Presbyterianism on the Centenary Occasion

Presbyterianism on the Centenary Occasion

Perth Courier, October 19, 1917

Accompanied by photos of:

Rev. Dr. Bain

Rev. A. H. Scott

Old St. Andrew’s Church

Duncan Kippen

What the moderator of the Presbytery of Lanark and Renfrew who presided at the meeting termed a “unique event in the history of Presbyterianism in this locality” was observed in Knox Church on Wednesday evening of last week as one of the services of observance that are marking the centenary period.

The choir of Knox Church led the praise, which consisted of “Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow” at the beginning and “O God of Bethlehem By Whose Hand the People Still Are Fed” at the conclusion of the special service.  Two solos by Mrs. Kirkland and Miss Armour were appropriately rendered in addition to the praise in which the assembly joined.

There were four features belonging to the proceedings of the evening.  The moderator’s greeting came first.  Rev. J.C. MacLeod of St. Andrew’s Church, Lanark, at present the moderator of the Lanark and Renfrew Presbytery.  On learning that the Presbyterians of Perth were commemorating the establishment of Presbyterianism here over 100 years ago, the Presbytery deputed its moderator to greet the people of Perth who are especially interested when an opportunity presents itself.  The opportunity was furnished on this week evening of the Centenary Celebration.

The St. Andrew’s contributions came next.  They were offered in triple form.  Samuel Wilson, representative elder of St. Andrew’s Church and the senior elder in the Presbytery gave a record of the first 50 years of the religious century in Perth .  He went back to the period of the Napoleonic Wars for the reason why the people of Great Britain and elsewhere were then turning their attention to the western world.  He gave details of the 13 weeks in which the early settlers of Perth were on the sea and told of the landing and the fresh experiences in the new world and traced the record to 1867.

Judge Scott took up the record for the next 50 years and gave details of the ups and downs of experiences among Presbyterian workers until the present time.  Donald Fraser, Esq., of Victoria , B.C., one of the numerous contributors of St. Andrew’s, sent in a paper which Rev. A. H. Scott read to the meeting which will follow a readable portion when the records of the Centenary are published in booklet form.

Then came the contributions to the occasion from Knox Church .  Duncan Kippen, Sr., member, read a paper containing many facts and figures. 

Presentations from the surrounding Presbyterian organizations constituted the fourth feature of historic review.  J.G. Greig read a paper which had been prepared by Miss Margaret McGregor on the inception and growth of the Presbyterian cause at Balderson and Drummond.  Rev. Alexander Rintoul performed a similar part that bore upon the work conducted at Port Elmsley and Rideau Ferry.  To the Venerable Rev. H. J. McDiarmid was assigned the service of sending forth how Calvin, Bathurst, came into being and how in connection with S. Sherbrooke this field continues to contribute its quarter to religious influence in the Perth district.  The Presbyterians of Perth have multiplied like bees, they have given new colonies, they have swarmed.  There has been justification for the settlement of newcomers to Perth 100 years ago and from the days of Rev. William Bell until the present Presbyterianism has been an important factor in furnishing the equipment which tends to the well being of a nation.

The moderator was thanked for his conduct in the chair as well as his salutation from court of which he is a presiding official.  Rev. A. H. Scott thanked the people for their spontaneous and hearty part on the reception of his son on his arrival in Perth from the front which reception was the cause of a postponement of the meeting for a week.  Rev. Mr. McLeod had a few parting words and the meeting was concluded with the benediction.

Following is the record of the last fifty years of St. Andrew’s congregation from 1867 to 1917 presented by Judge Scott:

The last half of the 100 years of Presbyterianism in the Perth settlement saw few eventful incidents to accentuate the years as they passed along.  Pastors came and went and changed now and then as circumstances demanded; difficulties arose in church affairs and were settled more or less satisfactorily; but the congregation of St. Andrew’s went on in the old way or became buoyant as new conditions arose; always remaining true to its old traditions and usefulness; and so it continues today.  The Jubilee year 1867 came and passed away without demonstrations or anniversary services of any kind, perhaps even without notice—though the half century occasion was one which might well have brought out special observances of some kind.  But though no record in print or within the recollection of the patriarchs of the congregation that any recognition of the 50th anniversary of the beginning of Presbyterianism in Perth was even thought of.  By this time the pioneers of our church had mostly passed away; new generations had succeeded to the heritage and what were the young folk 50 years before were now the old folk.  Each succeeding year following the birth of Presbyterianism in Perth saw the (unreadable word) in the old burying ground nearby grow more numerous and the old fashioned headstones and the forgotten graves that gave pathetic interest to this historic plot tell the tale of the change that came as the inevitable law of nature asserted itself among those who had been identified with the congregation.

In the year 1867 Rev. William Bain was still pastor of he congregation of the branch church at Balderson and he continued faithfully to do his work until his retirement in 1881 when he left Perth to reside and end his days at Kingston.  In the meantime in recognition of his long connection with Presbyterianism and of the liberality of his congregation assisting the endowment of Queen’s University at Kingston the faculty conferred upon him the honorable degree of Doctor of Divinity—an honor which he bore with characteristic modesty and dignity.  His blameless life and conscientious work among his congregation during his pastorate of 33 years endeared him to the people among whom he labored and who so long before had called him to be their leader and guide in spiritual matters.  His resignation was not accepted without feeling of special regret among many in the congregation as was manifested by the farewell testimonial presented to him when the severance came.

On Sunday, 25th (?) August an event occurred which must have brought feelings of sorrow to many who had not yet forgotten the religious ties of a bygone generation connected with the first Presbyterian organization in this town.  This was the destruction by fire of the old “Bell Church” located on the corner of Drummond and Halton Streets and which for a decade or so had stood vacant.  The fire was no doubt the work of an incendiary.

As a passing incident it is worthy of mention that the old burying grounds in use by the Presbyterians since 1817 and deeded by the Crown to the Presbyterian denomination was practically put out of business in 1872 when the new cemetery known as Elmwood intended for the use of all Protestant denominations was opened and from that year interments within the limits of the corporation of Perth were exceedingly rare.  To the credit of our congregation and especially of certain ladies within it this old and revered resting place of the dead, rich in historical and personal associations going back from the present a full 100 years has been properly cared for unlike so many disused burial places is without the appearance of neglect or disorder.

Meanwhile, the old St. Andrew’s Church building stood pretty much as it did when the builders left it in 1822.  The closed pews each with a door at its entrance, with high pulpit with its little winding stairway, the long ranges of stove pipes, and the oil chandeliers did their duty year after year until it was felt that all of these were out of date and unworthy of a congregation so well to do as St. Andrew’s.  Some attempt at improvement in the interior equipment had been done but it was decided to remodel within the then existing edifice.  William Newlands a Kingston architect was called in and in touch with the managers, prepared plans for the reorganization of the structure, which were accepted and the church building deservedly noted for its interior beauty and convenience was the outcome.  The pastor was Rev. A. H. Scott, M.A. and the contractor was William Robb.

In the fall of 1898 the remodeled and renovated church was opened and dedicated, the cornerstone having been previously laid with suitable ceremonies the spring previous.  Local and leading Dominion newspapers, silver and copper coins of the Realm, and its official record of the event along with other congregational information were placed in the receptacle left in the block of marble, then truly laid as the foundation stone and these ought to be found intact should a future generation have occasion to raze or dismantle the building we worship in today.

The time honored custom in Presbyterian services of dependence upon a presenter for leading the singing without instrumental music was followed in St. Andrew’s Church beyond the first fifty year period and we cannot tell when a change was made but it seems to have been about the year 1875, when an ordinary pedal cabinet organ was placed in the church and a choir formed to assist in the services of praise. Professor Jacobs who was the teacher of the local brass band at the time was leader and instructor of the choir.

A year or more after the induction of Rev. Malcolm McGillivray as pastor, an effort was inaugurated to substitute a pipe organ for the smaller one and this movement was so successful that what was considered a fine pipe organ for that time was built by Lyle Brothers of Toronto and installed in the gallery in April of 1884.  The cost was $1,200 but it is the aim of the congregation to replace it as soon as possible by one of greater range and built upon more modern lines.

The two Presbyterian bodies in Christ had for some time considered it not only wise but essential to unite and after the usual denominations and parliamentary legislation but not without internal opposition, the union so commendable in its aim and so happy in its results was affected in the year 1875(?).

After the resignation of Rev. Dr. Bain, the congregation in due course was ready to give a call it a successor and their choice fell upon Rev. Malcolm MacGillivray, M.A., pastor of Scarboro congregation who accepted the invitation so given on the 4th October, 1881.  He was introduced into the pastorate of St. Andrew’s Church with the ceremonial service proscribed by the Presbyterian fathers.  The Rev. gentleman was born on the Island of Jure(?), off the west coast of Scotland and was a speaker of the Gaelic(?) as well as the English language.  The family emigrated to North Carolina, settling on farmland near Collingwood.  Rev. Mr. MacGillivray remained in charge of St. Andrew’s congregation until 1887 when he received a call to Chalmer’s Church in Kingston which he accepted and he left Perth for his fresh field of religious work amidst the great regret of his congregation.  His farewell sermon was preached in St. Andrew’s on the 31st July, 1887.  He has been the faithful pastor of that church since that time and we learn that he has now resigned his charge and ceased active ministerial work after 40 years of labor in his Master’s vineyard.

Various candidates for the vacant charge filled St. Andrew’s pulpit for six months or more when the choice of the congregation fell upon the Rev. Alexander Hugh Scott, M.A., minister of Knox Church, Owen Sound and an official call was given him on the 27th Feb., 1888.  This was accepted and the local Presbytery concurred of him and he was formally inducted as pastor of St. Andrew’s Church, Perth, on the 17th April of the same year.  25 years afterwards the congregation recognized his special merits as a pastor and his devoted work among them for a quarter of a century.  Through representatives of the managing board, the session members and adherents generally presented Rev. Mr. Scott with an address expressing their appreciation of his labors and their esteem for his qualities as both pastor and citizen.  The address was accompanied by a tangible evidence of their feelings in the shape of a substantial purse of gold.  In this presentation, Mrs. Scott, the esteemed wife of the pastor, was deservingly remembered as she has ever been an ideal helpmate to her husband in the work of his high calling.  For the occupants of St. Andrew’s manse just now there is a special feeling of sympathy and appreciation owing to the splendid contribution it has made to the service of the Empire in its great struggle to maintain liberty against autocratic and determined enemies.

The Glebe lands on the Scotch Line belonging to the congregation as a remnant of the royal grant to the Presbyterian and Anglican denominations and known at the time as the “Clergy Reserves” was sold in the year 1883 to the present occupants Mr. and Mrs. John McMaster and aided by the proceeds of this sale the congregation purchased a lot and erected the handsome manse on it on the corner of Victoria and Boulton Streets.

The early years of the congregation brought with them trying times to the people who struggling against the hardships that were inseparable from pioneer life and the inevitable poverty that accompanied the efforts of the first settlers to provide a home and food and raiment for themselves and their families.  But with all these drawbacks they joined together to worship God as their fathers did before them and to plant the faith of their homeland securely in the ground that in the providence of God came to be theirs.  We owe much to the stalwart men and saintly women who braved all these difficulties and overcame them who, amidst all the trials of primitive days in a wilderness without knowledge or experience in the work of coping with the new conditions never gave up the contest but slowly brought order out of chaos and left a heritage to posterity which is being enjoyed by this generation. To these men and women of our faith we are indebted for the establishment and instant growth of Presbyterianism in Perth.

These notes should not neglect to emphasize the work of he pioneer pastor of these primitive days, the Rev. William Bell.  His life both as a pastor and teacher and settler must have been a laborious one and one filled of toil and discouragement.  Persistent and faithful he must have been and industrious as well.  His duties seemed to have been partly magisterial and judicial as well as clerical and the diary and letters he wrote of life in the settlement sound strongly interesting when viewed from the standpoint of today.  Let honor, therefore, be divided equally between him and the members of his congregation when in this centennial year we have met to celebrate an occasion so important as the 100th year of the anniversary of the birth of Presbyterianism in the town of Perth.

Besides the ordinary work organizing of the congregation, namely the session and managing board, a number of auxiliary or associate aids have been formed from time to time, all of which have shown their efficiency in their various departments and which a Christian congregation could not do without.  These are the Sabbath Schools, the Senior and Junior Mission Bands, the choir, and the Congregational Society.

It has been the custom for some years back for St. Andrew’s Church to celebrate the birthday of Scotland’s patron saint, St. Andrew, by a social entertainment in the town hall in which the public generally are invited to share by their presence on the evening in question namely the 30th November.  This event has been the occasion of a great deal of social intercourse on the part of all classes and creeds in the town and the country and in that respect has been a marked benefit in bringing these various elements of the community in touch with each other once a year and in promoting harmony among them and social contact.

The old cemetery has a silent history of the congregation different from any other that could be recorded and a walk through its quiet paths and by ways is of pathetic interest not only to the friends of those who lie buried there but also to the antiquarian and the seeker after the knowledge that may be had from the quaint records of the names and epitaphs to be found in any of the old fashioned burying grounds.

Thus the years and events that occurred in the life of the congregation came and ran and went and at last the evolution of time brought the 100th anniversary of the birth of Presbyterianism in Perth and this is what we are here today to celebrate.  During this long period the people had much to thank the Giver of all good for both in the days of pioneer vicissitudes and in the brighter days.

(The foregoing was prepared by Misses W. P. McEwen and J. M. Walker.)


Following is the historical sketch of Knox Church from 1845 to 1917 as presented by Duncan Kippen.

It has been a difficult matter to write a history of Knox Church as the first minute book from 1845 to 1901 is missing and we had to fall back on an historical sketch read at a jubilee service held on the 13th September, 1895.  The minutes were of the most meager description only the more important matters were recorded.  There was nothing to show what led up to the formation of the congregation or who the leaders were in the movement.  All the details that would make a complete history of the congregation possible or interesting are not on record.

In the old land, more than one branch of the Presbyterian Church, but in this Christ of ours there is only one, united, strong and determined from the Atlantic to the Pacific.  Here schools and colleges are scattered from Halifax to Vancouver.  We have only to take up the minutes of the assembly to find out the great work our church is doing and to learn something of the noble men who are leaders in our church.  Knox congregation began its existence on the 12th Feb., 1845.  On the evening of that day the people met in the stone school house on D’Arcy Street.  The Rev. Mr. Boyd of Prescott preached and formally organized the congregation after which George Miller was called to the chair.  James Thompson was appointed secretary and James Templeton Treasurer.  The congregation proceeded to the election of elders and Ralph Smith, Thomas Nichol and Ralph Davidson were elected by the unanimous vote of the people on the 26th Feb.  Mr. Hamilton preached and continued to do so for several Sabbaths but declined a call in May of 1845.  The lot on which the church is built was bought from the Calvinistic organization for sixty pounds.  The first church was a plain frame building with a seating capacity of 400.  For a time before the church was built the congregation met upstairs in the Ferrier building on Gore Street then owned by Charles Miller.

On December 27, 1845 a call was presented to Rev. Andrew Melville with a salary of $600.  On the 26th Feb., Mr. Miller was ordained.  He was a warm hearted, generous man and an eloquent preacher.  There was present on that occasion Messrs. G - - gie(?) Johnston of Ramsay and Wordrope of Bytown.  For the first time we have the following names recorded:  James Young, William Brown, William McLeod, Matthew Bell and Francis Hall as trustees and John and William Adams as presenters.  In October of 1846 Mr. Melville received a call from Clarendon and Bristol and accepted it and after a short pastorate of 8 months ceased to be the pastor of the congregation.

In 1848 the names James Allan, Thomas McLaren, John Allan, Adam McKinley, Ralph Dodds, John McIntyre, William Davidson and James Riddell appear as trustees.  At this time Peter Gray then a student at Queen’s College occupied the pulpit on many occasions. The congregation was much attached to Mr. Gray; he was an earnest and able preacher.  The Rev. John Scott of London was another great favorite.

In 1847 the Rev. Dr. Burns visited the congregation and on his suggestion James B. Duncan was invited to preach until licensed.  Mr. Duncan was ordained by the Presbytery on the 13th (?) Aug., 1848.  Mr. Duncan’s ministry for some years was a very successful one in – the first church had to give way to the one now accepted by the congregation with a seating capacity of 650 – at times it was crowded every Sunday.  During Mr. Duncan’s ministry we had many of the prominent preachers of the day occupying the pulpit such as Donald Fraser, Dr. Ormiston, J.K. Smith, Dr. Wardrope and others.  We also had Mr. Aitkin of Smith’s Falls who was a general favorite with the people.  His genial manner and scholarly sermons always drew a crowded church.

Mr. Duncan was an able preacher and during his ministry the congregation received an education that made them (as Mr. Burns said) a severely critical people.  It was during Mr. Duncan’s ministry that the present church was built at a cost of $5,000.  The subscription list shows that many friends outside of Perth and many friends outside of the congregation in Perth contributed.  Of the 141 subscribers 35 of them gave $2,000.  We have such names as the Hon. James Shaw, Hon. Malcolm Cameron, Edward Malloch of Bytown, Alex Fraser and some from Montreal, Kingston and Toronto.  On the 5th Feb., 1865 Mr. Duncan handed in his resignation and early in 1866 it was accepted to the regret of many in the congregation and they lost a pastor who had given them 17 years of his life.  During these 17 years many new names appeared in the minutes.  John Scott, Alexander Cuthbertson, Alexander Kippen, James Holliday, Duncan McLaren, James Fraser, Walter Hunter, Dr. McDonald, Peter Klipstrock, Thomas Ewart, James Todd, Robert Cumming, Robert Allan, James McMillan, William Shaw, W. M. Shaw, John Armour, Charles Rice, John Lister, W. J. McLean, John Riddell, William Elliott, William Robertson, Charles Miller, J. M. G.(?) Cromwell, Robert Richmond, J.L. Walker, William Scott, William Wadden, and Matthew Bell, Jr.

In December of 1866 Walter M. Rogers was settled as pastor.  In 1866 the congregation had some dispute with Mr. Rogers about the salary and the Presbytery relieved Mr. Rogers of his charge after a pastorate of 18 months.  In April, 1869 the Rev. William Burns was the choice of the congregation at a salary of $900.  In 1869 the lot on which the manse is built was bought for $800 and in 1870 the manse was built at a cost of $3,200.  In 1871 at a meeting of elders and trustees Mr. Burns was instructed to wait on Rev. Mr. Caldwell of the Baptist Church and Rev. Dr. Bain of St. Andrew’s for the purpose of bringing the matter of ground for a burial place before the several congregations.

At a later meeting Mr. Burns reported that he had called on the parties mentioned and that committees were appointed and Messrs. James Allan, Peter Kilpatrick and Roderick Matheson were appointed on behalf of this congregation and to Mr. Burns is due the credit for taking the first step in this matter and as a result we have that beautiful last resting place of the dead Elmwood Cemetery.

For some years Mr. Crombie of Smith’s Falls was a frequent visitor and his duties as Presbytery clerk brought him into closer relation with the congregation than any other minister of the Presbytery.  In the early days of the congregation the musical part of the service was of a high standard, but as the years passed, there was a thinning out of the trained voices that John and William Adams had brought to such perfection.  In 1876 they were obliged to go outside of the congregation for a presenter.  At that time there was an agitation got up for the use of an organ in the service.  This created a serious disturbance in the congregation and the result was that a large number left and went to other churches.  In 1880 Mr. Burns resigned and the congregation was reduced to about the original number.  During Mr. Burns ministry the following names appear in the minutes:  Isaac Allan, John McCallum, Henry Taylor, Alexander Dodds, F. B. Allan, Alexander Reid, Adam Young, J.J. Campbell, Thomas McKinley, John Fraser, and Robert Smith.  During the vacancy Mr. Sym occupied the pulpit on several occasions.

A meeting on the 9th June, 1881 at which Principal Grant and Rev. Jas. Stewart of Balderson were present, it was decided to give a call to Rev. James Ross with a stipend of $800.  The call was accepted by Mr. Ross and he was ordained as pastor.  The congregation started out on a career of prosperity and in a few years was once more the largest congregation in the Presbytery.  At the end of the first year the Treasurer reported a balance on hand of $311.  In 1883 the church was lighted with gas at a cost of $500. The stipend was increased to $1,000 in 1886, to $1,200 in 1889, and to $1,300 in 1892.  In 1889 the church on which little improvement had been made since its erection in 1854 was remodeled and put in the state we see it today at a cost of $7,800 with an addition to the lecture room at a cost of $1,100.  During Mr. Ross’ pastorate he had been brought into very close touch with the people as a loving friend as well as a sympathetic pastor in their hours of loss and trouble.  Or as an earnest disciple of the Master, in making plain the path of life.

Although there was always an undercurrent of dread in the minds of many that some day Mr. Ross would be called to a higher field of usefulness, what the action of the General Assembly in 18?? In appointing him to a professorial chair in Montreal came as a great shock to the congregation.  While fully recognizing the wisdom of the appointment, yet deeply regretted that the tie which had existed for 11 years between pastor and people had to be severed.

During the ministries of Messrs. Burns and Ross, new congregations had been formed at Balderson, Drummond, Oliver’s Ferry and Calvin Church Bathurst, all drawing to some extent their members from this congregation.

In a meeting in June of 1893 it was decided to give a call to Rev. Duncan Currie of Glencoe with a salary of $1,100.  That call was accepted and Mr. Currie was inducted missionary on this occasion Dr. Patton, the celebrated missionary to the New Hebrides was present.  He came to Perth to take part in the services although Mr. Patton was an old man and had been in the mission field many yeas, strange to say, that induction ceremony was not only the first he ever took part in but the first he ever witnessed.  After Mr. Currie’s induction the congregation went on its usual course as if there had been no change of pastorate or vacancy.  During Mr. Currie’s pastorate many old men passed away.  Ralph Smith the last of the original elders and many of the later ones closed their day of pilgrimage here.  They were earnest, faithful servants in the Master’s vineyard.  In August of 1893 when Mr. Currie was inducted the following were members of the session:

Ralph Dodds

John H. Fraser

M. R. Dodds

John Riddell

James Fraser

George Miller

J. M. D. Cromwell

John Menzies

J.A. Allan

Messrs Miller, Fraser and Allan are all that are left of that session and they are not in connection with the congregation any longer.

On the same day the following were on the Board of Trustees

Abraham Ferrier

Nicholas Andison

Robert Davidson

Jas. Abercrombie

Francis Arthur

Duncan McDonald

Alexander Reid

John Hendry

W.A. Scott

William Menzies

David Brownlee

John Armour

Neil McCallum

W. T. Walker, Secretary

Jas. Allan, Treasurer

There are only six left of this Board of Trustees.

In 1895 William Hossie, George E. Armstrong, J. A. Edmiston and J. D. Moodie were elected to the session.  Mr. Hossie is now the only one left of the session of 1895.  Messrs Armstrong and Edmiston left this district and Mr. Moodie is now not connected with this congregation.

In 1911 the church was put into the hands of decorators who made a complete job of the lighting and painting of the church at a cost of $3,000.  Dr. Currie’s ministry was a very successful one.  He was an earnest, able preacher and every department of church work was put in splendid order.

On the evening of the 28th Feb., 1914, a meeting was held in the church to say goodbye to Dr. Currie who had accepted a call to Beaverton.  At that meeting Dr. Currie was presented with a gown by the ladies and a purse of gold by the congregation and thus closed a pastorate of 28 years to the great regret of the congregation and many citizens of the town.

On the evening of 11th November, 1914 a meeting of the congregation was held presided over by Rev. H. J. McDiarmid, moderator, for the purpose of giving a call to a minister.  The result was that Rev. W. M. Grant of Ayre was the unanimous choice of the congregation.  Mr. Grant accepted the call and was inducted on the 18th December, 1914.

Every department of church work continues to be successful.  The present members of the session are:

William Hossie

J. Ferrier

James McGregor

Norman Miller, Clerk

Robert Armour

Abraham Moodie

Robert Reid

R.A. Brown

Robert Davidson

Colin McNichol

The Board of Managers are:

D. Kippen

D. McLaren

Abraham Ferrier

Richard Rudsdale

A.B. McLean

James Ferrier

Neil McCallum

Alexander Armour

J.E. Rice

W. W.. Walker

J.A. Weir

Dr. E. H. Wilson

R. M. Anderson

H. E. Robinson

F. A Girdwood, Chairman

Norman Miller, Secretary

Robert Armour, Treasurer

The number of members on the roll on the 1st January, 1917 was 395.

In 1913 it was with much pain and great sorrow that the congregation heard of the lamented and tragic death of their late beloved pastor Dr. James Ross.  They were represented at the public funeral by Rev. W. J. Knox, late of Pembroke who spoke a few words on behalf of the congregation.  The session also ordered a wreath to be placed on the coffin in loving remembrance of Dr. Ross.  In October of 1914 the terrible war now going on broke out.  A war unprecedented in the world’s history for its cruelty and for all that is evil in the human heart.  When the call came for help 38 young men that had connections with the congregation in some way enlisted and four young ladies went overseas as nurses.  Of these 38, 6 have died, one is a prisoner of war in Germany and one is wounded.  Our sincere sympathy goes out to those anxious hearts and to those who mourn in bereaved homes where a mother moans through her blinding tears “my boy is dead, my boy is dead”.