole tribe: History - The origin of the Seminole has already 
been given. The nucleus of the nation was constituted by a part of 
the Oconee, who moved into Florida about 1750 and were gradually followed 
by other tribes, principally of the Hitchiti connection. The first 
true Muskogee to enter the peninsula were some of the Indians of Lower 
Eufaula, who came in 1767 but these were mixed with Hitchiti and others. 
There was a second Muskogee immigration in 1778, but after the Creek-American 
War of 1813-14 a much greater immigration occurred from the Creek 
Nation, mainly from the Upper Towns, and as the great majority of 
the newcomers were Muskogee, the Seminole became prevailingly a Muskogee 
people, what is now called the Seminole language being almost pure 
Muskogee. Later there were two wars with the Whites; the first from 
1817-18 in which Andrew Jackson lead the American forces; and the 
second, from 1835 to 1842, a long and bitter contest in which the 
Indinns demonstrated to its fullest capacity the possibilities of 
guerrilla warfare in a semitropical, swampy country. Toward the end 
of the struggle the Indians were forced from northern and central 
Florida into the Everglade section of tke State. This contest is particularly 
noteworthy on account of the personality of Osceola, the brains of 
Seminole resistance, whose capture by treachery is an ineffaceable 
blot upon all who were connected with it and incidentally upon the 
record of the American Army. Diplomacy finally accomplished what force 
had failed to effect -- the policy put in practice by Worth at the 
suggestion of General E.A. Hitchcock. The greater part of the hostile 
Indians surrendered and were sent to Oklahoma, where they were later 
granted a reservation of their own in the western part of the Creek 
Nation. Both the emigrants, who have now been allotted, and the small 
number who stayed behind in Florida have since had an uneventful history, 
except for their gradual absorption into the mass of the population, 
an absorption long delayed in the case of the Florida Seminole, but 
nonetheless certain.

Seminole tribe: Population - Before the Creek-American war the number 
of Seminole was probably about 2,000; after that date the best estimates 
give about 5,000. Exclusive of one census which seems clearly too 
high, figures taken after the Seminole war indicate a gradual reduction 
of Seminole in Oklahoma from considerably under 4,000 to 2,500 in 
1851. A new census, in 1857, gave 1,907, and after that time little 
change is indicated though actually the amount of Indian blood was 
probably declining steadily. In Florida the figures were: 370 in 1847, 
348 in 1850, 450 in 1893, 565 in 1895, 358 in 1901, 446 in 1911, 600 
in 1913, 562 in 1914, 573 in 1919, 586 in 1937. In 1930 there were 
1,789 in Oklahoma, 227 in Florida, and 32 scattered in other States.

Seminole tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The 
chief claim of this tribal confederation to distinction will always 
be the remarkable war which they sustained against the American Nation, 
the losses in men and money which they occasioned having been out 
of all proportion to the number of Indians concerned. The county in 
Oklahoma where most of the Seminole were sent at the end of the great 
war bears their name, as does a county in Florida, and it will always 
be associated with the Everglade country, where they made their last 
stand. Towns or post villages of the name are in Baldwin County, Ala.; 
Seminole County, Okla.; Armstrong County, Pa.; and Gaines County, 

Surruque tribe: Meaning unknown.

Surruque tribe: Connections - Somewhat doubtful, but they were probably 
of the Timucuan linguistic group. (See Utina.)

Surruque tribe: Location - At or very close to Cape Canaveral.

Surruque tribe: History - The Surruque appear first in history as 
the "Sorrochos" of Le Moyne's map (1875), and his "Lake Sarrope" also 
probably derived its name from them. About the end of the same century, 
the sixteenth, trouble arose between them and the Spaniards, in consequence 
of which the Spanish governor fell upon a Surruque town, killed 60 
persons and captured 54. Later they probably united with the Timucua 
people and shared their fortunes.

Surruque tribe: Population - No estimate is possible. (See Utina.)

Tacstacuru tribe: The meaning is unknown, though it seems to have
something to do with "fire" (taca).

Tacstacuru tribe: Connection - (See Utina.)

Tacstacuru tribe: Location - On Cumberland Island to which the name 
Tacatacuru was applied.

Tacstacuru tribe:  Villages
It is probable that the same name was used for its chief town, which 
was missionized by the Spaniards under the name of San Pedro Mocama. 
Under this mission were those of Santo Domingo and Santa Maria de 

Tacstacuru tribe: History - The chief of Tacatacuru (now Cumberland 
Island), or of the neighboring mainland, met Jean Ribault in 1562 
and seems to have remained on good terms with the French during their 
occupancy of Fort Caroline in 1564-65. He, or a successor, is mentioned 
among those who joined De Gourgues in his attack upon the Spaniards 
in 1567, but soon afterward they made peace with Spain and one chief, 
Don Juan, was of great assistance to the white men in many ways, particularly 
in driving back the Guale Indians after their rising in 1597. This 
chief died in 1600, and was succeeded by his niece. The church built 
by these Indians was said to be as big as that in St. Augustine. The 
good relations which subsisted between the Tacatacuru Indians and 
the Spaniards do not appear to have been broken by the Timucua rebellion 
of 1656. By 1675 the tribe had abandoned Cumberland Island and it 
was occupied by Yamnsee. The mission of San Pedro Mocama consequently 
does not appear in the mission list of 1680,
although it is in that of 1680. The tribe was subsequently amalgamated 
with the other Timucua peoples and shared their fortunes. (See Utina.)

Tacstacuru tribe: Population - There is no estimate of the number 
of Tacatacuru distinct from that of the other Timucua. The missionary 
stationed among them in 1602 notes that there were then 8 settlements 
and 792 Christianized Indians in his province, but this province may 
not have been confined to the tribe. In that year Santo Domingo served 
180 Christians and Santa Maria de Sena 112.

Tawasa tribe: Meaning unknown.

Tawasa tribe: Connections - They spoke a dialect belonging to the 
Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic family, intermediate 
between Timucua proper and Choctaw, Hitchiti, Alabama, and Apalachee.

Tawasa tribe: Location - In 1706-7 in west Florida about the latitude 
of the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers; at an earlier 
time and again later they were on the Alabama near the present Montgomery. 
(See also Louisiana.)

Tawasa tribe:  Villages
They usually occupied only one town at Autauga on Autauga Creek in 
the southeastern part of Autnuga County, Ala., is said to have belonged 
to them.

Tawasa tribe: History - De Soto found the Tawasa near the Montgomery 
site in 1540. Some time during the next century and a half they moved 
to the neighborhood of Apalachicola River, but in 1707 they were attacked 
by the Creeks, who captured some of them, while the greater part fled 
to the French and were by them given lands near the present Mobile. 
They occupied several different sites in that neighborhood but in 
1717 they moved back to the region where De Soto found them, their 
main village being in the northwestern suburbs of the present Montgomery. 
After the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814, they were compelled to abandon 
this place and move into the Creek territories between the Coosa and 
Talapoosa Rivers, where they remained until the main migration beyond 
the Mississippi. Previous to this, some of them had gone with other 
Alabama into Louisiana and they followed their fortunes. The name 
was remembered by Alabama in Polk County, Tex., until within a few 

Tawasa tribe: Population - The French census of 1760 returned 40 
Tawasa men and the Georgia census of 1792 "about 60." The census of 
1832-33 gives 321 Indians in towns called Tawasa and Autauga, but 
all of these were quite certainly not Tawasa Indians in the strict 
application of that term. (See Alabama.)

Tawasa tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The Tawasa 
tribe will be remembered ethnologically on account of the rescue of 
so much important information regarding the early history of themselves 
and their neighbors through the captive Indian Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 
1908), who made his way into Virginia in 1708, and on account of the 
still more important vocabulary obtained from him.

Tekesta or Tequesta tribe: Meaning unknown.

Tekesta or Tequesta tribe: Connections - The language of this tribe 
was probably connected with the languages of the other peoples of 
the southeast coast of Florida and with that of the Calusa, and may 
have been Muskhogean.

Tekesta or Tequesta tribe: Location - In the neighborhood of Miami.

Tekesta or Tequesta tribe: Villages
Besides Tekesta proper, the main town, four villages are mentioned 
between that and the next tribe to the north, the Jeagn, to whom some 
of the villages may have belonged. These were, in order from south 
to north: Tavuacio, Janar, Cabista, and Custegiyo.

Tekesta or Tequesta tribe: History - The Tekesta do not appear in 
history much before the time of Fontaneda, who was a captive among 
the Calusa from 1551 to 1569. In 1566 we learn that they protected 
certain Spaniards from the Calusa chief, although the latter is sometimes 
regarded as their overlord. A post was established in their country 
in 1566 but abandoned 4 years later. Attempts made to convert them 
to Christianity at that time were without success. In 1573 they are 
said to have been converted by Pedro Menendez Marques, but later they 
returned to their primitive beliefs. It was these Indians who, according 
to Romans (1775), went to Cuba in 1763 along with some others from 
this coast.

Tekesta or Tequesta tribe: Population - Mooney (1928) estimates 
that in 1650 there were 1,000 Indians on the southeast coast of Florida. 
According to Romans those who went to Cuba in 1763 had 30 men. Adair 
(1775) says there were 80 families.

Tekesta or Tequesta tribe: Connection in which they have become  noted 
- Although the name has found no topographical lodgement, the Tekesta 
may be remembered as the earliest known body of people to occupy the 
site of Miami.

Tocobaga tribe: Meaning unknown, though toco means in Timucua "to
come out," "to proceed from."

Tocobaga tribe: Connections - (See Utina.)

Tocobaga tribe: Location - About Old Tampa Bay.

Tocobaga tribe: Villages
The main town was at or near Safety Harbor at the head of Old Tampa 

Tocobaga tribe: History - Narvaez probably landed in the territory 
of this tribe in 1528, but his chroniclers speak of meeting very few 
Indians. Eleven years later De Soto's expedition disembarked just 
south in Tampa Bay but came into little contact with this tribe. Two 
years after driving the French from St. Johns River in 1565, Menendez 
visited Tocobaga, and left a captain and 30 soldiers among them, all 
of whom were wiped out the year following. In 1612 a Spanish expedition 
was sent to punish the chiefs of Pohoy and Tocobaga because they had 
attacked Christian Indians, but spent little time in the latter province. 
There is no assured reference to a mission nearer than Acuera, nor 
do the Tocobaga appear among the tribes which participated in the 
great Timucua revolt of 1656.

Ultimately it is probable that they joined the other Timucua and disappeared 
with them, though they may have united with the Calusa. It is also 
possible that they are the "Tompacuas" who appear later in the Apalachee 
country, and if so they may have been the Indians placed in 1726 in 
a mission near St. Augustine called San Buenaventura under the name 
"Macapiras" or "Amacapiras." (See Utina.)

Tocobaga tribe: Population - Unknown. (See Utina.)

Tocobaga tribe: Connection in which they have become noted - The 
principal claim to notoriety on the part of the Tocobaga is the fact 
that Narvaez landed in their country in 1528.

Ucita tribe: See Pohoy tribe.

Utina or Timucua tribe: The first name, which probably refers to 
the chief and means "powerful," is perhaps originally from uti, "earth," 
while the second name, Timucua, is that from which the linguistic 
stock, or rather this Muskhogean subdivision of it, has received its 

Utina or Timucua tribe: Connections - As given above.

Utina or Timucua tribe: Location - The territory of the Utina seems 
to have extended from the Suwanneo to the St. Johns and even eastward 
of the latter, though some of the subdivisions given should be rated 
as independent tribes. (See Timocua under Georgia.)

Utina or Timucua tribe:  Towns
Laudonniere (1586) states that there were more than 40 under the Utina 
chief, but among them he includes "Acquera" (Acuera) and Moquoso far 
to the south and entirely independent, so that we are uncertain regarding 
the status of the others he gives, which are as follows. Cadechn, 
Calnnay, Chilili, Eclauou, Molona, Omittaqua, and Onachaquara.
As the Utina, with the possible exception of the Potano, was the leading 
Timucua division and gave its name to the whole, and as the particular 
tribe to which each town mentioned in the documents belonged cannot 
be given, it will be well to enter all here, although those that can 
be placed more accurately will be inserted in their proper places.
In De Soto's time Aguacaleyquen or Caliquen seems to have been the 
principal town. In the mission period we are told that the chief lived 
at Ayaocuto. 
Acassa, a town inland from Tampa Bay.
Aguacaleyquen, a town in the province of Utina between Suwannee and 
Santa Fe Rivers.
Ahoica, probably near the Santa Fe River.
Alachepoyo, inland from Tampa Bay.
Alatico, probably on Cumberland Island.
Albino, 40 leagues or 4 days inland from St. Augustine and within 
1 1/2 to 2 leagues of two others called Tucuro and Utiaca.
Alimacani, on an island of the same name not far north of the mouth 
of St. Johns River.
Amaca, inland from Tampa Bay.
Anacapa, in the Fresh Water Province 20 leagues south of St. Augustine.
Anacharaqua, location unknown.
Antonico, in the Fresh Water Province.
Apalu, in the province of Yustaga.
Arapaja, 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Probably on Alapaha River.
Araya, south of the Withlacoochee River.
Archaha, location unknown.
Assile, on or near Aucilla River.
Astina, location unknown.
Atuluteca, probably near San Pedro or Cumberland Island.
Ayacamale, location unknown.
Ayaocute, in the Utina country 34 leagues from St. Augustine.
Ayotore, inland from Cumberland Island and probably southwest.
Beca, location unknown.

Becao, location unknown.
Bejesi, location unknown, perhaps the Apalachee town of Wacissa.
Cachipile, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Cacoroy, south of St. Augustine and 1 1/2 leagues from Nocoroco, probably 
in the Fresh Water Province.
Cadecha, allied with Utina.
Calany, allied with Utina.
Caparaca, south of St. Augustine, southwest of Nocoroco and probably 
in the Fresh Water Province.
Casti, location unknown.
Cayuco, near Tampa Bay.
Chamini, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.
Chinica, 70 leagues from St. Augustine.
Cholupaha, south of Aguacaleyquen in the Potano Province.
Chuaquin, 60 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Cicale, south of St. Augustine and 3 leagues south of Nocoroco, perhaps 
in the Fresh Water Province.
Cilili, said to be a Utina town.
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.
Coya, location unknown.
Disnica, south of St. Augustine, perhaps should be Tisnica.
Ecalamototo, on the site of Picolata.
Ecita, near Tampa Bay, possibly a variant of Ocita.
Eclsuou, location unknown.
Edelano, on an island of the same name in St. Johns River.
Elajay, location unknown, perhaps Calusa.
Elanogue, in the Fresh Water Province near Antonico.
Emola, location unknown.
Enecaque, location unknown.
Equale, in the Fresh Water Province.
Ereze, inland from Tampa Bay.
Esquega, a town or tribe on the west coast.
Exangue, near Cumberland Island.
Filache, in the Fresh Water Province.
Guacara, on Suwannee River in northwestern Florida.
Guacoco, probably a town on a plain so called in the Urriparacoxi 
Heliocopile, location unknown.
Helmacape, location unknown.
Hicachirico ("Little town"), one league from the mission of San Juan 
del Puerto, which was probably at the mouth of St. Johns River in 
the Saturiwa Province.
Hiocaia, the probable name of a town giving its name to a chief, location 
Huara, inland from Cumberland Island.
Itaraholata, south of Potano, Potano Province.
Juraya, a rancheria, apparently in the Timucua territory.
Laca, another name for Ecalamototo.
Lamale, inland from Cumberland Island.
Luca, between Tampa Bay and the Withlacoochee River in the Urriparacoxi 
Machaba, 64 leagues from St. Augustine, near the northern border of 
the Timucua country inland.
Maiaca, the town of the Fresh Water Province most distant from St. 
Augustine, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns 
Malaca, south of Nocoroco.
Marracou, location unknown.
Mathiaqua, location unknown.
Mayajuaca, near Maiaca.
Mayaru, on lower St. Johns River.
Mocama, possibly a town on Cumberland Island, province of Tacatacuru, 
but probably a province.
Mogote, south of St. Augustine in the region of Nocoroco.
Moloa, on the south side of St. Johns River near its mouth, province 
of Saturiwa. 
Napa, on an island one league from Cumberland Island.
Napituca, north of Aguacaleyquen, province of Utina.
Natobo, a mission station and probably native town 2 1/2 leagues from 
San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River, province of Saturiwa.
Nocoroeo, at the mouth of a river, perhaps Halifax River, one day's 
journey south of Matanzas Inlet, Fresh Water Province.
Ocale, in a province of the same name in the neighborhood of the present Ocala.
Ocita, probably on Terra Ceia Island, on Hillsborough Bay.
Onathaqua, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.
Osigubede, a chief and probably town on the west coast.
Panara, inland from Cumberland Island.
Parca, location unknown.
Patica, on the seacoast 8 leagues south of the mouth of St. Johns 
Patica, on the west bank of St. Johns River in the Utina territory.
Pebe, a chief and probably a town on the west coast.
Pentoaya, at the head of Indian River.
Perquymaland, south of Nocoroco; possibly the names of two towns, 
Perqui and Maland, run together.
Pia, on the east coast south of Nocoroco.
Pitano, a mission station and probably a native town a league and 
a half from Puturiba.
Pohoy, a town or province, or both, at Tampa Bay, and perhaps a synonym 
of Ocita.
Potano, the principal town of the Potano tribe, on the Alachua plains.
Potaya, 4 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns 
Puala, near Cumberland Island.
Punhuri, inland from Cumberland Island.
Puturiba, probably near the northern end of Cumberland Island, province 
of Tacatacuru. There was another town of the same name west of the 
Suwannee River.
Sabobche, near the coast south of Nocoroco.
Saint Julian, in the Fresh Water Province.
San Mateo, about 2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of 
St. Johns River, province of Saturiwa.
San Pablo, about 1 1/2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto, province 
of Saturiwa.
San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine.
Sarauahi, a quarter of a league from San Juan del Puerto.
Sena, on an "inlet" north of the mouth of St. Johns River, perhaps 
Amelia River.
Siyagueche, near Cape Canaveral.
Socochuno, location unknown.
Soloy, not far from St. Augustine and probably on the river called 
Seloy by the French.
Surruque, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.
Tacatacuru, the name of Cumberland Island and Province, and perhaps 
of the chief town, on the mainland side of the island near the southern 
end, 2 leagues from the Barra de San Pedro. 
Tafocole, inland from Tampa Bay.
Tahupa, inland from Cumberland Island.
Tanpacaste, a chief and perhaps town north of Pohoy, i. e., north 
of Tampa Bay.
Tarihica, 54 leagues from St. Augustine, and perhaps in the Onatheaqua 
Tocaste, on a large lake south of the Withlacoochee River, province 
of Urriparacoxi.
Tocoaya, very near Cumberland Island.
Tocobaga, the chief town of the province so called, in Safety
Harbor, Tampa Bay.
Tocoy, in the Fresh Water Province 5 leagues south of St. Augustine.
Tolapatafi, probably toward the west coast of the peninsula of Florida 
near Aucilla River.
Toloco, location unknown.
Tomeo, near the Fresh Water Province.
Tucura, near the Fresh Water Province.
Tucuro, see Abino.
Tunsa, possibly a synonym of Antonico.
Ucachile, a town or tribe in the Yustaga Province, perhaps the mother 
town of the Osochi.
Uqueten, the southernmost village of the province of Ocale on Withlacoochee 
River entered by De Soto.
Urica, 60 leagues from St. Augustine.
Uriutina, just north of the river of Aguacaleyquen, perhaps at Lake 
Urubia, near Cape Canaveral and 1 1/2 leagues from the town of Surruque.
Utayne, inland from Cumberland Island.
Utiaca, see Abino.
Utichini, inland from Cumberland Island and within a league and a 
half of Puturiba.
Utinamocharra, 1 day's journey north of Poiano, Potano Province.
Vera Cruz, half a league from San Juan del Puerto, province of Saturiwa.
Vicela, a short distance south of Withlacoochee River, province of 
Xapuica, near the Guale country, perhaps a synonym of Caparaca.
Xatalalnno, inland from Cumberland Island.
Yaocay, near Antonico in the Fresh Water Province.
Yeapalano, inland from Cumberland Island and probably within half 
a league or a league of Puturiba.
Yufera, inland and probably northwest from Cumberland Island.

Utina or Timucua tribe: History - The Utina were evidently those 
Indians occupying the province called Aguacaleyquen which De Soto 
passed through in 1539. In 1564 the French came in contact with them 
after the establishment of Fort Caroline. On one occasion they sent 
a contingent to help them defeat the neighboring Potano. After the 
Spaniards had supplanted the French, the Timucua allied themselves 
with the former and in 1576 or 1577 a body of soldiers was sent to 
support them against several neighboring tribes. They were missionized 
at a comparatively early date, and afterward followed the fortunes 
of the rest of the Timucua.

Following is a brief over-all sketch of the history of the tribes 
constituting the Timucuan group. They first came into contact with 
Europeans during Ponce de Leon's initial expedition in 1513 when the 
peninsula and subsequently the State received its name. Narvaez in 
1525 and De Soto in 1539 passed through the country of the western 
tribes. Ribault visited those on and near St. Johns River in 1562, 
and the French settlers of Fort Caroline on that river in 1564-65 
were in close contact with them. A considerable part of our knowledge 
regarding these Indians is contained in the records of that colony. 
The Spaniards supplanted the French in 1565 and gradually conquered 
the Timucua tribes while the Franciscans missionized them. Our knowledge 
of the Timucua language is derived mainly from religious works by 
the missionaries Pareja and Mouilla and a grammar compiled by the  former. 
During the early half of the seventeenth century the missions were 
in a flourishing condition but a general rebellion in 1656 occasioned 
some losses by death and exile. They also suffered severely from pestilences 
which raged in the missions in 1613-17, 1649-50, and 1672. 

It is probable that some decline in population took place even  before 
the great rebellion but that and the epidemics occasioned considerable 
losses. Toward the end of the seventeenth century, however, all the 
Florida Indians began to suffer from the invasion of Creek and Yuchi 
Indians to the northward, and this was accentuated after the break-up 
of the Apalachee in 1704 by the expedition under Moore. Most of the 
remaining Timucua were then concentrated into missions near St. Augustine, 
but this did not secure immunity against further attacks by the English 
and their Indian allies. Sometime after 1736 the remnants of these 
people seem to have removed to a stream in the present Volusia County 
which in the form Tomoka bears their name. Here they disappear from 
history, and it is probable that they were swallowed up by the invading 

Utina or Timucua tribe: Population - The Timucua, in the wide extent 
of the term, are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 13,000 
in 1650 including 3,000 Potano, 1,000 Hostaqua, 8,000 Timucua proper 
and their allies, and 1,000 Tocobaga. In a letter dated February 2, 
1635, it is asserted that 30,000 Christian Indians were connected 
with the 44 missions then maintained in the Guale and Timucua provinces. 
While this figure is probably too high, it tends to confirm Mooney's 
(1928) estimate. In 1675 Bishop Calderon of Cuba states that he confirmed 
13,152 in the four provinces of Timucua, Guale, Apalache, and Apalachicoli, 
but Governor Salazar estimates only 1,400 in the Timucua missions 
that year. Later, pestilences decimated the Timucua very rapidly, 
and their ruin was completed by attacks of the English and the northern 
Indians, so that by 1728 the single town which seems to have contained 
most of the survivors had but 15 men and 20 women. Eight years later 
17 men were reported there. Not long after this time the tribe disappears 
entirely, though it is highly probable that numbers of individuals 
who had belonged to it had made their homes with other Indians.

As to the Utina tribe by itself, we have a missionary letter dated 
1602 which estimates its population as 1,500, in this case probably 
an understatement.

Utina or Timucua tribe: Connection in which they have become noted 
- This tribe, known as the Utina or Timucua, is noteworthy (1) for 
having given its name to the peoples of the Timucuan or Timuquanan 
stock now regarded as part of the Muskogean family, and (2) as having 
been, next perhaps to the Potano, the most powerful tribe constituting 
that stock. The Timucuan group has left its name in that of the river 
above mentioned.

Yamasee tribe: Some tribes affiliated with the Yamasee settled in 
the Apalachee country in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
The great body came to Florida from South Carolina after their war 
with the English colonists in 1715, and most of them remained in the 
northeastern part of the peninsula. Their final appearance is as the 
Ocklawaha band of Seminole. Part of them moved west, however, and 
settled near Mobile, and either this or a third party lived among 
the Creeks for a time, after which they seem to have returned to west 
Florida, where they were represented by the "Yumersee" town of the 
Seminole. A considerable number of them were captured by the Creek 
Indians and incorporated with them. (See Georgia.)

Yuchi tribe: In the seventeenth century a body of Yuchi established 
themselves west of Apalachicola River, but moved north to join the 
Upper Creeks before 1761. At a much later date a body of eastern Yuchi 
joined the Seminole and in 1823 had a settlement called Tallahassee 
or Spring Gardens 10 miles from Volusia. They probably moved to Oklahoma 
at the end of the last Seminole war. (See Georgia.)

Yufera tribe: This is the name of a town or group of towns reported 
as located somewhere inland from Cumberland Island, nnd perhaps in 
the present territory of Georgia. The name is derived through Timucua 
informants but it may have referred to a part of the Muskogee tribe 
called Eufaula.

Yui tribe: Meaning unknown.

Yui tribe: Connections - (See Utina.)

Yui tribe: Location - On the mainland 14 leagues inland from Cumberland 
Island and probably in the southeastern part of the present state 
of Georgia.

Yui tribe: Villages
They had five villages but the names of these are either unknown or 

Yui tribe: History - The name of the Yui appears first in Spanish 
documents. They were visited by tbe missionary at San Pedro (Cumberland 
Island) and appear to have been Christianized early in the seventeenth 
century. No individual mission bore their name and they are soon lost 
sight of, their history becoming that of the other Timucua tribes.

Yui tribe: Population - The missionaries estimated more than 1,000 
Indians in this province in 1602. (See Utins.)

Yustaga tribe: Meaning unknown.

Yustaga tribe: Connections - No words of the Yustaga language  have 
been preserved but circumstantial evidence indicates they belonged 
to the Timucuan branch of the Muskhogean linguistic stock, although 
occasionally the provinces of Timucua and Yustaga are spoken of as 
if distinct.

Yustaga tribe: Location - Approximately between Aucilla and  Suwannee 
Rivers somewhat toward the coast.

Yustaga tribe: Villages
The Yustaga villages cannot be satisfactorily identified though the 
missions of Asile, San Marcos, Maohaba, and San Pedro seem to have 
belonged to it. 

Yustaga tribe: History - The Yustaga are first mentioned by Biedma 
(in Bourne, 1904), one of the chroniclers of De Soto, who gives the 
title to a "province" through which the Spaniards marched just before 
coming to Apalachee. While the French Huguenots were on St. Johns 
River, some of them visited this tribe, and later it is again mentioned 
by the Spaniards but no mission bears the name. Its history is soon 
merged in that of the Timucuan peoples generally. The last mention 
of the name appears to be in 1659. It is of particular interest as 
the province from which the Osochi Indians who settled among the Lower 
Creeks probably emigrated in 1656 or shortly afterward.

Yustaga tribe: Population - In 1675, 40 Indians were reported in 
the mission of Asile and 300 in each of the others, giving a total 
very close to Mooney's (1928) estimate of 1,000 as of the year 1600. 

End of Florida Indian tribes.

Source & Reference Notes!

   "The Indian Tribes of North America"
    By John R. Swanton; 1944
    [Retired from active membership on the staff of the 
    Bureau of American Ethnology in 1944]

   File: FL_PG1.TXT
   Refised: July 05, 1996
   By: Paul R. Sarrett, Jr., [email protected]

SE. Index
N.A. Index
SFA - Index

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Text - Copyright © 1996-2002 Paul R. Sarrett, Jr.
Created: Dec. 01, 1996; Mar. 25, 2002