Memoirs of the Miami Valley, pp 550-599
of the
Miami Valley

pages 550-599

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Page 550
(Joseph Niemeyer)

Charles J. Nilles has demonstrated the possibilities for achieving definite success in light farming and market gardening in Butler county, where he is the owner of a fine little place of nineteen acres, at Symmes Corner, Fairfield township. In connection with his vegetable gardens, Mr. Nilles has installed an effective overhead sprinkling system, which insures the best of products, regardless of rainfall. Mr. Nilles was born and reared in Butler county, where he attended the public schools, besides which he was afforded the advantages of Catholic parochial schools in the city of Cincinnati. He was born in Fairfield township, April 18, 1871, and is a son of John and Catherine (Van Stein) Nilles, who were born in Germany, and came to the United States and were married in Butler county, Ohio. In this county John Nilles achieved not a little success as a representative of farm enterprise, in which connection his operations were carried on in turn in Fairfield, Union and Hanover townships. Of his children the eldest is John; Mary is the wife of Andrew Kammerer; Maggie is the wife of Henry Gephart; Katie is the wife of John Vizedom; Emma is the wife of George Ittel; Elizabeth

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is the wife of Henry Klick; and Charles J. is the immediate subject of this sketch. After leaving school Charles J. Nilles continued to be associated with his father in farm operations in Butler county, but within a short time after his marriage, which occurred in 1906, he purchased and established his residence on his present attractive little farm, upon which he has made many improvements that have conserved his success as a market gardener, his high-grade products finding a ready demand. He is loyal to all civic duties and responsibilities, is a Democrat in politics, and during the nation's participation in the World war he gave with consistent liberality to the support of the government war activities. He and his wife are communicants of St. Ann Catholic church at Hamilton. The year 1906 bore record of the marriage of Mr. Nilles to Rosa Weiler, who likewise was born and reared in Butler county and who is a daughter of John Weiler, the names of whose other children are: John, jr., George, Laura, Elizabeth, Helen, Anna and Virginia. The attractive home circle of Mr. and Mrs. Nilles includes their three children, Carl, Paul and Robert.

John Nixon, one of the old and highly respected members of the retired colony at Hamilton, was for a long period of years extensively engaged in agricultural operations in Hanover township, where his industry, good management and well-chosen methods of procedure combined to elevate him to a position among the substantial men of his locality. Mr. Nixon was born on the old Nixon homestead in Hanover township, May 9, 1837, a son of William and Margaret (Dodds) Nixon, the former a native of Ireland and the latter of Pennsylvania. William Nixon was two years of age when he was brought by his parents to the United States, his father, also named William Nixon, settling first at Cincinnati and in 1808 removing to Butler county. Here he secured wild land on section 4, Hanover township, where he cleared a small tract, erected a log cabin home, and settled down to the pursuits of farming, in which he and his wife continued to be engaged during the remainder of their lives. They were well known and highly respected people of their time and locality, and the parents of five children: Robert, Andrew, James, William and a daughter. William Nixon the younger was educated in the common schools, and was reared much the same as other pioneer boys, being carefully trained in the arts of agriculture, to which he applied himself throughout his life. He always maintained the family reputation for integrity and honorable dealing, and was an influential Democrat of his community, although not an office seeker, and he and Mrs. Nixon were consistent members of the Presbyterian church, in the faith of which he died in 1861 and his widow in 1880. Their children were: Jane, deceased, who died as the widow of the late Thomas Huston; Margaret, deceased, who was the wife of the late Samuel Taylor; Annie, who died single; Elizabeth, deceased, who married the late John Pocock; Martha Louise, of Hanover township, who is the widow of William Weaver; James, who never married but passed his life on the old homestead; and John, of this notice. John Nixon attended the public schools of his native locality as a youth and was reared on

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the home place, where he assisted his father until he reached the age of twenty-five years. He was married in 1861 to Margaret A Doner, of Hanover township, a daughter of David and Jane (Alexander) Doner, early settlers of that township, where David Doner was a well known farmer with a property near McGinogle. Following his marriage, Mr. Nixon built the house in which he now lives and in which he has always made his home, and settled down to the pursuits of farming, in which he has found contentment and success. The result of his industry and good management is apparent in the ownership of two fine farms, one of 158 acres and the other of 156 acres, and in addition to farming was for a time engaged as a stock dealer, but for several years has lived in retirement, having passed over active labor to younger hands when he had accumulated a satisfying competency. His career has been one in which he has established and maintained an excellent reputation for business integrity, personal probity and ideals of the highest order as to citizenship, and his friends and those who highly respect and esteem him are numerous in his community. He has not been active in public affairs as a seeker for office; but has staunchly supported all good movements. Mrs. Nixon died in January, 1910, one of the highly honored ladies of her locality, where she had numerous acquaintances and friends. There were two children in the family: Charles D. and Jennie. Charles D., born October 29, 1867, is one of the progressive and energetic farmers of Hanover township, where he operates his father's property. He married Esther Muller of Middletown, Ohio, a daughter of Peter and Mary Muller, the former a native of France and the latter of Germany. They have one child, Grace Nixon. Peter Muller, who was the owner of a farm in Milford township, Butler county, died in 1918. Jennie Nixon, the daughter of John Nixon, married John Blout, of Hanover township, and at the time of her death in 1918, at the age of forty-nine years, left two children, Nellie and Maynard.

George Albert Offenhauer. Sixteen years of steady, competent and faithful service have given George Albert Offenhauer the right to be a trusted and valued employe of the Middletown plant of the American Rolling Mill company. In this length of time, he has passed through a number of positions, each an advancement over the other, and is today known as one of the best rollers in the plant. He is a native of Mercer county, Ohio, and a son of Albert and Catherine (Schmidt) Offenhauer, both of whom are deceased. There were five other sons in the family: Charles, Robert, Roy, Maurice and Benjamin. The Offenhauer family can trace its ancestry back to the .sixteenth century, and many members have been prominent in civil and military life, the most recent in the latter connection being Mr. Offenhauer's brother, Robert, who rose to the rank of major in the United States Army during the great World war. After attending the public schools of his native county, George Albert Offenhauer was variously employed until he became identified with the rolling mill industry, and about sixteen years ago he came to Middletown, to accept a position with the American Rolling Mill company, and from time to time has received promotions

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until he now occupies the post of roller. A thoroughly experienced man, and a rapid and tireless worker, he is one of the men privileged to wear the pin emblematic of fifteen years or more of faithful service to the company, which decoration is known as the "fifteen-year pin." As a voter he maintains an independent stand, refusing to be bound by party lines, but his citizenship is of a constructive character. Mr. Offenhauer, with faith in the future of Middletown, has invested a part of his earnings in real estate here, and at present is the owner of several valuable residences. Recently he has moved with his family from the former home on Yankee Road, to the more comfortable and commodious house at the corner of Sutphin and George streets. April 6, 1902, at Muncie, Ind., Mr. Offenhauer was united in marriage with Grace L., daughter of Martin and LaVerne (Steed) Williams, who are still residents of Muncie. There are five children in the Williams family: Bertha, the wife of William Williams, of St. Louis, Mo.; Grace Lee, the wife of George A. Offenhauer, of Middletown; Ethel, of Coving.ton, Ky.; Clayton, of Muncie, Ind.; and Cleo, the wife of Benjamin Offenhauer, of Middletown. Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Offenhauer: Veda Eloise, born March 5, 1903; Earl Vaughn, who died December 29, 1905; William, who died November 2, 1910; Glenn Albert, born May 23, 1912; and Donald, who died December 27, 1915. Mrs. Offenhauer is a woman of superior attainments and graces. The daughter, Veda Eloise, is a student at the Middletown High school, and is developing marked musical talent as a pianist under the instruction of a Cincinnati professor.

Oglesby & Barnitz Company, Bankers. At an early day in the business history of Middletown, there was founded a modest general store by two young and energetic aspirants for business success, William B. Oglesby and George C. Barnitz. The chief capital of these young men consisted of their faith in their own ability, their confidence in the coming growth and development of their city, and their inherent business ability, which was backed by determination and practical policies. At the outset, their chief ambition was to build up a prosperous general merchandise business, and doubtless they would have succeeded in this aim had their energies not been diverted into other channels. As merchants they gradually insinuated themselves into the confidence of their customers, who came to rely upon them without question in regard to monetary affairs, and gradually they became the repository of the small savings of a number of those who patronized them. This side line soon grew and developed to such proportions that as a matter of protection to themselves as much as a convenience to the people of the community, they decided to enter banking, and in 1847 the partners opened the first bank of deposit and exchange in that vicinity under the guidance and direction of these two honorable, astute and practical business men the affalrs of the institution flourished and prospered, and in the summer of 1889 it was reorganized under the corporate name of The Oglesby &Barnitz Company, Bankers. At that time there was erected on the old

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site the building in which the bank is housed today. William B. Oglesby continued to be president of the bank until his death, in 1885, and George C. Barnitz retained his connection with the institution until his death in 1895. After the death of W. B. Oglesby and G. C. Barnitz, C. B. Oglesby and William O. Barnitz, sons of these men, assumed the interest of their respective fathers, Mr. Oglesby being president and Mr. Barnitz vice-president of the bank. J. W. Shafor, a valued associate, has been cashier for the past twenty years, and Ed Sebold is assistant cashier. In March, 1918, Chas. B. Oglesby died and W. O. Barnitz was made President and William D. Oglesby, son of Chas B., was made vice president. This old and honored institution has passed through a number of crises and financial panics, and has never suspended payment of currency even for a single day. The founders were men of substantial worth during their day and their careers were indissolubly connected with the financial history of their time. Their standards were extremely high, and their sons endeavored to live up to them in the conduct of the institution. To them integrity and uprightness were more than material prosperity, and their sons proved that the one is not incompatible with the other.

Theodore Oliger, proprietor of a lucrative plumbing business at Hamilton, was born at Hamilton, October 22, 1876, a son of John and Fannie Oliger, of Greensburg, Ind., where the father was the proprietor of a cooperage business. He died when Theodore was but two years of age, but the mother still survives as a resident of Hamilton. They had two children: Charles, who is working at the plumbing trade for his brother; and Theodore. Theodore Oliger attended the public schools of Hamilton, following which he was sent by his mother to the Nichols Business college. Upon the completion of his course he worked as a machinist for one year, but this did not appeal to him and he subsequently turned his attention to the plumbing business, which he mastered under the preceptorship of J. P. Henn, a well-known plumber of Hamilton. Mr. Oliger remained in the employ of Mr. Henn for thirteen years, following which he accepted a position as traveling representative of the Sanitary Manufacturing company, a position which he filled for five years. Returning to Hamilton, in October, 1908, he embarked in business on his own account as the proprietor of a plumbing establishment, and from that time to the present has been successful in building up and carefully handling a constantly increasing trade, and his reputation as a man of his word is an excellent one among his associates. In the big flood of 1913, Mr. Oliger's establishment was damaged to the extent of $800, but he immediately rebuilt. In 1915, he erected his present handsome residence at No. 604 S. Second street, and his business is now conducted in the rear of this number. Mr. Oliger was married June 22, 1905, to Miss Rose Hesselbrock, who was born at Cincinnati, but came to Hamilton with her parents in young girlhood. One child has been born to the union of Mr. and Mrs. Oliger: Helen, who is at present attending Notre Dame academy and is also studying piano. Mr. Oliger is a popular member of the Elks and Eagles at Hamilton.

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James O'Toole, superintendent of the Hamilton City Electric Department office, was born at Oxford, Ohio, a son of Frank and Anna O'Toole, natives of Ireland who upon emigrating to the United States came directly to Oxford, where for years the father was superintendent of the Oxford cemetery, a position which he filled with efficiency and faithfulness up to the time of his demise. After the death of this sterling and honored citizen, his widow came to Hamilton, where she now makes her home with her two daughters and son at No. 6 N. Tenth street. There were five children in the family: Patrick, who is now deceased; James, of this notice; William, who is single and engaged in agricultural pursuits in Butler county; and Mrs. Mary Pfeifer and Mrs. Wallace, widows, who live with their brother and mother at Hamilton. James O'Toole received his early education in the public schools of Oxford, and when still a youth, in 1888, went to Williamsport, Pa., where he attended lectures and secured special instruction at Cornell university. During the next sixteen years he was employed by the Lycoming Electric company of Williamsport, Pa., and through industry, fidelity and a display of marked ability rose in the confidence of his company, and in position until he obtained the post of superintendent at the power station. Returning to Hamilton, he was appointed superintendent of the city electrical department, in December, 1906, and has since been reappointed to this office each succeeding term to the present time, and his long service is the best kind of evidence that he stands high in the confidence of the people of Hamilton and the surrounding communities. He is a member of St. Mary's Catholic church and of the Knights of Columbus and Elks. He is unmarried and resides with his widowed mother and sisters at the pleasant home at No. 6, N. Tenth street.

Joshua B. Owsley, M. D. During a period of more than a half century the late Dr. Joshua B. Owsley was engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery in Butler county, and few men in this locality have impressed themselves more forcibly or favorably upon their fellow-citizens. Residing in the little village of Jacksonboro, he traveled to points all over the country-side in alleviating the ills of his fellow-men and his name came to be one synonymous with generosity, sympathy and true Christianity. As professional man, friend and citizen, he established a record in his locality that will be long remembered by those who were privileged to come in contact with him. Dr. Owsley was born in Clinton county, Ohio, September 18, 1833, a son of Samuel and Lucy (Betterson) Owsley. His parents, honorable and honored agricultural people, rounded out long and useful careers in the rural districts of Clinton county, where were born their eight children: Joshua B.; Harry, who is a farmer in Illinois; John, farming in Clinton county; George, a farmer of Elkton, Ohio; Charles, an attorney of Kansas City, Mo.; Amos, a locomotive engineer of Cincinnati, Ohio; Jane, deceased; and Mrs, Joseph Baker, of Eaton, Ohio. The boyhood of Dr. Joshua B. Owsley was passed on his father's farm in Clinton county, where he received his early education in the district schools. The life of a farmer did not appeal to him, and, having shown a preference for the

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medical profession, he was allowed to study therefor, receiving his degree and diploma from the Cincinnati Medical college. After his graduation he took up the practice of his calling at Cincinnati, where he remained for seven years, and while residing in that city was married (first) to Miss Catherine Witherow, who was born at Seven Mile, Ohio, a daughter of Samuel P. Witherow. She died at Jacksonboro, leaving two sons: Samuel, who died at the age of eighteen years; and William, engaged in Government work at Dayton, who married Dr. Frances Young, a medical practitioner of Columbus, Ohio, and has five children, Frances, Dawson, Joshua, John and Frederick. In September, 1872, Doctor Owsley married (second) Mrs. Sarah (Long) Marts, widow of William Marts, who was a son of David and Mary (Snider) Marts. By her first marriage, Mrs. Owsley had one son: John David, born August 1, 1878, and educated at the home schools and the high school at Middletown. He married Nelda Happensberger, of Middletown, and is now engaged in operating his mother's farm in Madison township, Butler county. On leaving Cincinnati, Doctor Owsley settled at Jacksonboro, in the northeastern part of Butler county, where he became widely known, not only for his professional skill, which was exceptional, but for his broad sympathies and humanitarianism. A friend to all, he labored ceaselessly in his fellow-man's behalf, and no duty of his calling was too irksome, no weather was too inclement, for this old-time physician to sally forth on his errands of mercy. A well-read man, he was possessed of a wonderful memory. He was a leading Democrat and a delegate to a number of conventions, but did not seek public office, although he was alive to the current happenings of the day, and for over fifty years kept himself conversant with world events by his subscription to the Cincinnati Enquirer. At Cincinnati he joined the Masonic fraternity, and subsequently became a life member of the Knights Templar while in a professional way he belonged to the Butler County Medical society, the Ohio State Medical society and the American Medical association. He was a consistent attendant of the Presbyterian church in the faith of which he died April 30, 1912. He is survived by his widow, who lives on her valuable Madison township farm, a woman of many graces and estimable qualities who is widely known and highly esteemed among the people of Butler county.

The Pabst Family. Christian Pabst, for years one of the well-known business men of Hamilton, and long a public official, whose services in various civic positions reflected credit upon himself and his community, was born December 6, 1853, in Bavaria, Germany, and was twelve years of age when, in 1866, he accompanied his parents to the United States, the family settling at Hamilton. Here he completed his schooling, following which he began to learn the trade of printer, serving his apprenticeship with L. B. DelaCourt. For a time he was job compositor in the office of Jacob Long, of Hamilton, and eventually became known as one of the city's expert job printers, a line in which he had much success and in which he continued until 1879, when he joined his father and brothers in the manufacture and bottling of mineral waters and soft drinks, under the

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style of J. Pabst & Sons, a concern that did a large and profitable business and which bore an excellent reputation in business circles. While he was prominent in business affairs, however, it was probably for his public service that Christian Pabst was best known. From his youth he had been interested in public matters and had been a staunch supporter of the Democratic party. In March, 1892, he was nominated as clerk of the Butler County Common Pleas Court, and was elected the same year for a term of three years. In 1895 he was again nominated to succeed himself. His nomination by the democracy of the county was equivalent to election, yet his signal triumph at the polls was beyond the most sanguine expectations of either himself or his friends, as he received the largest majority ever given in Butler county. He did much to systematize the work of the office of clerk of the court and gave the people a clean and intelligent administration. Mr. Pabst was nominated and elected to the office of county auditor in November, 1900, taking office October 21, 1901, and in the election of November, 1903, was chosen as his own successor. In 1907, his party placed him in nomination as a member of the board of public service and he was elected, holding that office for two years. In 1910, Governor Judson Harmon appointed Mr. Pabst as a member of the state tax commission for a term of three years, and Governor James M. Cox reappointed him in 1914, but in 1915 he resigned the office in order that he might devote all of his time to the bottling plant of The J. Pabst Sons Co. Throughout the time that he was the incumbent of public office he was extremely popular, and his record was one upon which there was not the slightest blemish. Mr. Pabst was always a staunch supporter of the public school system and did much to elevate its standards, and generaly speaking, is a booster for the city of Hamilton. In 1882 he was chosen one of the trustees of the Lane Free library, a position in which he was retained for many years. Fraternally he was also well known, belonging to the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, The Modern Woodmen of America, and other fraternal and social societies. With his family he belonged to the German Evangelical church. April 15, 1896, Mr. Pabst married Catherine A., daughter of Peter Gerlach of Cleveland, and to this union there were born three sons: Robert P. and , twins, born November 12, 1898; and Herbert G., born March 15, 1901.

Fred Palmer. The Middletown plant of the American Rolling Mill company has furnished the medium through which a number of the well-to-do residents of this community have found the opportunity to achieve position and independence. In this class of desirable, worthy citizens, is found Fred Palmer, who officiates as heater at the plant, and who is known as a skilled and steady workman who has won promotion on the strength of his own merit. Mr. Palmer was born at Lebanon, Ohio, January 9, 1879, a son of Clayton and Margaret Ellen (Wilson) Palmer. His father, a man of sterling worth of character, was for twenty-two years an employee of the Caldwell & Iseminger Lumber company, at Middletown, and died, greatly respected, in this city, December 24, 1909. Mrs. Palmer, who survives, is a highly esteemed resident of Middletown. There

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are three children in the family: Fred; Mrs. Alice Rhineggar, of Middletown; and Mrs. Julia Cunningham, also of this city. Fred Palmer was educated in the public schools of Middletown, to which city he had been brought when still a child, and as a youth was associated for a time with his father in the mill of the Caldwell & Iseminger Lumber company. When he left the employ of that concern he secured a position with the American Rolling mill, and his steady habits, energetic work and close application brought him steady and deserved promotion until he reached the position which he now occupies, as a heater. He is one of the popular men of the plant, and also has numerous friends outside of his business circle. June 26, 1907, Mr. Palmer married Kate Kohler, who was born July 17, 1882, daughter of Martin Kohler, who is still a resident of Middletown, where her mother died in March, 1912. Mr. and Mrs. Palmer are the parents of a bright and active little daughter, Alma K., who was born in 1909, and the pleasant home of the happy little family is located on Yankee road. As to politics, Mr. Palmer votes and stands for principle rather than party, and does not allow himself to be tied down by allegiance to any organization. He is a Mason, fraternally, and Mrs. Palmer is a faithful member of the Lutheran church, and takes an active part in its movements.

L. T. Palmer. In the realty field of Middletown, one of those men who have become prominent through their activities during recent years is L. T. Palmer, of whom it may be said that to his activities and altruistic impulses is due what is best in home subdivisions and home development in this city and the contiguous territory. After having planned and assisted in the development of five subdivisions, guarding them with careful supervision and wise restriction, Mr. Palmer's greatest pride is found in the reputation for fairness in all dealings with which his name is popularized. During his long career he has been the medium through which a number of important realty deals have been consummated, these strengthening him in public confidence and in the esteem of his fellow-operators. Mr. Palmer holds official relation to the Middletown Real Estate board, the Ohio Association of Real Estate boards and the National Association of Real Estate boards. He is interested in all activities looking toward the welfare and development of his city and his attitude is typical of the spirit that has made Middletown known and respected for progressiveness and strong civic pride.

Wilbur Gideon Palmer. In business and legal circles of Middletown, the name of Wilbur Gideon Palmer is recognized as that of a man of soundness, moral worth, practical experience and ripened judgment. In his career he has about equally divided his time between manufacturing and following his profession, and in the latter connection, which is now occupying his sole attention, he is serving his city efficiently in the capacity of city attorney, an office which he has held since 1914. Mr. Palmer was born in 1876 at Lockland, Hamilton county, Ohio, a son of Charles B. and Miranda (Dye) Palmer. The father was born in Knox county, Pa., from where he came to Ohio, as a child with his father, Job Palmer, and fought four years during the Civil war, as a member of the 83d Regiment, Ohio

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Volunteer Infantry. Mrs. Palmer was a native of Troy, Ohio. Wilbur Gideon Palmer grew to manhood in Hamilton county, Ohio, receiving his education in the public schools of Dayton and Middletown. After leaving school, he entered the law office of Ben Harwitz, under whose preceptorship he remained three years, and was admitted to the state bar in 1898. Following this he spent two years at Holyoke, Mass., and upon his return to Middletown joined his father in the operation of the latter's flour mill and business, and was identified therewith until 1909. He proved himself an excellent business man, but his inclination was for the law, and in 1909 he opened an office and began the practice of his calling, in which he has been greatly successful, now being known as one of the leading members of the local bar. His interest in the welfare of the city has been made manifest in many ways and particularly in the manner in which he has discharged the duties of important official positions. For two years he was president of the city council of Middletown, and he can likewise be known as one of the city fathers, for he was a member of the committee which drew up the charter under which Middletown has been governed since 1914 and since January 1 of that year he has served as city attorney. His record in office is a splendid one which has been characterized by devotion to duty and conscientious endeavor to perform constructive and valuable service. Mr. Palmer is a stalwart Republican, and his religious faith is that of the Methodist Episcopal church. Fraternally, he is a thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason. In 1903, Mr. Palmer married Naomi, daughter of Leonidas H. and Mary (McAdams) Butler, the former a Civil war veteran who was born at Middletown, and the latter a native of Putnam county, Ohio. Three children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Palmer, namely: Douglas, Nan and Charles B.

Michael Panter, who formerly was an extensive farmer in Butler county, now lives comfortably retired on property he owns in Union township. Mr. Panter has spent many years in this section, is widely known and universally respected. He was born in 1848, in Germany, son of Jacob and Mary Panter, who spent their entire lives in Germany. They had eight children, Michael and Charles being the only ones to come to America. Michael Panter had some school training in boyhood and afterwards worked as a farmhand in Germany until he had accumulated enough to pay his passage to America, where he hoped to be able to acquire better rewards for his industry than were possible in his native province. In 1867, when nineteen years old, Michael Panter reached the United States and came to Belmont county, Ohio. He immediately found work as a farmhand and remained on farms near Crescent for eleven years, then went to California, where he worked as a miner for gold for the next five years. He returned to Ohio and for the next fifteen years rented land in Union township, Butler county, where he subsequently bought the valuable farm of 118 acres on which he yet lives. He married Mary Wirsch and they belong to the Catholic church. He votes with the Democratic party.

Henry Pater. More than forty years of association with the business interests of Hamilton have served to give Henry Pater

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standing and prominence in commercial circles, as well as the opportunity to prove to his fellow-citizens his worth, reliability and integrity. Having his earliest training along the lines of the tannery business, during his whole career he has been identified to some extent with this form of business activity, but since he met, like others, a severe loss in the great flood of 1913, has also carried on a coal and feed business in addition and has found therein a goodly measure of success. Mr. Pater is a native son of Hamilton, and was born May 3, 1854, his parents being Henry and Elizabeth Pater. His parents came to Hamilton in 1849, and here the father, a tanner by trade, established himself in business in 1862, as the proprietor of a tannery, a business with which he was connected on Front street during the remainder of his active career. He and Mrs. Pater were the parents of five children: George, who married Margaret Hathway, who is now deceased; Elizabeth, who makes her home with Mr. and Mrs. Vogt of Hamilton; Joseph, of Hamilton, who married Katie Kramer of this place and has four sons; Josephine, who married John Vogt of Hamilton and has six children; and Henry, of this notice. After attending St. Stephen's parochial school of Hamilton, the younger Henry Pater entered upon his apprenticeship to the tanner's trade, under the guidance and instruction of his father, through whose able tuition he became a thorough master of every detail of that vocation. He continued to be associated with the elder man in business until 1876, in which year he embarked upon a venture of his own, in the hide and leather line, with which he was identified for many years. He, like many other business men, suffered heavily during the flood of 1913, when his entire business was destroyed, causing a loss of some $15,000, and he was forced to start practically anew. For some time he had been considering the advisability of adding coal and feed to his business, and this gave him the opportunity to do so. When he resumed his business operations, accordingly, he was a fuel as well as a hide merchant, and has so continued to the present time, with ever-increasing success. He now handles hides, coal, wood, feed, grain and seeds, and has a large and modern equipped yard and offices at East avenue and Grand boulevard. In business circles of Hamilton his credit is an excellent one, solidly built upon the foundations of many years of honorable business transactions. Mr. Pater married Elizabeth, daughter of Eberhart and Elizabeth Tiemeyer, early settlers of Hamilton, and following his marriage built a home at No. 325 Pershing avenue. In 1897 he erected another residence, at No. 323 Pershing avenue, which is at present occupied by the family. Mr. and Mrs. Pater had six children: William; Harry, who died in infancy; Paul G., Ralph B., Robert G., and Markus. William Pater was born at Hamilton in 1886, was educated at St. Joseph's parochial school and the Hamilton Business college, and is now paying teller at the First National bank of Hamilton. He married Evelyn Teizer, and they have two children. Mr. Pater is a member of the Knights of Coltlmbus. Paul G. Pater was born at Hamilton in 1890 and attended St. Joseph's parochial school and the Hamilton Business college. He is now mechanical engineer for the firm of Long & Alstatter, and a member

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of the Knights of Columbus. Mr. Pater and his wife, who bore the maiden name of Louisa Swain and was formerly a resident of Dayton, are the parents of two sons. Ralph B. Pater, born in 1892 at Hamilton, was educated at St. Joseph's parochial school and the Hamilton Business college, and is associated with his father in business at Hamilton. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Order of Elks, and married Mary Klein, formerly a resident of Evansville, Ind. Robert G. Pater was born at Hamilton in 1894, and received the same education as his brothers. He is a plumber by vocation, but is at present associated with his father in business. He married a Miss Getz, of Hamilton, and they make their home here. Markus Pater was born at Hamilton in 1897, received the same education as his brothers, and is also associated with his father in business. He is single and a member of the Knights of Columbus. The father of these children also belongs to this fraternal order, and he and his family are members of St. Joseph's Catholic church.

Thomas H. Paulin. Of those supreme agencies which mold the tendencies and beckon most persistently to the mind of youth, none exceeds in potency the example of those who already have fought their battles and reached merited success. And who shall say that the lesson in the life of a good and capable man, next to the intelligent application of the forces within him for the benefit of mankind in general, is not the encouragement disseminated by his rise from obscurity to prominence? These reflections are brought forcibly to mind in the career of Thomas H. Paulin, whose devotion to the science of farming throughout his life won him a competence and a business reputation, and whose integrity at all times held the unqualified respect and confidence of his associates and acquaintances. Thomas H. Paulin was born on a farm in Wayne township, Butler county, Ohio, July 14, 1866, a son of Jeremiah and Sarah W. (Hagan) Paulin, the former of Wayne township and the latter of St. Clair township, Butler county. The father was an agriculturist all of his life and an honored, industrious and public-spirited citizen, and he and his wife were God-fearing people and consistent members of the local Methodist Episcopal church. They were the parents of three children: Thomas H.; Elizabeth, who died young; and a son who died in infancy. Thomas H. Paulin was educated in the district schools of Wayne township, and was reared in the same manner as other farmers' sons of his day and locality, assisting his father in the work of the home place and in the winter months applying himself to his educational training. After completing his studies he continued to live at home for several years, and then located on the old Witherow farm, which he operated for a time. Later, however, he moved to St. Clair township, where he continued to be engaged in agricultural pursuits until the time of his death. Through his good management and unceasing energy he succeeded in his undertakings, and at the time of his demise, which occurred January 19, 1916, was the owner of 449 acres of valuable land. February 19, 1896, Mr. Paulin was united in marriage with Ida M., daughter of August and Elizabeth (Kriegenhofer) Steiger, of Hamilton. Ohio. Mr. Steiger was born in Germany and was a young man when he came to the

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United States, locating at Hamilton, Ohio, where he continued to be engaged in following his trade of millwright until his death at the age of sixty-one years, August 17, 1902, his widow still surviving him in advanced years as a resident of Hamilton. They were the parents of ten children, as follows: John E., a millwright of Hamilton; August A., a blacksmith; Ida M., who became Mrs. Paulin; Lydia, the wife of William Ike, of Hamilton; Louis, a molder of Hamilton; Carl, a salesman of that city; Anna, the wife of R. C. Fillmore, of Hamilton; Nora, the wife of Melville Auraden, of Hamilton; Helena, the wife of Joseph Henninger, of Connersville, Indiana; and Frank, a millwright, of Hamilton. All of these children are faithful members of the Lutheran church. Mr. and Mrs. Paulin were the parents of the following children: Melvin, a farmer of St. Clair township, who married Edna Ritter; Earl A., a salesman of Cleveland, Ohio; and Luther H., Thomas I., Marguerite, Sarah, Elizabeth and Willard P., are residing with their mother. Following the death of her husband, Mrs. Paulin, who is a woman of exceptional ability and acumen, as well as of other accomplishments and many friendships, took over the management of his farm and business interests, and has made an unqualified success of her undertakings. In 1917 she took up her residence on the old John Augsperger farm in St. Clair township, purchased by her husband before his death. Having sold some of the land she now owns and operates 317 acres. She has a beautiful country home, and her farm is fully equipped with the latest machinery and equipment and made more valuable by the presence of good buildings and modern improvements. She is a consistent member of St. Paul's Lutheran church, while her late husband was a Methodist and a member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Seven Mile. Mr. Paulin for some years made a specialty of Polled Durham cattle and Chester White hogs, although he always carried on general farming. He was regarded as one of the most progressive and studious of farmers, a man whose intelligence and insight brought into his way the most enlightening and superior compensations of his calling, and who established a precedent worthy of all emulation, of dignified, paying and refined country existence. He had hosts of friends throughout Butler county and his business standing was exceeded by that of no other agriculturist in his township. Public spirited and progressive, he joined in any enterprise calculated to advance the prosperity or happiness of the men, women and children who came within the range of his environment.

William H. Paulin, a retired farmer of Wayne township, can look back with pride upon years of productive activity as a farmer, and now enjoy the fruits of his labors in comfort and ease. He was born at Elk Creek, Madison township, Butler county, Ohio, January 2, 1847, a son of Isaac and Ellen (Schenck) Paulin, and grandson of Jeremiah P. Paulin. Jeremiah P. Paulin was born in Pennsylvania, and in young manhood followed the sea as an occupation, but later became a pioneer of Madison township, Butler county, Ohio, where he died, having had a large family. Isaac Paulin was born in Madison township, and was here reared, and always followed farming.

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Securing land, he cleared it off, put it under cultivation, and developed it into a fine property. Later he bought more land, and became the owner of several farms. Originally a Whig, with the organization of the Republican party, he adopted its policies as his own, and gave its candidates his hearty support the remainder of his life. His death occured December 29, 1917, but his widow survives and lives in Wayne township, Butler county. Although of advanced years, she retains her faculties, and talks very entertainingly of pioneer days and the part she and her husband took in them. Their children were as follows: William H., whose name heads this review; Jane, who is deceased, married D. J. Martz; Jeremiah, who lived and died near Jacksonboro, Ohio; Lydia W., who is the widow of C. A. Patton, now lives at Trenton, Ohio; George, who was a farmer, is now deceased; Laura, who is the wife of William Inman of Seven Mile, Ohio, and several who died in infancy. The late C. A. Patton, husband of Mrs. Lydia W. (Paulin) Patton, was born in Camden, Ohio, became a successful farmer, and was a trustee of his township and a director of the county infirmary. His death occurred December 29, 1917, and he and his wife had a daughter, Della, who is now the wife of Rudolph Inhoff of Trenton, Ohio. William H. Paulin received but limited educational instruction, his school attendance being confined to the common schools. He remained at home until he attained his majority, when he was married and moved on a farm east of Jacksonboro, Ohio, where he lived for twenty-five years. and then he bought 171 acres of land in Wayne township, where he has since resided. He remodeled the house, and made many other improvements, and until his retirement, several years ago, carried on farming and stock raising. William H. Paulin was united in marriage with Rachel Hinkle, born in Madison township, a daughter of Joseph and Mary Hinkle, prominent people and prosperous farmers of this township. Mr, and Mrs. Paulin became the parents of two sons, William, who was brought up to be a farmer and stockman like his father, and one who died in infancy. During his boyhood, he attended the local schools. At present he holds a state position on public highway work. William Paulin married Eva Brelsford, and they have three sons - Charles, Robert Isaac and John. Mrs. William H. Paulin died in July, 1918, aged sixty-eight years. She was known for her many beautiful traits of character, and is mourned by many outside of her family circle. Mr. Paulin cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, and has voted the Republican ticket ever since. His inclinations are not such as to make him aspire to public honors, and he has never sought office. Well known in his neighborhood, he is recognized as a representative of the best element in the county, and a man of sterling character.

Frank B. Pauly. The progress and development of any live and energetic community is generally reflected in its representative of the Fourth Estate, and the hustling and thriving city of Middletown, with its 27,000 population has a worthy representative in this direction in the Midd;etown Journal, which enters the homes and business houses of the city and surrounding country to the

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number of 4,100 daily issues.. Frank B. Pauly, editor and manager of this modern newspaper, is a citizen who has contributed materially to his community's advancement and prosperity. He was born in Warren county, Ohio, April 13, 1887, the second of three sons of Elwood B. and Mary K. (Schwerer) Pauly. His elder brother, Fred L., is manager of a large mail order business at Lebanon; and his younger brother, Karl B., is a student at the Ohio State university, where he is preparing himself for a career in journalism, having formerly been associated with his brother in the publication of the Journal. Elwood B. Pauly was born at Lebanon, Ohio, where he was educated in the public schools, and the greater part of his business life was passed as a merchant. He was an ardent supporter of the principles of the Republican party, and belonged to the Presbyterian church, of which Mrs. Pauly, a native of Shelby county, Ohio, and now a resident of Middletown, is also a member. Frank B. Pauly received a good common school education at Lebanon and subsequently entered Lebanon university, from which he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Science. At the age of nineteen years he embarked in journalism at Lebanon, and later gained experience while connected with newspapers at Keokuk and Des Moines, Iowa, and Dayton, Ohio. Finally locating at Middletown, in 1912, he became city editor of the Middletown Journal, and in 1914 assumed entire charge of this newspaper as editor and manager. In these capacities he has brought the paper forward to a recognized position among the publications of Butler county, and work is now in progress on the Journal's new home, a modern structure of brick, stone and reinforced concrete, erected at a cost of $60,000. This building, in addition to being modern in every detail, will be equipped with the latest and most highly improved machinery, making possible the expeditious production of a twentieth century newspaper. Mr. Pauly is a writer of force and a man of excellent professional ethics, and is giving his readers a worthy, clean and entirely authentic and reliable newspaper. He has the full confidence of his associates and the general public, and occupies a place of preferment in journalistic circles. Politically, he is a Republican, having cast his first presidential vote for William McKinley, and his religious faith is that of the Presbyterian church. His career has been one of constant advancement, culminating in success at a time in life when most men are just completing their plans, and personally he is representative of true middle western push, enterprise and energy.

C. O. Pentecost, one of the business men of College Corner, has passed his entire life in enterprises connected with farming hardware trade, in which he is widely and favorably known. He has built up an excellent business through the medium of his own industry and good business management, and at the same time has retained the unquestioned confidence of the public as to his entire integrity and his public spirit in matters pertaining to the performance of the duties of citizenship. Mr. Pentecost was born on a farm in Union township, Union county, Ind., September 5, 1866,

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a son of William E. and Anna L. Pentecost. His grandparents were pioneers of that locality, where his grandfather passed his life as a farmer, and where the grandmother still made her home, in advanced years. William E. Pentecost was a lifelong farmer in Union county, his native place, and rounded out a useful and successful life, dying with the respect and esteem of his fellowmen, and his widow, now Mrs. James S. Willis, is a resident of Martinsville, Ind., where she is greatly beloved because of her many excellencies of mind and heart. There were two children in the family: Orpha, who is now Mrs. William McNutt, of Martinsville, Ind.; and C. O. C. O. Pentecost was given only a public school education, and when he was a lad of eighteen years entered upon his own career, receiving a meager wage in farming, while learning the business. He gradually advanced in position and remuneration, and continued to be thus employed until 1905, when he bought the stock and good will of E. C. Wright, at College Corner, and since that time has continued in the hardware, implements, tinning and plumbing business. Mr. Pentecost has made a substantial and established place for himself in the community, where he has been found reliable, competent, prompt and courteous, and in this way has built up a large, growing and representative patronage among the best people in the thriving little city. Mr. Pentecost was married to Margaret, daughter of Frank and Lucy Sanford, of Union county, Ind., and they are the parents of one child, Verna, who was educated in the public schools and is the wife of Willard Birch, of Liberty, Ind.

Frank E. Pepper. Although he entered the political field but comparatively few years ago, Frank E. Pepper, sheriff of Butler county, is already accounted an influential factor in the public and official affairs of this section. For many years he was connected with railroad work, and during that time formed a wide acquaintance at Hamilton and in other parts of Butler county, at the same time establishing a splendid reputation for fidelity and honorable action that did much to gain him the shrievalty. Mr. Pepper is a native son.of Butler county, and was born at Overpeck, January 20, 1868, his parents being William and Amanda (Wehr) Pepper. The parents were also born at Overpeck, and the father followed the vocation of stationary engineer until his enlistment at Hamilton in Company I, 5th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, for service in the Civil war. At the close of his military career he returned to Butler county and was there engaged in farming up to the time of his death. Mrs. Pepper died in 1877. They were the parents of two children: Frank E., of this notice; Harry Lee, a farmer, who married Mary Rounds and resides in Madison township. Frank E. Pepper was educated in the public school at Trenton, Ohio, where he completed his studies at the age of fifteen years. Like numerous other lads, and particularly those who are reared in the rural districts, he was early attracted to railroading, and when he left school managed to secure employment with the C. H. & D. railroad. He first acted as a timekeeper, was then promoted to become a member of the construction gang, and finally secured

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train service, being given an opportunity as fireman on a locomotive. From this place he worked his way up to the post of engineer on a freight train, and eventually was given a passenger run, his engineer services in all covering a period of fifteen years. He then resigned in 1903 and purchased a farm in Lemon township on Dixie Highway. For some years Mr. Pepper had been greatly interested in Democratic politics and was considered one of the valuable men of his party at Hamilton. In 1912 he was appointed deputy sheriff under Sheriff Metcalf of Butler county, and during the next four years discharged his duties in an entirely capable and conscientious manner. In the election of January, 1916, he was the successful candidate of his party for the shrievalty, taking office in January, 1917, and his first administration was so satisfactory to the people that he was again chosen for the office in 1918. Sheriff Pepper possesses the attributes which make a man successful in an office of the nature that he holds. His courage has never been questioned; he is steadfast and strict in the interpretation of the law as it affects his duties; is tireless in the pursuit of evildoers, and possesses no small amount of detective ability. These qualities make of a man an excellent officer of the law and such Sheriff Pepper has proved himself to be. He was married July 17, 1895, to Pauline, daughter of Valentine and Marie Laubach, farming people of Lemon township, Butler county, and to this union there has come one daughter, Edna Paulina, born January 1, 1897, a graduate of Western college, Oxford, Ohio, who will in 1919 enter upon her duties as teacher of mathematics at the latter institution. Sheriff Pepper, during the war period, was active in assisting in the sale of Bonds and in swelling the War Chest. He has always been a progressive citizen and a practical booster for constructive movements for his community, where he has made many warm and sincere friends. As a fraternalist he has attained the thirty-second degree in Masonry and is a Knight Templar and a Shriner, and also holds membership in the local lodge of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.

John Pfalzgraf. Among the long-established business enterprises of Trenton, Ohio, one which has gained community approval and patronage by reason of capable and honorable management is the butcher business conducted by John Pfalzgraf. Mr. Pfalzgraf has not only earned the people's confidence as an upright merchant, but as a conscientious and high-minded official as well, having served two terms in the capacity of township treasurer, beginning 1883. His record in business and public life is one that is worthy of emulation. Born in 1849, at Essen Kurhessen, Germany, he was six years of age when brought to this country by his parents, George Henry and Elizabeth Pfalzgraf. The family settled at Trenton, where the father engaged in the butcher business, and while he disposed of a part of his commodity in his home community, he made frequent trips to Hamilton in the early days to dispose of his wares and had a good and representative patronage. Both this highly respected citizen and his worthy and estimable wife have been dead for many years. They were the parents of two

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children: Mrs. Anna Helweg, a resident of Trenton; and John. John Pfalzgraf was given his education in the early public schools of Trenton and learned the trade of butcher under the training of his father. He grew up in the business, became associated with his father as a partner, and when the latter retired assumed management of the enterprise of which he became sole proprietor at the time of his father's death. He has built up an excellent business through fair and honorable dealing and has retained the respect and esteem of his fellow-citizens. As a citizen Mr. Pfalzgraf has been a factor in public-spirited movements for the betterment of his community, and his two years of service in the capacity of township treasurer have been characterized by a fine sense of public responsibility. With his family, he belongs to the Lutheran church. Mr. Pfalzgraf married Caroline Schaaf, of Trenton, a native of Germany and they became the parents of six children: George Henry, deceased; Charles, deceased; Elmer, of Cincinnati, who married Mamie Kumberger; Anna, the wife of Frank Brelsford, a real estate man and butcher of Trenton and a member of the board of Butler county commissioners; Alva, who married William Gunter, of Trenton; and John P., who is deceased.

Charles Pfister. The deserved reward of a well-spent life is an honored retirement from activities, in which to enjoy the fruits of former toil. Today, after a useful and beneficial career, Charles Pfister is quietly living at his pleasant home at Oxford, surrounded by the comfort that earnest labor has brought him. For many years he was actively engaged in agricultural pursuits, and he is still the owner of a large and valuable farm in Oxford township. Mr. Pfister was born in Clinton county, Ohio, September 29, 1851, a son of John and Margaret (Schuster) Pfister, natives of Germany. His parents came as young people to the United States, each settling at Cincinnati, where they met and were married, and in that city the father followed the trade of harness making, which he had learned in his native land, for more than thirty years. He then moved to Clinton county, settling near Lynchburg, where he rounded out his long and honorable career, following both his trade and farming. Of the ten children of this worthy couple, three sons, Jacob, Michael and John, served as soldiers of the Union during the Civil war, for four years, and Jacob was captured and held for some time by the enemy. Those who survive are: Elizabeth, the wife of William Kluck, of Hamilton; Adam, a resident of Lynchburg; John, who lives in Clinton county; and Charles. The public schools of Clinton county furnished the medium through which Charles Pfister secured his educational training, and when his studies were completed he applied himself to learning the trade of carpenter, a vocation which he followed with success at Cincinnati for a period of twenty-six years. He then went to Oxford, where he continued to follow his trade for about two years, but on his removal to Oxford township, to a farm which he had previously purchased, turned his attention to agricultural pursuits and made that his occupation until the time of his retirement. He is a member of the Lutheran church, as is also Mrs. Pfister, is a Republican

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in his political adherence, and during the war was a cheerful and generous contributor to all war activities. Mr. Pfister was married March 20, 1880, to Anna, daughter of Fred and Catherine (Kirchmer) Becker, the former a native of Pennsylyania and the latter of Madison, Ohio. There were five children in the Becker family: Clara, Katie, Fred, Tillie and Anna. Mr. and Mrs. Pfister have three children: Fred, who, after having served as engineer for the city of Oxford for five years, continued operations on his father's Oxford township farm, his father having retired from agricultural pursuits in 1918 - he married Grace Mitchell; Margaret, who is a teacher in the public schools and a graduate of Miami university teachers college; and Arthur, who entered the United States Army and for a time was stationed at Camp Taylor, and after having served ten months was honorably discharged as sergeant, to take up his duties as bookkeeper for the H. S. Coulter Transportation company of Oxford, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Pfister are widely known in the vicinity of Oxford as desirable and substantial citizens, and those who know them best are numbered among their warmest friends.

William D. Phares. Few men who attain the age of eighty-two years bear so few of the marks and scars of the struggles of war and of peace as does William D. Phares, now living in retirement in Wayne township, Butler county. In a vast majority of cases those who attain a goodly measure of success cannot justly claim that their paths have not been strewn with the wrecks of other men's fortunes. This honored veteran of the Civil war, however, is one who has attained material prosperity for himself and at the same time has enjoyed in full measure the honor and respect of his fellow-men by reason of the straightforward business policy which he has ever followed. Mr. Phares was born on the old Phares homestead, in Wayne township, Butler county, Ohio, December 16, 1837, a son of George W. and Jane (Withrow) Phares, and a grandson of a native of New Jersey. George W. Phares, also a native of that state, came therefrom to Butler county with three brothers, and settled on the homestead now owned by his son, where he carried on his farming operations until his somewhat early death, in 1841, his widow surviving him until 1857, when she passed away at the old home. There were eight children in the family: James W., Amy, Sarah, Ellen, Marabe, Elizabeth, James and William D. William D. Phares was but four years of age at the time of his father's death, and as his boyhood was largely given over to hard work he had little chance to gain more than the rudiments of an education. He remained on the old home place until his enlistment, in August, 1862, in Company G, 83d Regiment, O. V. I., under Capt. John B. Gary and Colonel Moore, and was sent to Dayton, later to Cincinnati, and then into Kentucky, where his active service commenced. He served gallantly and faithfully for three years, during which time he took part in many engagements, among which was the siege of Vicksburg, and was honorably discharged in the fall of 1865 and returned to his home. At once resuming the role of agriculturist, he took up the operation of the

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farm where he had left off, and in the years that followed made a decided success of his work and rose to a place where he was able to retire, in 1895. In that year he removed to Seven Mile, where he made his home for twenty years, but eventually returned to the scene of his birth, boyhood and manhood, and there now makes his home, surrounded by all comforts. Mr. Phares has always been an industrious, hard-working man, but his long years of labor have left him well preserved, active in body and alert in mind. He is a staunch Republican, although not a politician, and, as his acquaintance is large in this commullity and his friendships many, his influence counts for something during party elections. Mr. Phares was married in 1861 to Esther Pottinger, of Preble county, Ohio, who died in February, 1915, at the age of seventy-three years. They were the parents of two children: Mary B. and Harry C. Mary B. Phares married James B. King, a farmer of Wayne township, and they had seven children - Claude, Marie, Alvin, Amy, Hester and Harry, the last two named being deceased. Harry C. Phares, who is engaged in farming his father's property in Wayne township, married Lena Heiland, and they had three children - Cecil A., Laurence A. and William D. For his second wife, Harry C. Phares married Cornelia, a daughter of Isaac and Mary (Vinnedge) Skillman, natives respectively of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and farming people of Hamilton county, O., both of whom are deceased.

Evan Philips. Many years of active, well-directed industry, combined with provident saving, have enabled Evan Philips, one of Middletown's well-known and highly esteemed citizens, to be able to retire while yet in the prime of life and capable of enjoying the ample fortune he accumulated in earlier years. During his active period Mr. Philips worked hard, for years being a skilled employee of some of the largest mill companies in the world. He was born at Bristol, England, March 8, 1866, son of Evan and Sarah (Gee) Philips. His father was a rolling mill man in England. Mr. Philips is one of a family of five children. His two brothers, Albert and Harry, are deceased, but his two sisters survive and live in England: Laura, wife of John Goodfield, and Caroline, wife of C. Heffer. In May, 1881, Mr. Philips came to the United States and found work as a roller in the steel mills of Pittsburg, afterward working at St. Louis, Bessemer, Riverside and Wheeling, W. Va., then came to Piqua, Ohio, and from there to Middletown, in February, 1900. July 10, 1894, he married Miss Ada, daughter of James and Constance (Petty) Hood, of Covington, and they have one son, Gordon, who was graduated from the high school at Piqua in 1918, and is now attending the Ohio State universitv where he is pursuing a course in chemistry. During the late war Gordon was a member of Camp Grant at Illinois, where he took the officers' training for second lieutenant. Mr. Philips and his family are members of the Episcopal church. While not decidedly active in political life, he has given considerable study to public questions since coming to the United States and gives his support to the Republican party. He is identified fraternally with the Masons and the Elks.

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Robert W. Pinkerton. A comparatively recent addition to the citizenship of Middletown, Robert W. Pinkerton has already established himself in the confidence of the community, where he is identified in a business way with the firm of Caldwell & Iseminger. Mr. Pinkerton was born July 5, 1859, in Fayette county, Ohio, a son of Joseph M. and Rebecca Jane (Lunbeck) Pinkerton. His father was born in 1824, in Fayette county, where the family is an old one, well known and highly respected, and was married in August, 1845, his wife having been born January 4, 1824, in Highland county, this state. They became the parents of nine children, six sons and three daughters, but only three now survive: Miss Ella Belle, of Greenfield, Ohio; Joseph A., of Springfield, this state; and Robert W. The mother of these children passed away January 7, 1873, while the father survived until September 14, 1905, having reached the advanced age of eighty-one years. Robert W. Pinkerton was reared in his native county, where he received the advantages furnished by a public school education, and in his youth was variously employed. He was married March 25, 1891, to Miss Margaret Thompson, daughter of John and Virginia (Brown) Thompson, and granddaughter of Alexander and Margaret (Dickinson) Thompson. Her great-great-grandfather Dickinson was a Revolutionary soldier, and one of a committee of five from Delaware who assisted in the framing of the Constitution of the United States. On the maternal side, her grandfather, Thomas Browne, fought in three wars of this country, those of 1812-14, the Mexican and the Civil war. He was only twelve years of age when he went as drummer boy in the first war. Mrs. Pinkerton's father died in August, 1903, while her mother still survives. Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Pinkerton, namely: Carl Vivian, who was born July 24, 1893. He died August 14, 1901; Raymond Alvin, born May 23, 1895, who enlisted in the United States Marines, May 31, 1917. Was assigned to 80th Company, 6th Regiment Marines, went to France January, 1918, where the 5th and 6th Marines were joined with the 9th and 23d Infantry, forming the Second Division of the Army. Raymond went to the front March 17th in Alsace-Lorraine. June 1, 1918, went to the Chateau Thierry sector, was there thirty-three days, went to Soissons July 17, and on June 19, the 6th Marine and 23d Infantry went over the top, and Raymond made the "Supreme Sacrifice." He fell in the Battle of Soissons. Frank Leslie, born May 27, 1897, enlisted June 1, 1918, in the Coast Artillery, was subsequently transferred to the Railroad Artillery. Went overseas in September Replacement Troops. Was in no active engagements and returned to the United States December 31, 1919, was honorably discharged from the Army January 23, 1919. Lela Alice, born July 20, 1900, graduated from the Middletown High school, with first honors, in commercial course, in June, 1919. Robert Elbert, born January 20, 1904, who is employed by the Advance Bag company at Middletown. On coming to Middletown from Washington Court House, Ohio, in 1917, Mr. Pinkerton became identified with the firm of Caldwell & Iseminger. He has strongly impressed his personality on those with whom he has come in contact, as a man of great force of character,

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good judgment and sound ability, as well as a citizen of constructive ideas. He is a Republican in his political inclinations, but somewhat liberal in his actions. His religious faith is that of the Presbyterian church, as is also that of Mrs. Pinkerton, a woman of superior mental endowments, who is well informed regarding all the important topics of the day.

Frank Albertus Piper. In the working forces of the American Rolling mill at Middletown, is found Frank Albertus Piper, who is employed in the capacity of roller. He was born at Salisbury, Somerset county, Pa., April 20, 1875, a son of Joseph and Catherine (Larmer) Piper, the former born near Ligonier, Pa., and the latter near Salisbury. Following their marriage, the parents settled near Salisbury, where they rounded out long and useful careers, the father dying February 6, 1895, and the mother May 12, 1907. There were thirteen children in the family: Edith, who became Mrs. James Trees, of Newcomerstown, Ohio; Wilson, of Salisbury, Pa.; Milton and Howard, of Ambridge, Pa.; Bess, the wife of William Robeson, of Tarrytown, Pa.; Harry, of Salisbury; Charles, of Irving, Pa.; Frank Albertus; Samuel, of Blaisdell, Pa.; Alice and Lewis, deceased; Joseph, of Salisbury; and Fern, who died in infancy. Frank Albertus Piper was educated in the public schools of Salisbury, and there grew to manhood. He was married November 30, 1904, to Mary McNeil, who was born September 22, 1880, at Salisbury, daughter of Robert Boerland and Hannah Jane (Ewing) McNeil. On the maternal side Mrs. Piper's mother was of the McCombs and on the paternal side she is descended from the McKelveys of Scotch-Irish extraction. Mrs. Piper's parents, who are still living, had four children: Mary; Fannie Myrtilla, who is now Mrs. Joseph Piper and has two children, Martha and Mary; Charles; and Clare, residing at Saltsburg, Pa. Robert B. McNeil, father of Mrs. Piper, during the early part of his career followed farming as a vocation, but subsequently turned his attention to commercial pursuits, and for a time was engaged in the furniture business, but for some years has been the proprietor of a grocery. He is one of the directors in the bank of his home city and an elder in the Presbyterian church. Mr. and Mrs. Piper, following their marriage, resided at Salisbury until 1911, in which year they took up their residence at Middletown, where they have since established numerous friendships. Upon his arrival in this city Mr. Piper entered the service of the American Rolling mill, where he has since been employed in the capacity of a roller, and has been found a good workman, steady, reliable, skilled and faithful, winning the esteem of his employers and the friendship and regard of his fellow-employees. While he is of a rather retiring disposition he has always shown himself a good citizen, interested in those things which make for the betterment and advancement of the community. Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Masons and Odd Fllows, while politically he belongs to the Republican party. He and Mrs. Piper are consistent members of the Oakland Presbyterian church.

Albert E. Pitt. Among those who have found the knowledge of a skilled trade a stepping-stone to advanced position, one whose

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career may be cited as an illustration of the value of energy and close application, is Albert E. Pitt, foreman of the sheet department at the plant of the American Rolling mill, at Middletown. Mr. Pitt is a member of the distinguished family for which was named the city of Pittsburg, and was born in that city, although he is not of the direct line, his parents, Edward D. and Margaret (Jarvis) Pitt, as well as his grandfather, Henry Pitt, being natives of England. The parents of Mr. Pitt were married near London, England, and shortly thereafter emigrated to the United States and settled at Pittsburg, where they had numerous relatives. There the father became connected with the iron industry, with which he was identified the greater part of his life, and died in November, 1908, at Pittsburg, where the widowed mother still makes her home. There were five children in the family: Harry E., of Cambridge, Ohio; Mary Emmeline, a young woman of brilliant literary talents, who is connected with one of the leading Pittsburg publications; Albert E., of this notice; William E., also a resident of Pittsburg; and Queena, who is deceased. Albert E. Pitt was educated in the public schools of his native city and when he had laid aside his studies secured employment in the rolling mill at Cambridge, Ohio. There he remained until 1911, when he came to Middletown to accept a position in the new plant of the American Rolling mill, and from that position he has been steadily advanced, because of his ability and fidelity, to the office of foreman of the sheet department. He is popular with his companions and trusted by his employers, and has numerous friends, both at the plant and in other circles. In 1910, while a resident of Guernsey county, Ohio, he became the candidate of the Republican party for the state senatorship. He waged an earnest, clean and brilliant campaign, but although he carried his home community by a handsome majority the state went strongly Democratic, and Mr. Pitt, who had polled the biggest vote ever given a Republican in his district, went down to defeat with his party. In politics primarily a Republican, he is inclined to be liberal. He is a champion of the dry element, and was one of the pioneers in the suffrage movement. As a fraternalist, Mr. Pitt belongs to the Masons, in which he has attained the thirty-second degree, also a Knight Templar and Shriner. Mr. Pitt was married at Youngstown, Ohio, November 26, 1903, to Minnie May, daughter of Charles and Catherine (Tregoweth) Williams, natives of England, who came to Ohio in early days, the father, having been a stone and brick mason for years. His widow still survives. Mrs. Pitt had sisters and brothers as follows: Charles, of Youngstown, Ohio; Katie, the wife of Elmer Barger of Boardman, Ohio; Beatrice, the wife of Robert Daum, of Pittsburg, Pa.; John, of Struthers, Ohio; Olive, who is Mrs. Ernest Price, of Vandergrift, Pa.; and Richard T., of Youngstown. Mr. and Mrs. Pitt, who are young people of splendid intellect, have a charming home on Superior avenue. They are members of the Methodist church and take an active part in its movements.

Michael Poast. One of the few residents of Butler county who can lay claim to pioneer residence here, Michael Poast is also one of the few remaining who can also boast of active services during the

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Civil war. This retired citizen of Madison township also has the distinction of belonging to one of the old and honored families of this locality, and was born at Poast Town, named in honor of the family, December 16, 1841, his parents being Peter P. Poast and Catherine (Brown) Poast. His paternal grandfather, Peter P. Poast the elder, was born in New Jersey, and became an early settler of Ohio, settling here in territorial days and subsequently becoming widely known through his activities in business and otherwise and the influence which he swayed in local affairs. He drove through to Poast Town, then a small and unimportant settlement, with a team, and later made the journey back to his native state on horseback. A progressive man in many ways, he was the first to introduce pear trees in this part of Ohio, and when the community of Poast Town acquired the size entitling it to the dignity of a name, it was given the title of Poast Town. Mr. Poast had a large tract of land, covered with a heavy growth of timber, which he subsequently cleared and improved, and at the time of his death, when past eighty years of age, was a prosperous farmer. This sturdy and worthy old pioneer married a Miss Van Toil, and they became the parents of six children: Peter P., Michael, Martha Ellen. Mattie, Polly and Eliza. Peter P. Poast the younger was born at Poast Town, where he was educated in the home schools, and grew to manhood, inheriting his father's sterling qualities and developing his business capacity. He married Catherine Brown, a native of Pennsylvania, and not long thereafter built a grist and saw mill on Brown Run, this being operated by water power. In addition to this business he was the owner of good farming lands, and acquired something more than a local reputation because of his ability as a trader. Later, he located at Poast Town, where he had two large cooper shops, and developed this business amazingly for his time and locality, at times employing as many as thirty men. In business circles he was admired for his capacity and integrity and his reputation was beyond reproach. His death occurred in 1847, while his wife passed away in 1891. They were the parents of seven children: William B., deceased, who followed the occupations of broom maker and cooper; Eliza, who married Martin Beam, and resides at Poast Town; Peter P., who died in 1908, aged seventy-two years and single, was one of the best known men of Poast Town, where for a half a century he was engaged in various lines of business, principally as a merchant and grain dealer; Sarah, who is deceased; Michael, of this notice; Emily Jane, who died in 1866; and Catherine, who died the same year. Michael Poast was educated in the public schools of Poast Town, and resided at home with his parents until, like other youths of his time, he was stirred by the call of the Union for troops to combat the forces of secession. He was but eighteen years of age when he enlisted, in April, 1861, at Middletown, becoming a member of Company G, 12th O. V. I. At the expiration of his three months of service he re-enlisted, becoming a member of Company B, 2d Regiment, O. V. I., and was sent to Eastern Kentucky for one winter, the regiment then joining the Army of the Cumberland. His services covered three years and seven months, during which time he participated

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in a number of hard-fought engagements, notable among which were Perryville, Stone River, Chickasaw Bayou and Resaca and his record was that of a faithful and brave soldier, courageous and valiant in action, and always found at the post of his duty. When his military service was completed he returned to Poast Town and embarked in business ventures of various kinds at different places. For sixteen years he was in the tobacco business with his brother Peter P. Poast III, and was also associated with him in the store and in the grain business. Eventually he purchased his present farm, in section 14, Madison township, where he carried on agricultural pursuits until his recent retirement. He is now the possessor of a comfortable competence, so that he has surrounded himself with the comforts of life, which are his just due after a lifetime of industry and faithful endeavor. Mr. Poast was married in 1876 to Miss Mabel Thompson of Germantown, O., who died in the spring of 1907, leaving two sons: Peter P., of Cincinnati, who married Susie Foster; and Martin M. The latter enlisted in the Spanish-American war and saw three years of service in the Philippine Islands, following which he was for two years a member of the police force at Manila. He then went to China, where he was engag.ed in railroad construction work for two years, returning then to Manila, where he is connected with railroad work at this time. He is unmarried. Michael Poast has never lost his interest in the G. A. R., and is a popular comrade of the local post of that organization, whose ranks are thinning so rapidly. He has always voted the Republican ticket and is a staunch supporter of its principles and candidates, as he is also of all constructive movements which have for their object the advancement of the general welfare. His friendships in the county are numerous, being limited only by the number of his acquaintances, which is large.

George Polster, who is one of Union township's best farmers, has spent almost his entire life here, having come to this township with his parents when ten years old. He was born in 1859, in Pennsylvania, son of John G. and Maggie Polster, who were born in Germany. After coming to the United States they settled in Pennsylvania and there John G. Polster engaged in farming until 1869, when he brought his family to Butler county, Ohio, purchased land in Union township, and for many years afterward carried on farming and stock raising here, in the meanwhile rearing a large family comfortably and taking his place with the representative men of his neighborhood. Mr. Polster has been retired from active life for about twenty years and now has the distinction or being the oldest resident of Union township in point of age. His wife passed away in 1905. They had nine children born to them and the following are living: Anna, Maggie, Kate and George. George Polster attended the public schools before coming to Ohio, and afterward assisted his father on the home farm, of which he has had entire charge since about 1899. His long experience as a farmer has made his judgment valuable in agricultural matters and there are few farms of sixty-one acres in the township more carefully cultivated or making more profitable returns. Mr. Polster has always been a fair-

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minded citizen, has done his part with others in public-spirited movements promising to be of substantial benefit to the township, but he has never desired any public office and has always cast an independent vote. Mr. Polster is unmarried.

George Popp. Prominent among the native sons of half a century's residence in Reily township, Butler county, is George Popp, whose life has been devoted to agricultural pursuits, which have formed the medium through which his well-merited success has been attained. Mr. Popp was born near Hamilton, Ohio, April 1, 1865, a son of George and Ann Maria (Eichler) Popp, natives of Germany who came as young people to the United States and met and were married in Butler county, Ohio. In 1866 George Popp the elder bought a farm in Reily township, near Bunker Hill, and there carried on operations for some years, but later purchased a property, part of which now includes the farm of his son George. Although he started in life in a small way, Mr. Popp was a hard-working man and an excellent manager, and succeeded in the accumulation of 220 acres of land, as well as in securing the unqualified success and confidence of those with whom he came in contact in his various transactions. He was a Democrat in his political adherence, and he and Mrs. Popp were faithful members of the Zion Evangelical Lutheran church at Hamilton. They were the parents of the following children: Ann, who married August Hinkle, of Reily township; Lizzie, who married Russell Irwin, of Reily township; Kate, who married John Kellerman, both being deceased; Barbara, deceased, who was the wife of Leonard Eichler; Mary, deceased, who was the wife of Frank Flora; Andrew, who married Mary Wehr of Middletown, and is now deceased; George, of this review; and John, a farmer of Reily township, a sketch of whose career appears elsewhere in this work. The public schools of Reily township furnished the medium through which George Popp, the younger, secured his educational training, and when he had laid aside his school books he again took up the work of the home farm, where he continued to assist his father as a hand until his marriage. August 14, 1895, he was united in matrimony with Mary Clopper, of Butler county, and they are the parents of six children, all residing at home: Edith, John, Gilbert, who married Burneida Lowe of Reily township; Clara, Anna and Dorothea. Following his marriage, Mr. Popp located on his present farm, a part of the homestead, where he owns eighty-seven acres of land, all in an excellent state of cultivation. His improvements and equipment make evident the fact that he is a man of modern tendencies and ideas and of an industrious and energetic character, and his general farming and hog and cattle raising operations are prosecuted with marked vigor and discernment. A prominent Democrat and ardent supporter of Jeffersonian principles, he has been averse to office holding, contenting himself with aiding the cause of men who are qualified morally as well as intellectually to mould political affairs of the community. He and Mrs. Popp are consistent members of the Zion Evangelical Lutheran church of Hamilton, and their children have been reared in that faith.

John Popp. A sample of that material which has brought Butler

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county into the 1ime1ight as a prosperous agricultura1 center, is found in John Popp. Endowed with average ability and backed by industry and shrewd judgment, this energetic farmer has worked his way to the ownership of 107 acres of productive land in Reily township, which he is devoting to general farming. Mr. Popp was born in Reily township, Butler county, Ohio, December 30, 1871, a son ot George Popp, sr., who was born in Germany and died in Butler county in 1905, at the age of eighty-two years. In 1859 he was married to Anna Maria Eichler, also a native of Germany, who died December 30, 1915, aged seventy-nine years. In 1866 they bought a farm in Reily township, near Bunker Hill, on which their son, George, jr., now lives, but passed their final years on the farm now occupied by their son John. The father, while he started in a small way, worked himself to the top through industry and good business management, and at the time of his demise was justly accounted one of the substantial men of his community. He was well known and highly respected, was an active member of the Democratic party, and he and his wife were faithful members of the Zion Evangelical Lutheran church at Hamilton. Their children were eight in number, as follows: Kate, born in November, 1859, who died in 1883; Barbara, born in April, 1861, who died in 1911, at the age of fifty years; Andrew, born April 8, 1863, who lives at Middletown, Ohio; George, born April, 1865, a sketch of whom will be found elsewhere in this work; Mary, born April 28, 1868, who died March 17, 1916; Anna, born December 31, 1871, who married Gus Hinkle, a farmer in Reily township; Elizabeth, born July 21, 1875, who married Russell Irwin, of Reily township; and John. John Popp attended District School No.7, in Reily township, and lived at home, assisting his father until the elder man's retirement, after which the son took care of his parents in their declining years. He was married April 15, 1903, to Lena Heintzelmann, of Fairfield township, who died in March, 1904, leaving one child, who died at the age of eight years. March 6, 1905, Mr. Popp married Georgie Maud Overly, of Mason county, Ky., born Aug.ust 27, 1881, and they became the parents of six children: George, born March 9, 1906; Anna Ethel, born October 6, 1907; Andrew, born October 11, 1909; Ril, born April 15, 1911; Francis, born March 6, 1914; and Raymond, born October 11, 1915. Mr. Popp has always lived on the old home place, and at present is the owner of 107 acres of highly cultivated and valuable land. He carries on a general farming business and his farm gives indications of progressive methods on every hand and of a struggle to attain to the best thus far achieved in agricultural science. He is a Democrat in his political allegiance, although not a seeker for political honors, and his religious connection and that of his family, is with the Zion Evangelical Lutheran church of Hamilton.

Arthur Berton Price, who is a representative citizen of Butler county, where he is extensively engaged in agricultural pursuits, belongs to an old and substantial family of Ohio, which can be traced to his grandparents, William and Anna (Graft) Price, once people of consequence in Warren county. There he was born, son of Abraham and Catherine (Baird) Price, the latter of whom was a cousin of

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Mrs. William Jennings Bryan. Mr. Price has two sisters and two brothers, namely: Anna, wife of William Passon; William, a resident of Darke county; Flora, wife of P. Simes; and Clifford, who married Mary Sauter. Like many other substantial men of today, Arthur Berton Price has built up his ample fortune through his own efforts. He had school opportunities in boyhood and grew up on a farm, and an agricultural life has always been his preference. Quite recently Mr. Price has acquired by purchase, one of the noted old properties of Butler county long known as the Stokes homestead, lying near Seven Mile, Ohio. The farm contains 160 acres of richly fertile land, and the imposing brick residence, an old landmark, was built by Gilbert Cox, grandfather of Governor James M. Cox. Mr. Price married Miss Elizabeth, daughter of John and Christina Durr, who were born in Germany, and they have five children, as follows: Robert, who married Ethel Burdge; Anna, who is widely known as a gifted pianist; Clara, who is the wife of Benjamin Burdge; and Earl, and Mildred Louise, both of whom reside at home. These children have all enjoyed educational as well as social advantages and their acquaintance is wide. The family belongs to the Lutheran church. While never unduly active in the political field, Mr. Price always gives staunch support to the Republican party, from conscientious motives, however, because he has never been a seeker for office.

John Alvin Price, who has been connected with the American Rolling mill at Middletown for some years, has, during the period of his location here, formed a wide acquaintance and established himself as a dependable citizen. He was born at Youngstown, Ohio, October 3, 1880, a son of John F. and Margaret (Price) Price, natives of Wales. John F. Price, in young manhood, served ten years on an English ocean vessel, and then emigrated to the United States and took up his residence at Youngstown, Ohio, where he was connected with the mines. He was married there to Margaret Price, and they became the parents of eleven children: Sarah, deceased; Edward, a resident of Warren, Ohio; William, deceased; Esther, now Mrs. Frank Sweaney, of New Philadelphia, Ohio; John Alvin, of this notice; Emily, now Mrs. William Byron, of Flushing, Ohio; Albert and Daniel, residents of Canton; Emory, of Flushing; Miss Margaret, of Akron; and a daughter who died in infancy. The mother of these children died June 18, 1910, but the father still survives and is a resident of Canton. John Alvin Price received his education in the public schools of Youngstown and there began his career as a worker in the mills, entering the American Rolling mill in 1902. Seeing the opportunity to better his condition, in December, 1911, he came to Middletown, and ever since has been associated with the American Rolling mills, where he holds a responsible position and is accounted one of the great industry's reliable and industrious employees. Since coming to Middletown Mr. Price has purchased a handsome home on Harrison avenue which is noted for its hospitality. September 30, 1903, Mr. Price was united in marriage with Susan B., the daughter of John Thomas and Louise Ellen (Bice) Walcutt, of Dresden, Ohio, where she received her education,

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and to this union there has been born one son, John, who is attending the public schools of Middletown. This son is possessed of ~ beautiful baritone voice. Mr. Walcutt, at the start of the Civil war, enlisted with two brothers, in Company D, Twelfth Ohio Cavalry, and fought throughout the struggle, in which one of his brothers was killed. He survived the war, lived to advanced years, and passed away May 18, 1910. Mrs. Price is fond of society and takes great interest in lodge work, being past worthy matron of the Eastern Star at Middletown. She is also active in the work of the Broadway Methodist Episcopal church, of which her husband is also a member. Her only sister, Mrs. Charles A. Green, is a resident of Canton. Mr. Price is a Republican, but liberal in his views. He is prominent fraternally, being a thirty-second degree Mason and a member of the Eagles.

Ferdinand D. Pugh. Stock breeding and farming interests in Butler county have a progressive advocate and representative in Ferdinand D. Pugh, who has been a lifelong resident and operator in Wayne township and is now the owner of a valuable and well improved property. Mr. Pugh was born in Wayne township, October 24, 1862, a son of John and Anna B. (Phares) Pugh. The paternal grandfather of Ferdinand D. Pugh, and the first of the family to locate in Ohio, was John Pugh, of Welsh descent, and a native of Pennsylvania. He married a Miss Jones, and about the year 1819 made the difficult journey into Butler county, at that time almost a total wilderness, with wild game in abundance. As there was a salt lick on Mr. Pugh's property it was not unusual for there to be venison on the family table, and frequently a deer attracted by the lick fed to the unerring aim of this pioneer. While Mr. Pugh had been a wagon maker in his earlier years, he easily adapted himself to his new surroundings, turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, and through his industry and perseverance was able to clear and cultivate a great deal of his land, both he and his wife rounding out their long and useful lives on the farm which had been reclaimed by them from the wilderness. They were the parents of the following children: Keziah Ann, Betsy, John, Isaac, William, Riley and Alexander. John Pugh the younger, father of Ferdinand D. Pugh, was born in the log cabin on the old homestead, in the midst of pioneer surroundings, and grew up amid primitive conditions, his education being secured in the log cabin district school. After leaving the parental roof he went to Preble county, where he lived for some years, subsequently to Germantown, then returned to Wayne township, later lived at Hamilton and in Hanover township, and finally located at Seven Mile, where his death occurred in August, 1912. He was a man of versatile talents, able either to gain a good livelihood by farming or in various business ventures, and as a result was able to accumulate a competence and become one of the well-to-do men of his community. He was looked upon as a substantial citizen and his integrity was a factor in securing his election as township trustee two terms and member of the school board. Politically he supported Republican principles, while his religious faith inclined toward the Quaker belief. He and his wife were the

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parents of three children: Luella, deceased, who married (first) Alfred McGraff and (second) Edward McGraff; Ferdinand D., of this revlew; and Eva, who married Joe Phares, of Wayne township. Ferdinand D. Pugh was reared on the home farm, attended the public schools, and remained under the parental roof until his marriage. He was united with Susie Phares, born in Wayne township, a daughter of William C. and Elizabeth Phares, the former born in Wayne township, a farmer by vocation and an honored veteran of the Civil war. Mrs. Phares was born at Cincinnati. The parents of William C. Phares were William and Caroline (Imlay) Phares of New Jersey, who passed their lives in Wayne township as farmers, their other children being: J. R. Winfield Scott, Samuel A., George A., Harriet and Mary. William C. and Elizabeth Phares had two children: Joseph, a resident of Wayne township; and Susie, who became Mrs. Pugh. Mr, and Mrs. Pugh have three daughters: Jessie, who married Emil R. Salisbury, a grocer and produce dealer of Beverly, Wash., and has one chird, Gene; Maude, who went to Beverly, Wash., alone as a pioneer teacher for three years, and took the census of her county, riding the 200 square miles of territory on a cow pony, married John Masterson, of Beverly, and has a son, Pat; and Irene, the wife of John Reynolds, of Seven Mile. Mr. Pugh's daughters were given good educational advantages, attending the public schools of Jacksonboro and Oxford. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Pugh located on the old home place, where they have always lived, Mr. Pugh having purchased 180 acres of land. This property is located in section 17, Wayne township, on the old Trace road, built by Anthony Wayne, and is highly improved, with buildings both attractive and substantial. Mr. Pugh carries on farming in a general way, but devotes himself more particularly to raising mixed stock and stock dealing, a field in which he has been very successful. His business transactions have been conducted in a manner warranting his reputation as a man of integrity, and his good citizenship has been evidenced in a number of ways. As a friend of education he has served as a member of the school board. His political sympathies and views make him a supporter of the Republican party. Both Mr. and Mrs. Pugh are widely and favorably known in their county, where both possess a number of warm friends.

John D. Pults. By reason of his large success, his unblemished character, his just and liberal life, and the universal esteem which he enjoys, John D. Pults might, without invidious distinction, be called one of the most honored and prominent citizens of College Corner. For twenty-eight years he has been identified with the Farmers State bank, of which institution he is now cashier, and during his long career has so conducted his activities as to gain and hold the confidence of his associates and the public in general. Mr. Pults was born July 6, 1869, in Lawrence county, Ohio, a son of Charles G. Pults (originally spelled Pulz). The father was born in Germany, and was still a youth when, in 1850, he emigrated to the United States and settled at Cincinnati. Later he went to Ironton, Ohio, where he was manager of the Mount Vernon furnace for several

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years, going thence to Billingsville, Ind., and later locating at College Corner, where his death occurred in 1890. He was a member of the Lutheran church, as was also his wife, who survived him a long time, dying in 1908. Their children were: William L., born July 27, 1860; Charles, deceased; Emily Belle, bookkeeper in the Farmers State bank; and John D. William L. Pults was educated in the public schools, in Miami university, and at Buffalo, N. Y., and then returned to College Corner, where he became a clerk in the store of Bake & Ridenour. Later he was made cashier of the Farmers State bank, a position which he held until his death, December 21, 1918, when he passed away in the faith of the Methodist Episcopal church. He married Leona B. Kingery, and they became the parents of two sons: Watson R., who is in the bank with his uncle; and Cecil C., with the Oxford Milling company. John D. Pults was educated in the home schools and as a young man was identified with drug and hardware enterprises at College Corner until 1891, when he was made assistant cashier of the Farmers State bank of College Corner. For more than twenty-seven years he occupied that position, and at the death of his brother, in December, 1918, took the latter's place as cashier of the institution. A short history of this institution may be apropos in this connection. Prior to the year 1885, the handling of the funds for the shipping interests of the village of College Corner was done principally by a mercantile firm, but in the latter part of the year mentioned, the late John Howell, and O. M. Bake, organized a private institution known as the Corner bank, with the former as president and the latter as cashier. In 1888, W. L. Pults was made assistant cashier and in the following year succeeded as cashier Mr. Bake. In March, 1893, the Corner bank was succeeded by the Farmers bank, with $10,000 paid up capital, John Howell, H. L. Bake, and W. L. Pults forming a co-partnership and taking over the former institution. In October, 1895, Mr. Howell wishing to retire and the need of a larger capitalized stock being. necessary, the Farmers State Bank of West College Corner, Ind., was incorporated under the laws of the state of Indiana which at that time had superior banking laws to those of Ohio. The Farmers bank was absorbed by the new Farmers State bank and a new location was selected just across the state line, and the original $25,000 capital was increased to $35,000 in 1900 and to $50,000 in 1915, with a surplus of $71,000. The officers at that time were: H. L. Bake, president; W. L. Pults, cashier; J. D. Pults, assistant cashier; W. R. Hays, vice president. The number of shareholders had increased from about seventeen to about forty at that time and in 1915 to fifty-seven, and the continued growth of the institution as a state bank has been consistent since its organization. The accumulated surplus had reached $92,000 in 1915, and the deposits have grown to over $600,000. A striking growth such as this, is certainly significant and indicative of broad, careful management in carrying forward a policy based on sound, conservative banking principles, with a service so generous in its every detail that each individual patron feels that his every financial need, looking toward increased prosperity, is constantly safeguarded by the bank. These qualities, combined

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with security and strength evidenced by ample capital and surplus, are factors in the making for the success attained. The present officials of the bank are: H. L. Bake, president; Aaron Gardner, vice-president; J. D. Pults, cashier; and W. R. Pults, assistant cashier. Mr. Pults, during his long connection with this institution, has won and merited the entire confidence of his associates, as well as of the bank's patrons, and has become known as a thoroughly capable financier. He has other large interests at College Corner and in the surrounding territory, and is an extensive dealer in real estate and farm property. As a citizen he has capably discharged the duties connected with positions of civic importance, and in addition to serving as mayor of College Corner has been an active, helpful and constructive worker in the cause of education. He votes the Republican ticket, has been a member of the Modern Woodmen of America for many years, and he and his family belong to the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Pults married Miss Jessie Harpwood, of Butler county, this state, and they are the parents of four children: Gladys J., Emily Gertrude, Harley Harpwood and John Dean.

Joseph H. Pyle is generally regarded as one of the steady and reliable employees of the American Rolling Mill company, at Middletown, with which concern he has been connected in the capacity of heater since 1911. He is one of the men who has made his own way in the world and has relied upon his own initiative and resource to gain his desires and ambitions, and today is in comfortable circumstances due to his persevering industry. Mr. Pyle was born at Martin's Ferry, Ohio, May 28,1869, a son of John Bone and Rachael Isabel (Harris) Pyle. His father, a native of England, was about ten years of age when brought by his parents to the United States, the family settling first in Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. From that state he enlisted for service during the Civil war and continued to bear arms in defense of the Union until the cessation of hostilities between the forces of the North and South. He is still living, in hale old age, at Bridgeport, Ohio, where his wife died May 3, 1919, aged eighty-one years. They were the parents of three sons, Joseph, Hugh and Robert, and one daughter, Nettie, who is the wife of James Beck, all the children except Joseph being residents of Bridgeport. Mr. Pyle's uncle, the Rev. H. D. Fischer, went to Kansas during frontier days and built a church of the Methodist faith. He was a courageous and eloquent minister of the gospel and was also possessed of no mean literary abilities, being the author of "The Gun and the Gospel," a work which possessed a strong appeal and which met with the approval of both press and public. Joseph Pyle, who is familiarly known as Joe to his acquaintances, was given a public school education at Martin's Ferry, and early began to master his trade. This he followed as an apprentice and journeyman, and visited various cities until September 21, 1911, when he came from Martin's Ferry, Ohio, to Middletown, and here entered the employ of the American Rolling Mill company, where his present position is that of a heater. As before noted, he has gained the confidence of his company and through his energy and good management has

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been able to accumulate some means, a part of which is represented in his ownership of a beautiful home on North street, which he erected in November, 1918. He and Mrs. Pyle are consistent members of the Welsh Congregational church, are interested in its work and contribute to its movements. He belongs to the local lodges of the Fraternal Order of Eagles and the Loyal Order of Moose and has numerous friendships therein. In regard to his political adherence, he maintains a liberal stand and is usually found voting for principle rather than party. November 10, 1887, at Bridgeport, Ohio, Mr. Pyle was united in marriage with Hannah Davis, who was born March 19, 1874, at Rhymney, Wales, a daughter of Thomas O. Davis, a resident of Bridgeport and a native of Wales. Mrs. Davis died February 11, 1918, leaving five children: Mrs. Pyle; Oliver, a resident of Middletown; John and Windsor; residents of Follansbee, W. Va.; and Annie, who died July 9, 1918. Mr. and Mrs. Pyle have had four children: Edna, Ralph and Edwin, who reside with their parents; and Edgar, who died when ten days old.

Richard S. Radcliffe. Few of the firms which have been in existence at Hamilton for more than a quarter of a century have a better reputation or standing than that enjoyed by Radcliffe Brothers, druggists. Founded in 1893 this concern has steadily maintained a business policy of standard goods, straightforward dealings, excellent service and high business principles that has served to place the company firmly in public confidence and to stamp its name indelibly upon the public mind as one connected with honorable commercial transactions. Richard S. Radcliffe, the active director of this concern, was born at Arlipgton, Ala., August 3, 1874, a son of Leonard and Elizabeth Radcliffe, the latter from Virginia and the former from Charleston, S. C., and a cotton raiser and commission merchant of Arlington, Ala., where both died. Mr. Radcliffe was a Mason and he and his wife were the parents of two children: W. J., a resident of Rose Hill Avondale, Cincinnati, and president of the E. A. Kinsey company, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who is married and has two children; and Richard S. Richard S. Radcliffe was educated in the public schools of Arlington, Ala., and mastered the profession of pharmacy by studying nights. He was not yet nineteen years of age when he first embarked in the drug business, June 6, 1893, on the corner of Third and Dayton streets, Hamilton, with his brother, W. J. Radcliffe, as an inactive partner, although the firm was known as Radcliffe Brothers. This store was sold in 1911, and the business, now grown to huge proportions under the able management of Mr. Radcliffe, was moved to the building owned by Mrs. Katie Minor, on Second and High streets, which was later torn down to permit of the erection of the Rentschler building, in which Radcliffe Brothers took larger quarters. The flood of 1913 took heavy toll from this business, the firm sustaining a loss of $26,000, but with characteristic energy and enterprse Mr. Radcliffe resumed operations as soon as the flood had receded, and has since carried on his business on even a larger scale than before. His stock is one of the most complete, comprehensive and modern in the state, and the rating of the concern is one that makes its name respected all over the country. In business

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circles of Hamliton, Mr. Radcliffe is universally accounted a man of shrewd business ability, who thoroughly understands every phase and detail of his calling, and whose personal character is so high as to be beyond question. He is a member of the Masons, Elks and Knights of Pythias, and holds membership in the Hamilton club and the Butler County Country club. In 1903, Mr. Radcliffe went to Toronto Canada where he was united in marriage with Edith C. Keighley, who was born and reared in that Canadian metropolis, and both of whose parents are deceased, and to this union there have been born two children: Betty, born in 1907, and George, born in 1909, both attending the graded schools of Hamilton.

John Rahmes, retired farmer of Fairfield township, Butler county, Ohio, was born in Bavaria, Germany, October 19, 1830,.a son of Sextus and Magdalena Rahmes. The parents were born in Bavaria, and lived and died there. They had ten children, five of whom came to America: John, subject of this sketch; George, Veit G., Mary and Abelena. John, our subject, was educated in the schools of his native land, and is self-taught in English. In 1853, accompanied by a sister, he came to the United States and located near Cumminsville, Ohio, where he cut cordwood and later hired out at a wage of $125 per year. Still later, he came to Fairfield township and cut cordwood for William Hunter, afterward worked for the Lindner family, and in the spring of 1855, his parents having died, he paid a visit to his old home in Germany. The visit was prolonged just one year, and on his return in the spring of 1856, he was accompanied by his sister, two brothers and Barbara Fichter, who afterwards became his wife. She was born in September, 1830, and died in 1900. Soon after the return from Germany, Mr. Rahmes located in Fairfield township and rented land in Mill Creek valley on which he remained until 1864, when he purchased the farm on which he now lives. This was then known as the Huston land, and the tract he bought contained 102 acres. A small cabin and stable stood on the land, but they were in bad condition and unfit for use. He built the present home, made many improvements on the place and very materially increased its value. Mr. and Mrs. Rahmes had eight children: Mary, Mrs. Walter Horning, who own the Rahmes homestead; John, retired farmer, lives in Seven Mile, Ohio, married Mary Ratz; Annie, Mrs. Ed. Swartz, deceased; George, a farmer of Hamilton county, Ohio, married Mary Springer; Vite, a farmer of Hamilton, Ohio, married Jessie Margut; Eva, widow of Henry Burke, of Hamilton; Barbara, Mrs. Wm. Rieser, of Symmes Corners, Ohio; Fred, retired farmer, Hamilton; Paulina, widow of Lincoln Jones, of Seven Mile, Ohio. Mr. Rahmes has had a remarkably successful career, but that success was attained only through the hardest kind of labor and deprivations, and he has well earned the comfort and enjoyment of his old age. He is remarkably well-preserved, possesses an excellent memory, and his reminiscences of the pioneer days are most interesting. The only public position ever held by Mr. Rahmes was that of school director. He is a member of Emanuel Lutheran church, at Hamilton, and politically is a Democrat.

Paul W. Redlin. Whatever success Paul W. Redlin has

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achieved in life - and it is considerable - is due entirely to his own well directed efforts. In his youth he started out to make his own way in the world, unaided, and by resolute purpose, indefatigable industry and sound judgment has steadily worked his way upward to a position of independence. In the capacity of manager of the Elite bakery, at Hamilton, he is the directing head of an important business asset of the city, and his ability has done much to bring it to its present high plane. Mr. Redlin was born at Toledo, Ohio, October 5, 1877, a son of Frederick and Johanna Redlin, natives of Germany who came to the United States as children. The mother is now deceased, but the father survives and resides at Toledo. There are four children in the family: Fred, superintendent of the Western Manufacturing company, at Toledo, married and the father of one child; Louise, the wife of Frank Fletcher of Toledo; Ida, the wife of Otto Klink, engaged in the printing business in that city; and Paul W. Paul W. Redlin was educated in the graded schools of Toledo and entered upon his career at the butcher trade. His first personal venture was as a member of the meat market firm of Eckert & Redlin, at Toledo, this association continuing for two and one-half years. After disposing of his interests in this field of endeavor, Mr. Redlin turned his attention to the baker's trade, at which he worked at Toledo for various concerns until 1895, the year in which he came to Hamilton. Here he became identified with the Elite bakery, and soon thereafter purchased stock and was made assistant manager. This post he retained until 1913, in which year he succeeded Mr. Carpenter in the management of the business, the policy of which he has since directed in a capable manner. He is a large stockholder in the concern, which is a member of the Retail Merchants' Association of Hamilton and of the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce. As a business man Mr. Redlin is held in high esteem by his associates, and his known integrity and personal qualities have gained him the confidence and friendship of those with whom he has been associated. Mr. Redlin married Miss Carrie Newmeister, of Upper Sandusky, Ohio, whose father was the proprietor of the leading bakery establishment at Upper Sandusky. Mr. and Mrs. Redlin have five children: David, aged sixteen years; Edward, aged fourteen; Paul, aged eleven; Roy, aged ten; and Ruth, aged seven; all attending the graded schools. The family belongs to the German Methodist Episcopal church.

Thomas E. Reed, M. D. Practically the entire professional life of Dr. Thomas E. Reed has been passed at Middletown, where for more than forty years he has ministered to the sick, given instruction to young men in preparation for the practice of medicine, written and published works of a professional character, and enjoyed great popularity as a general and family practitioner. Deliberately adopting the homeopathic system, from observation of its effect among the sick and conviction of its superiority as a scientific method of therapeutics, he has brought to its practice scholastic training, innate soundness and accuracy of judgment, and a cheerful disposition, and has long maintained a leading place among the

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progressive disciples of Hahnemann in the state of his birth. Doctor Reed was born in October, 1844, on a farm in Dicks Creek valley, four miles south of Middletown, in Lemon township, Butler county, Ohio, a son of William and Margaret (Sigerson) Reed, and is of Scotch-Irish extraction. His grandparents were pioneers, and his ancestors on his father's side came from Ireland, and on his mother's side from Scotland. Both parents were born on Butler county farms, attended the same church, had good common school educations and always lived in the same county. They reared to maturity seven sons and three daughters, and the father lived to be eighty-six years of age, the mother passing away at the age of seventy-seven. Thomas E. Reed, after district school, attended an academy at Monroe, Ohio, for two years, and this was followed by private tutelage under Professor Curran for one winter. He then spent one year at Oxford (Ohio) university, and these last two years were devoted to studies selected with a view of medicine for a profession. This made the course at Oxford university irregular, hence no degree was taken. A three-year course in medicine was then commenced with Dr. W. D. Linn of Middletown as preceptor, and Doctor Reed's first course of lectures was attended at the Cleveland (Ohio) Homeopathic Medical college and the second at the Hahnemann Medical college of Philadelphia, Pa., where he graduated in the spring of 1872. Soon after graduation a temporary partnership was formed with Dr. S. C. Whiting, at Vincennes, Ind., where two or three years were devoted to active practice and valuable experience with an elder man, before Doctor Reed located permanently at Middletown, his present home. While a student at Philadelphia, Doctor Reed was attracted by the following remarkof Professor Hering in his private class: "On the coast, as a rule, children are born as the tide advances, and deaths are more likely to occur as it recedes." This was all the Professor said about it, but it was enough to set young Reed to thinking, and after locating in Ohio, he reasoned thus. "If this be true on the coast, it is also true inland, for law is the same everywhere." From this time on, as his obstetrical practice grew, a system of investigation began and was followed up closely during his whole career of over forty-five years of obstetrical work. The tide cycle, as it is called, is twelve hours long, and therefore the shortest cycle of time; and this, studied in connection with the daily, weekly and monthly cycles of time, makes one of the most valuable and interesting adjuncts a physician can possess in the practice of his profession. After about twenty years, when Doctor Reed had proven the truth and value of the law of cycles, in births, deaths, disease, etc., he conceived the idea that perhaps the sex had its origin in the same law and began a series of investigations along that line, proving to his own satisfaction that this also was true. This proved quite a discovery, when it is considered that scientists have been striving ever since the days of Hippocrates to find what determines sex; and Burdock is said to have compiled a list of over 500 works on the subject of sex determination, but all were simply theories and worthless, while Doctor Reed's theory uncovers a law, and there

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must be a law to succeed. While his investigations have been mainly with the human family, he finds it also true with the lower animals. Doctor Reed at first thought that twins, being often one of each sex, would disprove what he had in mind, but this led to investigations along that line, and, discovering twins to be of two classes, it only further helped to prove and establish the law dominating sex. In 1898 the Doctor wrote a small book, entitled "Cyclic Law," to secure priority of his investigations and discoveries, and published it himself. Following this came a number of Journal articles, including a series of articles in the New York Medical Times, called "The Sex Cycle of the Germ Plasm." Reprints of these were put in pamphlet form and about 500 of them sent to the most prominent scientists and physicians all over the world, from whom came no adverse criticisms. Then, of more recent date, a book of over 300 pages was brought out especially for scientists and physicians, entitled "Sex, Its Origin and Determination," and published by Rebman Company, New York. The press received this latter work with more than ordinary enthusiasm. The Western Medical Review said of it: "An alluring hypothesis from which sooner or later the solution of the formation of sex will surely spring into fact." When a student at Philadelphia, Doctor Reed was elected by the members of the Institute, quaesitor to the chair of clinical medicine, and came under the influence of Professor Hering, who was himself a student of the great Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of the homeopathic school of medicine. These circumstances stimulated an intense interest in materia medica and clinical medicine, in the young physician, which in after years he never lost and which resulted in the unique success he enjoys as a skillful physician. It has been his attainments in this field that has brought him the success he enjoys and the respect and affection of the people of his community. For forty years he has responded cheerfully and readily to the demands of his profession, ever willing to learn and always advancing in professional skill. He has always been fond of quoting the cogent words of his master in medicines, Hahnemann, who said that "he who pretends to treat the sick, and in doing so neglects to equip himself in all possible knowledge and skill, is guilty of no less than a crime." He is well grounded in the principles dominating his profession. Doctor Reed is a member of the International Hahnemannian association, and a senior member of the American Institute of Homeopathy, and has been a consistent and constant advocate of the Homeopathic school of medical practice, it being the only school that can boast of a law, and it is this fact that he attributes the success he has attained in his chosen field. A number of years ago, a Chicago pharmacy offered a prize for the best essay on the principles of Homeopathy, and among forty-seven contestants the Doctor took first prize of $150. Of late years Doctor Reed has given up the more arduous phases of medical practice and now confines himself more to office prescribing and the treatment of chronic diseases. Especially is he interested in the medical treatment of certain diseases, ordinarly supposed to be amenable only to the knife of the surgeon, such as gall-stone, gravel,

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appendicitis, mastoid diseases, glandular inflammations, etc. Here he enjoys unique distinction and patients come to him from many mile distant. But while he had partially retired from active practice, during the recent 1918-19 influenza epidemic, he gladly assumed his share of the great burden it cast upon the shoulders of the medical and nursing professions and responded to the many calls for help, doing as much work as many of the younger men of the profession, and with entire success. The Doctor denounces in toto the recent methods of treating influenza and other acute diseases by the employment of ice bags and other cold applications and exposing the patients to wide open doors and windows, placing them out on porches, or in freezing draughts. All know, assumes the Doctor, that by a law of physics, cold contracts and heat expands, and when the lungs are congested and the patients exposed to cold, the tiny bronchioles contract and the patients are choked in their own secretion. This was the method practiced during the recent epidemic and all are familiar with the terrible losses in the hospitals, cantonments and private homes. The Doctor questions if there is any physician who can explain upon what scientific basis this is practiced. The Doctor further asserts that fresh air, at all times essential, should in these cases be warm air. In short, every acute disease, he firmly contends, demands heat, warm air, hot applications, hot bathing to reduce fever, etc., to assist scientific medication in curing them. Doctor Reed was brought up a Presbyterian, and united with a branch of that denomination when quite young, hard1y realizing its creed but feeling that his parents must be right. When about forty years of age, serious convictions led him to an earnest study of the Bible. This in time changed his whole life, for, as he has said, "if we believe the Bible is of divine origin, we are very unwise if we do not practice its teachings." By his study of the Bible he soon became convinced that the Nominal church is composed of man-made sects and shall "be rooted up," or destroyed; and that "they be blind leaders of the blind," (Matt. 15 :13, 14), and God's children are called out from among them, (Rev. 18:4), as well as out from the world. Jehovah's true disciples though in, "are not of the world." (John 17 :16.) They are told to "come out from among them, and be ye separate." (2 Cor. 6 :17.) These and other similar texts led him out of the sects and from the things of the world, and this is why he takes no part in politics or organizations of any kind. God's true church, the Doctor says, the Bible teaches, is a spiritual organization that originated on the day of Pentecost. They are the "Ecclesia of the first born," whose names are written in the "Lamb's book of life." They are the "few" class in the "narrow" way, or, as the Psalmist says, "thy hidden ones," but from which no one is barred, for anyone can come and take of "the water of life freely;" but only God knows His own. The Doctor believes that the important thing to insure one's sa1vation is to keep the Ten Commandments, which Solomon says is "the whole duty of man." This includes God's Holy Seventh Day Sabbath. He says that we should believe and obey what the Bible teaches, rather than "Science falsely so-called," as says Paul.

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The Doctor, therefore, believes the cosmogony of the Bible rather than the whirling, flying globe theory of philosophers, for which heis convinced there is not a single proof. Doctor Reed has been an earnest Bible student for many years, upon which he wrote a book, entitled "Gleanings New and Old, Garnered from the Word of God," over twenty years ago, and about 3,000 of these have gone out over the English-speaking world. Besides this, he has written numerous articles for the religious press, and as counseled by the Apostle Peter he is "ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you, with meekness and reverence." Until past middle life Doctor Reed affiliated with the Republican party, but for more than twenty years has had no interest in political affairs whatever. He has never held nor accepted any office of any degree. When a young man he joined the Masonic and Royal Arcanum orders, but soon left them, for reasons stated before. In the spring of 1864, at the age of nineteen years, he enlisted in Company G, 167th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, under Col. Tom Moore. The regiment was sent to West Virginia, at the source of the Big Kanawha river, but after being in the service a little more than four months, in which it took part in no special engagements, was ordered home and mustered out. One year after locating at Middletown, Doctor Reed married Annie, eldest daughter of Judge L. D. Doty. Her mother being Lydia Vail, made Mrs. Reed the great-grand daughter of Daniel Doty and Steven Vail, the two men who first settled and laid out the city, in about the year 1800. After she was through with the town school, she attended a seminary near her home, and later Thane Miller's seminary on Mount Auburn. To this union there were born two children: Ada, who died at the age of three years; and Ralph Wallace, who is now a practising nerve and mental specialist at Cincinnati. When Ralph was about three years old, or in November, 1882, his mother died, and in June, 1891, Doctor Reed was married a second time, being united with Miss Frances A. Brown, of a well-known family of Nova Scotia, Canada, who is still his companion. Her parents, John and Augusta Brown, were born in Canada, of Scotch extraction, and Mrs. Reed's education was acquired in private schools.

William S. Reed, M. D. Gilbert Reed was the first of the noted Reed family to cross the Alleghanies and carry the standard of the family into the great west. His father was a revolutionary soldier, and another of the same family, George Malsbury Reed, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Gilbert Reed settled at Franklin, in Warren county, and here he married Catherine (Cummings) Stockton, daughter of John Noble Stockton and Jane (Van Schaick) Stockton. John Noble Stockton was a son of the Rev. Philip Stockton, an Episcopalian minister, who descended from a Richard Stockton, of Princeton, N. J. A grandson of Richard Stockton, Judge John Stockton, donated the land for the occupancy of Princeton university, and was in a measure responsible for the esablishment of this seat of learning. A brother of the Rev. Philip Stockton, was also a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

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Another son of the Rev. Philip Stockton, Lucius Witham Stockton, and a Mr. Stipes organized the National Stage company, operating stages in the early days, prior to the construction of the National highway, from Baltimore, Md., Columbus, Ohio, and Indianapolis, Ind. At one time this company had 2,000 stage coaches in operation between these cities. Jane Van Schaick, who married John Noble Stockton, was of Dutch ancestry of Albany, N. Y., and descended from Seigfreid Schaick, who was with Capt. Henry Hudo~n when he made the memorable trip on the Half Moon up the river which bears his name. Seigfreid Schaick settled in New York state, and one of his descendants, Goosey Van Schaick, became a colonel in the Revolutionary war. Gilbert Malsbury Reed, after his marriage to Catherine (Cummings) Stockton, became a farmer near Franklin, Ohio and to him and his wife were born: John Reed, Richard Cummings Stockon Reed, Gault Redding Reed, Lucius William Reed, Ann Stockton Reed, Lucius Nelson Reed and Lucius Witham Reed, II. Richard Cummings Stockton Reed, father of our subject, received his education at home; in a private academy at Philipsburg, Ohio; Starling Medical college of Columbus, Ohio, and Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio. He has also taught school near Point Union, and at West Chester and Twenty-mile stand. He married, first, Nancy Clark, of Somerville, Ohio, daughter of John Clark, who was a member of the Ohio legislature from Butler county. To Richard Cummings Stockton Reed and Nancy (Clark) Reed were born John Gilbert Reed, in 1853, and Charles Alfred Lee Reed, in 1856. John Gilbert Reed was educated in the National Normal School, Lebanon, Ohio, and Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, and after graduation, practiced his profession in Elmwood, Ohio, and Cincinnati. Charles Alfred Lee Reed graduated from the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, and in 1880, married Irene Daugherty, daughter of John G. Daugherty and Susan (Melrose) Daugherty, of Jersey county, Ill. To Charles Alfred Lee Reed and Irene (Daugherty) Reed were born Winnifred Van Schaick Reed and Charles Lawson Reed. Charles Lawson Reed married Pauline Foster, and to this union two children have been born: Pauline and Lawson. Charles Lawson Reed was educated in private schools in Cincinnati, Culver Military academy and Yale university. In the World war he was Captain of the 322d Field Artillery, 83d Division - was in the memorable engagement at Chateau Thierry, saw other active service in Argonne and was with the Army of Occupation at Coblenz. Winnifred Van Schaick Reed married Roger Culver Tredwell, of the U. S. Consular service in Yokohama, Mukden, Dresden, London, Rome, Milan, St. Petersburg, and for six months was in Turkestan during the Bolshevik disturbances. Dr. Charles Alfred Lee Reed is a noted surgeon and practices in Cincinnati and elsewhere. He is considered one of the best and most skillful surgeons, and calls are made for his services from every part of the country. During the war, he served as Major in the Medical Corps, U. S. A., and was on the General Army staff. His services were of a high order especially in the organization of the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army. Richard Stockton Reed was

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married, secondly, to Susan (Valentine) McClellan widow of Carey McClellan. To this second union were born Horace Greeley Reed, Kate Luella Reed and William Stockton Reed, the immediate subject of this sketch. Horace Greeley Reed was educated in the public schools of Stockton, and the private schools of College Hill, Ohio. He married Elizabeth Tellison, and from this union resulted three children: Richard Cummings Stockton Reed, Anna Reed and Stella Reed, who married John Ripple and has one child. Kate Luella Reed married Frank Elliott and had three children: Charles Alfred Lee Elliott, Ruth Elliott, Harriet Elliott. Ruth Elliott married Gilbert Kinsey, of Los Angeles, and has three children. Charles Alfred Lee Elliott married Anna Bell and has two children. Harriet married Benjamin Evanette, now deceased; has one child, Benjamin. Dr. William S. Reed, the immediate subject of this sketch, was educated in the public schools and in the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery. After his graduation from this institution, he established himself at Stockton, Ohio, where he still continues, receiving a splendid practice from the citizens of Stockton and vicinity for miles surrounding. In 1887, he married Luana Field, daughter of Mason and Minerva (Chappelier) Field, of Butler county. To Dr. Reed and wife were born Hazel Van Brough Reed, Reginald G. Reed, Catherine Reed, Stockton Reed. Mrs. Reed died in Stockton, Ohio. Of the children, Hazel is married to Jefferson Hamilton, of Cincinnati, Ohio. Dr. Reed is very popular with the people with whom his lot in life has been cast. One of the pioneers, and coming in contact with so many persons, friendships have been made that will be lasting even as time itself. Of intensely patriotic ancestry, he was of course, very active in behalf of the measures for which the Government requested support during the war. As to politics, the Doctor is a Democrat. He holds membership in the Knights of Pythias, Elks and Moose lodges.

Fred Reichel. A large percentage of the farmers of Ross township, Butler county, Ohio, is of German parentage and they have demonstrated conclusively that the estimable distinction attained by the Germans for thoroughness in agricultural matters has been well earned. Not only are the agriculturists of German extraction who have won such a warm place in the hearts of all progressive citizens of Butler county highly regarded because of their knowledge of the scientific phases of farming, but they are also held in the highest esteem on account of the fact that during the recent World war they exerted themselves to the utmost in all movements promoted to further the cause of the Allies. The loyalty of these men and their families was such as to evoke the admiration of all liberty-loving persons and the time, labor and money which they contributed to make the Liberty loans and other war activities a success totaled quite an item. Among those who took an active part in the war activities was Fred Reichel of Ross township, who made his influence among his neighbors a decided factor in the success of the various war movements. He showed at all times that he had his heart and soul in the work and no undertaking in connection with the war allotted to him was too big for him to assume and carry to

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successful conclusion. The result of his fruitful activities was that he became more firmly entrenched than ever in the affections of his neighbors. Born in Hamilton county, Ohio, July 16, 1860, he was one of the family of John and Margaret (Hahn) Reichel, two of the children having died in infancy. In addition to Fred, the other children were: Elizabeth, Sophia, Kattie, John, Margaret, William and Amelia. The parents were born in Germany and came separately to the United States, each settling in Hamilton county, Ohio, before marriage. The father died there, while his widow is at present residing in Collinsville, Ohio. Fred Reichel was educated in the public schools and took up farming with his father. In 1885 he married Miss Caroline Bachman, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas Bachman, who lived near Lehigh, Ohio. The latter couple had seven children, of whom five are living: Jacob, Mrs. Mary Wynn, Mrs. Fred Reichel, Amelia and George. After their marriage Fred Reichel and wife settled on a farm in Lehigh, Ohio. They moved to the present farm in Ross township in 1899 and after operating it with success Mr. Reichel purchased the property. It is known as the old James Whipple farm, consisting of 137 acres and was previously known as the Knox place. This property has been improved considerably within the last few years and the annual crop yield is most encouraging. All modern facilities have been installed and the equipment is up to date in every particular. In addition to a general farming business, the raising of hogs, cattle and horses has been made an important adjunct. Six children have been born to this couple: Emma, who married Joseph Leslie and is the mother of two children; Edna and Ruth; Mary, who married Edward Dittman, and is the mother of four children; Helen, Howard, Elmer and Hilda; Ernest, Frederick J., Lillian and Ruth. Fred Reichel has been active in the politics of Ross township, having served as school director and also as assessor. He is identified with the Democratic party. He is a communicant of St. John's Evangelical church.

Jacob Reister, freight agent at Hamilton, Ohio, for the B. & O., and C. I. & W. railways, was born in Hamilton, Ohio, May 2, 1867. He is the son of Jacob and Catherine Reister. Jacob Reister, sr., came to Hamilton when a young man and followed his trade of cabinet making. Later he engaged in the retail coal business and followed that for twenty-five years. He then retired and lived in Hamilton until his death. He was the father of five children. The subject of this sketch received his education in Hamilton and after leaving school he worked for his father a short time and then became connected with the C. H. & D. railway as clerk. After several years of faithful service he was promoted to chief clerk and later was appointed agent at Ivorydale, Ohio, where he remained for five years. Again faithful service received its reward and in October 1907 he was appointed freight agent for Hamilton for the above mentioned road. He was married to Sarah Hays, and to them two children were born: Fred and Evelyn.

John W. Reynolds, manager of the Bell Telephone company at Hamilton, Ohio, has occupied a prominent place in business circles of various parts of the country for a number of years. Not alone

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by native talent and important accomplishments has he been prominent, but also by inheritance of qualities which raised his ancestry far above the level of the middle class. His relatives have figured largely in the history of this country, and his ancestors have all been landholders and cultivated people of gentle birth. His paternal grandfather, a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, married Rachel Johnston daughter of John Johnston, and brother of Stephen Johnston, who was lieutenant-commander of the vessel that opened the ports of Japan to the world. John Johnston came to Ohio in 1792 with the army of Gen. Anthony Wayne, and settled at Upper Piqua, Ohio, as Indian commissioner. In the Civil war, Mr. Reynolds had eleven relatives in the Army of the Cumberland who became commissioned officers, and of these his father, James K. Reynolds, was the youngest. John W. Reynolds was born May 21, 1879, at Covington, Ky., a son of James K. and Laura B. (Weakley) Reynolds, the former still living at Boston, with his son, Charles S., who is engaged in the automobile business. James K. Reynolds enrolled as a member of Company A, 6th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, June 6, 1861, at the age of eighteen years and a few days later his regiment went to West Virginia on a campaign under Brig.-Gen. J. J. Morris against General Garnett, the opposing Confederate commander who was killed at Carrick's Ford. He served with his company in its numerous movements until it reached Beverly, W. Va., where he was ordered by telegram to report to Gen. W. S. Rosecrans at Clarksburg, W. Va., where he was detailed to serve in the adjutant general's office where he remained during General Rosecrans' command of the Army of Occupation in West Virginia. While he was only a private soldier he was readily associated with the best elements of the army and treated as a commissioned officer. He refused the offer of a cadetship at West Point, as he did not care to leave the army, and later was sent to Baltimore to report to Gen. John E. Wool. However, he served at Baltimore only a short time, under Col. W. D. Whipple, chief of staff, and was later ordered to report to Gen. H. G. Wright, at Cincinnati, again in the adjutant general's office. While detailed at Cincinnati, General Rosecrans was appointed to command the Army of the Cumberland, and had Private Reynolds report to him at Nashville, where he arrived November 20, 1862. The General telegraphed Governor Todd of Ohio to commission Private Reynolds, which was accordingly done, and the young soldier became a first lieutenant on Rosecrans' staff. After the battle of Stone River, in which he participated with such distinction that he received a letter of commendation from General Rosecrans, he was appointed acting assistant adjutant general, in which position he served until General Rosecrans was relieved by Maj.-Gen. George H. Thomas. Lieutenant Reynolds' name appears on the copper tablet at the Widow Glenn House, battlefield of Chickamauga, as a member of General Rosecrans' staff. He continued on the staff of General Thomas until June, 1864, when he asked to be relieved and was mustered out of the army, June 23, as first lieutenant Company A, 6th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In West Virginia he participated in the battles of Carrick's Ford, Carnifez

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Ferry, Ganley Bridge, New River, with the Army of Fremont at Cross Lanes and others, and with the Army of the Cumberland in all its battles and skirmishes unltil June, 1864. He was a messmate for a time of both Generals Hayes and Garfield, each afterward president of the United States and was also familiar with Generals Alex McD. McCook, Tom Crittenden, Gordon Grainger, Hooker, Howard and Sheridan. Shortly after his marriage to Laura B. Weakley, he went to Covington, Ky., but subsequently returned to Ohio, and, locating at Cincinnati, became associated with the Standard Wagon company as secretary and treasurer. He was later made manager of the safety and deposit department of the Merchants Natioal bank of Cincinnati, a position which he held until his retirement from active life. He is a first cousin of John H. Patterson, president of the National Cash Register company of Dayton. James K. Reynolds married Laura B., daughter of John W. Weakley, D. D., and granddaughter of the Rev. Charles Swain, both life members of the Cincinnati Conference. She was a first cousin of Rev. H. C. Weakley, also a member of the Cincinnati Conference and founder of Christ's hospital and The Methodist Home for the Aged, College Hill, Cincinnati. Also she was a lineal descendant on her father's side of the Rev. John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrims, first in England, later at Amsterdam, and finally at Leyden, Holland. Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds were the parents of three children: Charles Swain, engaged in the automobile business at Boston, Mass., married Alice Hubbard of Covington, Ky., who died without issue; Edward Lansdale, an electrical engineer, married Esther Payne, of Elmira, N. Y., and has one child; and John William, of this notice. John W. Reynolds attended the graded schools and later a college preparatory school at Covington, Ky., and subsequently went to Walnut Hills. On completing his education, he secured his first position, that of assistant paying teller of the Cincinnati Savings society. Subsequently he was city salesman for the Globe-Wernicke company of Cincinnati, and not long after his marriage, in 1905, to Phoebe Corbett, of Covington, Ky., went south as chief timber inspector for the Georgia Coast & Piedmont railroad, with headquarters at Darien, Ga. Later he entered the service of the Cincinnati and Suburban Bell Telephone company, at Cincinnati, and continued in the traffic department there until December, 1913, when he came to Hamilton to take charge of the offices of the Bell Telephone company. Mr. Reynolds is a Mason, and a member of the Hamilton club, the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce and the Retail Merchants' Association. He is an independent voter. In 1905 Mr. Reynolds married Phoebe Corbett, a scion of the ancient and distinguished family of that name of Shropshire, England, and a granddaughter of an ironmaster of the United States, of English birth. She is a grand-niece of John Corbett, an eminent philanthropist, who was known as the Salt King of England. He was proprietor of the Stoke Prior Salt works, founder of the Corbett hospital at Stourbridge, a governor of the University of Wales and of the University of Birmingham, and a director in the Sharpness New Docks and Gloucester and Birmingham Navigation company. He was a member of

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Parliament for Droitwich from 1874 to 1885 and for Worcestershire from 1885 to 1892. His estate was valued at 412,972 pounds, gross, including personal realty to the net value of 399,420 pounds. Phoebe Corbett Reynolds' mother, Elizabeth Jameson Corbett, was of Scotch-Irish descent, was reared and educated in Canada. Her father, Thomas Jameson, settled in Canada and became a stock farmer and large land owner. His health failing he returned to Scotland and died there. Her mother was a daughter of John Sheldon Peters, a chain manufacturer of Wednesbury, England. Elizabeth Jameson had two brothers, John, a government surveyor in England, and James, who was a lieutenant in the English Army. He died while in the army and is buried in Brampton cemetery, London, England. Elizabeth Jameson Corbett was connected with Professor Jameson, philosopher and writer and a friend and associate of Sir David Brewster. Her great-grandfather was a Presbyterian minister who received his theological training in the University of Glasgow. After the completion of this training he opened a private academy in Ireland which proved very successful. The mother of Robert William Corbett and grandmother of Phoebe Corbett Reynolds was Phoebe Jones, a daughter of James Jones, a wealthy coal mine owner of West Bromwich, Staffordshire, England. He was also the father of Joseph Jones, the owner of the Vleck Iron and Sheet Mills at Walsall, England. He married Hannah Hathaway, whose father owned the Great Eagle Iron works at Great Bridge, England. William Jones, also a son of James Jones, came to America, settled in New York and was the Jones of the firm of Otis & Jones, elevator manufacturers of New York, N. Y. He was also a robe and hat manufacturer.

William Rigling. The name of William Rigling, president of The Rigling Realty company, has become as familiar to the present generation of Hamiltonians as a household word, being indissolubly associated in the mind of the public with a number of important enterprises which have not only added to the city's prestige, but have also placed comfortable homes within reach of the industrial classes, and have incidentally added to the projector's wealth. His biography is one which is a record of marked achievements, accomplished before their architect has reached the age when slower minds are beginning to comprehend life's possibilities. Mr. Rigling was born at Hamilton, Ohio, a son of Joseph and Rose (Holzer) Rigling, of this community. Joseph Rigling, now deceased, has been a prominent resident of Hamilton for many years, his wife and sons are well known and highly respected businessmen of the community. He and his wife have the following children: Joseph, jr., William, Rose, Edward, Josephine, Leo, Paul and Anna. William Rigling was educated in the Catholic parochial schools of Hamilton, following which he pursued a commercial course in a business college. At the age of fifteen he was employed as a clerk, which position he held for five years, starting to work at a meager wage of $2.50 a week. However, from this small salary he managed to save a part each week by starting a saving account in a local building association, his first deposit being fifty cents. From his steady work

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and increase of wages he accumulated a sufficient amount to acquire additional education. At the age of twenty years he embarked upon a tour of Europe, traveling over a part of France, Germany, Switzerland and Northern Italy. During this trip, which extended over quite a period, he attended the Paris Exposition. This experience, Mr. Rigling has always felt, was better than a college education to him, for he became broadened in his outlook upon life, while his contact with many peoples equipped him with a knowledge of human nature which has been of inestimable value to him in assisting him to reach his present position. In the year 1915, Mr. Rigling entered the field of real estate, in which he has been engaged ever since, and at present occupies a well-appointed suite of offices in the Rentschler building, where he has every facility for the handling of all business connected with his line of business endeavor. Mr. Rigling's methods in some cases have been novel, but they have been successful beyond what might have been conceived at the outset, his motto "that it must be a square deal for both buyer and seller if deal is made through this office," and his strict enforcement thereof, has brought to him unusual success. His plan has been to purchase large tracts in and adjacent to the city, which he plats, and in addition to selling the lots unimproved, has built homes for people in moderate circumstances, which the latter have purchased by payments in installments. In this way have been built up districts theretofore unimproved, and which would have remained comparatively worthless had their development been left to individual effort. At the present writing, the Rigling Realty company is building seventy-two new homes at Hamilton, in anticipation of the demand for housing facilities created by the advent of the new massive Ford plant, and fifty of these homes have already been completed. Several other tracts are to be developed by him in the near future. Mr. Rigling is positive yet not dogmatic in character, is intuitive and far-sighted in intellect, in tastes cultivated and refined, and in his relations to his fellow-men at once upright and liberal. He was married in 1905 to Miss Josephine, daughter of Bernard and Katherine (Holbrock) Pater, of Hamilton, and they are the parents of the following children: Mary Louise, Catherine, Rosaline, Bernard, Cecelia, Ralph, Jovetta and Agnes. The children are being educated in the parochial school of St. Stephens. Mr. and Mrs. Rigling are devout Catholics and active in the various movements of their church. Mr. Rigling is a member of the Knights of Columbus, and a member of local commercial organizations, and Mrs. Rigling was for a number of years a church organist. Also they were active and liberal in their support of all civic movements for a greater Hamilton and those connected with war work.

Frank Riker. Few of the business establishments of Butler county can lay claim to a longer, and none to a more honorable, record than that established by the undertaking and embalming firm of S. P. Riker & Son. For more than a half a century this business has been conducted along a policy of fair dealing and upright transactions, and its place in public confidence is one that can only be gained after a concern has shown itself eminently trustworthy and

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honorable. While the founder of this business has passed away, it is still conducted by a member of the family, his son, Frank Riker, who inherited with his father's business ability his high principles, probity and integrity, and who has steadfastly maintained the high standards that assisted the elder man in gaining such an eminent place in the esteem of his fellow-men. Samuel P. Riker, the founder of the business, was born in Hamilton county, Ohio, March 18, 1842, a son of William and Sarah (Balser) Riker, natives of the same county, where they spent their lives in agricultural pursuits. When they passed away, Samuel P. Riker was still a lad and he was reared in the home of a Mr. Humphries, of the same county, with whom he resided until he was seventeen years old. At that time he began to learn the trade of wagon maker at Sharonville, Ohio, but like numerous other youths of his day had his career interrupted by the outbreak of the Civil war. In 1862 he enlisted in Company E, 81st Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, with which he went to Arkansas Post and took part in the battle of Vicksburg, the engagement at Jackson, Miss., the Red River Expedition and the battle of Mobile. In one of these engagements he received a gun-shot wound in the arm, which member was partly paralyzed and troubled him later throughout his life, although he remained with his regiment until receiving his honorable discharge at Camp Dennison, July 24, 1865. After the close of his gallant military service, he returned to Sharonville, where he secured employment at his trade, but in July, 1867, removed to Reily, which was to be his home during the remainder of his life. His injury received in the army bothered him while working at his trade, and in 1869 he turned his attention to the undertaking business, with which he was identified until his death, October 11, 1917. He was a staunch Republican, and his religious affiliation was with the Presbyterian church at Reily, of which his wife, who died April 12, 1914, was also a member. She was Martha A., daughter of Cyrus and Myra Grisson, of Butler county, Ohio, who later in life went to Illinois, where they died. Samuel P. and Martha A. Riker had six children: William, deceased; Ennis, who is in the music business at Reily; Cora, deceased; Frank, of this notice; Homer, a farmer in the Reily community; and Laura, deceased. Frank Riker was born at Reily, Ohio, where he received his early education in the public schools. Later he took a course in a commercial school, and when sixteen years of age went to Chicago, where he took a course in embalming. In 1898 he went to Boston college, and in 1900 returned to Reily, where he became associated with his father in business and remained with him until the elder man was claimed by death. He has since continued the business alone and has not changed the firm style of S. P. Riker & Son, nor the firm policy of upright and honorable dealing. Mr. Riker was married in August, 1916, to Mabel Kennard, of Butler county, daughter of R. J. and Nancy Kennard, the former of whom was a farmer and is now deceased, while the latter survives and is a resident of Reily. He is a valued member of the Knights of Pythias and Odd Fellows at Oxford and of the Masons at Reily.

Bernard Ringold was born in Saxe-Weimar, Germany, January

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16, 1841, a son of Carl and Ernestine (Mueller) Ringold. Carl Ringold died in Germany, and Mrs. Ringold with her children, Bernard and Pauline, came to this country, settling in Cincinnati. Bernard had learned the baker's trade while in Saxe-Weimar, and became active at his trade in the Ohio city. Pauline, his sister, married August Polster. The mother, Mrs. Ernestine Ringold, died in Cincinnati. The detail of enlisting was too lengthy a process so Ringold went to New York City, where red tape did not retard a soldier's progress in getting into action. Here he enlisted in the first New York Cavalry, one of the most famous horse outfits in the history of the country, and one which aided McClellan along service in Shenandoah valley, one of the bloodiest battlegrounds of the Civil war. At Winchester he served under Sheridan, and here he was wounded and captured, and soon after placed in Libby prison, where he remained for nine months. At the close of hostilities, immediately following his release from the Richmond prison, he came to Oxford. He tells one interesting story of the war, an experience romantic, picturesque, and with a touch of sadness. It is this: His uncle, Frederick Ringold, also served in the Civil war, and during the terrific battle of Sharpsburg, nephew and uncle met at a creek, while watering their horses. They exchanged a few words, but both being under active orders were granted but a brief moment for greeting. With a wave of the hand, Bernard galloped away to the fight, and his uncle leaped to his horse and spurred his horse back to his regiment's lines. It was the first time Bernard Ringold had seen his uncle for years, and he has never seen him since. Bernard Ringold comes from fighting stock, and his family, for three generations, fought for the United States. Two brothers of his grandfather fought on the American side during the Revolutionary war. After the close of the Civil war, Mr. Ringold, with his wife, who was Pauline Neuhaus, and whom he had married in 1865, settled in Oxford, Ohio, where he opened a bakery, in which business he continued until 1918 and his goods were known and demanded for miles around Oxford. Mrs. Ringold was a daughter of Carl Neuhaus and was a favorite among her friends, and with her husband, became quite prominent. During the years of his business, he acquired a considerable amount of property in Oxford and other towns. He was, several years ago, elected president of the Oxford Realty and Loan association, which office he has filled ever since. In civic affairs he served in the village council and on the school board. To Mr. Ringold and his wife have been born the following children: Maria, Edwin, Carl, and Pauline. Maria, now deceased, was married to George Marypenny. Pauline married Edwin Bryer, of Middletown. Carl is engaged in the baking industry, and Edwin is an artist. Mrs. Ringold passed away in April, 1919. Mr. Ringold is one of the prominent business men of Oxford, active in K. P., Odd Fellow, and Civil War Veteran circles. In politics he is a Democrat.

Rev. Daniel F. Rittenhouse, minister and popular lecturer, son of George and Charlotte L. (Parrott) Rittenhouse, was born March 14, 1882, near Delaware, Ohio, on a farm owned and operated by his father. This was the old homestead, where father and son were both

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born and reared in the same house. Their ancestors were prominently identified with and took part in the great events in the early settlement of our country. William Rittenhouse, who with others came from Holland in 1688, built the first paper mill in America at Rittenhousetown, now a part of Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, and in 1703 became the first bishop of the Mennonite church in this country. The subject of this sketch received his early education in the district school and then went to Doane academy, a preparatory school for Denison university, from which he graduated in 1902. On completion of the sophomore year at Denison university, he went to San Jose, Calif., and graduated from the University of the Pacific. Mr. Rittenhouse next entered Berkeley Baptist seminary, and after graduation there in 1909, went to Great Britain and Europe, spending 1909-1910 in study. Some time was also passed in Africa and Asia, after which he came directly to Middletown, Ohio, taking charge of the First Baptist church of which he was pastor eight years. He is now pastor of First Baptist church, Columbus, Ohio. Mr. Rittenhouse was married in 1911 to Miss Lillie C. Cress, daughter of John S. and Mary A. Fry, both of whom are descendants of old established families of England. To this union four children have been born: Lloyd-George, Lawren Baxter, Mary Louise and Daniel F., jr. Mr. Rittenhouse is a versatile, educated man who has gained distinction not alone in his chosen profession of minister but in almost every phase of life's activities. He enjoys unusual popularity as a speaker and lecturer, and his addresses on social, economic and religious subjects have attracted attention not only in the United States but throughout England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Europe as well. He has made two transcontinental trips, visiting all the large cities of the west. He is personally acquainted with Lloyd George, of England, and while in London received an invitation from Sir Charles Roberts. a Scotch member of Parliament, to visit the House of Commons. A zealous advocate of temperance, Mr. Rittenhouse has been an active worker in all dry campaigns in the state and was the first president of the Butler County Dry Federation. During the late war he was a member of the National Speakers' Bureau of the American Red Cross. He is also a member of the Men's club of Franklin, and of the Chamber of Commerce. Politically he is a Republican, holding liberal views.

Amel Ritter. Prominent among the younger element of the agricultural representation of Butler county is found Amel Ritter, whose finely cultivated property is located in Wayne township, not far from the village of Seven Mile. Mr. Ritter was born in Wayne township, February 29, 1871, a son of Jacob and Melinda (Jacobs) Ritter. Jacob Ritter was born on the River Rhine, Germany, in 1825, and attended the schools of his native land, receiving a good educational training. In 1856 he came alone to America on a sailing vessel which consumed forty-eight days in making the voyage, his first location being at Fort Hamilton. During his voyage on the Ohio river, he witnessed a slave market held on a boat off the Kentucky shore, during which a number of the slaves attempted to escape but were recaptured by their owners. Mr. Ritter took up his

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residence at Woodsdale, Ohio, subsequently went to Collinsville, and finally located in Wayne township settling on the farm now occupied by his widow and son, in section 18. There he made all the improvements, put his land under cultivation, and continued as a progressive and industrious farmer all his life, his death occurring September 20,1909, when he was eighty-four years of age. Mr. Ritter became a substantial and influential citizen in his community, and served on the school board for many years. He was a Democrat in his political views, and a member of St. John's German Lutheran church at Hamilton. He married Melinda, daughter of Fred Jacobs of Woodsdale, a pioneer of that community, and they became the parents of eight children, as follows: Edward, who was a hotel keeper of Cincinnati and died in 1915; Henry, who died on the home farm at the age of forty-two years; Amelia, the wife of J. W. Augspurger, of Lemon township, Butler county; Amel; Ida K., the wife of J. E. Cooper, of Chicago, Ill.; Elizabeth, the wife of Wilbur Daugherty, of Seven Mile, Ohio; Daniel, a photographer of Chicago; and one child who died in infancy. Amel Ritter was educated in the public schools of Wayne township, and has always lived at the old home place where he was reared. Agriculture has been his life work and he has made a success in the departments of general farming and stock raising, making somewhat of a specialty of breeding Jersey Red hogs, Polled Durham cattle and Draft horses. In addition to the home acres Mr. Ritter farms other land in Wayne township, Butler county, and all of his property is very productive and improved with the best of buildings and equipment. He uses modern methods in his work, making a particular study of each phase of agricultural invention and advancement. He is also somewhat of a student of current events, being a well-read man, fond of his home and his library. He is unmarried and makes his home with his mother, and both are members of the Presbyterian church, attending services at Collinsville. Mr. Ritter's agricultural work has been sufficient to satisfy him, and he has never had the inclination to serve in public office, although as a good citizen he places his name on the list when worthy movements are advocated. His political sympathies cause him to support Democratic candidates for office.

Daniel J. Roberts, a well known farmer, son of George W. and Mary (Rumple) Roberts, was born in St. Charles, Morgan township, Butler county, January 2, 1856. His paternal grandparents were John and Elizabeth (Guilder) Roberts. His father, George W. Roberts, was born in Virginia, and came to Butler county with his parents, who were also parents of the following children: Adeline, who married Daniel Rumple; Emma, Mrs. Wilson; Margaret; Mary, who became the wife of John Willett; David, William and Edward, all deceased; Daniel; and George, the father of Daniel J. Roberts, the subject of this biography. David and Edward Roberts served throughout the Civil war, the latter losing life in battle. John Roberts, the grandfather, also fought in the Civil war, and was lost in action. It is thought that the brave old soldier was killed, as he was never heard from again. George W. Roberts, Daniel Roberts' father, married Mary Rumple, and settled in Morgan township. She

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was a daughter of Daniel Rumple, a pioneer merchant of Butler county, who had conducted a hardware business at Hamilton. George Roberts and his wife spent their entire lives in Morgan township. Their children were: Daniel J.; Albert, who lives in Richland, Mo.; Orella, who became the wife of Samuel Gillespie; and Edgar, deceased. Daniel J. Roberts attended school in Morgan township, and at Hamilton, after which he engaged in farming. In 1877 he married Addie De Armond, daughter of Randolph and Mary (George) De Armond. After marriage, Mr. Roberts and his wife settled in Morgan township, on the old Morehouse farm. Their union has been blessed with these children: George, James, Lora, Effie, Phoebe, Imogene and Grace. George Roberts married Carrie Prall, who lives in Hamilton, and has two children, Eugene and Dorothy; James married Alta Cornett, and with their one child, they reside with his father. Lora died some years ago. Effie became the wife of Frank Durham, and has two children, John and Margery. Phoebe has not married. Imogene was married to Clarence Connett, and their home is in Carthage. They have one child, Willard. Grace has not married. Daniel J. Roberts' farm is one of great natural beauty, and in size totals 121 acres. Upon this farm, besides his agricultural work, he raises fine Jersey cattle, and today is the owner of seventeen head. During the war Mr. Roberts entered actively into home service in connection with all patriotic activities. In politics, he is a Democrat.

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