History in Newspapers

Updated - 12/17/2009


The items listed below (on this page) are History in Newspapers items that are revelent to all townships in our area, Conestoga, Manor, Martic, Pequea as well as Millersville and Washington Boroughs.. To read items for a specific township then click on that township's link, listed below.
The source of this material are various newspaper that are on-line, the Lancaster Intelligencer and The Columbia Spy are all at the Penn State Digital Book Shelf Page once there click on Digital Collection and then Civil War Newspapers. Unfortunately, this doesn't include the full run of either paper, they run from about 1848 to 1870. Previously the Lancaster County Historical Society had the Columbia Spy on-line that was complete but when this collection was transferred to Penn State only the Civil War period papers were placed on-line. The materail on this page covers the entire area, all the townships and boroughs, such as the building of the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad as well as how these townships voted in the 1860 elections. If an item, such as a marriage, nvolved two people from two different townships you should find the citation on both.
Some of the articles on this page and on connecting pages are't complete, you need to click on a link, which will open in a new page, to read the entire article. Some of thise articles are very large and I wanted to make it possible for people to scroll through the articles so look for subjects of interest to them.
I've included all the obits, funeral notices and weddings I've found but this shouldn't be considered complete. When I've been searching for something else I've checked the funeral notices and marriages nearby but at this point its hit or miss. I hope to continue to add them though.
When a news article deserves comment I've included my comments in bold before the news item.

Thanks to Lancaster Newspapers Inc. and the Sterling Gazette for permission to use the copyrighted material on these pages. Some newspapers, like the Philadelphia Inquirer, Columbia Spy and other newspapers are beyond copyrighted., they predate 1925, but I'm pleased to be able to present this material. Expect future updates to these pages.

       Conestoga News             Manor News             Martic News             Pequea News             Millersville News             Washington Borough News

Lancaster Journal
Monday, February 12, 1816
Sixth Collection District Pennsylvania.
To All whom it may Concern.
You are hereby notified, that the Direct Tax of the United States, for 1815, has become due and payable; and that I have subdivided the District, and appointed Deputies (agreeable to Law) who will attend to receive the same at the following times and places, viz.
2d Subdivision. Daniel Moore (principal Deputy of the 6th Revenue district) Comprising the townships of Conestoga, Manor, Hempfield, Donegal, Mountjoy and Rapho. Conestoga
At the house of John Kindig, Innkeeper, on the 21st and 22d days of February inst. Also, at the house of Samuel Heiney, on the 23d of February instant. Manor
At the house of Peter Burk, Innkeeper (in Millerstown) on the 26th February inst. Also, at the house of Christian Binkley, Innkeeper, on the 27th day of Februar4y inst. And at Hasson's (formerly Bitner's) tavern in the village of Washington (same township) on the 28th day of February instant.

The Free Press
June 17, 1819
It is said there is a large sea-serpent making its way up the Conestoga; we�ll have a great chase when it gets as high as Witmer's bridge.

NOTE: This shows the effort of the Commonwealth to create a canal that would connect the Susquehanna River with the Schuylkill River so goods coming down the Susquehanna could be shipped to Philadelphia. This canal was never built.
Lancaster Journal
Tuesday, Dec. 14, 1819
Governor's Message
To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Fellow Citizens,
The commissioners appointed to explore a route for a canal to unite the waters of Chickesalungo, Conestoga and French Creek, have not commenced that work, in consequence of the insufficiency of the compensation provided by law. It is however expected that they will ascertain the depression from the top of the lowest of the dividing ridges, and examine the supply of water, which will enable them to decide upon the practicability of the connection, and that they will report the result in the early part of the session.

Note: This is a debate on the Conestoga Massacre that occurred in December 1763. Since this discussion occurred almost 70 years after the event we probably shouldn�t consider this a first hand account although it�s the earliest printed account I�ve seen of the events.
Lancaster Journal
Friday, February 11, 1831
From the Register of Pennsylvania
Paxton Boys
(Extract from Gordon's History of Pennsylvania, page 104)
"A number of armed and mounted men, principally from Donegal and Paxtung, or Paxton township, attacked an indian village occupied by the remains of a tribe of the Six Nations on the Conestogo manor, and barbarously massacred some women and children, and a few old men, amongst the latter the chief Shahead, who had always been distinguished for his friendship towards the whites. The majority of the Indian villagers were abroad at the time of the attack, and to protect these against the perpetrators of this inhuman action, were placed under the protection of the magistrates in the work house at Lancaster. But the fury of the people was not net allayed. Assembling in great numbers, they forced the prison, & butchered all the miserable wretches they found within its walls. Unarmed and unprotected, the Indians prostrated themselves with their children before their murders, protesting their innocence and their love to the English and in this posture they all received the hatchet. It is not possible to exculpate the magistrates of the town from the charge of criminal negligence, since it was in their power to have prevented this assassination or to have arrested the perpetrators.
Captain Robinson, with a company of Highlanders on their way from Pittsburg, being then at Lancaster, put himself in the way to receive the command of the civil authority, which made no effort to use the force this offered."
As the above has been repeated in the Historical Society's manuscript, I consider it a duty to repel the charge against the magistrates of Lancaster.
The magistrates did their duty as officers of the civil authority, as men and as christians. Actuated by the genuine principle of philanthropy, they placed the remains of the Indians, who were but few in numbers, in the greatest place of security within their control- the prison. But the men of Donegal and Paxton were mounted and armed with rifles, in the use of which weapon they were admirably skillful. They approached Lancaster in the night, and concealed themselves in the woods in the vicinity until the hour of church arrived. The magistrates & the chief part of the inhabitants were assembled in their respective places of public worship, when the men galloped into town, forced the prison, committed the work of destruction, and were mounted and away before the magistrates had even time to interpose their authority.
As respects captain Robinson, it is well known that the magistrates were aware that the Highlanders would not have been able to punish the offenders.
The Donegal and Paxton riflemen were expert marksmen, and being acquainted with the county would have proved dangerous enemies. The Highlanders were also unwilling to pursue them, as they were on foot and the riflemen all well mounted.
Such being the fact it is easy to exculpate the magistrates of the town from the charge of criminal negligence, as it was not in their power either to prevent the assassination or to have arrested the perpetrators.
As the Register has given publicity to the unfounded attacks against the magistrates of Lancaster, contained in the Historical Society manuscript. I hope its pages will give place to the foregoing explanation.
The above transactions occurred in the year 1763, on a Sunday.

Mr. Reynolds,
The writer of the above had been informed by some of the aged and respectable inhabitants of Lancaster, that the outrage had been perpetrated upon Sunday; which give rise to this opinion, was the circumstance of the magistrates being in church when the alarm was given. The 26th of December, 1763, (Christmas day) was Sunday, but at the period, owing principally to the disturbed state of the Province, the Churches were frequently open for worship on other days of the week. Tuesday, the 27th of December, 1763, while the Rev. Mr. Barton was officiating in the Episcopal Church, the doors were thrown open with violence, and several voices were heard exclaiming "Paxton Boys," "Murder,", "The prison is attacked," They are murdering the Indian, &etc &etc. Edward Shippen, Esq., they Chief Magistrate of the Borough, immediately left the Church and hastened to the quarters of Captain Robinson, and besought him to hasten to the rescue of the Indians, but that officer replied "Damn them I would not care if the whole race were slain, for my company has suffered enough by them already. I will not stir one step.
The magistrates of Lancaster did all that lay in their power, both to prevent the murder and to apprehend the rioters. By a reference to Loskiel's Indians Missions, page 216, it appears that on November the eleventh, when the Indians who were sent to Philadelphia to be lodges in the Barracks, the positive command of the Governor, that the soldiers refused to admit them.
On page 220 it is further stated, that the Indians were ordered to New York for safety; and when they had left Philadelphia, they met with Captain Robertson and seventy Highlanders, who were ordered to escort them, that these soldiers behaved very wild and unfriendly.
On page 222 it is stated that Captain Robertson's company was now relieved by one hundred and seventy men from Gen. Gage's army, commanded by Captain Scholsser.- "These soldiers had suffered much from the savages near Lake Erie, which rendered them averse to the Indians."
These facts will show clearly that the military authority was unwilling to attempt the avengeance of the Paxton Boys.
It is a little remarkable that three of the persons who were most deeply concerned in the murder of the Indians at Lancaster, William Hays, the Sheriff, said two persons of the name Smith and Howard, met with an untimely fate; Hays was killed in a Saw Mill, Smith drowned himself, and Howard fell on a knife, which he had in his hand, by accident which caused his death.
Wm. Hays, jr., the son of the Sheriff, and Donnelly the jailor, were also suspected of being in the plot.
The Paxton Boys, after the commission of the murder, gave three cheers, and said "We have presented the citizens of Lancaster with a Christmas Box, and we shall present the Philadelphians with a New-Years Gift."
NOTE: - The Captain Robertson mentioned in Loskiel is the same Captain Robinson who was at Lancaster with his Highlanders at the time of the murder of the Indians.
December 14th, 1763, fourteen Indians were murdered at Conestogo, by 57 inhabitants from Paxton.
December 27th, 1763, nine Indians were murdered in Lancaster by a number of Paxton and Donegal Boys, well armed.

The Columbia Spy
June 9, 1831
May 26th, 1831
NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN, That agreeably to the act of incorporation, an election for nine Directors, by the Stockholders, will be held at the Banking-house in Columbia, on Monday the 4th day of July next.

Lancaster Journal
Friday, October 29, 1831
Fence Viewers
The following persons were on the 21st day of April, 1831, appointed Fence Viewers for the county of Lancaster, by the Court of Common Pleas of said county.
Conestoga Dr. John Myley, Benjamin Musser
Manor - Rudolph Wissler, Esq., Henry Shock, John Frantz
Martick - James Ankrim, Daniel Eckman, John M'Creary.

The Columbia Spy
January 26, 1832
At M�Call�s Ferry, about 20 miles below this, where the river is very narrow, the ice remained firm, resisting the pressure of the floating ice above. The consequence is, that the ice has dammed up there to the height, some say of 50 or 60 feet, and jammed as far back as Turkey Hill, within seven miles of this borough. The water has completely over-flooded the country at the mouth of the Conestoga - a part of the public house kept by Mr. M�Fann, is swept away, and the remainder is lifted yup by the ice 30 feet from its foundation. A number of the inhabitants were compelled to leave their dwellings and seek others. The three lower locks on the Conestoga navigation have been forced from their situations by the setting back of the ice and water. The island opposite the Conestoga, improved and occupied by Mr. Samuel Was, was covered with ice nearly up to the roof of the dwelling, and the inhabitants were seen to walk down on the ice to an island about half a mile below, occupied by Mr. Peter Mondorff, on Saturday evening last. The buildings on this latter island are firmer and more elevated. It is supposed that the cattle on these islands mush have perished. Unless the ice should be able to force its passage, much damage my be apprehended.

Lancaster Journal
Friday, August 17, 1832
In Manor township, on the 23d of July, in the 82d year of his age, Mr. Joseph Wright. The deceased was a respectable citizen, and served as a captain in the war of the Revolution.

The Columbia Spy
September 27, 1832
Public Notice is hereby given that the undersigned Commissioners, appointed by a supplement to an act entitled an act to incorporate the Columbia, Washington, and Port Deposit Road Company, will meet at the following times and places, for the purpose of receiving subscriptions to the stock of said company, viz: On Saturday, the 13th day of October inst., at the house of Abraham Bitner, in the Boro of Washington; on Saturday the 20th, at the house of Daniel Kendig at Safe Harbor; on Saturday the 27th, at the house of Henry Shank, Conestoga: on Wednesday the 31st at the house of Jesse M�Conkey, Peach Bottom: and on Wednesday the 7th November, at the house of Francis Boggs, in Port Deposit.
                                                                         Jacob Gossler,
Wm. Poist,
Abraham Bitner
Benj. Mellinger,
Henry Shank,
Wm. M�Creery,
Thomas Neil,
Joseph Penny,
Jeremiah Brown,
Little Britain,

Lancaster Journal
Friday, July 26, 1833
Fellow Citizens: - I am induced to offer myself to your consideration as a candidate for the
at the ensuing election; and should I be favored with a majority of your suffrages, I pledge myself to discharge the duties of the office with fidelity and humanity.
Manor township, March 14, 1833

The Columbia Spy
March 1, 1834
From the Lancaster Journal
Conestoga Navigation
The works upon the Conestoga, since they have gone into the hands of their present public spirited and enterprising owners, the Messrs. Coleman�s, have undergone a thorough and complete repair. The Dams injured by the tremendous ice freshet of February, 1832, have all been built up and repaired in the most substantial manner. The outside wall of the lock at Safe Harbor has been taken down and built up several feet wider than formerly, and the cribs filled with stone, laid in by hand, so as to make it sufficient to resist any water pressure which can come against it. All the Locks have been new lined, water tightened and fitted up with new gates of the most substantial workmanship. Additional facilities for both filling and emptying the locks have been introduced and it is most confidently believed that the Conestoga now offers a navigation for its extent, not exceeded by any in the United States.
Proprietors of coal, lumber, &c. &c. may now rely upon a safe and easy ascent to the city landings at all times when they can make Safe Harbor upon the Susquehanna, or, indeed at all time when not impeded by ice, or very extraordinary freshets-the latter of which can only last for one or at most two days.
The expectation is now confidently indulged that in the course of a few weeks we shall again see our wharves and landings occupied with quantities of lumber, coal, &c, affording something like a supply for the immense and still increasing demand for these articles in the city, central and eastern part of this county and the adjoining county of Chester.
A market for Whiskey is again opened at the City Lancing, where the market price is given for that article by Messrs. Hager and Co.

The Columbia Spy
Sept 23, 1834
The School Law
The election for school directors in this district resulted in the choice of Richard E. Cochran, John Barber, James H. Mifflin, Samuel Boyd, Christian Hershey and John Mussel man. They are friendly to the system, and the vote stood 191 to 22, being a majority of 169. We understand that the law was accepted in the city of Lancaster, where 19 votes only were given in, and the townships of Manor, Conestoga, East Donegal,
East Hemp field, and Salisbury; and rejected in West Donegal, Mount joy, Elizabethtown, Rapho, Warwick, Cocalico, Lampeter, Lancaster, Leacock, Strasburg, Sadsbury and Bart townships. These are all that have been heard from.

The Columbia Spy
October 4, 1834
The several townships in this county are divided as follows on the question of accepting the school law; and among those which rejected it we understand much regret is left fo their recusancy, while in others it was lost only through the apathy fo the people or the tricks which were played off by its enemies. The city of Lancaster and townships of Manor, Conestoga, Martic, Strasburg, Salisbury, Caernarvon, Drumore, Little Britain, East Hempfield, West Hempfield, Colerain and East Donegal have adopted the law; while Lancaster, Lampeter, Warwick, Cocalico, Weast Earl, West Earl, Rapho, Leacock, West Donegal, Mount Joy, Elizabeth, manheim, Brecknock, Sadsbury, and Bart townships have rejected it. This county therefore stands thriteen in favor of and fifteen opposed to the law.
In York County, the borough of Hanover and the townships of Chanceford and Fairview have adopted the education law in company with the borough of York, which is thus relieved for the glorious minority of one in which we placed it last week.

Lancaster Intelligencer
Tuesday, June 6, 1848
Steamboat Excursions.
Conestoga Navigation
The new and fast Steam packet "Coleman", Captain Bernard, will make her regular trips on the Conestoga Navigation, between Lancaster and Safe Harbor, on and after Monday, 29th May, until further notice as follows:
On Monday, Wednesday and Fridays.
Will leave Hess' Lock, Safe Harbor at 6 o'clock (morning) and 4 1/2 o�clock (afternoon).
Returning - will leave Greaff's Landing, Lancaster at 11 o'clock (morning)
On Tuesday, Thursdays, and Saturdays.
Will leave Greaff's Landing, Lancaster at 6 o'clock (morning) and 4 1/2 o'clock (afternoon)
Returning will leave Hess' Lock, Safe Harbor, at 11 o'clock (morning).
Fare to Safe Harbor 37 1/2 cents
Intermediate place 25 cents
Children - Half price
Parcels, and light freight, rate at fair rates.
For Tickets apply to the Captain on board
or to           G. Calder, Agent
Centre Square, Lancaster

Lancaster Intelligencer
Tuesday June 27, 1848
On the 12th inst., at Safe Harbor, Lancaster co., of inflammation of the lungs, Bostwick Badger, pilot on the Susquehanna river, aged about 62.

Examiner & Herald
May 14, 1856
Tavern License Applications
The Court met on Saturday afternoon to announce their award of tavern licenses. The following order was first announced:
"It is ordered by the Court that the Prosecuting Attorney for the District, proceed to prepare for the prosecution of all offenders against the act for regulating the sale of intoxicating liquors, passed the 31st of March, 1856. - Indictments upon the returns made by the constables and filed according to law, to be presented to the Grand Jury at the next sessions in August."

The Court then made the following announcement: -
" In the Court of Quarter Sessions of Lancaster County: - After duly hearing the several applications for licenses for sales of liquors, under the act entitled an act to regulate the sale of intoxicating liquors, approved the thirty-first day of March, Anno Domini, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, the following licenses are granted by the said Court, in pursuance of the said act, upon the applicants named respectively, complying with the requisite conditions:"

Washington - Gotlieb Shener, Benjamin Kauffman, C. D. Martin.
Conestoga - A. S. Gillet, George W. Hess, John G. Pries, Andrew T. Metzgar.
Manor - Thomas Fisher, Edward Hess, John Brady, Jr., George Hornberger, Jacob S. Mann, John Daily.
Martic - Jno Wilson, Jesse Engles, Jno. Fisher
Pequea - Benjamin Rowe, Michael Zercher

Rejected Applications.
Washington Jacob Kreider
Conestoga - Jacob Warfel, Elizabeth Eckman
Manor David M. Witmer, Christian H. Zimmer, Jacob H. Lightheiser, Jacob S. Kauffman.
Martic None
Pequea Christian B. Herr, Samuel Charles

The Columbia Spy
Nov. 15, 1856
Districts                               Buchanan           Fremont          Fillmore

Conestoga                                 155               150             145
               Millerstown                 98                89             140
               Indiantown                  85                37             166
Martic                                    143               139              33
Pequea                                     38               105              28
Washington                                162                95             126  

Lancaster Examiner and Herald
April 28,. 1858
LICENSES GRANTED -On Saturday last the Court granted two hundred and fifty two tavern licenses. They are distributed over the county as follows:

The Columbia Spy
January 8, 1859
Report of the Directors of the Farmer's Mutual Insurance Company,
The next fire was the barn and wagon shed of John Frantz, of Manor township, which was destroyed on the night of the second of February. The barn was new, large and well furnished, and with the contents was valued by the Appraisers at four thousand and sixty-six dollars, on which the Directors paid three thousand and fifty, (3,050). This was supposed to have been the work of an incendiary.
The next fire consumed the kitchen and wash house of Henry Heidlebaugh, of Pequea township, on the night of the 25th of February. The dwelling house, though near by, was saved, by the exertions of the family and neighbors, aided by a providential change of wind at the time of the fire. The loss was estimated at three hundred and sixty dollars ($360), and the Directors paid him two hundred and seventy dollars, ($270). The fire was supposed to be accidental, but the family could not account for its origin.
On the night of March 21st a fire occurred in the store of Elias H. Witmer, at Millerstown, Manor twp. The contents of the store were entirely consumed, one half of which had been insured by this company. The appraisers estimated the actual loss at 5 thousand, 300 and thirty-three dollars, (5,333). On this the Directors paid two thousand dollars, ($2000), being three-fourths of one-half of the actual cash value. No clue could be obtained in regard to the origin of the fire.
On the 27th of March, a fire occurred on the premises of Jacob B. Shuman, of Manor township, by which a dwelling house was consumed. The appraisers reported the actual damage at four hundred dollars, ($400_ and the Directors paid him three hundred, ($300).
By the next fire; which occurred on the 8th of July, the barn of Henry Galen, of Martic township, was destroyed. The damage was laid at five hundred dollars, ($500) and the Directors paid him three hundred and seventy five dollars ($375). The barn was fired by a simple-minded young woman, an inmate of Mr. Galen's family. She has since been convicted upon her own confession, and sentenced to the Lancaster County Prison for the crime which seems to have been committed without any apparent motive. When this fire occurred the Directors deemed it unexpedient to levy a tax for so small an amount, and therefore authorized the Treasurer to borrow such sum as might be necessary to meet the hat liabilities of the Company.

Lancaster Intelligencer
April 3, 1860
City and County Affairs
Justices of the Peace
Conestoga       - H. Mehaffy & Jacob Fehl
Martic             - Henry Andrews & John McClune
Manor:            - G. C. Hawthorn & Charles Denues
Pequea            - Daniel Fulton & Andrew Mehaffy
Washington     - Not listed.

The Columbia Spy
June 23, 1860
A Destructive Hail Storm - On Tuesday afternoon about five o�clock, a heavy thunder storm passed over this place, accompanied by hail. The storm in Columbia was not destructive, but in other parts of the county it was heavier and in some places disastrous. The streams were all swollen heavily and considerable destruction of fences in this neighborhood was the consequence. The wind struck the river below the bridge, and carried the water in spray to considerable height, and afterwards in several places the water was whirled up with a rotary motion in pillars of foam. - Accounts from different sections of the county show considerable damage. We copy some particulars from the Lancaster Express of Wednesday evening.
Last evening between 5 and 6 o�clock one of the most destructive hail storms and tornadoes which has ever visited this vicinity, passed over the townships of Mount Joy, Rapho, West Hempfield, Manor and Conestoga doing great damage to property and the crops. The storm appears to have come from the north or northwest.
The particulars of the storm in the county, as far as they have reached us, are given below:
The first point of which we have any information is at Silver Springs, about four miles south of Mount Joy. At this point hail fell so thick as to cover the ground to the depth of several inches, and it is said that some of the hail-stones measured three inches in circumference. The corn and tobacco crops were cut to pieces, and the wheat, rye and oats beaten down.
At Turkey Hill and vicinity the hail is said to have fallen to the depth of three inches, and that in the evening persons were seen shoveling it from their door. - This seems a little steep, but we are assured it is the truth.
At Mount Joy, the hail was also very destructive, breaking windows and doing damage to the yards and gardens in the neighborhood. Mr. Abraham Hackman, of that place, who came to this city last evening after the storm, brought with him about a half bushel of hail-stones in a bag, some of which, even several ours after they had fallen, were as large as ordinary sized hickory nuts.
The next we hear of the storm is at Mountville. A reliable correspondent at that place furnishes us with the following particulars:
"Yesterday evening, at half past five o�clock, our town and neighborhood was visited by one of the heaviest thunder and hail storms that was ever known here. In less than five minutes, the ground was literally covered with falling hail, which continued for about 25 minutes; the rain in less than five minutes, the ground was literally covered with falling hail, which continued for about 25 minutes; the rain in the meantime falling thick and heavy in perfect floods. Vegetation is completely cut to shreds, small plants were deeply buried in the ground; cherries, apples, &c., were cut from the trees, covering the ground with the green fruit. The tobacco farmers� hopes are frustrated. The plants are completely cut to pieces. The wheat and rye are leveled with the ground-the stalks split and the heads cut off. The grain is very much injured, as the heads are not yet filled, and will therefore not come to perfection.
The creeks were swelled higher than ever known, carrying fences and everything in their course. About fifteen tons of dried hay in the meadow of L.S. Garber was swept away and much damage was other wise done.
The storm when it reached Safe Harbor, seems to have attained its full power. At this point its destructiveness to property and the corps is incalculable at this time. It is said to have struck Safe Harbor about half past five o�clock. The first indications of its approach were deep black clouds coming up over a hill to the north, carrying with them boards, shingles, limbs of trees, and everything indeed which could not resist their force. An eye witness informs us that the tornado-for such it really became when it reached this point- approached slowly and looked fearfully sublime. The dark masses of clouds rolled and pitched over one another as if an army of demons were in deadly conflict, while the lower strata tore off shingles and boards from the roofs of houses, or licked them up from insecure places. They went up into the dark rolling clouds, and every not and then were revealed to the eve by vivid flashes of lightening the phenomena are said to have been appalling to the beholder.
When the storm struck the Conestoga, in front of Hess� Mansion House Hotel, it completed lifted the entire body of water from its bed, so that those who were on the banks of the creek at the time could see the bottom. In the creek was a large quantity of lumber belonging to Mr. Reinhold, of this city, which it also carried up. But, singular to relate, an adverse current of wind carried water and lumber back to the bed of the creek.
The tornado next struck the islands in the Susquehanna, where it did great damage. The two story frame house and barn belonging to Snyder, Sourbeer & Co., were leveled with the ground. When the tornado reached the house it smashed in all the windows and then raised the house from it foundation and dashed it to fragments. The occupants of the house, about fifteen in number, who saw the storm approach, took refuge in the cellar, and strange to say all escaped without any serious injury.
Mr. William Williamson was on the island working and when he saw the tornado coming he took hold of a tree to prevent being blown away. The tree was torn up by the roots, carried a distance of about a hundred yards and Mr. Williamson with it. He escaped with a few bruises.
Mr. John Campbell, who was also on the island, was blown into the river, but saves himself by clinging to a tree which floated by him.
The crops on the island were completely destroyed. The loss on the Island, it is estimated, amounts to between twelve and fifteen hundred dollars.
The tornado is said to have been about three quarters of a mile in width. Some of the hail stones which fell in the neighborhood of Safe Harbor were of extraordinary size, many of them as large as hen�s eggs. The cost of repairing broken windows will prove a heavy item. The crops between Safe Harbor and Millersville are much damaged, the corn in many places is cut to shreds while the other grain is badly beaten down and cut up.
We learn that in the vicinity of Marietta the crops were much cut and damaged.
After passing over Safe Harbor, the storm seems to have kept on its course towards the Maryland line, doing injury to the crops in Conestoga and Martic twps., but we have no particulars from these places.

The Columbia Spy
Oct. 13, 1860
Sales of Real Estate
The farm of C. L. Witmer, in Manor township, containing 93 acres, was sold at $170 per acre, D. Berger, purchaser.
The farm of Christian Miller, in Manor township containing 93 acres, sold for $177 per acre, A. Miller, purchaser.
The property known as Mundorf Island, situated in the Susquehanna river, below Safe Harbor, belonging to the estate of Isaac Mundorf, dec�d, sold for 8,700. Jacob Warfel purchaser.

Note: Lincoln was the Republican candidate, Brock, the southern Democratic candidate, Douglas, the northern Democratic candidate and Bell, the candidate for the Union Party. Lincoln won the election nationally with just under 40% of the vote. The Republican platform included a plank that forbad the extension of slavery into the newly created territories. It didn't outlaw slavery.

Lancaster Examiner & Herald.
November 14, 1860 .
Vote For PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT, November 6TH, 1860.
Lancaster County - Official
Indiantown...............281....................................48............................................................................................(part of Manor Twp.)
Martic......................218 ...................................67
Millerstown.............286....................................69............................................................................................(part of Manor Twp.).
Pequea.....................151....................................19 ..........................................................................1

The Columbia Spy.
September 14, 1861
Maris Hoopes, Esq., of Martic township, and W. M. Wiley, Esq. Of Lancaster, have been appointed Pay-masters, and Nathaniel Ellmaker, Jr., Esq. Of Salisbury township, Brigade Quarter-master in the U.S. Army.

The Columbia Spy.
Dec. 27, 1862.
List of Local Relief Committees Appointed by the County Commissioners.
In consequence of the urgent appeals made by a large number of citizens of the city and county of Lancaster, the Commissioners of said county have appointed the following named gentlemen, a committee in their respective districts, to visit all needy families and ascertain and report the names of all persons, who are in actual want in consequence of their dependence on their husbands, parents or friend, being Volunteers or Militiamen of Pennsylvania, in the service of the general government. No person shall receive relief but those who are in absolute need.
Samuel M. Wright,.
Casper Hiller,.
George Shoff .
James Bones,.
Jacob Pickel,.
Edward House.
Wm. C. Boyd.
Daniel Good.
John Armstrong.
Samuel Hess.
Benj. Snavely, miller.
Christian B. Mylin.
The Commissioners and Judges of the County Courts, constitution the Board of Relief request the committees to meet as soon as possible, and after visiting the families, made a list giving the names of the soldier and regiment, the number of the family under twelve years of age, and their condition, and to deliver the same to the Commissioners on or before Monday the 29th day of December, recommending one of their number to receive and pay out the different amounts allowed by the board of relief. Paper forms printed with blanks will be prepared and sent to the committees, which they will, after investigation, fill and return them completed to the Commissioners by mail or otherwise..
County Commissioners.

The Columbia Spy.
May 9, 1863
122nd Regiment.
Co. B Wounded.
.........................Private Joseph Hoak, .
Co. C. Wounded.
.........................John A. Huse, Bethesda.
Co. D. Wounded.
.........................Corporal W. Uffleman, Marticville.
Company H..
.........................Private Geo. Baily, Safe Harbor.
.........................Henry Kitch, Millersville.
.........................Samuel Rose, Safe Harbor.

The Columbia Spy.
June 6, 1863
ENROLLING OFFICERS - The following persons have been appointed to make the enrollment of all persons in the district liable to military duty under the recent act of Congress:.
Conestoga Martin L. Kendig.
Indiantown (Manor Twp.) David F. Young.
Millerstown (Manor Twp.) Milton S. Brady.
Martic Wm. L. Lamborn.
Pequea John M. Rowe.
Washington Borough Levi D. Shuman.

These precautions for the defence of our area were the result of the movement of the South into the North during June 1863, which led to the burning of the Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge and the battle of Gettysburg. Citizens were sent to places like Safe Harbor, Shenk's Ferry and McCall's Ferry to prevent the rebels from crossing the river.
The Columbia Spy.
June 20, 1863.
By the following it will be seen that Gen. Couch has appointed Col. Franklin, of 122d Reg. P.V., to command the militia forces raised in this County for defense against invasion:.
The citizens to be called out en masse.
Col. Franklin has received the following important dispatch from Gen. Couch;

HEADQUARTERS Dep�t of the Susquehanna, Harrisburg, June 15.
Col. Emlen Franklin - Sir: It is of vital importance that the fords and passenger bridges over the Susquehanna should be protected.
You will therefore make preparations, so soon as possible, to effectually guard those at ______, _____, and any others below.
Citizens should be turned out en masse to go right across the river to throw up rifle pits or breastworks - not interfering with travel until the last moment, as large quantities of stock will be crossing..
Select, reliable and energetic officers, or citizens, to carry out the Governor�s wishes and my own.
In no event must the enemy cross these bridges. You will therefore make preparations accordingly.
Get calm and determined men for your work..
                                                                         D.N. Couch,.
Major General
Important Order from the Colonel Commanding - The Citizens to Report for Duty at Once Along the Line of the Susquehanna.
The citizens of the townships of Fulton, Little Britain, Colerain, Bart, Sadsbury, Eden, Paradise, Salisbury, Drumore, Providence, Strasburg, Leacock, Earl, East Earl, West Earl, shall rendezvous at Peach Bottom Ferry.
The citizens of the townships of Martic, Pequea, East and West Lampeter, shall rendezvous at McCall�s Ferry.
The citizens of Conestoga and Lancaster townships, shall rendezvous at Shenk�s Ferry.
The citizens of Manor and Millersville, shall rendezvous at Safe Harbor.
The citizens of Columbia Borough, East and West Hempfield, Manheim, Manheim Borough, Mount Joy Township and Borough, Warwick, Elizabeth and Rapho shall rendezvous at Columbia.
The citizens of Marietta, East and West Donegal, and Conoy, shall rendezvous at Marietta..
The citizens of Carnarvon, Brecknock, East Cocalico, West Cocalico, Clay, Ephrata and Lancaster city shall rendezvous in Lancaster city.
Each citizen shall provide his own arms and ammunition, until a sufficient supply of arms reaches this department also his own rations for three days to be carried with him. Also, entrenching tools - either an axe, shovel or pick.
Officers will be assigned to the command of the several points, and will give the necessary directions.
The line of the river from the Chester county line to York Furnace Bridge, is placed under the command of Major Thaddeus Stevens, Jr. 112d. P.V.
The line of the river from York Furnace Bridge to the line of Columbia Borough, is placed under the command of Major R. W. Shenk, 135th P.V., headquarters at Safe Harbor..
Columbia borough and the line of the river to Marietta is placed under the command of Major Haldeman - Headquarters, Columbia.
The line of the river from Marietta to the Dauphin county line is placed under the command of Lieut. Johnson, Co. H, 135th P.V.
Citizens equipped and ordered as above are designed for the defense of the County, and may arrive at the places of rendezvous singly, in squads or companies, and report to the commanding officer of the line who will report the same direct to the officer commanding defenses.
As the honor and safety of Lancaster county depends upon a prompt obedience to this order, the Commanding officer earnestly trusts that it may be forthwith respected..
                                                                                         By Command of 
                                                                                          Emlen Franklin
                                                                          Col. Commanding Forces of Lancaster Co.

This is Lincoln's second inaugural, considered the greatest political speech of all time. It was delivered on March 4, 1865 after he had taken the oath of office and just a few months before his assassination. In it Lincoln begins preparing for peace and binding the nations wounds..
Examiner & Herald.
March 8, 1865
At this second appearing to take the oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.

On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it, all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war--seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came.

One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered. That of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. "Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh." If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether."

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.

The Columbia Spy.
July 29, 1865
ANOTHER STORM - Another storm of wind, rain and hail, almost approaching a tornado, passed over the southwestern section of the county last evening between four and five o�clock, doing much damage to the buildings, crops, &c. It seems to have made a wide swath, and visited the townships of Manor, Conestoga and Pequea, probably further down, but we hear noghting of its ravages below the last name township. In Manor we hear of much destruction of tobacco and corn, and the tearing down of fences and uprooting of trees, carrying away hay and grain stacks, &c. Among the suffers in Manor are Messrs. John H. Hersehy, Benj. Brenneman, Jas. Bones, John Warfel, Joseph Wright, Martin Miller, Henry Mellinger, John Neff, A. R. Witmer, and a number of others whose names we could not learn. Mr. Warfel had the windows of his house blown in and wheat stacks carried away and many trees uprooted. The corn and tobacco in many places is totally destroyed, having been cut to pieces by the hail.
At Safe Harbor the large bridge spanning the Conestoga was blown from the piers and one-half the timber carried for distance of hald a mile. This bridge was built about thrity years ago at an expense of $4,900 to the country. Several weeks ago it was struck by a storm, and considerable injured, and was just undergoing repairs when wrecked..
In Pequea, Henry Hess has his wagon shed blown down and many trees uprooted. The damage was considerable in this township, but we have been unable to learn the names fo the sufferers, or particular localities. The corn and tobacco was especially damaged by the hail stones, which are said to have been of remarkable size.

The Columbia Spy.
Sept. 21, 1867
C. & P. D. RAILROAD. - The work on the Columbia & Port Deposit railroad has again been commenced, but only - we believe, to extend into Bletz' saw mill, so as to give him a siding to ship his lumber on.

The Columbia Spy.
April 17, 1869
A Corps of Engineers for the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad Company have arrived at this place, and will commence operations immediately.

April 5, 1870
OBITUARY - We regret to announce the death of the venerable and Rev. J. J. Strine, of the Lutheran Church, so long and so well, and so favorably known, not only to our own immediate community, but to the people of the entire county. He died of heart disease at his residence in Centre Square, this city, yesterday afternoon about 5 � o�clock. He had been in his usual good health, until the last few days when, having contracted a cold, he was confined to the house. Just before the death, he was sitting in his chair and said to his wife, "I feel considerable pain about my chest," and so saying laid his head against the back of the chair and died without a struggle or a groan.
Mr. Strine was in his 78th year, and had been in the Christian Ministry 55 years, having studied theology in Reading, with the distinguished Rev. Dr. G. H. E. Muhlenberg, then Pastor of the Trinity Lutheran Church. He preached altogether in the German language, and has had charge of congregations in Elizabethtown, Strasburg, Millersville, Rohrerstown, Conestoga Centre, Washington Borough, Safe Harbor and other parts of the county. He was universally beloved for his kindness of heart, and for his forbearing, forgiving and conciliatory manners. He rarely, if ever, entered into contentions and bickering that too often mark the course of public men..
Far from the madding crowd�s ignoble strife
His sober wishes never learned to stray:
Along the calm sequestered vale of life
He kept the even tenor of his way
At the time of his death, he was, with one exception, the oldest minister in the Eastern Synod of Pennsylvania. During his ministry he has united in marriage about five thousand couples; has baptized over one thousand persons; and has officiated at about one thousand funerals - in several instances having married and buried the grand-parents, parents and children of the same families. he will be buried on Thursday afternoon at 2 � o�clock.

The Columbia Spy.
Nov. 5, 1870
Work is still being prosecuted on the Columbia and Port Deposit railroad. Some two and a half miles of it are graded below town. Messrs Wolf and Upp are putting things forward at a lively rate. They are to put on a heavier force at an early day. This I have from good authority.

The Columbia Spy
January 28, 1871
Local Intelligence
The quarters of the contractor of the Columbia & Port Deposit R. R. will be at Safe Harbor.

The Columbia Spy.
Feb. 25, 1871
Work on the Columbia & Port Deposit R. R. has begun in earnest about Safe Harbor, and people are confidently expecting an early completion.

The Columbia Spy.
March 11, 1871.
Local Intelligence
The laborers on the Columbia & Port Deposit railroad struck last week for higher wages. They were receiving $1.50 but wanted $1.75 per day..
Rioting and drunkenness followed the strike. After several days suspension, they resumed work on Tuesday at $1.50 per day.

The Columbia Spy.
March 25, 1871
A BRIDGE AT MCCALL�S FERRY - There can hardly be a doubt that a bridge across the Susquehanna at McCall�s Ferry, uniting by a common highway Lancaster and York counties, would prove of very great advantage to the business interests of the people of Lancaster. The lower section of York county contains a large, intelligent and thrifty population, for whom this city would have many attractions, and who would much prefer coming here to make their purchases than to go elsewhere, but who are restrained by the want of a bridge. The ferries along the river are slow and costly, and very often cannot be used on account of high water. Here is a case in point. On Saturday two gentlemen came to this city from York county on business, and started home yesterday. On reaching the river at McCall�s they found that in the meantime it had swollen to such an extent that it was impossible to cross, and, within two miles of their homes - almost in sight of their dwellings- were compelled to turn back, come to this city and go by way of Columbia, this making a detour of forty miles. Such inconveniences as these are the people of York County frequently subjected to for want of a bridge. The project of building a bridge has been agitated for several years, and subscriptions taken up, but of late the enterprise seems to languish. It is estimated that for $60,000 or $70,000 a substantial structure could be erected. This is a small sum of money when we consider the benefits to be derived from it by our business people. The people of the lower townships of York are ready to contribute their share, the hesitation to push forward the work seeming to be all on this side of the river. - Express.
If this bridge were built, it will open up an avenue of trade on the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad, and bring passengers and traffic to Columbia..

The Columbia Spy.
July 22, 1871.
Local Brevities.
Sunday's Storm
The barn of John Sauders, Indiantown, was struck by lightning and considerable injured about the gable..
A tobacco shed belonging to Abm. Miller, of Manor township, was blown down, burying beneath it John Miller, son of Christian Miller, of West Hempfield township, the boy having sought refuge from the storm under it. His father missed him and sought long before he found him, and then life was extinct. It is a most distressing case. The boy was about fourteen years of age, and when found a heavy timber was lying across his abdomen.
At Millersville many trees were uprooted and fences demolished; but we have not heard of any building being much damaged.

The Columbia Spy.
September 21, 1872
Our friends will be glad to learn that work has been resumed on the Columbia & Port Deposit R. R. between Columbia and Safe Harbor, under Wolfe & Upp, B. G. Gonder & son, John McGrann, John Donoghun & Bro., contractors respectively.
The head-quarters of the engineer corps, J. B. Hutchinson, Esq., in charge is at Port Deposit. The Columbia Division is under the supervision of J. W. Beecher, of Columbia; Safe Harbor Division is under B. P. Homell, Safe Harbor; and the Port Deposit Division under F. A. Fletcher, Port Deposit.
Everything is working systematically and successfully, and we look for earnest effort for early completion of the road.

The Columbia Spy.
January 25, 1873
The great freshet which has been disturbing the Susquehanna and other rivers was at its height at this point on Saturday night and Sunday morning..
The ice passed from the dame without doing any damage.
At Safe Harbor, at the confluence of the Susquehanna and Conestoga, the waters rose on Sunday afternoon four or five feet higher than ever before known. It appears that the ice that broke on the river farther up, gorged, on Saturday, at Mandorf�s Island and a number of smaller islands in the Susquehanna near Shenk�s Ferry, some ten miles below Safe Harbor. The river, being already swollen by the melting snow and the heavy rain storm of Thursday night, backed water rapidly, overflowing its banks, submerging the Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad, and doing considerable damage to the property along shore. By seven o�clock on Sunday morning a considerable portion of Safe Harbor was submerged, and the water in the bar room of Miller�s Exchange Hotel was two feet deep. The river remained at about this height until 2 o�clock p.m. when it raised suddenly several feet, reaching some four or five feet above the high water mark of the great flood of 1864. Although the Conestoga was greatly swollen, the mightier volume of water in the gorged Susquehanna forced it backwards and compelled it to run, in a raging torrent, up stream. First, the newly erected abutment of the Railroad, near the mouth of the Conestoga, was split in two, and the piers in the stream were greatly damaged. Then, the great masses of ice and volumes of water, still rushing up stream, struck the bridge that spans the Conestoga about a mile above its mouth, lifted it from its foundation and carried it for a considerable distance up stream, finally breaking it in two and landing one-half of it on the Manor side, and the other half on the Conestoga side, of the stream.
About this time the barns of Edward Hess and Mrs. Campbell, built on what was considered a safe distance from high water mark, were swept away and carried up stream, while the frame stable of Benjamin Hess was lifted from its foundation, carried away for a distance of 100 years, and then sat down again without apparent damage.
At Rockville, some three miles above Safe Harbor, the waters of the Conestoga backed up until they overflowed the banks and stood and one in two feet in depth on the first floor of Daniel Herr�s hotel.
At Safe Harbor, the banks of both the Susquehanna and Conestoga are piled with great masses of ice from 15 to 25 feet in height.
The most exciting scene connected with the flood was the danger and escape of Mr. John Ells and family, who live on an island in the Susquehanna, opposite Safe Harbor. As the waters rose, the island was almost overflowed, and all Mr. Ells� stock, consisting of two horses, twelve head of cattle and a number of hogs were swept away and drowned. There being every probability that the waters would continue to rise, Mr. Ells and family resolved on the desperate venture of crossing from the island to the shore, on the mighty gorge of ice, through which and under which the great river was struggling for a passage. Over this unsubstantial and treacherous bridge of irregular masses of ice, with all the terrors of death staring them in the face, Mr. Ells, with his wife, two daughters and a son, seven or eight years old, started afoot and reached the Lancaster county shore in safety, about three o�clock Sunday afternoon.
About 2 o�clock Monday morning the ice gorge broke, with a terrible crash and the waters receded rapidly. At 9 o�clock Monday morning, the river was only about 5 or 6 feet above its usual height at Safe Harbor, and no further damage anticipated.
At Turkey Hill the water rose 25 or 30 feet, and flooded the cabins built along the line of the Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad, for the accommodation of the workmen, many of whom had to take boats and enter the upstairs windows, in order to save their effects.
At noon Monday, Commissioner Mehaffey, in company with Capt. E. McMellen and a force of workmen, went to Safe Harbor to tear down the bridge which was misplaced by the ice. The prompt action will probably save thousands of dollars to the county, for had the bridge been allowed to remain in its present position and go down as the ice would move off, the timbers and iron work would be strained to such an extent as to be of no further use.
On Tuesday, there was no abatement of the flood at Safe Harbor and at points north. The ice gorge is unbroken, and Safe Harbor is submerged, the water being up to the second story windows.
The Intelligencer of Tuesday, speaks of the arrival of the stage from Safe Harbor, via Conestoga Centre. It had water-marks on the curtains one foot above the seats on which the passengers ride- that being the height of the water on the high ground in rear of the Mansion House, in Safe Harbor, where the stage had been placed, for safe keeping..
The gorge below Harbor is said to be at the York Furnace bridge, against he piers of which the ice lodged and is piled up twenty feet high. The bridge here was swept away by the ice for the third time, a number of years ago. Mr. Warfel, who owns and resides on Munford�s Island, below Harbor, lost all his live stock and escaped himself, with his two children, by crossing on the gorged ice to the shore.
Advises for Port Deposit represent the people of the little town as suffering an aggregation of woes. The ice gorge opposite the town is from 25 to 30 feet high, commencing at the boom-pier on the west bank. The ice is solid from the bottom and the current finds its way through the town and the canal. The injury in the canal is serious, the bank being destroyed for a mile..
All the up-town families on the river side have been forced to leave their homes and quarter upon their friends. The Town Hall has been thrown open for the accommodation of those who could not find shelter elsewhere, and such conveniences provided us circumstances would admit. Communication between the upper and lower portions of the town through the street has been entirely cut off except by boat. The water in the main streets is 6 feet deep.
A doomed family on Carr�s Island, consisting of husband, wife and five children, were entirely helpless.
There are very few houses in the town that have escaped injury of some kind. One of them was the birth place of Postmaster Creswell, and his venerable mother could be seen at the window calmly looking at the ruin at her feet. The residence of Jacob Tome, millionaire of the place, is uninjured. This house is literally built on a rock, and a little higher elevated than the surrounding houses.

A short account of previous floods along the Susquehanna.
The Columbia Spy
February 1, 1873
HIGH WATER ITEMS - The recent troubles at Safe Harbor and the impending danger of a sudden break-up in the Susquehanna, impart special interest to any items about the high waters.
The reporter of the Baltimore Sun, who visited our office on last Saturday, learns from the people of Safe Harbor, that the overflow of January 19 was the worst ever yet known at that point. The first great flood in the history of that town was in 1800, known as the "Logan flood" , so called because of the drowning of a portion of the family of a man named Logan, an inhabitant of Mundorf�s Island, Logan himself with a part of his family, was driven out of his house, and lived in a flat boat, tied to a tree, for several days, until the water subsided, and he was gotten ashore by those on the main land. At this time, the Conestoga Island, (where Ells resided), was not covered with waters, showing at least five feet more of overflow in 1873 than in 1800. In 1832 another flood, this time by a rain freshet, visited the place, when the waters in the Exchange and Miller�s hotel reached two feet, and flooded many houses. In 1857 the river again overflowed, this time by ice gorging, and the water was nearly three feet deep in the house. In 1864, the canal dam breaking save the town, and in 1873 the water reached a point three feet eight inches above the highest mark ever known.

The Columbia Spy
May 3, 1873
Local Intelligence
Invalid soldiers, in case fo total disability, now get a pension of $25. Per month instead of $8., as here to fore according to a decision of the Congressional Committee...
The grading of the Columbia and Port deposit R. R. has been completed as far as Peach Bottom for some time, and its ironing is now ordered as far as the slate quarries, about 101 miles.
Dr. J. C. Gatchell has been appointed Post Master at Safe Harbor.

The Columbia Spy..
August 22, 1874
CAMP-MEETING AT MOUNTVILLE. - The Church of God Camp-meeting at Mountville, will commence September 10th, to continue upwards of a week. Rev. J. W. Deshong, of Washington Borough is one of the leading spirits in its management.

The Columbia Spy..
August 29, 1874
Col. Hutchinson, who has had charge of the Columbia & Port Deposit R. R. since 1898, and who has made Port Deposit his head quarters will come to Columbia about September 1st., to make his head quarters here, for a time at least. He will remain under his charge three corps of Engineers, one at Port Deposit, one at Safe Harbor and one at Columbia.

The Columbia Spy
June 25, 1875
The "ring" men throughout the county are reported as actively at work organizing for the coming campaign. Several of the "fat" offices are already promised in the event of certain doubtful adventures proving successful; Manor township is to have the collectorship, and Columbia the assessorship. Lancaster is to be ignored entirely. Only this and nothing more. There is a Rubicon to pass before all these glorious results are obtained.

The Columbia Spy..
September 22, 1875..
Over the C.&P.D. R.R.
At Safe Harbor a new depot is in course of construction, and will be completed next month. An inspection of the track is to be made some time in October.

The Columbia Spy..
November 27, 1875..
Local Brevities
The C. P. D. R. R. runs to Turkey Hill.
On to Safe Harbor is the contractor�s cry.

While this pow-wow doctor wasn�t from our area we did have pow-wow doctors here and I thought, how they practiced their craft would be interesting...
Examiner & Herald.
January 19, 1876
An Old Fashioned Witch. - SUPERSTITION THAT IS TWO CENTURIES BEHIND THE TIMES - MEDICAL PRACTICES IN SOUTHERN PENNSYLVANIA- PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE IN CHARMS, SPELLS, HAZEL RODS, AND HOCUS PCUS GENERALLY - HOLDING HER POWER FOR HALF A CENTURY. - The New York Sun of a recent date contains the following communication from this county on the subject of witchcraft and its practice in this section of country. The article reads as follows;

LANCASTER, PA., JAN. 6. - We had a long drive nearly down to the borders of Berks, past log houses a hundred years old, past people who have never traveled by railway and who have lived their years upon the same farms where they were born. We were in quest of the homestead of Granny Tribble, the most famous of backwoods sorceresses, and some of the most successful in the practice of primitive black art. She is visited, fed, and believed in by hundreds of simple people in her part of the country.
"Pow-wowing" is an institution in this section of the State. Nearly every town, hamlet, borough or village in Lancaster, Lebanon and Berks, has its witch or soothsayer, and these people really derive large incomes from their reputed powers. They profess to heal the sick, detect crime, reveal the past, present and future, bring about pestilence and famine, destroy crops, put spells on horses and cattle, and plagues on individuals, restore lost articles, and in all these specialties their professions are received with implicit faith by those who patronize them. Granny Tribble is said to be the most successful of them all. Her works are known far and wide.
Our drive led us past Kuauer�s, a small post village of Brecknock and the landlord of the White Hall inn there, in great seriousness and earnestness, directed us on our way to Granny Tribble�s.
The house was half frame, half log, with a chimney on one end, containing enough material to build a dozen small houses. We were invited to enter, not with a pleasant bow or a glad smile, but with a haughty sway of the head and a sweep of the hand, which seemed to say, "Come in,, if you want to." The woman was tall and straight to her shoulders, but her head bent forward until her chin nearly touched her breast. She was more than eighty years old, with gray hair, dark eyes, a fair white skin, and regular features. She must have been beautiful once. She rested upon a heavy cane, and, half turning she told us to be seated.
She seated herself in an old hickory chair, and said, "Well, well, what is it ye want ? Are ye crossed in love, sick or unhappy ? What is the trouble ?"
This was very much like the soothsaying of two hundred years ago. Her story, which she did not give us until after some solicitation, was equally old-fashioned in the simplicity and assurance of its pretensions. It was hard to believe that the woman who was talking lived in Pennsylvania and in the nineteenth century.
Her father, Heinrich Tribble, she said, was a seventh son, born among the Hartz mountains. His grandmother had inherited from her grandmother a rare and mysterious book, which, for nearly 300 years, had been handed down in the family, and ever looked into except by the owners. When the last grandmother was dying she called Heinrich Tribble to her bedside and predicted that he would marry a seventh daughter, and that in course of time his seventh child would be a daughter, and to that daughter she would leave an heirloom, a book more precious than gold. She further stated that that seventh child would be born with a "veil on," and that when she reached the age of seventeen she should receive the book and all its contents. The aged sorceress died, and, according to her prediction, everything came truly to pass. The father was enjoined to keep this word and follow out her commands to the very letter, "and ever since," said the old woman, "I have been in the possession of the book left to me by my father�s grandmother."..
"When I had read it three years I made up my mind to commence business, and I went to work; and since then I have been doing for myself, and have managed to get along without a husband.
"In that book I can see anything I wish. It is not printed, but written. How old it is I cannot say. The first thing I ever learned from it was to stop the flow of blood. It is all in Dutch, and I must say the words in Dutch. I can stop a wound from bleeding by saying: "Blood, blood was not made to flow; the Lord, himself hath willed it so." (this is the translation.) I say these words, pass my finger-over and across the wound, blow on it three times, and the blood will stop flowing, the wound heal up, and there will be no inflammation. I have three words yet to say when I do this. The words I cannot tell you."
To cure scalds, burns, bruises, sores, ring-worm, scrofula, and kindred diseases, the old woman has another "pow-wow." It consists of two verses, which are repeated while the sores are smeared with grease rendered from the weasel. Wild fire, small-pox, and the itch must be treated with grease rendered from a black cat that has died with its throat cut."
"These are the commonest uses of pow-wowing," she went on. "I almost forgot to mention the falling fits and �falling away." Babies waste away to skin and bone, and their mother�s don�t know what�s the mater with them. They bring the little things here and I take the spell off them and they get fat and healthy. "Spells are put on babies by evil spirits, and the innocents waste away and die, just like the plant that withers for want of water. My book tells me what evil spirit hangs over the child, and that spirit must first be killed. If that is done, the little ones live to a very old age !"
Granny was asked whether she had faith in it. "Faith in it !" said she; "indeed I have. Nothing would work unless I believed and know it would under the charm. I have never failed. I have brought back horses, and cattle, and money. I have brought back men�s wives, and daughters, and sons; and I have brought back husbands from the paths of vice to their firesides.
The Granny stretched up her thin, bony arm, crooked her finger and mysteriously shook her head. "Yes, indeed on the wish bank over the meadow, many and many a time, have I sat with my hazel rod and studied the moon and the stars, and read their signs, and heard the voice of the spirits telling me this and this and this. I did as I was told, and I have yet to know of a single man, woman or child, I ever deceived or advised wrongly."
"Yes, I am often asked to do wrong. I can conjure, to be sure. I had an enemy long ago, and he�s pulled frogs and worms out of his hide for blaspheming me. A farmer cursed me, and his stock and children died. A toll man reviled me, and he was carried off by unknown hands to the hills, where he nearly starved to death. How he got there he does not know."
She was asked where she kept her book, "That is buried, and it will be out of sight many days. I dare not look at it myself. It is wrapped in the veil that came over my face when I was brought to earth, and everything is buried in ashes from the wood of the cypress tree. I have made my peace with Heaven, and do no more injury to others. Their crops may flourish for all I care, but some must be punished. Many a midnight I have walked around farms and made them barren for a season. I have cured a horse by rubbing his tongue with birch bark and repeating a German appeal to the Most High. I have cursed St. Anthony�s dance by the "fire stone," and have relieved people from all bodily complaints by the lily root.".
"Salt in the stocking prevents toothache; a piece of paper, with �Hear me, near me, fly not from me,� written with a raven�s quill with lamb�s blood, is a sure protection from assault or danger by flood or war, or pestilence, or disease; four eyelashes wrapped in muslin and carried in the left shoe will increase the sight and the speed of walking; dried snake skin about the wrists prevents apoplexy; and at this Granny pulled up her sleeves and exhibited two ornamented bracelets made out of the skin of beautiful rattle-snakes. Several years ago, she said, she had two fine copperheads stuffed and mounted on a spiral wire that would around her arms or neck just like a real serpent. This was to aid the free circulation of blood, and to keep off nervousness and dyspepsia.
"For luck at sea, carry the hazel blossom, wet or dry for chills, the fire fly; for contagious diseases, such as small pox, &e., black fur from the left fore foot of a cat.
"To cure ringbone on animals, take a chicken that is perfectly black and less than a year old, and cut its head off. The blood flowing is put on the sore every five hours for three times. To prevent erysipelas from spreading, use the blood of a black cat. This has done its work when doctors have failed.
"A child lost the use of its arms and limbs. I bathed it in the rain drops under the eaves, dried it with a wash cloth, buried a shoe found on the wayside and that child got well."..
These and many other cases were related by this strange woman. She lives alone, and makes a comfortable living. She has no charges, but takes what is given to her as a present. The farmers fear her, and have great confidence in her powers. She has lived among them for fifty years, and has never been known to be sick.

Examiner & Herald..
April 12, 1876
The Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad - The Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad will soon be opened for travel and freight as far as Pequea station, which is 14 miles from Columbia. The time table which went into effect on Monday shows three "passenger and freight" trains daily, each way, leaving Columbia for Pequea at 6:00 a.m., 12:20, 4:20 p.m. respectively, and arriving at Columbia from Pequea at 8:40 a.m., 3:00 and 6:35 p.m. respectively. The time from Columbia to Washington will be about 15 minutes. The time of the whole distance will be about one hour...
The passenger stations on the road will be Columbia, Washington, Turkey Hill, Safe Harbor, Shenk�s Ferry and Pequea, though for the present trains will not stop at, or passengers be received for Turkey Hill.

The Columbia Spy
February 10, 1877
The ice moved off the river last Saturday night and Sunday morning, and since then great quantities have been passing down.
At McCall�s Ferry the ice is firm and solid and the result is a jam from that point six or seven miles up the river. But the mild weather of the past week is gradually breaking the strength of the ice and unless there should be a sudden flood, or a cold �spell� to strengthen the ice gorges, no danger is likely to result.
A dispatch to the Philadelphia Times of Tuesday, says that at McCall�s Ferry, the ice gorge far exceeds anything of the kind ever seen on the Susquehanna. A gentleman who arrived from there to-day reports that the ice is piled up to the height of from 30 to 40 feet. Should the rain which has been falling nearly all day, cause a sudden rise in the river at McCall�s Ferry, the gorge will in all probability give way and carry everything before it in its downward course. The citizens are out to-night in force patrolling the river front. Lookouts have been established above and below the town of Port Deposit, and mounted couriers are in readiness to warn the inhabitants of the impending danger. The ice which has made its appearance so far is very large and bulky, and in most instances the cakes measure from twelve to eighteen inches in thickness and from ten to twenty feet in length.
A dispatch of Wednesday states that �Mr. Hutchinson, who came down in the afternoon fro McCall�s Ferry, reports that the ice gorge at that place still holds fast, and that the gorge extends for six miles up the river. The water is backed up beyond an immense body of ice, causing quite a freshet along the river banks, but as yet no damage to person or property has taken place. The McCall�s Ferry gorge at present holds the key to the situation, and should the river at that point manage to secure a sufficient vent, the ganger which at present threatens Port Deposit may not be productive of any very serious results. In case, however, that the river is unable to flow on its course with its accustomed rapidity, there is danger ahead. The usual lookouts are being kept up throughout the entire night.

The Columbia Spy..
July 12, 1879
Friends of deceased soldiers are requested to hand to Postmaster Mullen, before Monday next, the names of those who have no stones to mark their graves, in any of our cemeteries. The list will be forwarded on that day, and after that it my be too late. Don't fail to attend to this immediately.

The "free" bridge is the ice that forms on the Susquehanna ..
The Columbia Spy
December 25, 1880
The new free bridge across the Susquehanna is nearly ready for the traveling public. A little more cold will fix it. "As the day begins to lengthen the cold begins to strengthen' is the old adage.

The Columbia Spy
November 5, 1881..
Local Intelligence
RAILROAD WRECK AND ACCIDENT - On Monday evening about 8:30, a freight train northward bound on the C. &P. D R.R., drawn by engine No. 463, ran into a rock, which had fallen upon the track about two miles north of Safe Harbor. The rock and dirt accompanying it were no doubt loosened and precipitated down the hill, to the track below by the action of the heavy rain on Monday. The engine and several cars left the track and were thrown down the embankment towards the river. The engineer, fireman and brakeman jumped. The engineer, Mr. Ellis Ault, was caught by the tank and instantly killed, one leg having been severed from the body, which was found between the engine and tender. The brakemen escaped without injury and the injuries of the fireman, named Sohn, were not serious.
The engine was found standing at the water�s edge, upright, blowing off steam, and the brake valves were still in motion. The pilot only was in the water. Nothing about the cabin was disturbed or broken, and if the men had remained on board, they would not have been injured. This, of course, they did not know, and safety generally lies in jumping...
Mr. Ault, the engineer who was killed, was one of the finest young men in the company�s service and generally beloved by those who knew him. He was a active of this county and came from the neighborhood of Gap, where his remains were buried on Thursday, the funeral party going on the 8:35 train. He leaves three motherless children, who, together with a sister and an aged father, depended upon the deceased for support. He was a Union soldier during the war, and said to have been a member of the Frederick Post of the G.A.R.

The Columbia Spy..
November 12, 1881
THE C. & P. D. R. R. WRECK. - All the cars which were thrown from the track of the C. & P. D. R. R., track above Safe Harbor, have been removed. The engine only remains. How to raise it is the problem which is yet to be solved. No doubt all the parts will be removed as far as possible, and the weight of the engine thus reduced. It will take time and labor. A temporary derrick is to be guilt to do the lifting.

The Columbia Spy..
November 26, 1881
In the efforts last Sunday to get the wrecked locomotive from the water, up to the track near Safe Harbor, a number of men were hurt. The ropes broke and struck several repairmen. The injuries are not so serious as might have been expected.

The Columbia Spy..
Jan. 7, 1882
John P. Good of Conestoga was elected Recorder.
John J. Good of Martic was elected Treasure.
Albert Hagen, of Martic prison inspector

The Columbia Spy..
May 5, 1883
In the not very distant future Millersville, Safe Harbor, Quarryville, Strasburg and New Holland will talk to Columbia over telephone wires.

The Columbia Spy
Sept. 22, 1883
Turnpike Notes-The annual election for officers of the Columbia & Washington Turnpike Company was held last Friday afternoon, with the following result: President - John Fendrich.
Directors - Joseph P. Cottrell, J. B. Garber, John A. Brush, J. H. Herr, Jacob Seitz and Benjamin Hershey.
Sec. and Treas. _ Will H. Fendrich..
A dividend of six percent was declared, payable on and after September 25, on application to the treasurer.

The Columbia Spy..
August 9, 1884..
Throughout the county, however, the principal showers were in the afternoon...
A farmer from the vicinity of Conestoga Centre stated that more rain fell in that neighborhood during Monday�s storm than fell in the same time at any period this summer. Large quantities of hail fell in Conestoga, Pequea and Providence township, had nine acres of fine tobacco almost ruined; and Abram and Jacob Hess, of Pequea township, also had their tobacco badly cut. Reports of injury to the tobacco crop are consistently coming in, and the loss must consequently be great.

Bishop John Neumann was made a Saint on June 19, 1979 by Pope Paul VI.. He visited St. Mary�s, Safe Harbor, once to dedicate the foundation in 1853 and again in 1857 to dedicate the church. The Conestoga Area Historical Society has a number of artifacts from this church, probably blessed by St. John Neumann.
New Era
December 26, 1884
It is proposed to canonize the late Right Reverend John Nepomancene Neumann, for eight years Roman Catholic Bishop of Philadelphia. He died in that office in 1860 and was buried beneath the sanctuary of St. Peter�s Church in that city, and it is related that numerous miracles have been wrought at his tomb. Of course, by the law of the church, he cannot be enrolled in the catalogue of Saints for a quarter of a century yet, but the collection of evidence concerning his godly life and the miracles at his tomb will be immediately begun.

Columbia Spy..
January 24, 1885
There was a serious freight wreck on the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad, at Stehman�s bridge, Washington borough, on Thursday...
A big land slide occurred on the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad, near Safe Harbor, on Thursday evening, necessitating transfer of passengers.

The Columbia Spy
August 8, 1885..
Burying the Dead
Upon the recommendation of General Welsh Post, the following persons were appointed by the County Commissioners to bury indigent soldiers, dying in the districts named:..
Washington Borough - Lower Ward: Andrew Kane, Abraham K. Stauffer; Upper Ward: Frederick G. Charles, Wm. E. Siple.
Manor New - John Herrick, J. R. McDonald...

The Columbia Spy..
April 10, 1886..
C. & P. D. Railroad Items
A tremendous landside occurred on the line of the Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad near Safe Harbor, Pa., at an early hour on Tuesday morning, and the tracks were so covered and damaged by huge masses of rocks and earth, that notwithstanding a large force of men were immediately put to work, no south-bound trains reached Port Deposit until 5 p.m., travel in the meantime being transferred around the obstructed tracks.

The Columbia Spy..
November 20, 1886..
More Tombstones for Deceased Soldiers
A circular has been issued, through National headquarters, to all the Grand Army Posts, instructing them to procure the names of such deceased soldiers, with their company, regiment, &c., who have not yet been provided with tombstones. The same are to be forwarded to headquarters, when the tombstones will be furnished by the Government...
If there are any graves of soldiers in this end of the county, which have not been provided with stones, the names, with company and regiment in which they served, should be handed at once to Ex-Postmaster Mullen, or sent to the Spy office.

I checked several weeks after seeing this to see if Samuel Evans had done articles on other families from our area but didn�t see anything.
Lancaster Weekly Examiner..
January 15, 1887..
The Pioneer Settlers in Conestoga Township in 1717 and Their Posterity and Change of Homesteads on Down to the Latter Part of the Century.
Joseph and Christian Steman, (commonly called Stoneman) the pioneer settlers of this name, located in Conestoga Township, which it was a part of Chester County in the year 1717. The Brubakers, Brennemans, Hersheys, Greiders, Bares, Erismans, Myers, Howsers, Howricks, Swarrs, Goods, Weavers, Martins, and Stoners, Swiss Mennonites, also came and settled in the vicinity of Conestoga in the same year that the Stemans came, and it is quite likely that the latter were also Swiss Mennonites...
Many of these families were then, and subsequently, connected by marriage ties, which brought them into close fellowship, which has been kept up until the present time. Several of them were Mennonite ministers, and to-day many of that class can be found who bear the names of the old pioneer settlers.
In 1729 purchased one hundred and fifty acres of land, and a grist and corn mill and saw mill, from Hans Brubaker. The mills and mansion stood along the west bank of Little Conestoga creek where the turnpike leading from Lancaster to Columbia crosses, and which are now owned by Aaron Summy. Nine tenths of the land was on the east side of the creek and embraced the present farm of the Hagers. The old road leading form the Conestoga, where Lancaster town stead was afterwards laid out, to Wrights (Columbia) on the Susquehanna, passed Steman�s mill, and in order to accommodate the travel Steman built a bridge over the creek in 1730, at his expense, for which the county afterwards reimbursed him. When Steman purchased this land there was upon the eastern corner a Mennonite meeting house, which stood at or near the barn of Mr. Hager.
Mr. Steman was a quite industrious, unobtrusive and honest citizen.
He died in 1742 and left six children surviving him, namely:
1. John, died in his minority, unmarried.
2. Christian, when he attained his majority, took a farm of one hundred and sixty-four acres, owned by his father, and situated in manor township, about a mile southwest from the old mill. He died in 1785 and left sons, Christian and John and daughters. His descendants remained in the township. John married Susannah Lichty and lived a mile or two west of his brother Christian.
3 Jacob, was a deaf mute.
4. Maria, married Christian Hershey
5. Elizabeth, married John Newcomer
6. Susannah, married Jacob Brubaker, of Hempfield, and had two children, Christian and Mary, who inherited a farm each, which belonged to the Brubakers. Some of the descendants of this family live in Manor township. The Steman name of this family has not increased very fast.
Joseph Steman
Settled in Pequea Valley near the present village of Willow Street in 1717. His first purchase contained one hundred and thirteen acres of land to which he afterwards added fifty more. In 1728 he sold these two tracks to Christian Stoner.
In 1731 he purchased ninety acres of land from John Swift, along Pequea creek at or near the present village of Colemanville in Conestoga township. In the spring of 1732 he rode with Capt. Thomas Cresap to Annapolis, Md., and took out a Maryland warrant for several hundred acres of land, which he located along the river hills in Conestoga township near his Swift purchase.
On March 5, 1744, Steman and his wife Frena sold the Swift farm to his son-in-law, Benedict Eshleman. This farm was part of four hundred acres conveyed by the Society of Free Traders.
June 5, 1735, Abraham Burkholder and his wife Barbara conveyed three hundred acres to Joseph Steman. This tract also was in the vicinity of Colemanville. Mr. Bausman, of Lancaster city, owns some of this land at present.
>dd>In 1742 he purchased two hundred and fifty acres of land from Caleb Baker, also in the vicinity of his other purchases...
In 1741 he sold one hundred and thirty-two acres of his Burkholder purchase to John Wissler, and in 1748 he gave the balance of the same tract to his son Joseph Steman. At this time his wife Frena was deceased.
In 1751 he purchased a mortgage held by Thos. White, of Philadelphia, against several hundred acres of land, located just back of the present town of Washington, and owned before that by the old Indian Trader James Patterson and Martin Chartier, also an Indian Trader. As he had given each of his other sons and sons-in-law plantations, he moved to this last purchase with his favorite son John and gave him four hundred acres of land, besides all notes and bonds, which probably amounted to several thousand pounds. He died in May, 1756. His children were Mary, who married Peter Ruffenaglit; Ann, who married Benedict Eshleman; Tobias, Joseph, Elizabeth, who married John Bare; Fronica who married Jacob Kaggi; John.
Benedict Eshleman came to America in 1732, the same year that Hans and John George Steman came who probably belonged to the Steman family, of whom we are writing. Benedict Eshleman left a very large family. A great-granddaughter of Joseph Steman also married Benedict Eshleman, her cousin, and left a large family...
These families lived in Conestoga township.
Tobias Steman purchased a farm in the Manor as early as 1755, which adjoined his father�s land, which he sold to Christian Kauffman in 1758. His wife�s name was Ann, and he then moved to "Rock Run," on the Conestoga, where he commenced to purchase land belonging to John Postlethwait, upon whose farm the first Court house was built. He afterwards increased his purchases from the children of Postlethwait until his acres numbered four hundred and ninety. Form their one son have came a large circle of Steman families.
Joseph Jr., remained in Conestoga township upon land purchased by his father from Burkholder. He died in 1756 and left a widow Ann and five children; 1 Christian; 2 Frena, who married Ludwig Urban of Conestoga township, some of whose descendants not live there; 3 John who married Barbara, and had John, Peter and Henry. John moved to Hempfield township at or near where the Colebrook road crosses Chickies creek, in 1773, who died in 1819 leaving a widow Barbara, and the following named children; John, Henry, Peter, Christian, Jacob, Elizabeth, Barbara, Anna, Magadlena . 4. Elizabeth. 5. Ann...
Each one of the children received a farm, or its equivalent in money.
Elizabeth (Joseph) who married John Bare, first lived at the mouth of Rock Run, where Bare build a mill; from there they moved to a farm on the north side of "Long Lane" and east of Tobias Steman�s land, near the western boundary of Pequea township. The Bares and Harnishes now own the land.
Joseph Steman, Sr., also had a son Peter, who died in 1748, and left considerable of an estate.
John, the youngest son, left the largest estate of any of the family. He died in 1792. Prior to his death he divided his lands among his sons. His children were Joseph, John, Jacob, Samuel, Abraham, Ann, married to Henry Neff, and Elizabeth married to Christian Kauffman.
Jacob died in 1799 and left a wife Barbara, who was Miss Bare, born upon the bare farm, a mile southwest from Rohrerstown. Steman died in 1799, and the widow married Christian Brenneman, who was the brother of Maria, wife of John Haldeman, who was the father of Henry, spoken of above, and had several children. She had a son Jacob to her first husband, who moved to Ohio.
Samuel Steman married Mary _____ and had but one child, Frances, who married Henry Haldeman and was the mother of the late Prof. S. S. Haldeman. Mr. S. probably married a Miss Brenneman. The daughter and Mr. Haldeman were cousins.
John B. Gish, Esq., who resided near Elizabethtown, who was a member of the Legislature and John B. Haldeman the oldest son of John and Maria Haldeman, married daughters of John Steman, who was a brother of Samuel S. John B. Haldeman�s wife, Nancy, was also his cousin. John B. Haldeman purchased John B. Gish�s share of the Steman lands at Washington. He also owned the large islands opposite that town. Mr. Haldeman sold part of this land to John Charles, who laid out a town upon it and called it "Charlestown," now part of Washington borough, which absorbed the place. The Shertzs and Haversticks own some of his land at present.
A son of Abraham Steman who was a brother of Jacob, John and Samuel, married Peter Hiestand�s daughter. They lived at a little mill above Wittmer�s mill. John P. Steman, of Columbia, and Jacob Steman, of Washington borough are children of this family. One of the daughters married Mr. Stoner, Christian Herr married A. S.�s daughter, one of whose descendants now owns part of the land. Abraham Steman owned several farms. The families which came from Joseph Steman, Sr., were unquestionably related to John Steman, who married Christ Brenneman�s daughter. Their descendants inter-married freely, and they may be said now to belong to a common stock. The name in this family increased rapidly.
John Steman
In the year 1732 Hans Steman arrived in Lancaster county from the Palatinate. And in the year 1733 there arrived: John George Steman, Hans Steman, Peter Steman, Hans Steman, Jr. It is probably that John S., whose name heads this list, belonged to one of these families. As early as 1646 he owned or was a tenant farmer a little to the north of the present turnpike which leads from Lancaster to Willow Street. At that time he was already married to Mary, who was a daughter of Christian Brenneman, who lived in Martic township, at or near Brenneman�s Mill on "Furnace Run."
In 1751 Mr. Brenneman gave his son-in-law John Steman one hundred and eighty-seven acres of land along the river in Donegal township, below Conoy Creek. He also gave his son Melchoir Breneman a like amount of land adjoining Steman. The latter also purchased one hundred and fourty0five acres of land from the McClure heirs. He also purchased other tracts. He died in 1784. His executors, John Haldeman and John Brenneman sold three hundred and thirty-six acres of land to Herman Long, in 1785.
John Steman left a widow Mary and the following named children: John; Ann, who married John Crider; Elisabeth, who married Frederick Gailbach, Jr., of Maytown; Christian, who married Ann, daughter of John Huber, Esq., in 1790, who built the large stone mansion and brick grist mill one mile east of Petersburg, at Little Conestoga.
Their children were; Maria, John, Christian, Anna, Jacob, Elizabeth, Henry, Samuel, Magdalena, Benjamin and Veronica. Christian married Catharine Leib. Their children were Anna, Jacob L., who is now president of Manheim National Bank.
Jacob married Mary, daughter of John Huber, aforesaid, had the following children: John, Jacob, Martha, Elizabeth. The Hon. John M. Steman is a grandson of Jacob and Mary Steman.
John Brenneman, late of Conoy township, married a daughter of Jacob and Mary Stehman, as did also the late Benjamin Herr, of Donegal. Cyrus Haldeman, Esq., of Boston, married a daughter of Mr. Brenneman. They were cousins. George Rumple, of Columbia, married the youngest daughter. John Brenneman, the only son, married a daughter of the late Hon. John J. Libhart. Mr. Herr was a son of "King" Benj. Her, of Manor. He died a few years ago, leaving several children and a large estate.
The following letter explains itself:
                                                                                 Philadelphia, 2d Nov., 1727
Lov. Ffrd Isaac Taylor:
	Joseph Steman (also Stone) of Conestoga having bought two hundred acres of ffrd Worley�s tract on which he says there is very little timber left, is therefore desirous to take up some of the adjoining vacant land, but both he and Joseph Higgenbothem are apprehensive of that free booter Thomas Perrin Setting down there.  To prevent which I wish thou wouldst order a line of two to be run that may take in about two hundred acres, for the trouble of which Steman must make satisfaction since it is to prevent the intrusion of a neighbor that may disappoint him of a further convenience.
                                                                       Thy loving friend
                                                                              J. Logan.
Francis Worley was one of the justices and a land surveyor. He purchased the Burkholder tract, now near Colemanville, in 1725, which he sold to Burkholder in 1728. Several conferences between the Governor, Logan, and the council and the Indians were held at his house. He was a very prominent person.
The Stehman family who moved from this county to Virginia, were probably the descendants of Peter Steman mentioned in the list. They moved from Virginia to Ohio and Indiana, some of whom are now prominent people in the west.
                                                                                  Samuel Evans
Columbia, Pa., Dec. 23, 1886..

The Columbia Spy..
March 5, 1887..
Blocked by Ice
Travel over the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad was resumed on Monday morning, after a forced idleness of nearly a month. The tracks have been cleared of blockages, although in many places trains pass through a tunnel of ice 25 feet in height. The bridges at Safe Harbor and Pequea, which were carried away by the ice, have been rebuilt. It is estimated that the loss to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, which controls the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad will reach $150,000. This includes damage to tracks and road bed, loss of bridges, suspension of freight and passenger traffic and the wages and subsistence of a big force of laborers. It is stated that during the ice blockage, Mr. S. R. Dunlap, who had charge of the subsistence department, distributed about twenty-one thousand sandwiches to the men.

Improving Slowly, but Surely
Charels Emons, one of the boss carpenters of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, who was so seriously injured by the falling of some timbers at the Safe Harbor bridge nearly two weeks ago, is slowly but surely improving. He does not suffer so much pain internally, and is gaining in strength and vitality. His friends here and elsewhere will be glad to hear of his improvement.

The Columbia Spy..
May 21, 1887..
Local Intelligence
The proposed double track on the Port Deposit Railroad, from Creswell to Columbia is being pushed slowly. The switch at Creswell is finished and will be used by the passenger trains so as to allow the freights to pass.

E. T. Kauffman, agent for the Champion Reaper Company, reports that there will be no less than seventy-five Champion self-binders put out in Manor, Martic, Conestoga and Pequea township.
The proposed double track on the Port Deposit Railroad, from Creswell to Columbia is being pushed slowly. The switch at Creswell is finished and will be used by the passenger trains so as to all the freights to pass.

The Columbia Spy..
September 24, 1887..
A large, old fashioned Conestoga Wagon, ironed more than half a century ago by the grandfather of Dr. Poffenberger, at Dauphin, was drawn in the industrial parade at Philadelphia, last Thursday. The wagon, which is owned by Elias Fertig, has been in constant use since it was first turned out. Mr. D. S. Cofode, of Philadelphia, who spends his summers at Dauphin, and had the wagon painted and otherwise fitted for the parade. The running the gears are painted red and the capacious box blue. A canvas cover is over all. It was supplied with buckets and perforated lanterns, the same as were used in the days agone. It was drawn in the procession by six horses, caparisoned as they were in the olden time, and with Russian bells over the harness.

The Columbia Spy..
November 19, 1887..
A number of Lancaster wheelman rode to Creswell on Sunday, and took dinner at the hospitable home of Dr. S. H. Mellinger. After dinner the wheelmen came up by way of Washington borough to Columbia, and hence to Lancaster. One of them, George F. Kahler, of Millersville, rode from Columbia to Lancaster in 48 minutes, notwithstanding he had ridden ten to twelve miles before he reached Columbia.

Discussion of this railroad began in 1875 but it was apparently, never built.
The Columbia Spy.
March 17, 1888..
Local Intelligence
A line of railroad, connecting Dillersville and Safe Harbor, is in prospect. A corps of engineers, under the direction of Colonel S. C. Slaymaker, of Lancaster, recently commenced a survey of the route. The proposed road will run through Millersville and will be ten miles in length.

The Columbia Spy.
June 5, 1888..
Stray Items Gathered Into Cold Type
There has been no June flood this year and there is not likely to be. The Susquehanna is not the strong river it used to be. It empties itself into the bay too suddenly, and it has no reserve to draw upon. The forests of the North and West branches are rapidly disappearing, and snow and ice no longer lie there to melt in early June and swell the late floods. Hence the river is low, too low for the canal boats to cross easily or safely at Columbia. The chute is closed, and the break in the dam is being repaired. Old residents tell me that so low a river so early in June is unusual.

This railroad was never built and is distinct from the railroad from the Magnetic Ore mines near Sickman's Mill to Safe Harbor, which was built.
June 13, 1888..
The Board of Trade Takes No Action in Regard To It..
They Listen to a Verbal Expert From the Committee on Railroads, Detailing the Probably Income and Expenses.
It Will Earn $4,000 a Year
The June meeting of the Board of Trade was held on Tuesday evening at their rooms, in Eshleman�s hall, with President Wickersham in the chair.
The treasurer reported a balance in the treasury of $81.78.
Mr. Houston, of the railroad committee, submitted a lengthy verbal report. He said this committee, after the last meeting of the Board of Trade, had an interview with Mr. David, of the Safe Harbor Iron works, in reference to the building of a railroad from Safe Harbor to Lancaster, and the committee would now submit the result of that interview. The cost of the proposed road, from the survey and estimate made would be $300,000 in round figures. The estimated receipts per year are $26,000, divided as follows: Freight from Safe Harbor iron Works, $9,400; other freight at Safe Harbor $1,000; Rockhill station $300; Slackwater station; $2,500; Millersville station, $3,000; passenger service, $9,000; mail and express $1,000, making a total of #26,000.
The expense would be about $22,000, made up of $5,000 interest on $100,000 bonds, and $4000 interest on $100,000 stock and $13,000 running expenses, which would leave $4,000 per year profit. The committee did not go over the figures carefully and were not now prepared to recommend the building of the railroad. Some of the estimated receipts were lower in the committee�s judgment than they would actually be and the committee thought this road would earn in proportion to its length as much as the Quarryville railroad...
There are several matters in connection with this road which should be changed before the committee can recommend its construction. One is in reference to the passenger depot at Safe Harbor. It is on one side of the creek and this road is on the other, and unless the depot is changed to suit the new road there will be much inconvenience. Another objection to be met is that the Pennsylvania railroad company owns the right of way and siding from the Port Deposit road to the iron works and unless the right to use the siding is obtained the new road will have to build for some distance either by filling up the creek or cutting down a very high hill, either of which would be very expensive A third matter which the committee deem very important is a change as to the route of entering the city. The route of the road should be so changed that instead of running to Dillerville, it will strike the city at or near the corner of James street and College avenue, then by connecting with the Quarryville railroad run to the Stevens house station. About one and a half miles can be saved if this change is made and the road run this way instead of in Dillerville.
After the consultation with Mr. Davis some of the members of the Board of Trade thought as the cost of the survey had been paid by the Safe Harbor iron company it was proper that Lancaster city should raise sufficient money to defray the expenses of securing the right of way for the proposed road, and he and Mr. Reynolds undertook to collect his money. He then detailed at length their experience to show how reluctant some of the business men of this city were to subscribe towards the enterprise. The collecting committee were treated so shabbily at a number of business houses that they almost came to the conclusion to give up the task undertaken...
As to the proposed railroad to New Holland, the committee would report that the New Holland and Waynesburg branch had been sold and the committee were not now prepared to say how the sale would affect the construction of the proposed road.
The Board of Trade took no action on the report of the committee.

Lancaster Inquirer..
July 18, 1888..
The Millersville Pike is "a Little Mint" that Pays
News from Country Districts Sent by our Correspondents.
Millersville, July 26 (Special) For years the Manor turnpike ahs been a prolific source of revenue to the people who own its stock, "a little mint," as one of those people expressed ti several years ago. It has paid as high as a 20 percent. Dividend per annum, and its stock, whose par value is 50, is selling to-day (when it can be bought at all) at 155. But there is one determined man among the many who are obliged to use the highway, who ahs made up his mind that it is unfair that a corporation should be able to collect tolls that pay such dividends and that he will block that game, if possible. For weeks the new owners of the Slackwater paper mill have been hauling big loads of materials over that pike, and their bill for tolls has amounted to about $80. This, however, the manager has refused to pay, alleging that the road does not meet the requirements of the law as to width and condition. "I�ll close the gate on you, " said the gate keeper. "lets see you do it" was the reply, "then I�ll have my wagon turned round, hitch a chain to the gates and tear them off their hinges. Let your company sue me then, and we�ll see what�ll come of it. I�m going to fight your road for the benefit of the community." The gates are yet open and the paper-mill wagons go through without paying. The toll-gate must go. Free turnpikes are bound to come.
Otto F. Reese and his son, Charles, are tinners and roofers in this village. They have been working for some time at putting up spouting in Safe Harbor on the houses of the rolling mill company. Last week Charles was up at the top of a 30-foot ladder when that affair concluded to break, and the young man descended with more haste and less gracefulness than he went up, yet, wonderful to say, landed with no bones broken and only a lot of bruises. He probably couldn�t do the same thing again if he were to try...
Miss Jane E. Leonard pad the Normal a visit the other day. In 1875 she left her situation there as teacher in history to take a similar situation in the State Normal School at Indiana, Pa., where she has been ever since.
Citizen J. R. Wallick once in a while pauses in his mad career as a teacher for a tobacco farmer to reflect upon his childhood days amid the beloved chincapin bushes and buckwheat fields of his ancestral hills in York county. When the longing grows too great to be resisted, he throws down the imperial hickory scepter or the bucolic hoe and rushes madly away to this Democratic stronghold where he was born. All the foregoing is simply to explain that Mr. Wallick is now visiting his parents, brothers and sisters in that county.

The Columbia Spy..
September 8, 1888..
Burial of Indigent Soldiers
In the three years that the law, providing for the burial of indigent soldiers by the county, has been in force, the Commissioners have buried one hundred at a cost of $3,400.79; they also paid $364.90 for tombstones.

The Columbia Spy..
Dec. 25, 1888..
Post Script
The new "free" bridge across the Susquehanna is nearly ready for the traveling public. A little more cold will fix it. "As the days begin to lengthen the cold begins to strengthen" is the old adage.

The Columbia Spy..
July 27, 1889..
Logs, boards and square timber, bridge timber, &c., lodged and lying on Grass Island, in Manor township, Lancaster county, Penn�s, opposite Creswell Station, on the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad, in said county:
About 850 logs of various marks and letters.
Also a lot of boards, scantling, mill stuff and bridge timbers.
These logs lodged there on Saturday, June 1st, and Sunday, June 2d, 1889.
The owners can have the same by proving property and paying charges according to law..
A list of the marks and description of lumber is filed with Harvey Brush, esq., Washington Borough, the nearest Justice of the Peace, where the owners can call and see them at any time.
	CHRISTIAN SCHOCK (for himself)
		Agents for John S. Mellinger,
		Trustees of Jacob Wissler�s estate.
	The owners of Grass Island.
July 6-3t

The Columbia Spy
August 10, 1889
Fourth-class postmasters in Lancaster county were named as follows on Wednesday: John H. Stauffer, Millersville: B. S. Weiler, Pequea; S. G. Good, Spring Grove; John R. Wolf, West Earl.

The Columbia Spy..
October 26, 1889..
Brother Urban Can Help Him
Dr. W. J. Hoffman, of the Bureau of Ethnology, of Washington, D. C. spent Sunday and Monday in Lancaster, as the guest of S.M. Sensor, esq. His special business in this county is to visit Washington, Safe Harbor, McCall�s Ferry and Bald Friar, to examine and make sketches of the Indian pictographs on the rocks at these points. He inspected Mr. S. H. Zham�s collection of Indian relics, and said it was the finest armature collection he had ever seen.
If there is any man in the county who can help this Washington ethnologist to unravel the mysteries of Indian history, it is our townsman, Mr. Theodore L. Urban. We doubt whether the Smithsonian Institute possesses as fine a collection of significant Indian relics, or an intelligent a history of the Indian tribes as Mr. Urban.

Philadelphia Inquirer
March 13, 1898
Postmaster-General Gary, in a letter to Congress during the passage of Senator Butler's amendment to the Postoffice Appropriation bill appropriating $250,000 for experimental free delivery in rural county, reviews the result of one year's experiment in free rural delivery in the various States.
Speaking of Pennsylvania, he says:
"The counties of Lancaster and Westmoreland were selected for rural free delivery in Pennsylvania. Widely different conditions prevail in the two counties. The routes in Lancaster county run through a rich farming counytry, with an intelligent population, largely of German descent, and with good roads. In Westmoreland county the conditions are hard; the rural population is scattered, the country is very rough; and the roads are bad.
"The two routes started in Lancaster county begin at Lancaster city, and include the territory embraced within the service of six minor post towns."
"Lancaster county is rich in postoffices, there being nearly 150 fourth-class offices within its limits, a large proportion of which, together with several st routes, might be dispense with if free delivery is a permanent form were extended over the whole country. "The areas covered by the present routes is about thirty square miles, with from sixteen to twenty miles of daily travel for each carrier. One route extends from Lancaster to Kready, Mountville, Windom and back to Lancaster; the other to Bausman, Millersville, Letort and back to Lancaster."
"The service was popular from the start and soon resulted in a large increase in the number of letters and newspapers carried."

Philadelphia Inquirer
June 5, 1901
State News Note
Lancaster - The Conestoga Traction Company has decided to extend one of its suburban lines from Millersville to York Furnace, on the Susquehanna.

Philadelphia Inquirer.
May 29, 1902.
Susquehanna to Furnish Power .
River Waters to be Utilized and Harnessed for Trade Purposes
Special to The Inquirer.
Harrisburg, Pa., May 27. - The Susquehanna is to be harnessed in the Peach Bottom regions of York and Lancaster counties. Nine water companies formed by three citizens of Harrisburg, were granted charters at the State Department today. The incorporators are: Edward H. West, C. Raymone Fritcher and Herbert F. Harris, each company having a capital of $300, divided into three shares of $100 each, and each one of the incorporators holding one share of the stock. The names and location of the companies are as follows:.
Conestoga Water and Power Company, Conestoga, Lancaster county; Muddy Creek Water and Power Company, Lower Chanceford, York County; Chanceford Water and Power Company, Chanceford, York county; Lower Windsor Water and Power Company, Lower Windsor, York county; Manor Water and Power Company, Manor township, Lancaster county; Fulton Water and Power, Fulton township, Lancaster county; Peach Bottom Water and Power Company, Peach Bottom, York county; Pequea Water and Power Company, Martic township, Lancaster county; Drumore Water and Power Company, Drumore township, Lancaster county..
It is the purpose of the new companies to store and transport water and water power for commercial and manufacturing purposes and to develop, by the use of the water power, electric current and power for commercial purposes, and to supply and distribute the electric current..

Lancaster Inquirer
March 12, 1904


A 15-Minute Rush of Water and Ice Overwhelmed the Village on Tuesday After Great Gorge Broke Below Columbia.


Million Dollar Loss at York Haven --- Buildings Destroyed at Bainbridge and Collins---Washington Borough Swept by Flood. 3000 Men Cleaning P.R.R. Tracks --- 400 Families Are Homeless at Middletown -- An Exciting Week Along the River --- Aid is Asked for Safe Harbor.

About 3,000 men with pick and shovel, including 1,600 Italian laborers employed under H. S. Kerbaugh & Co., on the railroad construction in York County, are at work now - and have been since Thursday morning - clearing the tracks of the P.R.R. between Columbia and Harrisburg. For about a week these tracks have been useless, blocked by the floods that alternately rose and fell, carrying with them millions of tons of ice in great chunks, so that the railroad is covered with a frozen mass that in spots is 30 feet deep. These men are paid 20cents per hour and board is furnished by the company free of cost. It is the biggest job of house cleaning that the company has ever undertaken on this part of its system.
This blockade has caused immense freight congestion at Harrisburg; for the running of freight trains has been practically impossible since the latter part of last week. Passenger trains were run over the Reading tracks to Lebanon: from there over the Cornwall road to Conewago, five miles above Elizabethtown; and then by the usual route to Lancaster and Philadelphia. When the Northern Central tracks became useless, trains for Baltimore and Washington came by the above route to Dillerville and then went via Columbia to York. Resumption of service on the main line via Columbia is a matter of several days more; for the greatest flood even known along the Susquehanna has damaged the road bed greatly and made much work for tracklayers. The Columbia & Port Deposit road is badly damaged. For many miles it lies under an icy covering from 10 to 50 feet in thickness. Wreckage of buildings, masses of rock and earth, telegraph poles, trees and all sorts of debris also encumber both railroads. Columbia hardware men have sold all the shovels and crowbars they could find.
Millions and millions of dollars of damage is the result of the 1904 freshet, at the close of the longest and coldest winter the east has known in a generation. Up the North Branch all towns suffered severely and the danger is not yet past. Wilkesberre, Bloomsburg, Danville, Catawissa, Sunbury and Northumberland people sustained great losses, and the finest bridges on the river were swept away. At Harrisburg, Steelton and Middletown vast industrial establishments were paralyzed for days, and in the last-named town 400 families are homeless, their houses wrecked and ruined and most of their effects destroyed. Appeals for clothing and provisions were issued this week. The state board of health is striving to prevent epidemics, while homeless people are huddled in churches, schoolhouses, market house and public halls. At the mouth of the river Port Deposit and Perryville are water swept as usual.
A large part of Safe Harbor (as further described below) was all but destroyed in a flood rush of 15 minutes, on Tuesday afternoon, when the river forced an opening through the immense gorge that stretched southward from Columbia; and today dozens of houses are hidden in the ocean of ice blocks, some of them as big as the houses, that covers the valley in which the village lies. Most of them are doubtless so crushed as to be useless for aught but fire wood. An appeal for help for the homeless has been sent forth...
Bainbridge and Collins sustained much loss, as shown below. The Bainbridge railroad station is a mile down the railroad lodged, on the tracks. At Red Hill a train of 40 cars was smashed by the ice. The two-million-dollar works of the York Haven electric power plant was almost utterly ruined, and the immense paper mill at the same place was greatly damaged. Parts of Marietta, Columbia and Washington Borough lie under a coat of mud and ice.
The new railroad bridge above Rowenna was partly torn away. The rush of water up the Conestoga on Tuesday damaged the electric light works at Rock Hill and Slackwater. Washington Borough presents a remarkable aspect. The railroad is covered with mountains of ice from the northern end of the town as far south as Turkey Hill. The tracks are completely hidden from view. The damage to the property in the southern end of he town is severe. Many lost considerable of their household effects, to say nothing of the damage to their properties, caused by the huge cakes of ice battering into them. In front of the borough the river is packed with a gorge at least seventy-five feet high. It begins at the northern end of town and runs to the southern end, and extends out into the river in a V-shape almost to the York county shore.

Click here to continue reading this article with accounts of Safe Harbor, Washington Borough and Columbia,. The article will open in a new window.

Daily Examiner
June 1, 1903
They Threatened to Destroy Property at Shenk�s Ferry - Want Their Wages
Sheriff A. B. Kready on Sunday sent several deputies to Shenk�s Ferry in anticipation of trouble among the Italians who are employed by Carl & Company, contractors, on the new railroad work at that place.
An execution was issued against the company of contractors several days ago and it is alleged that Mr. Carl left for parts unknown without paying the Italians the wages du them. The Italians became highly enrged on Saturday when they did not receive their pay, and threatened to burn down the buildings of the company and the hotel where the bosses stopped. The company�s property was to have been sold at sheriff�s sale tomorrow, but as the execution has been fixed up there will be no sale. When the seriff and his deputies reached the scene of the trouble on Sunday they found all quiet. Two of the deputies are still on guard.

Daily Examiner
June 17, 1903
Italians Strike
Refused to Work because Pay-Day was Postponed.
Because a notice was posted that pay-day had been postponed until June 25, about three hundred Italians employed by Contractors Moran and Hassett on the new P.R.R. work at Creswell struck on Monday and created intense excitement in that vicinity.
The Italians marched along the railroad in a body, and their leader carried a pole to which a red handkerchief was fastened. They compelled the other laborers to stop work and those who hesitated about doing so, it is claimed, were threatened. They continued to march around on Tuesday morning, but in the afternoon a large number returned to work. This morning a few more resumed work, but quite a number are still idle, No further trouble is anticipated.

May 30, 1905
A Dangerous Colored Man
He Had a Pistol and Shot Four Men at Safe Harbor
Among the people employed on the contract of Kerbaugh & Co., at Safe Harbor, are a number of colored men. Most of them are from the South, and are employed as drillers and around the compressed air plant. On Monday afternoon one of the men who had been drinking and had a pistol , resolved to waken u p the town. He shot at everyone who came near him, and at the close of his gunning expedition had wounded no less that four other negroes.
One was shot through the leg, another in the face, a third in the neck and a fourth in the arm. None of the men are seriously injured. The one shot in the face was not hurt as badly as was first supposed, as the bullet a little more than grazed him, but cut an ugly gash.

Intelligencer June 30, 1905
A Water Tank Fell on George Emery and Death Ensued an Hour Later
George Emery, thirteen years old, stepson of Joseph McFadden, was fatally injured on Thursday afternoon while at work near Martic Forge. He was in the employ of the Kerbaugh company as a switch tender. Early in the afternoon he was assisting some in unloading a water tank, when the tank got beyondthe control of the men and fell on the boy. The company�s physician attended to his injuries but he died in an hour. The physician pronounced internal injuries as the cause of death. The body was given in charge of undertaker A. J. Zercher, who removed it to his home, one mile west of Colemanville. Four brothers survive. His funeral will take place tomorrow morning and interment will be made in the Conestoga Centre Catholic cemetery.
Deputy Coroner, J. W. Morrison viewed the body this morning and will hear testimony this evening to ascertain whether the death was due to negligence.

July 5, 1905
Samuel Bronson is Overcome While Swimming in the Susquehanna River
Samuel Bronson, a colored man, aged thrity-five years, employed by the Kerbaugh Co., on the new railroad work in the lower end of the county, was drowned on Monday afternoon, near Shenk�s Ferry. He went in swimming in the Susquehanna with a party of friends, and had swam over to Wise�s island. He then started to swim back, and when he was about two hundred yards from the Lancaster county shore his friens daw him throw up his hands and call for help. As he was an expert swimmer his friends thought he was joking. He disappeared from view and was seen no more. The body was recovered this morning by Deputy Coroner J. W. Morrison, who made an investigation. It was interred at Conestoga Centre. he was unmarried and formerly lived at Washington D.C.

Philadelphia Inquirer
November 1, 1905
Five Million Dollar Lien Filed
Special to The Inquirer
LANCASTER, PA., Oct. 31. - A mortgage for $5,000,000 was entered in the Recorder's office here to-day. It is in favor of the Real Estate Trust Company of Philadelphia, and is given by the American-Swedish Crucible Steel Company on the properties of the company in Conestoga and Martic township, and also against a railroad built from the mines of the company in Safe Harbor.

Note: There is an article on our main page about this explosion, from the Lancaster Inquirer.
Philadelphia Inquirer
June 11, 1906
Remains of Victims of Pequea Dynamite Explosions Fill Only Bushel and a Half

One Storage Building Destroyed Whose Explosive Contents Remain Intect.

Special to The Inquirer
Lancaster, Pa., June 10 - The scene of yesterday's dynamite factory explosion near Pequea, in which eleven lives were lost and a number of persons injured was visited by great throngs today. It has been learned that two explosions occurred; the first, of 2500 pounds of dynamite, blowing up the filling house, the origin of which is unknwon. The detonations set off two tons of nitro-blycerine.
After the first explosion Abram, in another building, fearing other explosions, opened a tank of nitro-glycerine and one of water, and escaped. His action prevented an explosion there.
Car Wrecked: Contents Safe.
Near these buildings the engine and storage house were burned. Back of the latter, on a siding, stood a car containing fifteen tons of dynamite. It remained intact, while the car was blown to pieces. A storage building, containing forty tons of dynamite, was destroyed and its contents did not explode.
One of the buildings had in it a lot of girls making paper shells, but none was injured. One of them, Edith Rineer, whose two brothers were killed, was thrown from a chair and the latter was sucked out of the door.
Saved by a Smoke.
Frank Parks stopped for a ______ (unreadable) smoke before going to the building first blown up, and lingered just long enough to save his life.
Fifty men searched all day today for remains of the dead, and all together only enough to fill a bushel and a half bushel measure have been found. Over the head and arm of Frederick Rice a funeral will be held Tuesday morning and in the afternoon a funeral will be held over the balance of the remains.
The Coroner's jury rendered a verdict that the explosion was accidental. The loss to property is $25,000.

This is a piece of a larger article about the Real Estate Trust Company that went into receivership. The Standard Mining and Iron Company, now the Swedish Crucible Steel Company of Conestoga and Martic Twp., Lancaster County. A mortgage on the company held by the Real Estate Trust was one of the assets of the Trust. Adolph Segal was the owner of Standard Mining and Iron Company.
Philadelphia Inquirer
August 30, 1906
Bank's Holdings are Scheduled.
Reports are coming to hand of the actual condition of various Segal enterprises.
The mortgage against the Standard Mining and Iron Company, now the Swedish Crucible Steel Company, in Lancaster county is $2,500,000. The company owns less than one hundred acres in Conestoga and Martic townships, and has spent about $500,000 in the purchase of land and mineral rights, machinery and buildings and the four mile railway to Safe Harbor, about $120,000 having been expended on the latter. The only work so far done at the mines has been of an experimental character. The ore is of a law grade, and it was proposed to concentrate it by an electric system.
The company also purchased a furnace at Marietta a few years ago and spent a large sum to place it in first-class condition. It has not been operated under, the new ownership. Segal, it is state by those conversant with the inside history of the iron company, owned nearly all of the stock. One reason given for the idleness of the mines was that the ore could not be shipped away on account of the closing up of the Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad during the construction of the Pennsylvania's new low grade freight line.

Lancaster Intelligencer..
August 31, 1906
Blast Kills Four Men
Exploded Prematurely on New Railroad near Highville

Victims Italians and Slav - Known only by Numbers - Another man Missing and two hurt- Rod Stuck Cartridge in Hole that had been Filled with Dynamite.

Since the start of the work on the low grade railroad, now in course of construction by the Pennsylvania Railroad company, the loss of life has been very heavy. Although there have been two murders and some deaths from other causes, the large majority of lives have been lost by blasting. The number of deaths will rise up close to one hundred and the great part of them have occurred upon the Kerbaugh contract, which extends from Martic Forge to Shock's Mills. An immense amount of blasting is required, especially along the Susquehanna river, from Washington Borough to Shenk's Ferry. There are hills of great size, which are almost of solid rock and the blasts necessary to remove them are very heavy. So far most of the men killed have been foreigners, Italians or Slavs. Little attention is paid to such accidents on the work, and far more men are injured then are reported in the newspapers...
The most serious blasting accident that has yet taken place on the Kerbaugh contract occurred on Wednesday afternoon, in which four men were instantly killed, two were hurt and one is missing. Whether the missing man was killed is not known, but he has not yet been found. The place where the accident occurred was between Camp No. 6 and Creswell station, and about a mile and a half from Highville. The men were working on a rock about eighty feet above the river. Shortly before the accident a walking boss passed the place, and then seven men were working in one gang. The one that is missing may have walked away before the accident occurred which was about four o'clock, or he may have been blown to pieces. The foreman of the gang was a colored man named Sydney Tynesdale, and he had Slavs and Italians under him. They had almost finished the loading of a big hole with dynamite and powder, and a cartridge had been put into it. The foreman, who is living, says that the cartridge must have been stuck by a rod that was used for ramming the load, and that cause the explosion.
One Italian and three Slavs were instantly killed. Two of them were blown down the embankment and were found close to the river bank. The others were blown up the bank. One man was literally torn to pieces as his head, both legs and one arm were blown off. The colored foreman and one Slave were badly injured about the head and were otherwise cut and bruised, and they were removed to a private hospital, which has been opened at Safe Harbor by the contractors. Today both are getting along nicely, and they will recover.
The remains of the dead men, who's names were unknown, even at the office of the company, as they work by numbers, were gathered up and taken in charge by Undertaker A. J. Zercher, of Conestoga Centre. Deputy Coroner J. W. Morrison, of the same place, started an investigation of the explosion, and found that it was accidental. The funeral of the Italians will be held on Friday afternoon at 3 o'clock., with interment at the Catholic cemetery at Safe Harbor. No arrangements have yet been made for the funeral of the Slavs. All of the men were young, and have not been in this country for any length of time. Since they first came here they worked on contracts and they lived at Camp No. 6.

Philadelphia Inquirer
December 6, 1908
Discuss Corporal Punishment in Lancaster County.
LANCASTER, PA., DEC. 5. - As an auxiliary to the annual county teachers' institutes that are held every fall in this city the public school instructors of Lancaster county have developed an excellent system of district institutes that are proving helpful and efficient modes of instruction and interchange of ideas.
The township of Manor, Conestoga, Pequea, Lancaster and Washington Borough combined in a session that was held this week at Millersville, where questions bearing on corporal punishment, monthly examination, the educational value of the play hour, the best periods for hard study instruction in agriculture, advantages of ungraded rural schools and the ways in which teachers waste their energies were discussed by C.D. Gehr, Anna Weber, H. H. Rhinier, Barbara Krelser, George W. Gamble, Blanche Wiseman, Elizabeth Dashler, Roy Bortzfield, Cecelia Charles, D. R. Newcomer, Frank Herr, Charles C. Falck, Irene Bitzer, Landis Caldwell, A. H. Derstler, Jennie J. Brush, J. D. Pyott, Anna W. Lintner and Emma Warfel.
The district institutes are held under the advice and co-operation of County Superintendent Brecht.

Philadelphia Inquirer
April 24, 1909
Legal Notices
TRUSTEE'S SALE OF THE PROPERTY and franchises of the American Swedish Crucible Steel Company, formerly Standard Iron Mining and Furnace Company.
The Real Estate Trust Company of Philadelphia, Trustee named in a certain mortgage dated May 28, 1903, executed by the Standard Iron Mining and Furnace Company, will by virtue of a decree entered on March 27, 1909, in a certain proceeding in equity in the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster County. Equity Docket No. 5, page 115 (wherein the Real Estate Trust Company of Philadelphia, Trustee named in a certain indenture of mortgage dated May 28, 1903, executed by Standard Iron and Mining and Furnace Company, is Plaintiff and the American Swedish Crucible Steel Company, formerly the Standard Iron Mining and Furnace Company is defendant) expose to sale, at public auction, at the front door of the County Court House, in Lancaster Pa.
Tuesday May 11, 1909
At 2 o'clock p.m., and sell to the highest and best bidder, all the real and personal property and franchisee of every name and nature whatsoever of said American Swedish Crucible Steel Company, formerly Standard Iron Mining and Furnace Company, said real estate being briefly described as all the following tracts of iron ore land, situated in the County of Lancaster, and State of Pennsylvania.
No. 1 a tract of land in Conestoga township, along Pequea Creek, and adjoining land of John Hess, deceased, containing 9 acres 48 perches.
No. 2, a tract of land in Martic township, along Pequea creek, adjoining lands of Mary Eshelman's heirs; Benjamin Eshleman and Matthias Wilson, containing 10 acres and 75 perches.
No. 3, a tract of land in Conestoga township, along Pequea creek, adjoining lands of John F. Kelly, Abraham M. Myers and A. K. Herr containing 15 acres more or less.
No. 4, a tract of land in Martic township on the road leading from Martic Forge to the Conestoga Centre road, adjoining lands of John Herr, David Eshleman, Benjamin Eshleman, Jacob Lehman, John Sweigart and the Pequea creek, containing 36 acres and 75 perches.
Description of property in West Hempfield and East Donegal Twps...
Also, all that certain steam railroad now constructed from the mines of the company in Conestoga and Martic townships, to Safe Harbor, being 4 1/2 miles long, and a cinder roadbed, along the centre of which the tracks are laid; said roadbed being in the main 30 feet wide, but at two small portions of the road 20 feet wide and 50 feet wide, respectively. Together with all terminal facilities and all rights of way, depots, grounds, yards and all other lands and interests in land appurtenant to said railway or terminal facilities, including all rolling stock.
And together, also, with the furnaces, machinery, engines, boilers and property of every kind and description upon, appurtenant to or connected with the foregoing described premises, and subject to the lien of the above recited mortgage.
A more detailed description of the foregoing premises may be obtained by reference to the records of the above-recited mortgage and equity proceedings.
Terms and conditions will be made know at the sale by

Lancaster Inquirer
October 2, 1909
A Prisoner of War in Terrible Andersonville Tells of What He Saw There and How the Prisoners� Thirst Was Relieved by Unexpected Means...
By John W. Urban
Andersonville prison, where the climax of military atrocity and barbarity was reached in our country, is located in Marion county, Georgia, not quite one mile from Andersonville Station on the Georgia Central railroad; sixty-two miles southeast of Macon, George, and about fifty or sixty miles from the Alabama state line. The station is in Sumpter county, George, the line dividing it from Marion county being in the intermediate space between the station and prison. The station at that time, of itself, was a small, insignificant, unimportant place, and were it not for the fact that it was in such close proximity to the prison very few persons outside of its immediate locality would ever had heard of its existence. The land for a considerable distance around it was almost entirely covered with forest trees, which consisted principally of oak and pine. While the surface of the land in some places was low and swampy, the most of it was rolling, forming a scenery picturesque and pleasing to the eye. The general appearance of the place, however, was wild and desolate. Most naturally it would seem so to the unfortunate men who far from their homes and loved ones were to suffer the most horrible tortures in the pen, erected in this otherwise quiet, peaceful locality, for their imprisonment. A few years ago the writer had the great pleasure of visiting Andersonville Park, and the National Cemetery adjoining, and he can find no words strong enough to describe his feelings as he looked at the wonderful change and appearance of the place since he left it as a prisoner of war, in 1864. As he stood on the highest elevation of the park, and looked on the scene, it seemed as if a weird wand of magic alone could have made such a transformation. The high, hideous stockade that had encircled the grounds, with the once dreaded dead line, had all disappeared, and neat markers designated their former existence. The ground was covered with a beautiful lawn of Bermuda grass, covering with a mantle of green many of the dark, unpleasant features of the past. The stream, once so foul, covered with fifth and grease, that came from the Confederate work house, and excitement of all kinds, now flowed clear and sparkling on its way to the sea. The bottom or low land bordering on the stream that during the history of the prison was so foul from the fifth washed form the hillsides of the prison and the excrement of thousands of prisoners; and had become putrid and full of vermin, that to stand on its bands and look upon it would seem as if the entire bottom was a mass of insect life, had now been transformed into a most inviting spot to rest upon. Kept clean and clear of all tangled undergrowth, of vines and brush, a number of beautiful vigorous forest trees have grown up, affording dense shade from its luxuriant foliage and from its branches the mocking birds sing nightly requiems to the thousands of dead who are sleeping so peacefully in the city of the dead near by. Large, beautiful monuments have been erected by Pennsylvania, Ohio, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and other states, with appropriate inscriptions on them. The most striking and significant, "Death Before Dishonor," is on nearly all of them. It is believed that in the near future all of the states that have some of their revered dead lying there will be represented with handsome monuments.
The monument to be erected by the national government will be the largest, handsomest and most impressive of all on the ground, and will add much beauty to the park. The Pennsylvania and New Jersey monuments are inside the cemetery grounds. All of the rest are located inside the stockade. All yet to be erected will be on the later ground, as it is now considered more desirable to have them there, as the site is more prominent, and in full view of passing railroad trains, and there is more land there that can be used for that purpose. A fine flag staff, one hundred and fifteen feet high, stands on the north side of the stockade, from whose height floats old glory in all his beauty. The old forts and entrenchments are in a perfect state of preservation, and will be kept so, but no soldiers in gray or frowning guns are mounted there, threatening deaths and destruction to the miserable inmates of the prison. These forts and entrenchments are now covered with a soft, beautiful sod, and young pine and other forest trees have grown up, giving a grateful shade, thus transforming its former war like aspect to one of gentle peace and goodwill to men.

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Philadelphia Inquirer
July 26, 1911
Recover Body of Drowned Man
Special to The Inquirer
Columbia, Pa., July 25. - The body of W. L. Cooper, Sr., superintendent of the Bedford division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who was drowned on Saturday afternoon with his son when a canoe in which they were traveling down the Susquehanna River from Harrisburg to Pequea was capsized in Conley's Break at Sower's Point, was recovered this morning, just twelve hours after the finding of the body of the son. Both bodies came to the surface by the action of the gases

Philadelphia Inquirer
August 12, 1911
Light Companies Incorporated
Harrisburg, Pa., Aug. 11 - Letters patent were issued today to fourteen electric companies to operate in Lancaster county. The incorporators are: Congressman W. W. Griest, John S. Graybill, Jr., and G. Edgar Titzel, Lancaster, and the capital of each company is $5999. The names and districts are as follows: East Lampeter township, West Lampeter township, Mt. Joy township, Rapho township, Lancaster township, Penn township, West Donegal township, Manor township, East Hempfield township, East Donegal township, Manheim township, Warwick township, West Hempfield township, Mountville borough. The office of each will be in Lancaster

Note: These Electric companies were later sold to Pennsylvania Power & Light in 1957.
Philadelphia Inquirer
November 9, 1912
HARRISBURG, Pa., Nov. 8. - Seven charters were issued today to electric companies to operate in Lancaster county. The capital of each being $5000 and the incorporators are Congressman W. W. Griest, J. S. Graybille, Jr., and C. Edgar Titzel, of Lancaster. The companies are the Conestoga township, Martic township, Pequea township, Providence township and Strasburg township electric companies and the Elizabethtown and Marietta Electric 'companies. They will operate in the localities for which they are named.
(NOTE: the article continues with other companies in Pa. that were chartered but these were the only ones in our area and they appeared to be the most important since they are the companies mentioned in the headline.)

Philadelphia Inquirer
Dec. 11, 1912
Lancaster Co. Electric Companies Form Merger
Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 10 - Papers were filed at the Capitol today covering the merger of thirteen recently incorporated electric companies of Lancaster county into the Edison Electric Company of Lancaster, with Congressman W. W. Griest as president.
The Companies are the Elizabethtown, Marietta, Martic, Canoy, Eden, Conestoga, Providence, Ephrata, Earl, West Earl, Upper Leacock, Strasburg and Pequea, all chartered for the districts from which they take their names.

Philadelphia Inquirer
Dec. 22, 1912
OWE $2,500,000; TO PAY ONLY 3,003
End of Litigation in Failure of Standard Iron Mining and Furnace Company in Sight
Special to The Inquirer
Lancaster, Pa., Dec. 21 - The end of the litigation following the colossal failure of the Standard Iron Mining and Furnace Company, the heaviest financial crash ever experienced in this county, came today in the filing with the court of the report of the auditor, S. R. Zimmerman. It shows that a balance of $3003 remains to be distributed to creditors whose claims aggregate $2,500,000. The assets will pay only 4 percent on the overdue interest, leaving a large sum in default before anything could be available for the face value of the bonds.
The concern was exploited by Adolph Segal, of Philadelphia, who promoted gigantic sugar refineries and large real estate deals. The plant was located in Martic township, this county, and it also included furnaces in the vicinity of Marietta. Every one of the bonds in the entire issue was sold, and the majority of the stockholders reside in Philadelphia and vicinity and include a number of its wealthy citizens. The Real Estate Trust Company, of Philadelphia, was trustee for the bondholders.
The proposition was put forward in glowing terms and promises of enormous profits were held out on the strength of rich deposits of magnetic ore in the Martic field. A special railroad for freightage purposes was constructed and the plant was equipped extensively, with expensive machinery. But the concern never paid from the outset, and when the mortgage was foreclosed only about $30,000 was realized from both real and personal property. Costs of litigation and payment of preferred claims reduced this sum to $3000.

Philadelphia Inquirer
January 10, 1915
Watchmen on Duty to Warn Inhabitants If Waters of Susquehanna River Rise
Special to the Inquirer
Lancaster, Pa., Jan. 9 - The Susquehanna River flood, due to the ice movement, tonight threatens Safe Harbor, at the mouth of the Conestoga River because of a sixty foot high gorge at York Furnace. For many miles above the solid ice jam has formed. Back water of the Conestoga has raised that stream 25 feet above low water mark, but since 6 o�clock it has fallen nine inches and is slowly receding. The lower section of Safe Harbor is inundated some houses having six feet of water in them. Watchmen are now on duty ready to warn the inhabitants if danger of an ice flood occurs during the night.
At Safe Harbor many residents moved to the second floors.
Between Pequea, below Safe Harbor, and York Furnace, a gorge has formed which carried ice beyond the banks of the river onto the tracks of the Port Railroad, putting that line out of service. The track is covered with ice to a height of fourteen feet and for a distance of half a mile. A force of men are now at work uncovering the tracks.
The ice, which covered the big dam of the Pennsylvania Water and Power Company, broke last night and passed down the stream without doing damage.

Philadelphia Inquirer
January 12, 1915
Special to The Inquirer
LANCASTER, Pa., Jan. 11 - The gorges on the Susquehanna River below Safe Harbor and below Pequea have been made into solid masses by the recurring cold weather, and only a long thaw or heavy rain will so weaken them that the water can dissipate them.
As the water had fallen several feet since last night it is evident that channels have been forced through the gorge, and until the flood from up stream reaching Pequea and Safe Harbor no further trouble is anticipated, though watchmen are constantly on duty.

Philadelphia Inquirer
January 4, 1916
Three Public Service Corporations Suspend
Lancaster and York Furnace Railway and Colemanville Power Companies Stop.Operations.
LANCASTER, Pa., Jan. 3 - The Lancaster and York Furnace Street Railway Company, the Lancaster and Southern Railway Company and the Colemanville Water and Power company have suspended operations, owing, it is said, to financial suits against the companies, but the secretary and treasurer of the concerns, John H. Myers, declares there will be no foreclosure suits instituted, at least for the present.
The Lancaster and the York Furnace Railway Companies operate trolley lines between Millersville and York Furnace and York Furnace and Rawlinsville, respectively. The Colemanville Water and Power Company furnishes light and power facilities for Marticville, Conestoga Centre, Pequea, Colemanville, Rawlinsville and Mount Nebo.
The suspension, according to notices posted along the lines, is for an indefinite time.

Philadelphia Inquirer
Feb. 18, 1916
Special to The Inquirer
LANCASTER, Pa. Feb. 17 - The court today appointed John H. Myers and John M. Groff county receivers of the Lancaster and Southern Trolley Company, operating a line between Pequea and Rawlinsville. Creditors and stockholders joining in the petition for a receivership in order to conserve its assets.

An interesting character
Lancaster Inquirer..
January 13, 1917..
Mead, "Colonel" John, who for 25 years lived a hermit life in a cave near York Furnace, died January 10 at the county hospital, where he had been staying since August 27th, aged 75. He had many visitors at his hermit home, enjoyed talking about current topics and spent much time in reading. His real name is not known. He called himself a "gentleman bum", has kept himself neat and was always willing to work for farmers. He had a large collection of Indian relics. His first cave residence he called "House Rock"; when forced to move through the building of the Low Grade railroad he set up a residence of the same kind at what he called "Observation Rock" because of the magnificent view to be had there.

Philadelphia Inquirer
February 5, 1917
Special to The Inquirer
LANCASTER, Pa., Feb. 4 - The Pennsylvania Railroad bridge across the Susquehanna River at Columbia and that crossing the Conestoga River at Lancaster, have been placed under strong guard.
All company dynamite in this vicinity has been removed to places where it is beyond the reach of evil disposed persons.

Lancaster Inquirer
April 28, 1917
Stockholderws Have Been Getting 40 Per Cent Dividends
An arugment in favor of abolishing tol roads, or at least reducing their charges, is given in developments following the Lancaster Automobile Club's attack on the charter of the Lancaster and Millersville turnpike owners.
Last year the club secured an order from the Public Service Commisssion to have the company place its roadway in first-class condition by November 1. Later a five-month extension was granted. The time has expired and the road is still in bad condition.
The proceedings before the commission developed that the company is restricted to paying 8 percent divident on its stock, but has been paying an a verage of 40 per cent for years. One year 150 per cent was paid, it is alleged.
Recently one-third of the road was sold to the city of Lancaster, and instead of using theat money for reducting the outstanding strock; it is alleged that it was divided among the directors.

Note: See July 18, 1888..and April 28, 1917 for articles on the Millersville Turnpike.
Philadelphia Inquirer
March 31, 1918
TOLL ROADS PASSING IN LANCASTER COUNTY Section Being Rapidly Freed From Slavery Which Has Bound Industry for Past Century and More: Women of City Taking Active Part in Raising Funds for War Purposes
LANCASTER, Pa., March 30 � The fetters are falling: Lancaster county is being freed at last from a slavery which has bound its industry and transportation for a full century and more. The menace of the toll roads is passing. The automobile has done it, or rather is bringing it about. As a revolutionizing factor, an instrument of progress, a tool for betterment of roads and shortener of distances, the buzz-wagon is certainly in the lead. Its advent locally meant a continuous paying of toll, as the confines of the county contained a veritable network of these toll roads � more than 200 miles, some of such deplorable condition that one should be paid to travel on them instead of having to pay for the punishment.
It is only within the past half decade that sentiment locally has become against the toll road and only within a year or so that it has crystallized. The strongest agency in moulding sentiment against the toll roads has been the Lancaster Automobile Club, which at present has a membership of 15--, and is headed by B. C. Atlee. With determination they have waged a winning battle for better roads and have forced the local turnpike companies to keep their holdings in such shape as to pass official inspection by the State, or cease charging toll. This has had its effect, has decreased profits of the roads, and has kept the highways exposed to the withering spotlight of publicity.
Now the Lincoln Highway - practically a 25 mile stretch through the county - and the 17 mile stretch of turnpike between Lancaster and Elizabethtown, which forms the connecting link with the State capital, are to be freed through Legislative appropriation and county funds, with expenditure of same approved by the Commissioners.
This is without question only the beginning of what will lead to the eventual total abolition of the local tollgate, which had long since become an institution along the local turnpike and was located, without fail, every few miles of the route. One of the things which made them popular in previous years was that local capital largely was invested in these stocks and most of the hauls were short, because of the limited space that could be covered by horse and mule teams. Hence the expense was not reckoned very high, when it was taken into consideration that the other highways, the dirt roads, were often in rather bad shape.
But with the coming of the King drag the general improvement of township roads, the building of sections of State road far superior to the old turnpikes, and lastly, the purchasing of many thousands of automobiles by town and country folk, the general attitude toward tollgates changed decidedly. The toll charged for a pleasure ride through the rural districts was a heavy burden, far exceeding the cost of gasoline. Stockholders of turnpikes paid out a great deal more usually in the form of toll than they realized as returns from their investments. It soon became common knowledge that just so soon as one got outside the county, roadways became better and toll almost unknown. Now, usually, as soon as a neighboring county is crossed tolls cease to exist.
Naturally, everybody has come to dislike tolls, and to wish for the day when they are but a memory, a nightmare of the past, with not a trade of current actuality. That day has not yet arrived; but come it must. When the people want something they get it and people are coming to want free roads and want them badly. The decided character of their wish in this regard, found expression in the form of a petition signed by thousands of Garden Spot residents at the County Fair last fall, which document was presented to the Commissioners and the Highway Department, with the favorable result alluded to.
It cannot help being a matter of joy to the host of local auto owners to know that this very week my mean a partial realization, and that more than fifty miles of highway, at present toll bound, may this spring become free.
A cursory glance at the situation furnishes an adequate idea of what a great thing the freeing of the toll roads of Lancaster county will mean to the community. At the present moment it is a rather difficult feat to get into or to get out of the county seat without paying toll. There are great turnpikes radiating from the city as a common centre, like the spokes from the hub of a a wheel. These lead to Columbia, Marietta, Elizabethtown, Manheim, Lititz, New Holland, Philadelphia, Ephrata Strasburg, Willow street and Millersville.
As soon as the distance from town becomes ten miles or more the toll that must be paid for team or auto travel becomes a considerable item. Consequently, a means of avoiding it is sought. As a result it has long been a sore point with Lancaster merchants that they have seen the people of the border sections of the county do their shopping and general buying to a large extent in towns like Harrisburg, Reading, Honey Brook, Chester, or even Philadelphia. All this means so much business lost to Lancaster for the simple reason that toll roads impose a tax upon vehicles in the form of toll that quickly mounts toward the dollar.
Lancaster is not the only town that illustrates how universal these toll roads are in this locality. Columbia and Manheim are cases in point where it actually takes geometrical calculating as to how one might get either into or out of either borough and still avoid paying the toll. This means that there are shorter turnpikes connecting the longer turnpikes mentioned and toll gates adorn the short pikes in like fashion, as they dominate the long ones.
An interesting and encouraging feature of the local situation is found in the fact that most of the dozen local turnpike companies are quite willing to sell their holdings, so that little trouble through purchase is anticipated.
Quick in their response to the opportunity for patriotic, local and general service have been the women of Lancaster. That will, in truth, be one of the bright pages of local endeavor recalled when Times writes down the record of these war days. For several years there had been in existence in Lancaster an organized Red Cross Chapter, with Miss Alice Nevin as president. Later, there came into existence a Lancaster Chapter of the Pennsylvania Women's Division for National Preparedness, with Miss Susan Fraser as president. Both these organizations did a very excellent work. The soldiers at the Texas border were handsomely remembered with goodies to eat, comfort kits, knitted helmets and the like. Many lints and bandages were prepared for hospital use and much humanitarian work done.
Each local organization did an excellent work by itself, but finally, realizing that they had practically the same goal for their efforts, that considerable overlapping resulted from each pursuing a separate course, they united in accordance with similar action on the part of the larger divisions.
Merged into one body, they again worked steadily ahead, and much good they did and are still doing. Thousands of garments and bandages have been made at home and in the regular meetings, where a half-hundred and more come together. The membership is several hundred active sewers and garment makers. Besides the city organization, during the Christmas membership drive, village and borough garment making organizations were effected by the rural community ladies and the local work thus greatly augmented.
In the Liberty Loan, the two Red Cross, the Y.W.C.A., the War Savings and Thrift Stamp campaigns, as well as though individual kitting, sewing and the like, our ladies have kept the home fires burning and done their part in every way while the lads in khaki marched forth unto the fray. They are thus engaged today, as actively as ever. These very days they plead with the people as they come and go in the city postoffice, asking that they buy these "Baby Bonds" for the good of the lads "over there," as well as the welfare of democracy at home and the world over.
The Iris Club, of which Miss Charlotte Appel is president, has been active in various ways and forwarded and participated in every good movement and patriotic one that it could participate in. A feature of its work for a time was the first-aid and nursing instruction given the membership through physicians conducting classes gratis.
Last summer a splendid and very successful work was accomplished through the drying and canning centre, conducted in the Y.M.C.A. Building by the Lancaster Branch of the Pennsylvania Division of the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense. This winter they also accomplished a surprisingly extensive local registration of women for war work. And now they are getting ready to co-operate, hand in glove, with the men in the next Liberty Loan drive, in which Lancaster county's apportionment will be somewhere between $5,000,000 and $10,000,000.
The Lancaster chairman of this Woman's Committee, Council of National Defense, is Mrs. John A. Nauman, with the following heads of departments; Mrs. Albert M. Herr, registration; Mrs. James H. Spotts, food production; Mrs. Nauman, food economics and thrift; Mrs. John F. Long, women in industry; Miss Cora Robinson, child welfare; Miss Helen Doty, maintenance of existing social agencies; Mrs. Theodore F. Herman, education; Mrs. Hugh M. North, Jr., Liberty Loan; Miss Elizabeth Steinman, foreign relief; Miss Mary S. Kepler, safe-guarding of moral and spiritual forces.
The ladies will launch this liberty loan drive next Saturday. While their general leader for the drive is Mrs. North, the city leader is Mrs. Charles F. Stauffer. Her staff is as follows: Mrs. H. H. Apple, Miss Elizabeth Lantz, Mrs. W. S. Doebler, Mrs. Charles B. Long, Mrs. Morris Rosenthal, Mrs. Milton Levy, Mrs. W. R. Brinkman, Mrs. S. W. Miller, Mrs. Charles G. Baker, Mrs. Bernard J. Myers, Mrs. John F. Long and Miss Helen Holahan, Mrs. A. V. Heister has charge of the speakers' bureau.

Philadelphia Inquirer
July 12, 1918
Dead Fish in Susquehanna
Special to The Inquirer
Lancaster, Pa. July 11 - Thousands of dead fish are still being strewn along the banks of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of Safe Harbor, York Furnace, Pequea and other points along its lower course. Federal authorities have made an investigation and concluded that the fish were poisoned by drugs and poisonous chemicals that were thrown into the river in a freight wreck that occurred near Sunbury.

Philadelphia Inquirer
August 29, 1918
Lancaster Locals
Lancaster and Baltimore will benefit from the Federal appropriation of $200,000,000 to be devoted to the improvement of water power plants. The sum set aside for this district is nearly $4,000.000, which will be expended for the enlargement of the great hydro-electric plant at Holtwood, this county, which is second in size only to the Niagara plant as the largest artificial water power generator east of the Mississippi.