Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Arowhenua

There is a Maori Church at Temuka which replaced the 1866-1931 building. The mission church, Holy Trinity, was consecrated by Rev. J. Stack on August 1866. The foundation stone for the later church was laid by Bishop F.A. Bennett, Bishop of Aotearoa, on November 1, 1931 and the church consecrated March 5 1932 by Archbishop West-Wastson assisted by Bishop Bennett, the Vicar (Rev. G. Nelham Watson) and other members of the clergy. This attractive Anglican church was built by Mr. H. Andrews of Temuka and contains one stained glass window "Christ and the children", a white friar window, commemorating Leslie V. Talbot, the Sunday School Superintendant 1909-1942, who died 28 March 1964. Dedication described in the Timaru Herald Oct. 10 1966 pg. 5.

Photo taken by Margaret Todd, April 2007.
Holy Trinity Anglican Church is directly across the street from Arowhenua War memorial arch. There is a large churchyard cemetery behind the church. The cemetery is a credit to the community. Recently mown.  Situated on the corner of State highway 1 and Huirapa Street at Arowhenua, between the Opihi and Temuka rivers.

Timaru Herald 16 January 2007
Preparations are well under way for the 75th anniversary of the Holy Trinity Anglican Church in Arowhenua in March. Reverend Andrew Starky said the birthday celebrations would be held on March 4. A service would be held at 10am in the church, followed by lunch at the Arowhenua Marae. The church replaced an old wooden church at the Arowhenua site in 1932. In preparation for the birthday celebrations, the church's floors had been touched up and the east window had been replaced and the leadlights renovated. The exterior of the church will also be painted. "The church is a special part of Temuka's history and many recognise the building," Rev. Starky said. He said the church had been a meeting place for Maori and Pakeha in the area. "Although it's an Anglican church it has always been open to other denominations," he said. The church is the only one of its kind remaining in the area. Services are held twice a month.

Arowhenua 1905

Temuka Leader 17 June 1905 Page 2 HE OPENING OF THE NEW MAORI HALL.
No doubt the whole population of Temuka, both pakeha and Maori, thought unutterable things on looking out of their respective windows on last Thursday morning, when they saw the dull leaden sky, without a break in it, and the steady rain pouring relentlessly down. One might say that at the ceremony at the pa there was plenty of everything, plenty of food, plenty of rain, and plenty of mud and very little fine weather. It was a thousand pities that the clerk of the weather had not thought fit to supply a fine, cairn, warm day for the ceremony of opening the now Maori Hall at the Arowhenua pa, not only would it have been far pleasanter for all who were present, but no doubt the inclement weather kept hundreds of, people from Timaru, and all the outlying districts from attending the celebrations, who, if the day had only been fine, would have been only too glad to come out and spend the day in witnessing the quaint customs and observances of our Maori brothers. It was no doubt a dreadful disappointment for the Maoris, who had for weeks been making strenuous exertions and preparations in order to ensure the affair passing off pleasantly. As it was, however; everyone had to make the best of a bad job, and it showed that a good many people were not afraid to risk their clothes and complexions, when we state that the estimated attendance at the pa was about 800.

 Temuka Leader 20 April 1912 Page 4 Opening of new road.
Greenstone Island, a Maori reserve, on the north side of the Opihi river mouth.
    THE MAORI WELCOME. Mr Kahu, in true Maori fashion, assisted by others  gave the Maori haka of welcome, and afterwards extended a hearty welcome to all on behalf of all the Maoris. At one time down there they were 800 strong, but now there were only a few living, himself and Mr Rickus being the two oldest among them. He was glad to be spared to see the new road opened and he thanked Mr Buxton and all those who had done what they could in the matter. That day was a day of happiness for all of them in opening the new road. But where were the Maoris? Many had passed away, and only a few were left. He and his Maori brethren were very pleased at what was being, done.
Over a large mass of soft clayey soil arose a volume of steam, which inciealcd the presence of the Maori oven. The contents were concealed beneath, and there was no possibility of opening the even door - to see how the cooking was going on. As soon as the oven was open the shouts of “Kapai te taiwa" announced that in Te Whiti's own language that the potato was cooked, and Pakeha and Maori were as one at the feast. The roast bullock was as nicely cooked as one could wish for, and among those who look part in the feast were the feast Buxton and Mrs Buxton, the former of whom seemed quite at home with his Maori friends.
     A native tree, kindly given by Mr F. Saunders, was planted by Hoani Kahu during the afternoon.
    The bunting flying at the Lagoon helped to make the scene a picturesque one, and several Maori tribal flags were noticed. One “Maririhau" the flag of the late Eruera Waaka, better known as Kaitai. He was the last chief of the local pa, and was one of the pioneers in this present movement. Another tribal flag was "Te Tamau", belonging to Mr Rickus.

 Timaru Herald 13 August 1902 Page 4
To the Editor of the " Timaru Herald." Sir, We noticed in your report of the Coronation proceedings at Temuka that Henry Kahu was the chief of the Arowhenua pa. We wish, in justice to ourselves and to - Eruwera Waaka, the real chief of the Arowhenua pa, to state that Henry Kahu is not chief. The tribe that occupy the Arowhenua-pa was never conquered by Te Rakitaamau, but Mr H. Kahu is a mixed descendant of both tribes, and not chief. The Arowhenua Maoris are the Ngatihuirapas, and have never been conquered by anybody. Thanking you for allowing us space to correct this statement, as the Arowhenua people feel rather keenly on the subject. We are, etc., JAMES RICKUS, TEONE TTKAO, HAPE TALPANA.

A Biggs family photo from the Pleasant Point district was backed with a print, a Maori group, Rakaitauheke, written on the banner. Turns out to be the Arowhenua leader Kaitai Tarawhata (older white-bearded man with what looks like a fur cap with feather, and cloak) in the centre. Reminds me of the Antiques Roadshow phenomenon. There was an episode where they removed the nails holding a painting into its frame and found another, older painting or lithograph print behind it. People would reuse cardboard from older works to brace newer ones. As a backing board it probably protected the print from the ravages of time and the print is probably worth more than the painting.

The Temuka Museum is a source of additional photos.

Timaru Herald, 25 July 1879, Page 2
The condition of the Arowhenua Cemetery reflects the greatest credit on those who have the management of it. It was damaged to a certain extent by surface water during the last flood, but it has since more than regained its former pleasant appearance. The whole of the cemetery having been recently mown, a great variety of very pretty flowers and shrubs are exposed to view. The graves and paths are particularly well attended to, and look very neat indeed. A great need has been recently supplied, by the erection outside the cemetery of a number of posts, strained with wire, to which 100 horses can be comfortably fastened. A visit to the cemetery will greatly please those - who admire neatness and order.

Photos from April 2014.


Immortelle - memorial wreath under a glass dome.  The glass dome with artificial flowers inside often sometimes have an inscription.   They were also called a memorial wreath. Sometimes up to three on a gravestone. A few might have a message inside the glass domes on paper, and the hand writing maybe faded. Over time some of the dome have been damaged.

To the Glory of God and to commemorate the opening of the original Holy Trinity Church by Canon J.W. Stack on 26th August 1866
3/26/1477 Lance Corporal Henry Tuuta Whaitiri New Zealand Army, New Zealand Infantry. Died: 22 March 1942. Age: 22. Henry Whaitiri s/o Te Wera and Charlotte Ngawai Whaitiri, of Arowhenua
Mohi Thomas TUUTA late of Chatham Islands July 11th 1926 aged 24. Taylor & Son.
Hinewai Taorangi 25 October 1890. Stocks Ch.
James C. Rickus died June 11 1896 aged 8 years. Grandson of the late Chief Horomona Pohio of Ngai Tahu and Ngatimamoe who held the right of these tribes "Hapu" Tuahuriri Manawa Maru Rakaitauheke Tekaue Taokaa Terakitamua and Huirapaa.
Mere Henare Kokoro Tiratahi 19 September 1916
Henere Kokoro Tiratahi 1911
Maryan Riwai Kahuti Oct. 14 1897 aged 17 years
Imateite Akuhata 1897
Rahiri Kaipuke died 1913 aged 20.
William Gray died May 30th 1895 aged 23 years
814946 Sgt. Olga W. Walker 2nd NZEF W.A.A.C. Died 19.3.1976 Aged 59 years.
Miriana Kerei Kahuti 1927
Wiremu, Hopa, Fowler, Torepe Tupai 1930s-40s burials

Reference: Papers Past
Otago Witness
, 21 June 1905, Page 18 MAORI COUNCIL HALL AT TEMUKA.
THE OPENING CEREMONY. For some weeks past the Maoris in both islands have looked forward with eagerness to the opening ceremony at the new Maori Council Hall at Arowhenua pa, near Temuka. Some time ago the old Arowhenua Council Hall was destroyed by fire, and its destruction was a severe blow to the Ngaitahus and Ngatimamoes residing around Temuka. It was said to be the first council hall of its kind erected in the South Island, and it was the scene of many a stirring debate upon the perfidy of the Government of this colony, in as much as the Maoris allege that certain promises in respect to land grants to the Natives, have not yet been fulfilled. Students of-Maori ethnology know that the average Maori is keenly fond of a "korero," and the wise men and patriarchs of the various tribes can descant in their native tongue upon tribal questions with surprising facility of expression. The necessity for a new hall galvanised the Temuka Natives into activity, stimulated by the promise of a Government grant of £200 conditional upon raising a similar amount by the Natives themselves. This they succeeded in doing, and a fine substantial meeting house has just been built, costing £500. It has been named after the one burnt down. "Te- Hapa o niu Tirene," a comprehensive title, which, freely translated, means that the New Zealand Government has never fulfilled a promise given to the Ngaitahus that certain lands would be restored to that once powerful tribe. Thus the Arowhenua Council House stands as a constant reminder of the shortcomings of our Government in respect to this phase of the Native lands question, and the cream of the joke lies in the fact that the present Government has helped to perpetuate the reminder with a subsidy of £200. Thus it will be seen that the new meeting house is invested with great mana, and prominent Maoris from north and south gathered together to witness the opening ceremony. Three very large marquees were erected near the hall, and comprised a dining room, a sleeping room for the women, another for the men, and a number of bell tents were scattered about for the accommodation of visitors of rank.
    On Tuesday evening: the weather was clear and fine, and the visitor was rewarded with many picturesque sights. A huge camp fire was burning in front of the camp, and around it were seated a group of old men and women, smoking away in a silence that was eloquent. From another camp fire, a couple of chains away, came peals of merry laughter from a score of piccaninnies, who danced about the fire with torches of blazing straw, the laughter being punctuated at times with a cry of pain when a bare brown foot trod upon a red ember. In the dining hall a large number of Maoris had gathered to hear the discussion upon the morrow's programme by the chiefs, and one noticed the transitional stage when" a motion was discussed in Maori and the division taken with "Aye" and "No." "All the same pakeha," as one old Maori aptly expressed it. The amount of oratory expended on the raising of a flag or the precedence of the various speakers was abnormal. By midnight the caucus was hushed in silence, the fires had burned out, and the moon, shining palely through a filmy haze, softly vapourised the outlines of the sleeping- camp.
    Morning broke in a thick, drizzling rain, which, completely spoilt the success of the gathering. Elaborate arrangements had been made to entertain both Maori and pakeha visitors, large numbers of whom were expected to witness the ceremony. Hopes were entertained that the weather would clear at noon, but by that time the roads and camp were muddy sloughs, and gum boots and goloshes in great demand.
    Shortly after 1 p.m. loud shouts of " Powhiri ! Powhiri !" announced the arrival of the Hon. A. Pitt, Attorney-general, and visiting chiefs, and a number of Natives gathered in front of the entrance gate and performed the " Powhiri," or haka of welcome. In the meantime the visitors had dismounted from their vehicles and advanced in a slow march, in accordance with Native custom, the powhiri meanwhile increasing in lusty fervour and gesticulation. The visitors, amongst whom were the Hon. A. Pitt, Tame Parata. M.H.R., Messrs Buxton (Mayor of Temuka). Flatman, M.H.R., Toomey. M.L.C. ,Taiaroa, and others were conducted to a raised platform, where they were welcomed by Mr G. Robertson, an erstwhile wrestler and a chief of rank. He presented the Hon. A. Pitt with a beautiful Maori bag of rare excellence, and an address of welcome was read in English by P. Piper, after which the Attorney-general addressed the assemblage, his remarks being translated into Maori by Mr T. Parata, M.H.R. The Minister thanked them for the invitation to be present, congratulated them upon possessing such a fine hall, and hoped their land grievance would vanish and that they would have a satisfactory settlement. He impressed upon them the urgent necessity for better sanitation in their kaingas, and congratulated them upon having Mr Parata as honorary sanitary assistant to Dr Pomare, who was doing such noble work amongst them as medical and sanitary adviser. He hoped that ere long arrangements would be made whereby young Maori women would be enabled to undergo a course of hospital training as nurses. They would then be able to return to their people and teach them up to-date methods of rearing and nursing infants, and thus help to reduce the terrible infant mortality at present so rampant in kaingas. Several other speakers also gave short speeches, but the rain was an effective time limit, and Colonel Pitt declared the hall open, and the friendly shelter proved very acceptable.
    The accommodation was unequal to the demand, a large number of visitors having driven up from Timaru and the surrounding districts. Large tables were arranged in the hall, and as soon as the fortunate ones were seated a large bullock, which had been roasted whole in an " umu." or Maori oven, was carried into the hall to the tune of an appropriate haka, which afforded the pakeha visitor much amusement.  After the bullock had been disposed of, a second umu was opened, and a fragrant aroma revealed the near presence of a large number of steaming plum puddings, cooked in flax platters. After the feast the visitors were entertained with several poi dances and hakas, but as these were given in the hall very few of the pakeha visitors saw them, the hall not being large enough to accommodate one-half of those who desired to be present. Many of the visitors had had no lunch, and fully expected to find plenty at the camp, and bad weather never entered into their calculations. Many amusing bits of by-play were observed as some of the gentlemen went foraging for eatables for their lady friends, who were not only very hungry, but also very wet. A number of hakas, potohiris, puahas, and poi games had been practised by the Natives for months previously, and the bad weather proved mutually disappointing. The people at Arowhenua pa had focussed their energies upon the opening ceremony for months, in order to make it a success befitting the occasion, but the weather they could not control, so "taihoa."
    The hall is a neat wooden structure, 84ft by 22ft, with a stage, 24ft by 12ft, neatly adorned with a pretty drop-scene. It was decorated inside with festoons of maple and ribonwood leaves, and a number of beautiful Maori mats made a unique decorative dado. The only Maori features about the exterior are a grotesque tiki and carved barge-boards above the entrance at the front of the building.
    The Tarawhata family generously presented a piano for the hall, Mr Taiaroa gave a large clock and a gong, and the Kahu family donated a large mirror for the dressing. Other donors presented various utilities, and altogether the council house at Arowhenua pa has entered upon its sphere of usefulness under very favourable auspices.

Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 9 November 1859, Page 2
[From the Lyttelton Times, October 19.]
At Arowenua Bush, we hear, a fire also broke out, destroying an amount of property estimated, according to several statements, at £1,000.

Daily Southern Cross, 1 July 1859, Page 3
Horomona Othio, of Waimatemate, Tarawhata Tane, of Timaru, and Miaru, of Timaru, have been appointed native assessors.

Otago Witness, 31 January 1863, Page 2
Great Fire at the Arowenua Bush — A fire broke out in the Arowenua Bush last Monday, which, I am sorry to say, has been attended with most disastrous consequences to the bushmen and other parties interested. An inquest into the origin of the fire will be held I believe on Wednesday next, at present it is involved in mystery. For the whole week the fire has been steadily burning, causing great destruction ; nearly all the stacked firewood, some 300 ends belonging to the different parties, has been completely destroyed, and a large quantity of standing timber. Yesterday, in the bush, the fire was still burning with unabated fury, being greatly augmented by the strong nor' wester then blowing. It is to be hoped that this morning's rain will do something towards quenching the flames, but I fear that hardly enough has fallen to do much good. The Maories its also have suffered, not only in the loss of standing timber, but also by the destruction of some of their huts which the fire swept down in its course.

Daily Southern Cross, 10 January 1866, Page 5
Government Gazette. The post-office and at Arowhenua, in the province of Canterbury, has been closed.

Otago Witness, 10 February 1866, Page 16
Timaru Herald says "We are informed that Mr J. Pilbrow and Mr H. Rayner, a short time ago, went in company with a number of Maoris to fish for partiki, on the beach near the Maori pah at Arowhenua. They were out for two nights and a day, and daring that time succeeded in securing about a ton and a-half of fish. Mr Pilbrow went into the water up to his chin, with a line and strong hook baited with a piece of flounder, when he secured a shark five feet long, containing twenty-five young ones ; and on going in again, he caught a grouper weighing fifty pounds. The sea along the beach appears to swarm not only with grouper, but sharks also ; anglers must therefore be very cautious."

Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 9 February 1867, Page 3
The district, which is certainly the finest agricultural one in Canterbury, is getting settled very fast, and the timber from its various 'bushes' is disappearing with ever-increasing rapidity. The once extensive bush at Arowhenua is now reduced to a few straggling trees, so few that they may be counted ; and it is quite a favour to be allowed to purchase a cord of firewood, so scarce have even the stumps become. The Raukapuka bush will doubtless shore the same fate in very few years, as it is being fast cut into, and the aid of steam has been called in some twelve months back to facilitate the work of destruction. The importance, therefore, of an available bed of coal cannot well be exaggerated.

Timaru Herald, 30 October 1869, Page 3
A rather sudden death occurred on Thursday at the Maori pa. The deceased was a elderly man, known by the name of Takitai, brother to Tommy, the Maori chief. He had been m a declining state of health for some time, and it appears that on the day of his death he was about to mount a horse, for the purpose of making some excursion, when he broke a blood vessel, and although medical assistance was sought, death ensued in a very short time. The Maoris feel very indignant that the medical officer appointed to minister to their ailments should be cue whose residence is at such v distance, that an accident may prove fatal before his aid could be given merely from the fact of his having so far to come, while timely aid would often, humanely speaking, avail to save the patient. The body was brought in from the pa at the beach on Saturday, and was interred in the Maori burying ground yesterday, at 3 p.m. The funeral ceremony was conducted according to the form of the Church of England, one of the Maoris reading the service. Everything was done in the most orderly manner, and at the conclusion of the ceremonies, several rounds of musketry were fired, after which the natives adjourned to the church for the usual evening service. The funeral was witnessed by about 40 Maoris and a few white persons.

North Otago Times, 15 June 1869, Page 2
It is said that the Maories at the Arowhenua pah have embraced the Hau-hau superstition, and report was current in Temuka on Saturday evening that there was a danger of an attack from the fanatics, which caused the Volunteers to assemble and the villagers to arm themselves with the means of defence ; no attempt, however, of a rebellious kind was made, and the crisis, if there really was one, is considered past.

Timaru Herald, 24 December 1869, Page 2 A MAORI DROWNED
An inquest was held at the Crown Hotel, Temuka, on Monday last, before B. Woollcombe, Esq., Coroner, on the body of one Meti, a native, who was drowned on the Thursday previous. Mr Henry Forward was chosen foreman of a jury of fourteen. George Kahou acted as interpreter. Betty Simon, a native, sworn, deposed : Saw Meti alive last on Thursday, about ten o'clock in the morning. He was going to get firewood from the beach. He went to cross to a canoe which he left on the lake's edge, and had not made it fast. I saw it adrift, and told deceased so. He went to look for it, and I did not see him again alive. The body I have seen lying here is the body of Meti. Br the Coroner : Deceased could not swim. He never told mo so, but his brother told me. I went to the beach in the canoe with deceased. After he had left me to go after the canoe he did not come back for a long time, so I went to the pa and told them about deceased going away, and not returning. When I last saw deceased he had on his trousers, boots, shirt, and hat, but no coat ; that was in the canoe. Jeremiah, a native, deposed: I have seen the body lying here, and know it as that of Meti. Found the body on Saturday last in a creek near to Woodhead's farm, not far from the head of the lagoon. The body was immersed about two feet in the water, and was lying on the face. I pulled the body out, and found it to be that of deceased quite dead. The creek is rather wide and very deep. I saw no marks of violence on the body. The canoe I found a long way from deceased, in a different creek. Deceased was my brother. He could not swim. I thought deceased was drowned because he did not return, and Betty told me he had gone after the canoe ; so I went to look for him the next morning, but did not find him till Saturday. I did not find any of deceased's clothes on the edge of the creek. When found, there were no clothes on with the exception of a handkerchief round his neck. I have seen deceased's coat in the canoe. The jury returned a verdict of "Accidentally drowned in the mill creek near Milford."

Daily Southern Cross, 7 August 1872, Page 3
The Arowhenua natives have written a strong protest to the Government against native birds being protected; against English fish being placed in their streams ; against the dog tax and impounding of horses.

West Coast Times, 15 August 1872, Page 2
The following is a translation of a notice sent to the Government, by the natives at Arowhenua : — It is the intention of the Runanga of Arowhenua to let the Government know their wishes respecting these birds The paradise ducks, grey ducks, teal, plover, and other water fowl ; pigeons, mountain parrots, kakas, wekas, and other birds. Let not these birds be protected, let no laws be passed about these birds. These birds are ours. And the rivers, do not, ye white people place fish in these waters between Waitaki and Lake Ellesmere ; in none of these waters place fish. Do not, oh white people thoughtlessly place your fish in these streams, because it is from the native birds and fish we get most of our food. This is what we want you to know. But another matter we want to make known is the impounding of horses, and dog collars (tax), these laws are obnoxious to us. We Maoris ought to be protected from the operations of these laws."

Otago Witness, 2 May 1874, Page 21 Kemp's Purchase
In a despatch to Earl Grey, the Governor says : — "I found upon conversing with the chiefs of the Middle Island, that they all acquiesced in the property of an immediate settlement of their claims to land upon the following basis : that the requisite reserves for their present and reasonable future wants should be set apart for themselves and their descendants, and should be registered as reserves for such purposes. "I have in each of these cases left plans with the resident Natives, all the Natives present agreeing to the limits as I described them. At Te Tamatu, where he was met by Taiaroa and Maopa, be laid out reserves containing 80 acres ; at Arowhenua, 376 acres ; at Te Umukaka, 187 acres ; at Waitemate, 17 acres ; at Timaru, 20 acres ; and on the north bank of the Waitaki, 889 acres. Before crossing the Canterbury boundary, we will note how he was guided by the principle he laid down of giving 10 acres to each soul. He reserved 3714 acres of land for the use of 372 Natives.

Grey River Argus, 13 November 1877, Page 3 MOVEMENTS OF THE MAORIS.
The ancient nomadic habits of the Maoris are in some situations being revived in these modern days. The other movement has been at Waitaki, in this island, and appears to be made with a more definite object. Some months ago a large number of them proceeded up the Waitaki and encamped themselves upon Benmore Run. It was at first supposed that they had gone thitherto hunt wekas, or hold a tribal meeting, but it soon appeared that they had far other intentions — meaning no less than to take possession of the land for themselves. A correspondent of the North Otago Times in September last spoke of them as being, then busily engaged in ploughing the ground at Benmore," and in an official report in June last, the Rev Mr Stack, of Kaiapoi, thus referred to the circumstances :— A few weeks ago a number of natives, under the leadership of Tamaiharoa, their prophet, left Arowhenua for the Upper Waitaki, carrying with them their families and all their moveable property. It is their intention to "squat" on any suitable piece of land they can find, and so to compel the Government to grant them more land. This course of action is due to the failure of Mr Taiaroa's efforts to induce the General Assembly to grant further compensation for the lands taken possession of by the Crown in the South Island. The facts were subsequently brought under the notice of the Government, and enquiry was promised, but the Oamaru journal complains that beyond that promise the matter has not proceeded.

Parihaka is the Maori word for "A place of Peaceful Resistance."

Grey River Argus, 2 October 1878, Page 2
A most miraculous escape from violent death occurred yesterday. As the 11.30 a.m. train from Timaru was crossing the Arowhenua Bridge, a Maori was observed a short distance ahead walking on the planking. The driver at once blew the whistle, but the Maori, instead of taking to one of. the abutments, or sticking to the planking, jumped to the sleepers right in the path of the advancing train. The cowcatcher of the engine caught him, and carried him along in a marvellous manner to the end of the bridge, and then tumbled him over a steep embankment. Mr Jones, the district station-master, was on the train, and observed the accident, and at once gave orders to the guard to pull up and proceed back to the Maori, whom he found lying on his back considerably shaken. Several natives were on the scene almost as soon as Jones, and carried their companion to the Arowhenua Pah. Jones gave instructions for a doctor to be sent for, but it is reported that when the latter arrived the Maoris would not admit him into the hut. The Maori's name was Haeremai Paia, about 60 years of age. No fatal result is expected to follow his misadventure.

Otago Witness, 22 August 1885, Page 17
Walker — On Saturday, the, 15th August 1885, at 6 o'clock, at the Maori Kaik, Temuka, Daniel Walker, third eldest son of Edward Walker, and third eldest grandson of Tame Tarawhata; aged 4 years (born October 16, 1881).

West Coast Times, 6 December 1887, Page 2
The Lyttelton Times records the death, at the Arowhenua Pah, of Hoana (John Kahu) who died at the age of 110 years. He is said by some to have been a native of Kaiapoi others claim that he is the representative of a powerful North Island family. The earliest settler in the Temuka district remembers him a very old, but by no means infirm man, some 30 years ago, and although at the time of his death he was perfectly helpless, his intellectual faculties were comparatively unimpaired. In his day he was a warrior of no mean repute, and he look a prominent part in several inter-tribal wars. Among his own people he was looked up to with great respect, and his advice on many matters of interest, with regard to Native lands, was always asked for, and in many instances adopted.

Timaru Herald, 9 January 1899, Page 2
At the Courthouse, Temuka, on Friday, before Messrs Blyth and Cutten, J.P.s, James Roberts (a native) was charged on remand with the larceny of a cart, the property of Edward (Kiti) Waaka.

Timaru Herald, 27 February 1889, Page 3 MAGISTERIAL
Temuka — Monday, 25th Feb., 1889. (Before Captain Wray, R.M., and Messrs K. F. Gray and J. T. M. Hayhurst, J.P.s.)
FOBCIBLBE ENTRY. Hare Kahu, Hoani Kahu, Edward Waaka, Parahu Tira, and Warata Te Kon, Natives of Arowhenua, were charged on the information of Thomas Creedy of Milford, farmer, "that on the 19th February last at Milford they did forcibly and with strong hand enter into certain land at Milford of which the said T. Creedy was then possessed for a certain and unexpired term of years, and the said T. Creedy from the peaceable possession thereof forcibly and with the strong hand unlawfully put out." T. Creedy, farmer, residing at Milford, stated that under agreements produced he rented certain land, m all about 20 acres, from two natives. He had paid rent to his respective landlords, and the rent to date was fully paid up. On the 15th Feb. last he remembered seeing Mr Rickus, Hoani Kahu, Hare Kahu, and Edward Waaka at Seadown. ...

Timaru Herald, 10 March 1890, Page 2
At the funeral of Te Whiti's wife, who died a few days ago, champagne was provided for the most favoured guests.

Otago Witness, 2 October 1890, Page 22 DEATH OF A MAORI CHIEF.
Events are ever occurring which remind us that time is fleeting. The Maori chiefs of the Middle Island are gradually passing away. On the 2lst ult. Merekibereka Hape, of Puketeraki, near Waikouaiti, a chief connected by descent and marriage with the Ngatiata, Ngatituahuriri, and other hapus of the Ngaitahu and Ngatimamoe tribes, died at the advanced age of 80 years. Belonging to Arowhenua, a village near Temuka, Canterbury province, he settled at an early age at Puketeraki, and came under the influence of the Wesleyan Mission which was established at that place 47 years ago under the Rev. Mr Watkin. The Rev. Mr Creed succeeded about three years subsequently to the charge of the mission. Through the care and instruction of these missionaries, Hape was induced to adopt English habits and customs. He also imbibed many of the precepts of Christianity, and made considerable progress in reading and writing his own language. His career and progress may properly be regarded as proof that missionary labour is productive of good results. About 31 years ago the Wesleyans, having been constrained by circumstances to relinquish the field, Puketeraki passed into the bands of the Anglican Church, Mr Baker being its first representative.; In course of time Hape became a lay reader, which office he held till the time of his death. Leading an exemplary life, he exercised considerable influence over his people. To his efforts, in a great measure, the Natives have been restrained from habits of drinking. He commanded the confidence of European settlers and Natives alike, his word being respected and relied upon by all. Several years ago he accepted the position of Native magistrate. It may not be without interest to the early settlers to know that his wife, Katerina Kahuti, was a daughter of the old chief known by the name of "Blueskin." During his declining years Dr Hooken regularly attended him, affording him relief from the complaint of asthma, which afflicted him. He was buried in the cemetery adjoining the church of his village on the 28th ult., by the Rev. Mr Freer, — several hundred Natives from Waikouaiti, Temuka, Moeraki, Otago Heads, Taieri, and Port Molyneux, and a large number of Europeans followed his remains to the grave. Among those present at the funeral were the Hon. Mr Taiaroa, M.L.C., Mr Thomas Pratt, M.H.R., Judge Trimbell and officers of the Native Land Office, and Mr M. Turton, Native Trust Commissioner.

Otago Witness, 6 April 1893, Page 23
Mr Strack, who is now in charge of the Pleasant Point School, South Canterbury, continues the interest in the boys under his charge which he always displayed in Otago. During the Easter holidays he took between 20 and 30 of them to the native reserve at Arowhenua, where they camped in a large marquee erected near the runanga house. 

Wanganui Herald, 2 April 1896, Page 2
Mrs Waaka, a native woman, died at the Maori kaik, Arowhenua, on Monday last, at the age of 99 years 9 months. She was in capital health, until within a few days of her death. She leaves numerous descendants, and her sons Kope and Riti are notable natives. She has one great great grandchild. The natives have assembled from all parts of the South Island, and. the preparations for the funeral feast are on a very extensive scale.

Press, 28 March 1896, Page 7
The oldest Maori woman at the Arowheium Maori Pa, Mrs Walker, died at about half-past seven o'clock on last Monday morning, at the age of ninety-nine years and nine months. The deceased, says the Temuka Leader, was the mother of Edward and Tehira Walker (generally known as Cope), and was strong and healthy till almost the time of her death. Among her descendants now living is a great-greatgrand-child. Visitors from nearly every pa in the South Island have arrived to attend the funeral, which is expected to be the largest, seen at the pa for some years. Makareta Tekawa, the oldest Maori woman known in Marlborough, died recently, her age being stated at 113 years. She was born in Taranaki, and resided for some years in Waikauae, and then went to Marlborough. She, lived to see five generations.

Timaru Herald, 25 April 1896, Page 2
At Temuka on Thursday afternoon there was a large gathering at the Arowhenua Kaik to witness the interment of the remains of Nelly Waaka, a daughter of a well-known native, Tama Waaka. About three weeks ago the deceased had to take an arduous part in the preparation for the funeral rites of her grandmother, and presumably caught a severe cold, culminating m pulmonary disease. The hapu to which she belonged is a distinguished one, gradually, however, dying out, and the funeral was conducted with considerable ceremony, natives attending from all parts of the island. The deceased was buried in accordance with the rites of the Church of England, the Rev. Mr Farley officiating.

Wanganui Herald, 1 October 1896, Page 2
The natives of Arowhenua, Canterbury, finding that the attractions of whitebait and flounder fishing served to keep people sway from the Sunday services, have mutually agreed that there shall be no Sunday fishing. And they want the Europeans to follow their example.

Timaru Herald, 6 May 1897, Page 3 Temuka Before C.A. Wray, S.M.
Tohira Waaka, a native, was charged with destroying a camp oven belonging to his brother Edward. In this case there appeared to be a misunderstanding about the ownership of an iron pot, and his Worship said the case should have been settled as a civil action, and the case was dismissed.
    John Leonard, another native, was charged with having stolen a camp boiler, the property of Tehira Waaka. In this case also his Worship said there was no criminal charge to answer, and it would be dismissed.

Otago Witness, 4 May 1899, Page 21
The funeral of the late Mrs Carolina Howell took place at Riverton on Thursday of last week. In the cortege were many Maoris and half-castes, by whom Mrs Howell was held in great esteem, she having come of what we would call royal blood. The late Mrs Howell was a woman of commanding and some years ago was a prominent figure at all social gatherings. She had a cheerful and generous nature, and was noted for her hospitality, which was unbounded. Her early life is to some extent bound up in the history of two famous Otagan tribes, who at one time lived near Temuka and Timaru, but who were forced south by the invasion of North Island natives. So bitter were the northern enemies, that to save themselves, the islets about Stewart island were sought as places of security from the attacks of the invaders. Some of these refugees were subsequently overpowered near Tois Tois, and the chief beheaded — a fact which Mr T. Brown, now living, a brother of the deceased, well remembers. The tribes referred to were the Teaotau Marewa and Tema Hikihiki, who became united by marriage, Te Wharerarimu, the late Mrs Howell's mother, being, as we would say, of royal extraction, her mother (Mrs Howell's grandmother) and the grandfather of King Toby — the latter, we may remark parenthetically, is still living at Ruapuke — being brother and sister. Toby's prestige arose from the fact that he was a descendant of the male line, Mrs Howell coining from the female, precedence being given to the male. Te Wharerarimu married Captain Brown, a skipper engaged in the whaling trade, and as a result of this, several of a family were born at Codfish Island — Mrs Howell, Mrs Pratt (wife of Mr T. Pratt, M.H.R.), Mrs Palmer, of the Taieri, and Mr Thomas Brown, Riverton. Mrs Howell was married on August 10 1845, the parties proceeding to Wellington for the purpose, there being no clergyman then in the south, the officiating minister being the Rev. Mr Luxford, probably a relative of the Wesleyan divine of that name now resident in Invercargill. Captain Howell was engaged in the whaling business, and made numerous trips to Sydney, on many of which his wife accompanied him. She was of a venturesome disposition, and repeatedly went on whaling expeditions, taking her turn in the boat and at times using the harpoon. For a time Captain Howell resided at South Riverton, and secured two stations, one at Fairlight and the other at Flint's Bush, with which he was eminently successful. He died in 1874, the estates being sold subsequently, realising a handsome fortune, which was left to his family. Mrs Howell is survived by three sons and six daughters. Of the latter four are married —Mrs G. V. Printz, Mrs G. H. Butler (Melbourne), Mrs T. Bell (Orepuki), and MrsT. R. Ellison (Wellington). — Riverton Star.

Timaru Herald, 22 January 1900, Page 3
A natives' contribution.— The following are the names of the Maoris of Temuka and Timaru, who subscribed £6 14s to the Patriotic Fund - Mr and Mrs James Rickus 10s 6d each; Eruera Waaka, Teona __ a) Wira, Henere Rokoro, Parahu __u, 5s each Namana Tara-whuta, 4d. W. Reiroa, 3s; Hiria Kerei, Hana Tini Walker, Teone Whitau, Ri-waka Anaha, Ihaia Rehu Te Pa, Paraiki Paura, Matiki Paura, Hemi T. Paiki, Kiti Kahu, Pari Te Aika, Hare Kahu, W. M. Newton, W. Torepe, Mere Kokoro, 2s 6d each; Hera Wira, Rakera Kahu, Hape Taipana, Teoti Whaora, Miria H. Kemaru, Herewina Kemara. T. Leonard, Tiene Waka, Rahera Waka, Meriana Waka, Rose Ruroa, Kiti Torepe, 2s each; Harapa Renata, Meteriata Renata, Heniriata Hapikitini, Tiriata Kahu, Hana Taipara, Mataitai Hakumanu, Materia Anaha, Korerehu Mihaka, Mata Whatra Iwa Whaora, Ripeka Paiki, Tupai Reihana, Puaka Whitau, Hoani K. Kaahu. Meki Maiharo A. Waka, Peti Teuruaaki, Mini Waka, Ariti Nutini, Hana Waitiri, Pirihira Warahi, Hera Hapata, W. Samuel, J. Fowler, A. Kemp, 1s each; Ripeka Waka 6d total, £6 14s.

Timaru Herald, 30 March 1900, Page 2
Mr H. W. Bishop, S.M., sat at Temuka yesterday afternoon to deal with applications made by natives for the old age pension. Six cases were considered. It was explained by the Magistrate that as the whole of the land in the South Island has been alienated, the amount of property which a native nominally holds cannot be considered as accumulated property. It can be let but not willed. The main questions to be considered were those of rental values and proof of age. The rentals in no case reached the limit, and the proofs of age were quite as readily forthcoming as is generally the case with Europeans, the date of Commissioner Mantell's enquiry in 1858 being taken as a standard. This is when the native reserves were allocated. The following applicants received full pensions Tiri Anaha, Tiriata Tamaikairoa, Hoani Korehe Kahu, Mirianna Waaka, Henare Kahu, and Hamuera Torepe.

Otago Witness 5 April 1894, Page 33
The Timaru Herald says that a large party of Maoris with their chief, J. Kahu, are very busy at present eeling on the Washdyke lagoon. They have been in camp for a week or two, and during that time have caught about 1000 eels. Some very fines ones have come to the net, weighing about 61b, and the women have a busy time cleaning and drying them. The "fishing" season lasts for about two months, and the gross take is expected to be about 3000. The eel is esteemed a great delicacy by the Maori, and is also a source of exchange, mutton birds being sent up by the southern pahs for them.

Colonist, 18 October 1901, Page 4
The Temuka Leader says that Sunday fishing was discussed at a meeting of Maoris and Europeans at the lower Opihi lately. The questions really at issue were to put a stop to anglers and others from Timaru, Temuka, and neighborhood, netting whitebait; on Sundays, when the Maoris themselves do not fish on the Lord's day. The Maoris had no objection to trout-fishing on Sundays, but strongly objected to whitebait catching on that day, seeing that they set a good example by not netting on that day. An agreement was finally come to that there shall he no fishing for whitebait on Sundays.

Otago Witness, 10 January 1906, Page 46
An aged Maori named Hopa, at Arowhenua. met with a nasty accident recently (says the Timaru Herald). The Native, who is blind in one eye, was, while chopping wood, struck in the other eye with such force as to render him totally blind. Since he has been attended by two doctors, and can now recognise a light passed close to his face, but there appears little chance of his regaining the use of his one capable eye.

Otago Witness, 12 December 1906, Page 59
A Whitebaiter Found Dead.— An old Maori chief named Henare Kahu was found dead at the fishing grounds near the mouth of the Opihi on Sunday morning, where he was camped "whitebaiting." He returned from Temuka on Saturday evening, and is supposed to have fallen or tripped on the stones adjacent to his nets, and, being stunned, was suffocated or drowned when the tide arose. Kahu was well known from one end of New Zealand to the other, and was a member of the Maori Council. He was connected with some of the most important of the South Island warrior chiefs. The remains were removed to the Arowhenua pa meeting house, and a huge tangi is taking place.

Taranaki Herald, 10 March 1909, Page 2 THE SOUTH ISLAND MAORIS
(To the Editor.) Being acquainted with many of the Natives living at Arowhenua, Temuka. I can vouch for their superior habits and homes, so conducive to; health and progress. About ten years ago the Maoris of Arowhenua and Temuka resolved to build a Native hall for the entertainment of themselves and Native friends, to raise fluids wherewith to erect it they organised an excellent concert company, and travelled much of the South Island, giving concerts with great success. The entertainment consisted of old and modern Maori and English songs, recitations of old Maori laments, Maori speeches in character, and of fine pieces from English authors - all of which were very creditably rendered both in Maori arid English, especially by several ladies of the company. Exhibitions were also given with excellent effect of several Native methods of bird-snaring as practised by the Maoris in pro-pakeha times ; various musical items and dances were likewise well given, all of which afforded a very pleasant and instructive evening's entertainment. The financial results of the company's efforts proved a great success, and with the funds thus raised a beautiful Native hall was built in Temuka. But, apart from such laudable efforts of a few Temuka Natives to benefit and raise their countrymen, the Maoris of the South Island are vastly more energetic and progressive, and aim at higher ideals than do most of the Native people I have met in many parts of the North Island. Healthy marriages, healthy homes, healthy food and healthy industry as more practised and enjoyed by the Southern Natives than by those of the North. I am not unduly lauding the Ngai Tahu people of the Southern districts mentioned. ...I am, etc., W.W. Smith.

Grey River Argus, 1 December 1910, Page 8
One of the oldest Maories in the South Island, Iharaira Parahu Tira, died at Temuka on Wednesday, at the age of ninety-five years. He belonged to the Ngatihuirapa tribe, and was born at Arowhenua pa. He was very active in his old age, and only a few days before his death was whitebaiting with other Maories.

Press, 21 April 1911, Page 7
An inquest was held at Lyttelton yesterday afternoon, before Mr B. W. Bishop, S.M., District Coroner, on the body of an elderly Maori who died at Rapaki on Wednesday. The evidence was given in Maori, and went to show i that deceased, whose name was Eruera Tarawata, and who was commonly known as Eriwa Waka, was 74 years of age, and belonged to Temuka. He had complained of pains in his chest for some days. A verdict was returned that death was due to heart failure.

Grey River Argus, 27 June 1911, Page 5
June 26, Sir J. Carroll, Native Minister, met a gathering of South Island Maoris at Arowhenua to-day, and was congratulated by the whites and the natives on receiving, his title. At the Maori village he was given a native welcome. The visit had been desired, as the members of the Ngatimamoe and Ngai Tahu tribes had a long standing grievance to put before him. They allege that when the tribes ceded 20 million acres of Canterbury and Otago reserves equal to one tenth was agreed to be made for them and this was never done. The Minister said that it was long before the time of the present Government and was very difficult to rectify any such error now owing to settlement; but he promised that the Government would consider the matter and do something if possible.

Evening Post, 15 February 1938, Page 14
The death of Mrs. Hana Tina Waaka, aged 106 occurred at the Arowhenua Pa, Temuka, on Friday. There was a family of about nine children, none of whom is now living. Mrs. Waaka's husband died at Lyttelton when attending a "hui" over the Ngaitahu Land Claim. The funeral service took place on Saturday.

Star 25 February 1909, Page 4
The election of members for the Mahanui Maori Council took place in the hall at Tuahiwi yesterday at noon. Mr H. W. Bishop, S.M., conducted the election, which resulted as follows Temuka Teone Tikao Wira and Hoani Korehe Kaahu.

Press, 30 May 1913, Page 7
The visit of the battle-cruiser New Zealand to Timaru was a great disappointment to some thousands of people, who found On boarding the steamboats which plied between the port and the warship that they would not be able to got on board the latter vessel owing to the strong ground swell which prevailed, But this was not nearly so disappointing as the fact that neither Captain Halsey nor any of his officers came on shore to attend the official receptions or the two luncheons which had been arranged by the citizens (one for the Captain and officers and the other for the bluejackets), nor did any one from the ship attend the elaborate ceremony at Caroline Bay in the afternoon, when the two flags presented by the women of New Zealand were to be known to Captain Halsey. A number of Maoris gave a poi and haka, and the proceedings on the bay concluded with a song by the Maoris. A MAORI WELCOME. On board the battle-cruiser in the morning a party of Maoris representative of all the Maoris of South Canterbury, made a series of presentations to Captain Halsey. Mr H. Kaahu and Mr W. Mihaka, of Temuka, made the presentations on behalf of the Maori men, and Mrs Rickus (a chieftainess) and Miss Rickus those from the Maori women. The gifts from the latter included a smoking cap fashioned out of flax fibre, the other presents consisting of hakahus (mats), a whalebone instrument of war in the form of a patu, and carved chieftains' sticks. Both the Maori men and Maori women gave addresses of welcome, brimming over with patriotic sentiment, and these, as well as the presents were courteously acknowledged by Captain Halsey. The only boat which landed anyone on the cruiser all day was the Cygnet, which took out the official party and the Maoris. After this the sea was deemed too rough to permit of any boat going alongside, and the thousands of school children and adults who went out during the day had to be content with a cruise around the gift ship.

Timaru Herald 22 November 1919 Page 8
TAIPANA. —In loving memory of Hone James Taipana, beloved youngest son of Hana and the late Te Hape Taipana, who died of influenza, at Temuka, on November 23rd, 1918. He left his home in perfect health,
He little thought of death so nigh.
But God saw best to take him home.
And with His will we must comply. —
Inserted by his loving mother, sisters and brothers.

Timaru Herald 11 October 1920 Page 7
The funeral took place yesterday at the Maori cemetery, Arowhenua, of Moana Leonard, a young native nurse who gained great esteem for her work during the influenza epidemic in Temuka, and afterwards in the North Island. There was a very large gathering, many coming long distances to pay their last respects. The Rev. A. H. Norriss read the funeral service. The pall hearers were H. Maninhere (Chatham Islands), H. Karatai (Otakou), W. Apirama (North Island), T. and W. Rickus, W. Miliana, and J. Mamaru. About thirty wreaths were laid on the grave, including beautiful wreaths from influenza workers, pupils and teacher of the native school, and Nurses Flood and Storey.

Temuka Leader 5 March 1927 Page 3 MRS HERA WIXON.
Deep regret was felt by a large circle of friends when the news of the death of Mrs Hera Wixon became known, the deceased passing away at her residence, Arowhehua, on Wednesday evening, at the age of 32 years. She was born in 1895, and was the eldest daughter of Mr and. Mrs Hape Taipana, and the fourth child of the family. Nine years ago she married Mr A. Wixon, and she was well known through her kindly and generous character. Deceased is survived by her husband and five young children, and her mother and two brothers and two sisters, to whom the deepest sympathy is extended by their many friends. The funeral took yesterday afternoon at the Native cemetery, the Rev. H. Te Reinga conducting the service at the residence and at the graveside, there being a. big attendance of friends together with the members' of the Choir of the Ratana Hahi.

Auckland Star, 31 May 1927, Page 3
INJURIES FATAL. MAORI THROWN FROM TRAP. Timaru this day. Te Were Whaitiri (41) who was seriously injured at Temuka. on Thursday by being thrown from a trap when the horse bolted, died last night. He leaves a widow and seven children.

Press, 30 August 1929, Page 6
Mrs Hana Pohio Rickus, who died suddenly whilst on a holiday in Wellington, was born at Bapaki in November, 1851, and was a daughter of Horomona Pohio, the first and only Maori Magistrate in the Dominion. She married James Charles Rickus in 1876, and went to live at Otakoa, where she and her husband engaged in dairying pursuits. Later they lived at Waihao Downs, Timaru, and Temuka, where they eventually settled, and where Mr Rickus was at one time the licensee of the Shamrock Hotel. She took a keen interest in war and patriotic work, and was also prominent in Native Land Court affairs in different South Island centres. She is survived by three daughters—Mrs Ani Rita (Bluff), Mrs Nellie Pohio (Napier), and Mrs Hilda Andrews (Wellington)—and three sons —Messrs Wiremu Tuna Rickus (Lyttelton), John Mahawa Rickus (Temuka), and Thomas Percival Rickus (Wellington). The burial took place at the Temuka Cemetery yesterday afternoon, a large number of Natives from all over New Zealand being present.

Timaru Herald 31 Aug. 1929 page 5
It was the express wish of the deceased that her remains be interred in the family plot, beside those of her late husband, James Rickus. Prior to the cortege leaving the Arowhenua Hall, a most impressive service was conducted by Rev. H. Te Reinga, “Apotoro” of the Ratana Hahi, of which the deceased had been an ardent member. A feature of the service was the beautiful singing conducted by the local Ratana choir. The cortege was a lengthy one, and on arrival at the Cemetery, the casket was preceded by the Aporo, who conducted the burial service in the Maori tongue; and prior to the completion of this, the choir again sang one of their beautiful funeral hymns. Mr Teone Pohio, a brother of the deceased, in the Maori tongue, and in accordance with native custom, addressed the casket as follows:—“Farewell, my beloved sister. Go thou to our forefathers. Go, too, to our friends, and our many relations in the lands, the beautiful lands of the sunset. Depart thee with the dawn. I, even I, shall also come at eventide.” Whereupon there arose the wailing cry of the Maori women, and one of the deceased’s daughters was heard to exclaim in the native tongue: “Sleep, mother, sleep, sleep, sleep.”

Timaru Herald 14 May 1935 Page 4
One of the most familiar figures in Temuka among the Maoris, Tukia Tepepene Kuruwaka, better known to South Canterbury people as Barney Kuruwaka, died on Sunday in the Timaru Hospital. Of high lineage, Mr Kuruwaka was 61 years old and was twice married. He had a reputation in the Mackenzie Country of being a first-class shearer, and due to the popularity he enjoyed he was encouraged to enter business in Fairlie in a fish shop in 1916. The business was profitable, but wishing to return to the freedom of life at the Arowhenua Pa, he retired after a few years. The funeral will take place this afternoon.

Press, 28 March 1939, Page 12 MR H. T. PAIKI
One of the best-known of South Canterbury Maoris, Mr Hemi Tano Paiki, died recently at the Timaru Hospital in his sixty-seventh year. Born at Morven on 'New Year’s Day. 1872, Mr Paiki came of the Maori aristocratic lineage of Ngai-Tuahuriri and the Ngati-huirapa sub-tribes. His youth was filled with talk of the Maori wars then raging in Taranaki indeed, throughout the whole of the North Island, and of the pleas and the agitation about the basis of settlement the sale of the Canterbury Province to the New Zealand Government, The upshot of the dissatisfaction was to. the noted Ngaitahu leader, Te Maiharoa, led a band of some 200 strong into the hinterland of North Otago towards the head-water of the Waitaki river, the leader giving as his reason for the migration .the land which they then occupied had not been ceded by the original owners to the colonists. The party comprised representative of every Maori pa in Canterbury as well as many from as far north as Motueka and as far south as Otakou. Mr Paiki was among the children who formed the “Hiki.” The “Hiki” was the only migration of protest in New Zealand, but it was short-lived, the period of occupancy being only two years. Incidents during the “Hiki” were often the topic of conversation by Mr Paiki, whose recitals of the more outstanding events were regarded as authoritative by South Island Maoris. He was called on by Judge Harvey, of the Native Land Court, some four or five years ago to recount on oath several of the incidents for official purposes. It was at the “Hiki” that the South Island, who had refrained from participating in the wars, almost, began to open hostilities. This was when, because of the depredation of the Maori dogs on neighbouring farmers’ sheep, the Government of the day sent a contingent of soldiers to evict the Maoris and to safeguard the interests of the pakeha settler. When the troop rode into the encampment and read the instructions, one of the Maoris parted the wall of his hut and levelled his rifle at the leader of the expedition, and was on the point of shooting when Te Maiharoa called out and stopped him. On the return from the hill country, Mr Paiki lived for a time at the now deserted Waitaka pa, before returning to Morven and Waimate, where he began school. It was his intention to become a sailor, and all his studies were devoted to this end. His ambition was not realised, for just as arrangements were made for his berth aboard ship, news came that' his older brother, already a sailor, had been lost at sea. His parents promptly cancelled his billet.
    In the nineties Mr Paiki came to Temuka, and soon after became identified with the efforts to bring about a better understanding between his people and the pakehas. Government officials sought his advice on native matters in the South Island, and on several occasions he acted as interpreter for the Native, Magistrate’s, and Supreme Courts. He was well versed in Maori land laws and customary usage, and because of this he was appointed to the Ngaitahu Trust Board. Becoming secretary of the Arowhenua Maori Runanga, Mr Paiki held his position for 25 years, a record in the South Island and possibly in the Dominion. He was a brilliant linguist in both Maori and English, and his address from the Temuka Post Office steps on the occasion of the visit of Earl Jellicoe is remembered by many in South Canterbury. He was a former member of the Temuka Caledonian Society and Athletic Club and of the Temuka Football Club. An expert bagpipe player, he was a successful competitor in many of the champion contests. He was the only qualified Maori woolclasser in the South Island. All sections of the community were represented at the funeral on Sunday at the Arowhenua cemetery. The services in the church and at the graveside were conducted by the Rev. L. A. Barnes, a feature being the beautiful unaccompanied part singing of the Maori hymns. Every pa in Canterbury and Otago was represented. His wife died in 1924, and Mr Paiki is survived by two brothers, four sisters, three sons, two daughters, and four grandchildren.

Waaka family heritage Past Times
Joe Waaka recounts history through spoken word. "The three first people to settle in this district were called Arowhenua, Awarua and another I forget. Waaka recalls meeting Waimate author Herries Beattie who wrote Our Southernmost Maoris in 1954. The old creek beyond the Arowhenua church is called Whariki and at the east end of the kaik we have Waitarutu. "The old inland Maori track avoided the coastal villages and was for war parties, people in haste or those who did not wish to call at villages with all the formality and ceremony. The track swerved inland above Ashburton and kept near the hills to the Rakitata, and then went into the Mackenzie. The track at this part was named Hikai-iti which I think means `small falling down'.

The Māori name for Mount Peel is Tarahaoa. The park has a long association with Māori legend and early pioneer history. Tarahaoa is still sacred to Ngāi Tahu. The mountain is part not only of their heritage, but part of their family. Legend has it that Chief Tarahaoa and his wife Hua-te-kerekere were washed up ashore at Shag Point while trying to migrate north from South Otago. They wandered inland and lived the remainder of their lives where they could always see the sun go down. They prayed to their gods that on their death they should be changed into mountains. The Gods obliged and Big Mount Peel and Little Mount Peel/Huatakerekere are really Tarahaoa and Hua-te-kerekere, inseparably linked to each other. Their grandchildren became the Four Peaks, the mountain range adjoining Big Mount Peel and Little Mount Peel/Huatakerekere. The three largest trees in Peel Forest belong to the family “Podocarpaceae”, which simply translate to “seed foot” because of the arrangement of the seed on the ends of the branches. The three trees are kahikatea (white pine), tōtara and mataī (black pine). The forest also has an abundant bird life. Native birds most frequently seen and heard are wood pigeon, the rifleman, bellbird, fantail, grey warbler, silvereye and tomtit. The Rangitata riverbed provides a habitat for a number of waders and coastal visitors such as the black-billed gull and the pied oystercatcher.  Died July 2015.
Te Ao Hurae Joe Waaka
Also known as: Joe
Death Date: 10 July 2015
Galbraith Funeral Services Ltd
Funeral Notice Otago Daily Times, The Press, Southland Times, Timaru Herald 13 Jul 2015

Temuka Leader 13 May 1884 Page 2 PUBLIC NOTICE.
The undersigned, give notice that / at a meeting held at the Arowhenna Pah on Monday, 5th May, it was that as the Lease of the Native Reserve at Arowhenua expires on 1st November next, the Reserve be not again let without the consent of a meeting of those having an interest in it. (Signed May 5, 1884)
Hoani Korebe Kahu
Parnika Paora
Timuaki Ote Runanga
Heruera Waaka
Hoani Kahu
Horomona Matiu
Hape Taipana
Arapata Renata
Homuera Torepe
Henare Kokero
Tehira Waaka
Hare Kahu

Return of natives 1891

The Arowhenua Maori School, year 1-8 primary school, had 43 pupils in July 2020, 98 per cent of whom are Maori, and has offered bilingual education since 2001. The school was established in 1895 with the earliest registration book dating back to 1915. New school opened 1951. 33 Huirapa St, Temuka.

Pamphlet Collection Auckland War Memorial Museum Library
Call Number: LG 745 .C2
Title: Souvenir booklet of the seventieth jubilee of the Arowhenua Maori School / Compiled by C. B. Adams
Publisher: [Arowhenua] : Arowhenua School Jubilee Committee, 1965
Physical Description: 12p. illus. 22cm.
Cover subtitle : Mahia nga mahi, kaua he korero : deeds not words, 1895 - 1965.

South Canterbury, New ZealandGenWeb Project

urupā is Maori for burial ground, cemetery, graveyard.