Alabama Tribe Index
Cherokee Chief
Cherokee Chief
Alabama Tribes Index


Abihka tribe. - (See Creek Confederacy and Muskogee tribes.)

Alabama tribe. - (Upper Creek Confederacy, Muskhoegean stock)
Perhaps connected with the native word "albina," 
meaning "to camp," or alba amo, "weed gatherer," referring to the 
black drink. Also called:  Ma'-mo an-ya-di, or Ma'-mo han-ya, by 
the Biloxi;  Oke-choy-atte, given by Schoolcraft (1851-57), the 
name of an Alabama town, Oktcaiutci.

Alabama Connections.- The Alabama language belonged to the southern 
division of the Muskhogean stock, and was perhaps connected with the 
tongues of the Muklasa and Tuskegee, which have not been preserved. 
It was closely related to Koasati and more remotely to Hitchiti and 

Alabama Location.- The principal historic seat of this tribe was 
on the upper course of Alabama River. (See also Florida, Louisiana, 
Oklahoma, and Texas.)

Alabama Subdivisions. - The Tawasa and Pawokti, which later formed 
two Alabama towns, were originally independent tribes (See under Florida), 
though the former, at least, was not properly Alabama. The same may 
have been true of some other Alabama towns, though we have no proof 
of the fact.

Alabama Villages. - Besides the above: Autauga, on the north bank 
of Alabama River about the mouth of Autauga Creek in Autauga Co.; 
Kanteati, on Alabama River about 3 miles above Montgomery and on the 
same side; Nitabauritz, on the north side of Alabama River west of 
the confluence of the Alabama and Cahawba Rivers in Dallas Co.; 
Okchayutci, in Benjamin Hawkins' time (about 1800) on the cast bank 
of Coosa River between Tuakegee and the Muskogee town of Otciapofa. 
(See Hawkins, 1848, 1916.); Wetumpka, a branch village reported in 

Alabama History.- Native tradition assigns the origin of the Alabama 
to a point at the confluence of Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, but 
we seem to hear of the tribe first historically in what is now northern 
Mississippi west of the Chickasaw country. This is in the narratives 
of De Soto's chroniclers, which, however, do not altogether agree, 
since one writer speaks of a province of the name, two others bestow 
the designation upon a small village, and only Garcilaso (1723), the 
least reliable, gives the title Fort Alibamo to a stockade- west of 
the village above mentioned- where the Spaniards had a severe combat. 
While this stockade was probably held by Alabama Indians, there is 
no certainty that it was. The next we hear of the tribe it is in its 
historic seats above given. After the French had established themselves 
at Mobile they became embroiled in some small affrays between the 
Alabama and Mobile Indians, but peace was presently established and 
thereafter the French and Alabama remained good friends as long as 
French rule continued. This friendship was cemented in 1717 by the 
establishment of Fort Toulouse in the Alabama country and the admission 
among them of one, or probably two, refugee tribes, the Tawasa and 
Pawokti. (See Florida.) About 1763 a movement toward the west began 
on the part of those Indians who had become accustomed to French rule. 
Some Alabama joined the Seminole in Florida. Others accompanied the 
Koasati to Tombigbee River but soon returned to their own country. 
Still another body went to Louisiana and settled on the banks of the 
Mississippi River, where they were probably joined from time to time 
by more.

Later they advanced further toward the west and some are still scattered 
in St. Landry and Calcasieu Parishes, but the greatest single body 
finally reached Polk Co., Tex., where they occupy a piece of land 
set aside for them by the State. Those who remained behind took a 
very prominent part in the Creek-American War and lost all their land 
by the treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814, being obliged to make new settlements 
between the Coosa and Tallapoosa. They accompanied the rest of the 
Creeks to Oklahoma, and their descendants are to he found there today, 
principally about a little station bearing the name just south of 

Alabama Population.- In 1702 Iberville (in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 
4, p. 514) estimated that there were 400 families of Alabama in two 
villages, and the English census of 1715 gives 214 men and a total 
population of 770 in four villages. These figures must have been exclusive 
of the Tawasa and Pawokti, which subsequent estimates include. About 
1730-40 there is an estimate of 400 men in six towns. In 1792 the 
number of Alabama men is given as 60, exclusive of 60 Tawasa, but 
as this last included Kantcati the actual proportion of true Alabama 
was considerably greater.

Hawkins, in 1799, estimated 80 gunmen in four Alabama towns, including 
Tawasa and Pawokti, but he does not include the population of Okchaiyutci. 
(See Hawkins, 1848.) In 1832 only two towns are entered which may 
be safely set down as Alabama, Tawasa and Autauga, and these had a 
population of 321 besides 21 slaves. The later figures given above 
do not include those Alabama who had moved to Louisiana. In 1805 Sibley 
(1832) states there were two villages in Louisiana with 70 men; in 
1917 Morse (1822) gives 160 Alabama all told in Texas, but this is 
probably short of the truth. In 1882 the United States Indian Office 
reported 290 Alabama, Koasati, and Muskogee in Texas, the larger number 
of whom were probably Alabama. In 1900 the figure is raised to 470.  
In 1910 a special agent from the Indian Office reported 192 Alabama 
alone. The census of 1910 gave 187 in Texas and 111 in Louisiana, 
a total of 298. The 176 "Creek" Indians returned from Polk Co., 
Tex., in 1930, were mainly Alabama. The number of Alabama in Oklahoma 
has never been separately reported. 

Alabama Connection in which they have become noted.- The Alabama 
attained early literary fame from Garcilaso de la Vega's (1723) description 
of the storming of "Fort Allbamo." Their later notoriety has rested 
upon the fact that their name became attached to Alabama River, and 
still more call its subsequent adoption by the State of Alabama. A 
railroad station in Oklahoma is named after them, and the term has 
been applied to places in Genesee Co., NY., and in Polk Co., 
Wis. There is an Alabama City in Stowah Co., Ala., and Alabama 
in Madison Co., Ark.

Apalachee tribe. - A part of this tribe lived for a time among the 
Lower Creeks and perhaps in this State. Another section settled near 
Mobile and remained there until West Florida was ceded to Great Britain 
when they crossed the Mississippi. A few seem to have joined the Creeks 
and migrated with them to Oklahoma. (See Florida.)

Apalachicola tribe. - (Lower Creek Confederacy, Muskhoegean stock)
Very early this tribe lived on the Apalachicola 
and Chattahoochee Rivers, partly in Alabama. Sometime after 1715 they 
settled in Russell Co., on the Chattahoochee River where they occupied 
at least two different sites before removing with the rest of the 
Creeks to the other side of the Mississippi. (See Georgia.)

Atasi tribe. - A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Chatot tribe. - This tribe settled near Mobile after having been 
driven from Florida and moved to Louisiana about the same time as 
the Apalachee. (See Florida.)

Cherokee tribe. - In the latter part of the eighteenth century some 
Cherokee worked their way down the Tennessee River is far as Muscle 
Shoals, constituting the Chickamauga band. They had settlements at 
Turkeytown on the Coosa, Willstown on Wills Creek, and Coldwater near 
Tuscumbia, occupied jointly with the Creeks and destroyed by the Whites 
in 1787. All of their Alabama territory was surrendered in treaties 
made between 1807 and 1835. (See Tennessee.)

Chickasaw tribe. - The Chickasaw had a few settlements in northwestern 
Alabama, part of which State was within their hunting territories. 
At one time they also had a town called Ooe-asa (Wiaca) among the 
Upper Creeks. (See Mississippi.)

Choctaw tribe. This tribe hunted over and occupied, at least temporarily, 
parts of southwestern Alabama beyond the Tombigbee. (See Mississippi.)

Creek Confederacy tribes. - This name is given to a loose organization 
which constituted the principal political element in the territory 
of the present States of Georgia and Alabama from very early times 
probably as far back as the period of De Soto. It was built around 
a dominant tribe, or rather a group of dominant tribes, called Muskogee. 
The name Creek early became attached to these people because when 
they were first known to the Carolina colonists and for a considerable 
period afterward the body of them which the latter knew best was living 
upon a river, the present Ocmulgee, called by Europeans "Ocheese Creek." 

The Creeks were early divided geographically into two parts, one called 
'Upper Creeks', on the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers; the other, the 
'Lower Creeks', on the lower Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee. 
The former were also divided at times into the Coosa branch or Abihka and 
the Tallapoosa branch and the two were called Upper and Middle Creeks 
respectively. Bartram (1792) tends to confuse the student by denominating 
all of the true Creeks "Upper Creeks" and the Seminole "Lower Creeks." 
The dominant Muskogee gradually gathered about them and to a certain extent 
under them.  
	Lower Creeks
	1.  Apalachicola, (See AL., GA.
	2.  Chiaha,       (See GA.
	3.  Hitchiti, 
	4.  Okmulgee, 
	5.  Osochi, 
	6.  Sawokli, 
	7.  Yuchi, 
	Upper Creeks
	8.  Alabama,	(See AL., 
	9.  Koasati, 
	10. Muklasa, 
	11. Pawokti, 
	12. Tawasa, 
	13. Tuskegee, 
a part of the Shawnee, and 
for a time some Yamasee, not counting broken 
bands and families from various quarters. The first seven of the above 
here for the most part are among the Lower Creeks, the remainder with 
the Upper Creeks. 
(For further information, see the separate tribal names under 
Georgia, and Florida.)

Eufaula tribe. - A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Fus-hatchee tribe. - A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Hilibi tribe. - A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Hitchiti tribe. - This tribe lived for considerable period close 
to, and at times within, the present territory of Alabama along its 
southeastern margin. (See Georgia.)

Kan-hatki tribe. - A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Kealedji tribe. - A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Koasati tribe. - Meaning unknown; often given as Coosawda and Coushatta, 
and sometimes abbreviated to Shati.

Koasati Connections.- They belonged to the southern section of the 
Muskhogean linguistic group, and were particularly close to the Alabama.

Koasati Location.- The historic location of the Koasati was just 
below the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers to form the 
Alabama and on the east side of the latter, where Coosada Creek and 
Station still bear the name. (See also Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Texas, and Oklahoma.)

Koasati  Villages. - Two Koasati towns are mentioned as having existed 
in very early times, one of which may have been the Kaskinampo. (See 

At a later period a town known as Wetumpka on the east bank of Coosa 
River, in Elmore Co., near the fall seems to have been occupied 
by Koasati Indians. During part of its existence Wetumpka was divided 
into two settlements, Big Wetumpka on the site of the modern town 
of the same name, and Little Wetumpka above the falls of Coosa.

Koasati History.- It is probable that from about 1600 until well  along 
in the seventeenth century, perhaps to its very close, the Koasnti 
lived upon Tennessee River. There is good reason to think that they 
are the Coste, Acoste, or Costehe of De Soto's chroniclers whose principal 
village was upon an island in the river, and in all probability this 
was what is now known as Pine Island. There is also a bare mention 
of them in the narrative of Pardo's expedition of 1567 inland from 
Santa Elena, and judging by the entries made upon maps published early 
in the eighteenth century this tribe seems to have occupied the same 
position near where the French and English made their settlements 
in the Southeast. About that time they were probably joined by the 
related Kaskinampo.

Not long after they had become known to the Whites, a large part of 
the Koasati migrated south and established themselves at the point 
mentioned above. A portion seems to have remained behind for we find 
a village called Coosada at Larkin's Landing in Jackson Co. at 
a much later date. The main body continued with the Upper Creeks until 
shortly after France ceded all of her territories east of the Mississippi 
to England in 1763, when a large part moved to Tombigbee River. These 
soon returned to their former position, but about 1795 another part 
crossed the Mississippi and settled on Red River. Soon afterward they 
seem to have split up, some continuing on the Red River others went 
to the Sabine and beyond to the Neches and Trinity Rivers, Tex. At 
a later date a few Texas bands united with the Alabama in Polk Co., 
where their descendants still live, but most returned to Louisiana 
and gathered into one neighborhood northeast of Kinder, La. The greater 
part of the Koasati who remained in Alabama accompanied the Creeks 
to Oklahoma, where a few are still to be found. Previous to this removal, 
some appear to have gone to Florida to mix in their lot with the Seminole.

Koasati Population.- The earliest estimates of the Alabama Indians 
probably included the Koasati. In 1750 they are given 50 men; in 1760, 
150 men. Marbury (1792) credits them with 130 men. In 1832, after 
the Louisiana branch had split off, those who remained numbered 82 
and this is the last separate enumeration we have. Sibley (1806) on 
native authority gives 200 hunters in the Louisiana bands; in 1814 
Sehermerhorn estimates that there were 600 on the Sabine; in 1817 
Morse places the total Koasati population in Louisiana and Texas640; 
in 1829 Porter puts it at 180; in 1850 Bollaert gives the number of 
men in the two Koasati towns on Trinity River as 500.

In 1882 the United States Indian Office reported 290 Alabama, Koasati, 
and Muskogee in Texas, but the Census of 1900 raised this to 470. 
The Census of 1910 returned 11 Koasati from Texas, 85 from Louisiana, 
and 2 from Nebraska; those in Oklahoma were not enumerated separately 
from the other Creeks. The 134 "Creeks" returned from Louisiana in 
1930 were mainly Koasati.

Koasati Connection in which they have become noted.- Coonsada, a 
post village in Elmore Co., Ala., near the old Koasati town, and 
Coushatta, the capital of Red River Parish, La, preserve the name 
of the Koasati.

Kolomi tribe. _ A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Mobile tribe. - Meaning unknown, but Halbert (1901) suggests that 
it may be from Choctaw moeli, "to paddle," since Mobile is pronounced 
moila by the Indians. It is the Mabila, Mauilla, Mavila, or Mauvila 
of the De Soto chroniclers.

Mobile Connections. The language of the tribe was closely connected 
with that of the Choctaw and gave its name to a trade jargon based 
upon Choctaw or Chickasaw.

Mobile Location.- When the French settled the seacoast of Alabama 
the Mobile were living on the west side of Mobile River a few miles 
below the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee.

Mobile History.- When they make their first appearance in history 
in 1540 the Mobile were between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, 
and on the east side of the former. Their chief, Tuscaloosa, was a 
very tall and commanding Indian with great influence throughout the 
surrounding, country. He inspired his people to attack; the invading 
Spaniards and a terrific battle was fought October 18, 1540, for the 
possession of one of his fortified towns (Mabila), which the Spaniards 
carried with heavy losses to themselves in killed and wounded, while 
of the Indians 2,500 or more fell. It is probable that the village 
of Nanipacna, through which a force of Spaniards of the De Luna colony 
passed in 1559, was occupied by some of the survivors of this tribe. 
At a later date they may have settled near Gees Rend of the Alabama 
River, in Wilcox Co., because early French maps give a village 
site there which they call "Vieux Mobiliens." A Spanish letter of 
1686 speaks of them as at war with the Peusacola tribe. When the French 
came into the country, the Mobile were, as stated above, settled not 
far below the junction of the Tombigbee and Alabama. After a post 
had been established on the spot where Mobile stands today, the Mobile 
Indians moved down nearer to it and remained there until about the 
time when the English obtained possession of the country. They do 
not appear to have gone to Louisiana like so many of the smaller tribes 
about them and were probably absorbed in the Choctaw Nation. 

Mobile Population.- After allowing for all exaggerations, the number 
of Mobile Indians when De Soto fought with them must have been very 
considerable, perhaps 6,000 to 7,000. Mooney (1928) estimates 2,000 
Mobile and Tohome in 1650, over a hundred years after the great battle. 
In 1702 Iberville states that this tribe and the Tohome together embraced 
about 350 warriors; in 1725-26 Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 536), gives 
60 for the Mobile alone, but in 1730 Regis de Rouillet (1732) cuts 
this in half. In 1758 De Kerlerec (1907) estimates the number of warriors 
among the Mobile, Tohome, and Naniaba at about 100.

Mobile Connection in which they have become noted.- The Mobile have 
attained a fame altogether beyond anything which their later numerical 
importance would warrant; (1) on account of the desperate resistance 
which they offered to De Soto's forces, and (2) from the important 
Alabama city to which they gave their name. There is a place called 
Mobile in Maricopa Co., Ariz. 

Muklasa  tribe. -  Meaning in Alabama and Choctaw, "friends," or 
"people of one nation."

Muklasa Connections.- Since the Muklasa did not speak Muskogee and 
their name is from the Koasati, Alabama, or Choctaw language, and 
since they were near neighbors of the two former, it is evident that 
they were connected with one or the other of them.

Muklasa Location.- On the south bank of Tallapoosa River in Montgomery 
Co.. (See Florida and Oklahoma.)

Muklasa History.- When we first hear of the Muklasa in 1675 they 
were in the position above given and remained there until the end 
of the Creek-American War, when they are said to have emigrated to 
Florida in a body. Nothing is heard of them afterward, however, and 
although Gatschet (1884) states that "there was a town of the name 
in the Creek Nation in the west in his time, I could learn nothing 
about it when I visited the Creeks in 1911- 12."

Muklasa Population.- In 1760 the Muklasa are said to have had 50 
men, in 1761, 30, and in 1792, 30. These are the only figures available 
regarding their numbers.

Muskogee tribe.
 - Meaning unknown, but perhaps originally from Shawnee 
and having reference to swampy ground. To this tribe the name Creeks 
was ordinarily applied. Also called: Ani'-Gu'sa, by the Cherokee, 
meaning "Coosa people," after an ancient and famous town on Coosa 
River; Ku-u'sha, by the Wyandot; Ochesee, by the Hitchiti; Sko'-ki 
han-ya, by the Biloxi.

Muskogee Connections.- The Muskogee language constitutes one division 
of the Muskhogean tongues proper, that which I call Northern.

Muskogee Location.- From the earliest times of which we have any 
record these people seem to have had towns all the way from the Atlantic 
coast of Georgia and the neighborhood of Savannah River to central 
Alabama. (See also Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.)

Muskogee Subdivisions and Villages. - It is difficult to separate 
major divisions of the Muskogee from towns and towns from villages, 
but there were certainly several distinct Muskogee tribes at a very 
early period. The following subdivisional classification is perhaps 
as good as any: 

Abihka (in St. Clair, Calhoun, and Talladega Counties. AL.): 
Abihka-in-the-west, a late branch of Abihka in the western part of 
the Creek Nation, Okla; 
Abihkutci, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek, Talladega Co., on the right 
bank 5 miles from Coosa River, AL.
Kan-tcati, on or near Chocolocko, or Choccolocco, Creek and probably 
not far from the present "Conchardee."; 
Kayomalgi, possibly settled by Shawnee or Chickasaw, probably near 
Sylacauga, Talladega Co., AL.
Lun-ham-ga, location unknown; Talladega, on Talladega Creek, Talladega Co., AL. 
Tcahki lako, on Choccolocco Creek in Talladega or Calhoun Co., AL.
Atasi: 5 Locations all in AL.
(1) on the upper Ocmulgee River, 
(2) on the Chattahoochee, 
(3) on the Tallapoosa in Tallapoosa Co., 
(4) on the south side of the Tallapoosa in Macon Co., 
(5) on the north side near Calebee Creek in Elmore Co..

Muskogee Coosa: 
Abihkutci, a division of Okfuskee, which apparently 
came into existence after the Creeks had removed to Oklahoma; 
Atcinaulga, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River in Randolph Co.; 
Big Tulsa, on the east bank of Tallapoosa River at the mouth of Ufaubee Creek 
in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Chatukchufaula, possibly identical with the last, on Nafape Creek or 
Tallapoosa River; 
Chuleocwhooatlee, on the left bank of Tallapoosa River, 11 miles 
below Nuyaka, in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Holitaiga, on Chattahoochee River in Troup Co., Ga; 
Imukfa, on Emaufaw Creek in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Ipisagi, on Sandy Creek in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Kohamutkikatsa, location unknown; 
Little Tulsa, on the east side of Coosa River, 3 miles above the 
falls, Elmore Co.; 
Lutcapoga, perhaps near Loachapoka in Lee Co., or on the upper Tallapoosa; 
Nafape, on a creek of the same name flowing into Ufaubee Creek; 
Okfuskee, 2 locations 
(1) at the mouth of Hillabee Creek, 
(2) at the mouth of Sand Creek, both in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Okfuskutci, 3 locations
(1) on Chattahoochee River in Troup Co., Ca.; 
(2) on the upper Tallapoosa in Tallapoosa Co., Ala.; 
(3) another town of the name or an earlier location of the first 
somewhere near the lower Tallapoosa; 
Old Coosa, near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers; 
Otciapofa, on the east side of the Coosa River in Elmore Co., just below the 

Saoga-hatchee, on Saogahatchee Creek, in Tallapoosa or Lee Co.; 
Suka-ispoga, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River below 
the mouth of Hillibee Creek, in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Tallassehasee, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek in Talladega Co.; 
Tcahkilako, on Chattahoochee River near Franklin, Heard Co., Ga; 
Tcatoksofka, seemingly a later name of the main Okfuskee town; 
Tcawokeln, 25 miles east northeast of the mouth of Upatoie Creek, 
probably near Chewacla Station, Lee Co.; 
Tculakonini, on Chattahoochee River in Troup Co., Ga; 
Tohtogagi, on the west bank of Tallapoosa River, probably in Randolph Co.; 
Tukabahcheo Tallahassee, later called Talmuteasi, on the west side 
of Tallapoosa River in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Tukpafka, on Chattahoochee River in Heard Co., Ga., later moved to 
Tallapoosa, settled on the left bank 11 miles above Okfuskee, Tallapoosa Co., 
and renamed Nuyaka; 
Tulsa Canadian, a branch of Tulsa on the Canadian River, Okla; 
Tulsa Little River, a branch of Tulsa near Holdenville, Okla; 
Coweta  (early location on the upper Ocmulgee, later on the west 
bank of Chattahoochee River in Russell Co., Ala., opposite Columbus, Ga. 
Coweta Tallahassee, later Likatcka or Broken Arrow, probably a former 
location of the bulk of the tribe, on the west bank of Chattahoochee 
River in Russell Co., Ala; 
Katca tastanagi's Town "at Cho-lose-parp-kari."; 
Settlements on "Hallewokke Yoaxarhatchee."; 
Settlements on "Toosilkstorkee Hatchee."; 
Settlements on "Warkeeche Hatchee."; 
Wetumpka, a branch of the last on the main fork of Big Uchee Creek 
12 miles northwest from the mother town, Coweta Tallahassee.

Muskogee Eufaula: 
A branch among the Seminole called Kan-tcati. (See Florida, Seminole.); 
A branch village of Eufaula hopai on a creek called "Chouokolohatchee."; 
Eufaulahatchee or Eufaula Old Town, on Talladega Creek, also called 
Eufaula Creek, 15 miles from its mouth; 
Lower Eufaula or Eufaula hopai, above the mouth of Pataula Creek, 
in Clay Co., Ga; 
Upper Eufaula, on the right bank of Tallapoosa River 5 miles below 
Okfuskee, in Tallapoosa Co.- at one time separated into Big Eufaula 
and Little Eufaula. Hilibi (at the junction of Hillabee and Bear Creeks, 
Tallapoosa Co.): 
Anetechapko, 10 miles above Hilibi on a branch of Hillabee Creek; 
Etcuseislaiga, on the left bank of Hillabee Creek, 4 miles below Hilibi; 
Kiteopataki, location unknown.

Muskogee Lanutciabala, on the northwest branch of Hillabee Creek, 
probably in Tallapoosa Co.; 
Little Hilibi, location unknown; 
Oktahasasi, on a creek of the name 2 miles below Hilibi; 
Holiwahali (on the north bank of Tallapoosa River in Elmore Co.: 
Laplako, on the south side of Tallapoosa in Montgomery Co. 
nearly opposite Holiwahali; 
Kasihta (best-known location on the east bank of Chattahoochee River, 
at the junction of Upatoie Creek in Chattahoochee Co., Ga.): 
Apatai, in the forks of Upatoie and Pine Knob Creeks in Muskogee Co., Ga; 
Salenojuh, on Flint River 8 miles below Aupiogee Creek (?). 
Settlements bearing the same name (Kasihta). 
Settlements on Chowockeleehatchee Creek, Ala. 
Settlements on Little Uchee Creek, Ala. 
Settlements on "Tolarnulkar Hatchee."; 
Sicharlitcha, location unknown.

Tallassee Town, on Opillikee Hatchee, perhaps in Schley or Macon Counties, Ga; 
Tuckabatchee Harjo's Town, on Osenubba Hatchee, a west branch of the 
Chattahoochee, Ala; 
Tuskehenehaw Chooley's Town, near West Point, Troup Co., Ga.

Muskogee Okchai: 
Asilanabi, on Yellow Leaf Creek in Shelby Co.; 
Lalogalga, or Fish Pond, on a branch of Elkhatchee Creek, 14 miles 
up, in Tallapoosa or Coosa Co.; 
Okchai, 2 locations 
(1) on the east side of the lower Coosa in Elmore Co.; 
(2) in the southeastern part of Coosa Co., on a creek bearing their name, 
which flowed into Kialaga Creek; 
Potcashatchee, probably a branch of this on the upper course of 
Hatchet Creek in Clay or Coosa Co.; 
Tcahki lako, on Chattahoochee River; 
Tulsa hatchee, location uncertain.

Muskogee Pakana: 
Pakan Tallahassee, on Hatchet Creek, Coosa Co.; 
The Pakana who settled near Fort Toulouse at the junction of Coosa 
and Tallapoosa Rivers and afterward moved to Louisiana, living on 
Calcasieu River for a while; 
Tukabahchee (in the sharp angle made where Tallapoosa River turns 
west in Elmore Co.): 
Wihili, location unknown; 
Wakokai (on the middle course of Hatchet Creek in Coosa Co.): 
Sakapadai, probably on Sacapartoy, a branch of Hatchet Creek, Coosa Co.; 
Tukpafks, on Hatchet Creek, Coosa Co.; 
Wiogufki, on Weogufka Creek in Coosa Co.. 

Besides the Muskogee tribes noted above, there were the following: 
Fus-hatchee, Not a major division; on the north bank of Tallapoosa 
River in Elmore Co., 2 miles below Holiwahali. They may have been 
related to the Holiwahali; 

Kan-hatki. Not a major division; just below Kolomi on the north bank 
of Tallapoosa River in Elmore Co.. Possibly related to the Holiwahali; 
Kealedji. Not a primary division; perhaps a branch of Tukabahchee; 
(1) on the Ocmulgee, 
(2) on Kialaga Creek in Elmore Co. or Tallapoosa Co., having one branch 
Hatcheetcaba, west of Kealedji, probably in Elmore Co.; 
Kolomi. Probably not a major division; location 
(1) on the Ocmulgee, 
(2) on the middle Chattahoochee in Russell Co., Alb., 
(3) on the north side of the lower Tallapoosa in Elmore Co.. 
They may have been related to the Holiwahali; 
Wiwohka. Not a primary division but a late town; location 
(1) near the mouth of Hatchet Creek in Coosa Co., 
(2) on Weoka Creek in Elmore Co..

In addition to the above Muskogee  towns, there were a number of 
towns and villages which cannot be classified, or only with extreme 
doubt. They are as follows: 

Acpactaniche, on the headwaters of Coosa River, perhaps meant for 
Alkehatchee, an Upper Creek town; 
Atchasapa, on Tallapoosa River not far below Tulsa, possibly for 
Aucheucaula, in the northwestern part of Coosa Co.; 
Auhoba, below Autauga. (See Alabama.) 
Breed Camp, an Upper Creek town, probably meant for the Chickasaw
settlement of Ooe-asa; 
Cauwaoulau, a Lower Creek village in Russell Co. west of Uehee Post 
Office and south of the old Federal road; 
Chachane, the Lower Creek town farthest downstream; 
Chanahunrege, between the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers in or near
Coosa Co.; 
Chananagi, placed by Brannon (1909) "in Bullock Co., 
just south of the Central of Georgia Railroad near Susponsion. 
Chichoufkee, an Upper Creek town in Elmore Co., east of Coosa River 
and near Wiwoka Creek; 
Chinnaby's Fort, at Ten Islands in the Coosa River; 
Chiscalage, in or near Coosa Co., perhaps a body of Yuchi; 
Cholocco Litabixee, in the Horseshoe Bend of Tallapoosa River; 
Chuahla, just below White Oak Creek, south of Alabama River; 
Cohatchie, in the southwestern part of Talladega Co. on the bank of 
Coosa River; Conaliga, in the western part of Russell Co. or the 
eastern part of Macon, somewhere near the present Warrior Stand; 

Cooccohapofe, on Chattahoochee River; 
Cotohautustenuggee, on the right bank of Upatoie Creek, Muscogee Co., Ga; 
Cow Towns, location uncertain.

Donnally's Town, on the Flint or the Chattahoochee River; 
Ekun- duts-ke, probably on the south bank of Line Creek in Montgomery Co.; 
Emarhe, location uncertain; 
Eto-husse-wakkes, on Chattahoochee River, 3 miles above Fort Gaines; 
Fife's Village, an Upper Creek village a few miles east of Talladega, Ala; 
Fin'halui, a Lower Creek settlement, perhaps the Yuchi settlement of 
High Log; 
Habiquache, given by the Popple Map as on the west side of Coosa River; 
Ikan atchaka, "Holy Ground," in Lowndes Co., 2 1/2 miles due north of 
White Hall, just below the mouth of Holy Ground Creek on the Old Sprott 
Istapoga, in Talladega Co. near the influx of Estaboga Creek into Choccolocco 
Creek, about 10 miles from Coosa River; 
Kehatches, somewhere above the bend of Tallapoosa River and between 
it and the Coosa; 
Keroff, apparently on the upper Coosa.
Litafatchi, at the head of Canoe Creek in St. Clair Co.; 
Lustuhatchee, above the second cataract of Tallapoosa River; 
Melton's Village, in Marshall Co., Ala., on Town Creek, at the site 
of the present "Old Village Ford."; 
Ninnipaskulgee, near Tukabahchee; 
Nipky, probably a Lower Creek town; Oakchinawa Village, in Talladega Co., 
on both sides of Salt Creek, near the point where it flows into Big Shoal 
Old Osonee Town, on Cahawba River in Shelby Co.; 
Opillako, on Pinthlocco Creek in Coosa Co.; 
Oti palin, on the west bank of Coosa River, just below the junction of 
Canoe Creek. (See Chinnaby's Fort.); 
Oti tutcina, probably between Coosa and Opillako or Pakan Tallahassee 
and on Coosa River; 
Pea Creek, perhaps an out settlement of Tukabahchee, location unknown; 
Pin Huti, somewhere near Dadeville in Tallapoosa Co..
Rabbit Town, possibly a nickname, location unknown; 
St. Taffery's, location unknown; 
Satapo, on Tennessee River; 
Talipsehogy, an Upper Creek settlement; 
Talishntchie Town, in Calhoun Co. east of a branch of Tallasehatchee 
Creek 3 miles southwest of Jacksonville; 
Tallapoosa, said to be within a day's journey of Fort Toulouse 
at the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa River and probably on 
the river of that name; 
Talwa Hadjo, on Cahawba River; 
Tohowogly, perhaps intended for Sawokli, 8 to 10 miles below the 
falls of the Chattahoochee; 
Turkey Creek, in Jefferson Co., on Turkey Greek north of Trussville, probably 
Uncuaula, in the western part of Coosa Co. on Coosa River. 
Wallhal, an Upper Creek town given on the Purcell map, perhaps intended 
for Eufaula, or an independent town on Wallahatchee Creek, Elmore 
Weyolla, a town so entered on the Popple Map, between the Coosa and 
Tallapoosa but near the former; probably a distorted form of the name 
of some well-known place.

Muskogee History.- Muskogee tradition points to the northwest for 
the origin of the nation. In the spring of 1540, De Soto passed through 
some settlements and a "province" called Chisi, Ichisi, and Achese, 
in southern Georgia, which may have been occupied by Muskogee because 
they are known to Hitchiti-speaking people as Ochesee. Somewhat later 
he entered Cofitachequi, probably either the later Kasihta, or Coweta, 
and the same summer he entered Coosa and passed through the country 
of the Upper Creeks.

Companions of De Luna visited Coosa again in 1559 and assisted it 
in its wars with a neighboring tribe to the West, the Napochi. Cofitachequi 
was visited later by Juan Pardo and other Spanish explorers and some 
of Pardo's companions penetrated as far as Coosa. It is probable that 
part if not all of the province of Guale on the Georgia coast was 
at that time occupied by Muskogee, and relations between the Guale 
Indians and the Spaniards continued intimate from 1565 onward. Soon 
afterward the Spaniards also encountered the Creeks of Chattahoochee 
River. At what time the confederacy of which the Muskogee were the 
most important part was established is unknown but the nucleus probably 
existed in De Soto's time. At any rate it was in a flourishing condition 
in 1670 when South Carolina was colonized and probably continued to 
grow more rapidly than before owing to the accession of Creek tribes 
displaced by the Whites or other tribes whom the Whites had displaced. 
Before 1715 a large body were living on Ocmulgee River but following 
on the Yamasee outbreak of that year they withdrew to the Chattahoochee 
from which they had moved previously to be near the English trading 
posts. Occupying as they did a central position between the English, 
Spanish, and French colonies, the favor of the Creeks was a matter 
of concern to these nations, and they played a more important part 
than any other American Indians in the colonial history of the Gulf 
region. For a considerable period they were allied with the English, 
and they were largely instrumental in destroying the former Indian 
inhabitants of Florida and breaking up the missions which had been 
established there. Finding the territory thus vacated very agreeable 
and one abounding in game, they presently began to settle in it permanently 
particularly after it was ceded to Great Britain in 1763. The first 
of the true Muskogee to emigrate to Florida, except for a small band 
of Coweta, were some Eufaula Indians, and the Muskogee do not seem 
to have constituted the dominant element until after the Creek-American 
war, 1813-14. In the last decades of the eighteenth century, the internal 
organization of the Confederacy was almost revolutionized by Alexander 
McGillivray, the son of a Scotch trader, who set up a virtual dictatorship 
and raised the Confederacy to a high position of influence by his 
skill in playing off one European on against another. After his death 
friction developed between the factions favorable to and those opposed 
to the Whites. Inspired by the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, a large part 
of the Upper Creeks broke out into open hostilities in 1813, but nearly 
all of the Lower Creeks and some of the most prominent Upper Creek 
towns refused to join with them and a large force from the Lower Creeks 
under William MacIntosh and Timpoochee Barnard, the Yuchi chief, actively 
aided the American army. This war was ended by Andrew Jackson's victory 
at Horsehoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River, March 27, 1814. One immediate 
result of this war was to double or triple the number of Seminole 
in Florida, owing to the multitude of Creeks who wished to escape 
from their old country.

From this time on friction between the pro-White and anti-White Creek 
factions increased. When the United States Government attempted to 
end these troubles by inducing the Indians to emigrate, the friction 
increased still more and culminated in 1825 when the Georgia commissioners 
had induced William MacIntosh, leader of the pro-American faction, 
and some other chiefs to affix their signatures to a treaty ceding 
all that was then left of the Creek lands. For this act formal sentence 
of death was passed upon MacIntosh, and he was shot by a band of Indians 
sent to his house for that purpose May 1, 1825. However, the leaders 
of the Confederacy finally agreed to the removal, which took place 
between 1836 and 1840, the Lower Creeks settling in the upper part 
of their new lands and the Upper Creeks in the lower part. The former 
factional troubles kept the relations between these two sections strained 
for some years, but they were finally adjusted and in course of time 
an elective government with a chief, second chief, and a representative 
assembly of two houses was established, which continued until the 
nation was incorporated into the State of Oklahoma. 

Muskogee Population.- Except where an attempt is made to give the 
population by towns, it is usually impossible to separate the Muskogee 
from other peoples of the Confederacy. Correct estimates of all Creeks 
are also rendered difficult because they were taking in smaller tribes 
from time to time and giving off colonists to Florida and Louisiana. 
In 1702 Iberville placed the whole number of Creek and Alabama families 
at 2,000. In 1708 South Carolina officials estimated about 2,000 warriors. 
In 1715 something approaching a census was taken of the tribes in 
their vicinity by the government of South Carolina and a total of 
1,869 men and a population of 6,522 was returned for the Creeks, exclusive 
of the Alabama, Yuchi, Shawnee, Apalachicola, and Yamasee. A town 
by town enumeration made by the Spaniards in 1738 shows 1,660 warriors; 
a French estimate of 1750, 905; another of 1760, 2,620; a North Carolina 
estimate of 1760, 2,000 warriors; an English estimate of 1761, 1,385; 
one of about 3,000 the same year; an American estimate of 1792, 2,850; 
and finally the census taken in 1832-33 just before the emigration 
of the Creeks to their new lands across the Mississippi, showed a 
total of 17,939 in the true Muskogee towns. Besides these more careful 
statements, we have a number of general estimates of warriors in the 
eighteenth century ranging from 1,250 up to between 5,000 and 6,000. 
This last was by Alexander McGillivray and is nearest that shown by 
the census of 1832-33. It would seem either that the earlier estimates 
were uniformly too low or that the Confederacy increased rapidly during 
the latter part of the eighteenth century and the first part of the 
nineteenth. After the removal estimates returned by the Indian Office 
and from other sources ranged between 20,000 and 25,000. 

When a new census was taken in 1857, however, less than 15,000 were 
resumed, and there was a slow falling off until 1919 when there were 
about 12,000. It must be noted that the census of 1910 returned only 
6,945, a figure which can be reconciled with that of the United States 
Indian Office only on the supposition that it is supposed to cover 
only Indians of full or nearly full blood. The report of the United 
States Indian Office for 1923 gives 11,952 Creeks by blood.

Regarding the later population it must be remembered that it has become 
more and more diluted. The United States Census of 1930 gave 9,083 
but included the Alabama and Koasati Indians of Texas and Louisiana 
and individuals scattered through more than 13 other States outside 
of Oklahoma, where 8,760 lived. These "general estimates" include 
the incorporated tribes. 

Muskogee Connection in which they have become noted.- In the form 
Muskhogean, the name of this tribe was adopted by Powell (1891) for 
that group of languages to which the speech of the Muskogee belongs. 
In the form Muscogee it has been given to a county in western Georgia, 
and to a railroad junction in it, and to a post- village in Escambia 
Co., Fla. In the form Muskogee it is the name of the capital of 
Muskogee Co., Okla., the third largest city in that state. The 
political organization of which they constituted the nucleus and the 
dominant element represents the most successful attempt north of Mexico 
at the formation of a superstate except that made by the Iroquois, 
and the part they played in the early history of our Gulf region was 
greater than that of any other, not even excepting the Cherokee. They 
were one of the principal mound-building tribes to survive into modern 
times and were unsurpassed in the elaborate character of their ceremonials 
(except possibly by the Natchez), while their prowess in war was proven 
by the great contest which they waged with the United States Government 
in 1813-14, and the still more remarkable struggle which their Seminole 
relatives and  descendants maintained in Florida in 1835-1842. Their 
great war speaker, Hopohithli-yahola, was probably surpassed in native 
greatness by no chief in this area except the Choctaw Pushmataha. 
(See Foreman, 1930.)

Napochi tribe. - If connected with Choctaw Napissa, as seems not 
unlikely, the name means "those who see," or " those who look out," 
probably equivalent to "frontiersmen."

Napochi Connection.- They belonged to the southern division of  the 
Muskhogeans proper, and were seemingly nearest to the Choctaw. 

Napochi Location.- Along Black Warrior River.

Napochi History.- The tribe appears first in the account of an attempt 
to colonize the Gulf States in 1559 under Don Tristan de Luna. A part 
of his forces being sent inland from Pensacola Bay came to Coosa in 
1560 and assisted its people against the Napochi, whom they claimed 
to have reduced to "allegiance" to the former. After this the Napochi 
seem to have left the Black Warrior, and we know nothing certain of 
their fate, but the name was preserved down tovery recent times among 
the Creeks as a war name, and it is probable that they are the Napissa 
spoken of by Iberville in 1699, as having recently united with the 
Chickasaw. Possibly the Acolapissa of Pearl River and the Quinipissa 
of Louisiana were parts of the same tribe.

Napochi Population.- Unknown.

Napochi Connection in which they have become noted.- The only clan 
the Napochi have to distinction is their possible connection with 
the remarkable group of mounds at Moundville, Hale Co., Ala. Natchez. 
One section of the Natchez Indians settled among the Abihka Creeks 
near Coosa River after 1731 and went to Oklahoma a century later with 
the rest of the Creeks. (See Mississippi.)

Okchai tribe. - A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Okmulgee tribe. - A Creek tribe and town of the Hitchiti connection. 
(See Georgia.)

Osochi tribe. - Meaning unknown.

Osochi Connections.- Within recent times the closest connections 
of this tribe have been with the Chiaha, though their language is 
said to have been Muskogee, but there is some reason to think that 
they may have been originally a part of the Timucua. (See below.) 

Osochi Location.- Their best known historic seat was in the great 
bend of Chattahoochee River, Russell Co., Ala., near the Chiaha. 
(See also Georgia and Florida.)

Osochi Villages. - The town of Hotalgi-huyana populated in part 
from this tribe and in part from the Chiaha. The census of 1832 gives 
two settlements, one on the Chattahoochee River and one on a stream 
called Opillike Hatchee.

Osochi History.- The suggestion that the Osochi may have been Timucua 
is founded (1) on the resemblance of their name to that of a Timucua 
division in northwest Florida called by the Spaniards Ossachile or 
Ucachile, (2) on the fact that after the Timucua uprising of 1666 
some of the rebels "fled to the woods," and (3) the later mention 
of a detached body of Timucua in the neighborhood of the Apalachicola. 
Early in the eighteenth century they seem to have been living with 
or near the Apalachicola at the junction of the Chattahoochee and 
Flint. From what Hawkins (1848) tells us regarding them, we must suppose 
that they moved up Flint River somewhat later and from there to the 
Chattahoochee, in the location near the Chiaha above given. They migrated 
to Oklahoma with the rest of the Lower Creeks, and maintained their 
separateness in that country for a while but were later absorbed in 
the general mass of the Creek population.

Osochi Population.- The following estimates of the effective male 
population of the Osochi occur: 1750, 30; 1760, 50; 1792, 50. The 
census of 1832-33 returned a total of 539, but one of the two towns 
inhabited by these Indians may have belonged to the Okmulgee.

Pakana tribe. - A division of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Pawokti tribe. - This tribe moved from Florida to the neighborhood 
of Mobile along with the Alabama Indians and afterward established 
a town on the upper course of Alabama River. Still later they were 
absorbed into the Alabama division of the Creek Confederacy. (See 

Pilthlako tribe. - A division of the Creeks, probably related to 
the Muskogee (q. v.), and possibly a division of the Okchai.

Sawokli tribe. - Possibly meaning "raccoon people," in the Hitchiti 
language, and, while this is not absolutely certain, the okli undoubtedly 
means "people."

Sawokli Connections.- The Sawokli belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic 
stock and to the subdivision called Atcik-hata. (See

Sawokli Location. - The best known historic location was on the 
Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of the present  Barbour 
Co., Ala. (See Florida and Georgia.)

Sawokli Villages. - Hatchee teaba, probably on or near Hatchechubbee 
Creek, in Russell Co., Ala; Okawaigi, on Cowikee Creek, in Barbour 
Co., Ala; Okiti-yagani, in Clay Co., Ga., not far from Fort 
Gaines; Sawokli, several different locations, the best known of which 
is given above: Sawoklutci, on the east bank of the Chattahoochee 
River, in Stewart Co., Ga.; Tcawokli, probably on Chattahoochee 
River in the northeastern part of Russell Co., Ala.

Sawokli History.- When first known to the Spaniards the Sawokli 
were living on Chattahoochee River below the falls. A Spanish mission, 
Santa Cruz de Sabacola, was established in one section of the tribe 
by Bishop Calderon of Cuba in 1675, and missionaries were sent to 
a larger body among the Creeks in 1679 and again in 1681. Most of 
the Indians surrounding these latter, however, soon became hostile 
and those who were Christianized withdrew to the junction of the Chattahoochee 
and Flint Rivers, where they were settled not far from the newly established 
Chatot missions. The Sawokli appear to have remained in the same general 
region until 1706 or 1707, when they were displaced by hostile Indians, 
probably Creeks. At least part lived for a while on Ocmulgee River 
and returned to the Chattahoochee, as did the residents of many other 
Indian towns, about 1715, after which they gradually split up into 
several settlements but followed the fortunes of the Lower Creeks. 
In the seventeenth century there may have been a detached body as 
far west as Yazoo River, saw a map of that period gives a "Sabougla" 
town there and the name is preserved to the present day in a creek 
and post village. 

Sawokli Population.- In 1738 a Spanish report gives the Sawokli 
20 men, evidently an underestimate. In 1750 four settlements are given 
with more than 50 men, and in 1760 the same number of settlements 
and 190 men, including perhaps the Tamali, but to these must be added 
30 men of Okiti-yakani. In 1761, including the neighboring and probably 
related villages, they are reported to have had 50 hunters. Hawkins 
in 1799 gives 20 hunters in Sawoklutci but no figured for the other 
towns. (See Hawkins, 1848.) In 1821 Young (in Morse, 1822) estimates 
150 inhabitants in a town probably identical with this, and, according 
to the census of 1832-33, there were 187 Indians in Sawokli besides 
42 slaves, 157 Indians in Okawaigi, and 106 in Hatcheetcaba; altogether, 
exclusive of the slaves, 450.

Sawokli Connection in which they have become noted.- Sawokla is 
the name of a small place in Oklahoma, and a branch of this town has 
had its name incorporated in that of a stream, the Chewokeleehatchee, 
in Macon Co.., Ala., and in a post office  called Chewacla in Lee 
Co., Ala.

Shawnee tribe. - In 1716 a band of Shawnee from Savannah River moved 
to the Chattahoochee and later to the Tallapoosa, where they remained 
until early in the nineteenth century. A second band settled near 
Sylacauga in 1747 and remained there until some time before 1761 when 
they returned north. (See Tennessee.)

Taensa tribe.  - This tribe was moved from Louisiana in 1715 and 
given a location about 2 leagues from the French fort at Mobile, one 
which had been recently abandoned by the Tawasa, along a water-course 
which was named from them Tensaw River. Soon after the cession of 
Mobile to Great Britain, the Taensa returned to Louisiana. (See Louisiana.)

Tohome tribe. - Said by Iberville to mean "little chief," but this 
is evidently an error.

Tohome Connections.- They belonged to the southern branch of the 
Muskhogean linguistic group, their closest relatives being the Mobile.

Tohome Location.- About McIntosh's Bluff on the west bank of Tombigbee 
River, some miles above its junction with the Alabama.

Tohome Subdivisions. - Anciently there were two main branches of 
this tribe, sometimes called the Big Tohome and Little Tohome, but 
the Little Tohome are known more often as Naniaba, "people dwelling 
on a hill," or "people of the Forks;" the latter would be because 
they were where the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers unite.

Tohome Villages. - No others are known than those which received 
their names from the tribe and its subdivisions.

Tohome History.- Cartographical evidence suggests that the Tohome 
may once have lived on a creek formerly known as Oke Thome, now contracted 
into Catoma, which flows into Alabama River a short distance below 
Montgomery. When first discovered by the Whites, however, they were 
living at the point above indicated. In the De Luna narratives (1559-60) 
the Tombigbee River is called "River of the Tome." Iberville learned 
of this tribe in April 1700, and sent messengers who reached the Tohome 
village and returned in May. In 1702 he went to see them himself but 
seems not to have gone beyond the Naniaba. From this time on Tohome 
history is identical with that of the Nobile and the two tribes appear 
usually to have been in alliance although a rupture between them was 
threatened upon one occasion on account of the murder of a Mobile 
woman by one of the Tohome. In 1715 a Tohome Indian killed an English 
trader named Hughes who had come overland from South Carolina, had 
been apprehended and taken to Mobile by the French and afterward liberated. 
A bare mention of the tribe occurs in 1763 and again in 1771-72. They 
and the Mobile probably united ultimately with the Choctaw.

Tohome Population.- In 1700 Iberville estimated that the Tohome 
and Mobile each counted 300 warriors, but 2 years later he revised 
his figures so far that he gave 350 for the two together. In 1730 
Regis de Rouillet estimated that there were 60 among the Tohome and 
50 among the Naniaba. In 1758 Governor De Kerlerec estimated that 
the Mobile, Tohome, and Naniaba together had 100 warriors. (See Mobile.)

Tukabahchee tribe. - One of the four head tribes of the Muskogee 
(q. v.).

Tuskegee tribe. - Meaning unknown, but apparently containing the 
Alabama term taska, "warrior."

Tuskegee Connection.- The original Tuskegee language is unknown 
but it was probably affiliated with the Alabama, and hence with the 
southern branch of Muskhogeans.

Tuskegee Location.- The later and best known location of this tribe 
was on the point of land between Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, but 
in 1685 part of them were on the Chattahoochee River near modern Columbus 
and the rest were on the upper Tennessee near Long Island. (See also 
Oklahoma and Tennessee.)

Tuskegee  Villages. - None are known under any except the tribal 

Tuskegee History.- In 1540 De Soto passed through a town called 
Tasqui 2 days before he entered Coosa. In 1567 Vandera was informed 
that there were two places in this neighborhood near together called 
Tasqui and Tasquiqui, both of which probably belonged to the Tuskegee.

By the close of the seventeenth century the Tuskegee appear to have 
divided into two bands one of which Coxe (1705) places on an island 
in Tennessee River. This band continued to live on or near the Tennessee 
for a considerable period but in course of time settled among the 
Cherokee on the south side of Little Tennessee River, just above the 
mouth of Tellico, in the present Monroe Co., Tenn. Sequoya lived 
there in his boyhood. Another place which retained this name, and 
was probably the site of an earlier settlement was on the north bank 
of Tennessee River, in a bend just below Chattanooga, while there 
was a Tuskegee Creek on the south bank of Little Tennessee River, 
north of Robbinsville, in Graham Co., N. C. This band, or the greater 
part of it, was probably absorbed by the Cherokee. 

A second body of Tuskegee moved to the location mentioned above where 
the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers come together. It is possible that 
they first established themselves among the Creek towns on the Ocmulgee, 
moved with them to the Chattahoochee in 1715 and finally to the point 
just indicated, for we have at least two documentary notices of Tuskegee 
at those points and they appear so situated on a number of maps. It 
is more likely that these were the Tuskegee who finally settled at 
the Coosa- Tallapoosa confluence than a third division of the tribe 
but the fact is not yet established. In 1717 the French fort called 
Fort Toulouse or the Alabama Fort was built close to this town and 
therefore it continued in the French interest as long as French rule 
lasted. After the Creek removal, the Tuskegee formed a town in the 
southeastern part of the Creek territories in Oklahoma, but at a later 
date part moved farther to the northwest and established themselves 
near Beggs.

Tuskegee Population.- There are no figures for the Tuskegee division 
which remained on Tennessee River. The southern band had 10 men according 
to the estimate of 1750, but this is evidently too low. Later enumerations 
are 50 men in 1760, 40 in 1761, including those of Coosa Old Town, 
25 in 1772 and 1792, 35 in 1799. The census of 1832-33 returned a 
population of 216 Indians and 25 Negro slaves.

Tuskegee Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Tuskegee 
became applied locally to several places in eastern Tennessee and 
western North Carolina, and one in Creek Co., Okla., but the most 
important place to receive it was Tuskeegee or Tuskegee, the county 
seat of Macon Co., Ala. The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute 
for colored people, located at this place, has, under the guidance 
of the late Booker T. Washington, made the name better known than 
any other association.

Wakokai tribe. - A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q.v.)

Wiwohka tribe. - A division of the Muskogee made up from several 
different sources. (See Muskogee.)

Yamasee tribe. - There was a band of Yamasee on Mobile Bay shortly 
after 1716, at the mouth of the River, and such a band is entered 
on maps as late as 1744. It was possibly this same band which appears 
among the Upper Creeks during the same century and in particular is 
entered upon the Mitchell map of 1755. Later they seem to have moved 
across to Chattahoochee River and later to west Florida, where in 
1823 they constituted a Seminole town. (See Florida.)

Yuchi tribe. - A band of Yuchi seems to have lived at a very early 
date near Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River, whence they probably 
moved into east Tennessee. A second body of the same tribe moved from 
Choctawhatchee River, Fla., to the Tallapoosa before 1760 and established 
themselves near the Tukabahchee, but they soon disappeared from the 
historical record. In 1715 the Westo Indians, who I believe to have 
been Yuchi, settled on the Alabama side of Chattahoochee River, probably 
on LittleCreek. The year afterward another band, accompanied by Shawnee 
and Apalachicola Indians, established themselves farther down, perhaps 
at the mouth of Cowikee Creek in Barbour Co., and not long afterward 
accompanied the Shawnee to Tallapoosa River. They settled beside the 
latter and some finally united with them. They seem to have occupied 
several towns in the neighborhood in succession and there is evidence 
that a part of them reached the lower Tombigbee. The main body of 
Yuchi shifted from the Savannah to Uchee Creek in Russell Co. between 
1729 and 1740 and continued there until the westward migration of 
the Creek Nation.  (See Georgia.)

End of Alabama Indian Tribes.

Source & Reference Notes!

   "The�Indian�Tribes of North�America"
    By�John�R. Swanton; 1944
    [Retired�from active membership on the�staff�of�the 
    Bureau of American Ethnology in 1944]

   File: AL_PG1.TXT
   Refised: July 05, 1996
   By: Paul R. Sarrett, Jr., [email protected]

SE. Index
N.A. Index
SFA - Index

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Text - Copyright © 1996-2002 Paul R. Sarrett, Jr.
Created: Dec. 01, 1996; Mar. 25, 2002