O N O N D A G A;
CORRESPONDlNG MEMBER OF THE NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY. __________________________________________________________
. . . . . . . . .
ENTERED according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the
Northern District of New-York.
When First Visited by the French. Salt made by the Indians. Owned by Sir William Johnson. First Manufacturers. Federal Company. First Laws in respect to Salt Springs, passed 1797. First Superintendent. Powers and ties of Superintendent and Lessees. Rules observed in Making and Packing Salt. Coarse Salt. Progress of Manufacture. Borings Table of Statistics. List of Superintendents and Inspectors. Modes of Manufacture. Onondaga Lake. Formation of the Onondaga Valley- Illustrations- Dr- William Kirkpatrick 7
Biographical Sketch of Hon. James Geddes. Origin of Internal Improvements. Inland Lock Navigation Company. Erie Canal. Hydraulic Cement 45
Biographical Sketch of Hon. Joshua Forman. The City of Syracuse. Its Rise and Progress. - - - - - - - - - 69
ONONDAGA. Asa Danforth, Esq. Thaddeus M. Wood, Esq. Jasper
Hopper, Esq. Antiquities. - - - - - - - 108
SALINA,- - - - - - - - - - - 138
GEDDES, - - - - - - - - - - 149
Great Alarm, 1794. - - - - - - - - -153
LYSANDER. Dr.Jonas C. Baldwin. Baldwinsville. - - 159
CICERO. Brewerton Fort. Frenchman's Island. - - 171
CLAY, - - - - - - - - - - 190
MANLIUS, Hon. Azariah Smith. Nicholas P. Randall, Esq. Manlius Vil-
lage. Anecdote of Baron Steuben. Fayetteville. Deep Spring. Green
Pond. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -194
DE WITT. Moses De Witt, Esq. Jamesville. Orville. Messina Springs. 232
POMPEY. Hollow. Delphi. Antiquities.- - - - - - - - 241
LA FAYETTE, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 282
MARCELLUS, - - - - - - - - - - - - - 289
SKANEATELES, DanielKellogg, Esq. Village. - - - - - - 301
CAMILLUS. Plaster. Coal. Col. John Dill.- - - - - - - - 313
ELBRIDGE. Jordan. Cave. Antiquities.- - - - - - - - 320
VAN BUREN, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 328
FABIUS, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 330
TULLY, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 335
OTISCO. Wyllys Gaylord, - - - - - - - - - - - 339
SPAFFORD, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 348
O S W E G 0.
Erection of a Trading House and Fort, by Governor Burnet. Gen. Shirley. Col.
Mercer. Operations of Col. Bradstreet. Oswego Falls. Bone Hill. Oswego
Taken by Montcalm. Incidents. Attacked by the British 1813. Early Set-
tlement. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 354
Conclusion, - - - - - - - - - - - - -393
Hon. JAMES GEDDES, - - - - - - 45
Hon. JOSHUA FORMAN, - - - - - 69
THADDEUS M. WOOD, Esq., - - - - - 118
JASPER HOPPER, Esq., - - - - - - 124
Doctor JONAS C. BALDWIN, - - - - 159
Hon. AZARIAH SMITH, - - - - - -194
NICHOLAS P. RANDALL, Esq., - - - - 201
DANIEL KELLOGG, Esq., - - - - - -300
ASA DANFORTH, Esq., - - - - - - -115
MOSES DE WITT, Esq., - - - - - - 230
DAN BRADLEY, Esq., - - - - - - - 296
Col. JOHN DILL, - - - - - - - - 317
Mr. WYLLYS GAYLORD, - - - - - - 339
DIAGRAM, showing the geological position of the differ-
ent strata of rocks in the county, with their dip, - - - - - 38
and LAKE, - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
OLD FORT BREWERTON,- - - - - - - - - - 181
POMPEY MONUMENTAL STONE,- - - - - - - -265
ANCIENT WORKS NEAR DELPHI, - - - - - - - 269
OLD FORT, on Isaac Keeler's farm,- - - - - - - - 277
CRUCIFIXES, MEDALS, &c.,- - - - - - - - - 280
ANCIENT WORKS AT ELBRIDGE,- - - - - -325, 326, 327
VIEW OF OSWEGO as it appeared in 1755,- - - - - - -353
OLD FORT AT OSWEGO FALLS, - - - - - - -365
As an object of Natural History, the Onondaga Salt Springs are among the most singular and valuable productions with which bountiful nature has enriched our country. As an object of Chemistry, they are equally interesting, as affording an accurate analysis of the waters, ascertaining the various heterogeneous substances which they hold in solution,and the just proportions of each. As an object of political interest, they deserve particular consideration as affording a vast revenue to the State, giving employrnent to thousands of her citizens, and supplying our extensive country with salt of its own manufacturing. On all these points, they are of increasing interest and of the highest importance, not only to our country, but to the State at large. These springs are centrally situated in the county of Onondaga, on the banks of the Onondaga Lake, from the village of Liverpool, around the southern end of the lake to the
outlet of Nine Mile Creek, a circuit of about nine miles. The springs formerly issued naturally from a black muck, which composes the surface of the march, by small orifices, apparently in a perpendicular direction. The marsh from whence they issued, in most places, was destitute of grass and other vegetables, except samphire, and when the sun shone the water was evaporated from the surface of the mud, leaving it covered with chrystalized salt. Other substances which happened within the reach of the salt water, were frequently covered with oxide of iron, giving them a reddish brown color. These appearances may be said to be annually diminishing. The salt springs at Onondaga, were well known to the Indians, at the time of their first intercourse with the whites.) Father Jerome Lallemant, is the first French writer who makes mention of the "Salt Fountains" at Onondaga, in his Relation of 1645-46.* Father Le Moyne, a Jesuit missionary, who had spent some time among the Hurons, and who first came to Onondaga in 1653, with a party of Huron and Onondaga chiefs, as an envoy to ratify a treaty of peace between the two nations, in which the French of Canada were interested, is supposed to be the first white man who first, personally, took notice of the Onondaga Salt Springs. (See Le Moyne's Journal, page 138.) His discovery and declaration was an event so unexpected and surprising to the Dutch, to whom he afterwards related the fact, at New Amsterdam, that the good people of that city, without hesitation, pronounced it "a Jesuit lie."t Father Iogues, visited the Onondagas, some ten years earlier, but makes no mention of these salt springs. It is possible, however, that he may have known of them. Francis Creuxius, a latin writer and a Jesuit missionary, gives a very
* He speaks in these words: "La fontaine dont on fait des tresbon sel coup- pe une belle prairie environnee de bois de haute, fustaye. A quartre-vingt ou centaine pas de cette source sallee il s'en voit une autre d'eau douce et ces deux contraires, prennent naissame du sein d'une mesme colline. t Dr. O. Callaghan.
minute description of the Onondaga valley, in 1665 (See early history, page 149.) Charlevoix, as well as others of the Jesuit fathers fre-quently alludes to the salt springs at Onondaga. In 1770, Onondaga salt was in common use among the Delaware Indians, who in that year brought a quantity of it to the house of the Father of thc late Judge Bowker, of Cayuga, who then lived at a place called Papeconck, (now Colchester.) He says that it was common for the traders, at that day, to bring small quantities of this salt to Albany, along with their furs as a curiosity, and that they always spoke in high praise of the salt springs at Onondaga. He says, that at that period he has seen salt in the Indian huts at Onondaga, and the Indian women engaged in making it, and that it was sometimes sent to Quebec for sale. In a letter of Colonel Comfort Tyler, to Doctor Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, in 1822, which was published in an appendix to his Essay on Salt. Colonel Tyler says, "I was informed that Sir William Johnson had several years before obtained a deed from the Indians of a tract, one mile in width, adjoining and including the entire lake, and that he made the purchase on account of some salt water which had been discovered upon the margin of the lake." They were well known by reputation to exist, although not explored prior to the American Revolution, and the Legislature of New-York, at an early day, duly appreciated their rising value By the treaty of "Fort Schuyler, formerly called Fort Stanwix," held 12th September, 1788, the Onondaga Indians ceded to the State of New-York, " all their lands forever," excepting certain " tracts reserved." (See Treaties, page 348.) At the time the Military Bounty Lands were ordered to be surveyed, in 179l-92, the Surveyor General was directed to make a sufficient reservation, to secure all the salt springs around the Onondaga Lake. The first settlers commenced the making of salt in 1788. Colonel Tyler's letter before referred to, says, "In the
month of May, in the same year, (1788,) the family wanting salt, obtained about a pound from the Indians, which they had made from the water of the springs upon the shore of the lake. The Indians offered to discover the water to us. Accordingly, I went with an Indian guide to the lake, taking along an iron kettle, of fifteen gallons capacity; this he placed in his canoe, and steered out of the mouth of Onondaga Creek, easterly, into a pass, since called Mud Creek. After passing over the marsh, then flowed by about three feet of water, and steering towards the bluff of hard land, (since the village of Salina,) he fastened his canoe, pointed to a hole apparently artificial, and said there was the salt." At this time Col. Tyler informs us that he made, in about nine hours, thirteen bushels of salt of an inferior quality. Asa Danforth, Esq., comenced making salt in that year, by carrying a five pail kettle from his residence at Onondaga Hollow. He placed his coat on his head, inverted the kettle thereon, and it has been said, carried it the whole distance without taking it off to rest. Comfort Tyler accompanied him, carrying an axe, chain, and other necessary implements, for the purpose of making a suitable erection to a "boil salt." They set up two crotches, suspended their kettle on a chain around a pole, between them, and thus carried on the business of making salt. After a sufficient quantity was made for present wants, the kettle, chain, &c., were hid in the bushes, till wanted on another occasion. This practice was continued till the following year. In the fall of 1789, Nathaniel Loomis* came to Salt Point with a few kettles in a boat, by way of Oneida Lake and River, and during the winter of 1789 and '90, made from 500 to 600 bushels of salt, which he sold for one dollar per bushel.t Mr. William Van Vleck, who was an early settler at Salt Point, and Jeremiah Gould afterwards made salt, in caldron kettles set in arches. In 1793, De Witt, Esq., and William Van Vleck, entered into a, co- _________________________________________________
* Mr. Loomis was living two years ago at Bridgewater, Oneida Co, N. Y. t Col. Tyler's letter to Dr. V. R.
partnership, and erected an arch containing four potash kettles and mauufactured quantities sufficient for the wants of the inhabitants of the surrounding country. Other makers of salt soon succeeded. For several years the salt houses were built of logs. The Federal Company, consisting of Asa Danforth, Jedediah Sanger, Daniel Keeler, Thomas Hart, Ebenezer Butler, Elisha Alvord and Hezekiah Olcott, was organized, 1798. The object of the company was to manufacture salt on a stupendous scale. They erected a building of large dimensions for that period, capable of containing thirty two kettles which were set in blocks of four kettles each. Water was then pumped by hand, from a single shallow well, not thirty feet deep, into reservoirs made of dug out white wood logs. Thus within a very few years from the commencement, the manufacture of salt acquired considerable celebrity, and " Salt Point ' became a place of notoriety abroad. James Geddes also commenced the manufacture of salt at Geddes in 1793, '4; and very soon after, the manufacture was commenced at Liverpool, by John Danforth. The business was so much increased in 1797, that the Legislature in that year, passed their first laws, in reference to the manufacture of salt at the Onondaga Salt Springs. By this act, the Surveyor General was required to lay out the salt springs reservation into lots, not exceeding ten acres, with five acres of salt marsh for the convenience of persons engaged in the manufacture of salt. A lot of larger dimensions, might be reserved for a public store house and other public uses. The Surveyor General was directed to make the survey in person, and to execute a lease for three years, to any person, who had already erected and occupied salt works, on any lot, at this time surveyed, upon the following terms. For every kettle or pan, used or to be used, the lessee should cause to be made at least, ten bushels of salt annually, and pay as a rent for the premises four cents, for every bushel of salt made thereon during the time. And if the spring or springss, on any of the said lots, should yield more water, from which salt could be extracted, than was sufficient for the manufactories established or to be
established on said lot, the lessees of any of the adjoining lots, might lead the surplus waters to their manufactories, and the remaining surplus water to the next, and so on till the same should become exhausted. William Stevens was appointed the first Superintendent of Onondaga Salt Springs, 20th June, 1797, and continued in office till his death. The Superintendent, was authorized tos ettle all disputes, and his award was to the final and conclusive. Makers of salt were under penalty, required, at any time, either directly or indirectly, not to ask, demand or receive more than sixty cents a bushel, for salt made on their respective premises, and that no salt should be sold on the leased premises; but all salt made should be put up into barrels or casks, upon each of which the name of the maker, and the quantity of the salt contained should be branded, and then delivered to the Superintendent of the Salt Springs at the store or stores by him provided, and there stored till the same was sold. Any proprietor of a salt lot, who did not accept a lease on the foregoing terms, forfeited his right to the same, and the Surveyor General was directed to sell the same at public auction. The Superintendent was authorized to assign at his discretion, to each of the lessees, a certain proportion of the salt marsh, to be improved by them, for the purpose of "cutting grass or sedge" thereon; and any lessee was allowed to cut a canal from his works through the marsh to the lake. Any occupant who did not choose to accept the terms of the new lease was allowed to remove his kettles and furniture belong-ing to his works and to receice pay from the State for any works he had erected. The duties of the Superintendent were defined. He was directed to store all salt made at the several works, brand his name, and the year when made, on each cask, and to deliver the same to the respective owners, as they sold the same, upon their paying to him the lawful rent, and one cent per bushel for storage; always taking care to keep in store, at least two thouand bushels; and, after the first year, the quantity was to be increased, by five hundred bushels for each year, which
quantity was to be kept in store, to meet demands made by the citizens of the State of New-York, who depended on obtaining their supply from these works. Superintendent was required to sell to any citizen of the State, of the salt so stored, sufficient for his own use, for sixty cents per bushel, reserving for rent and storage, five cents per bushel, paying to the maker, fifty-five cents per bushel. Owners of stores were allowed to store salt in their own stores, but the keys were to be left with the Superintendent, that he might have the sole care and custody thereof. In such case, the owner was not chargeable with storage. The Superintendent was charged with the wood on the reservation, in the vicinity of the salt springs. The first store-house, or the building used for that purpose, was the old " Block-house," built for defense in 1794. The sum of two thousand dollars was authorized by the Legislature, for the purpose of building a wharf and store-house at the salt springs, as the Surveyor General should di-rect. At the expiration of the leases, the Legislature reserved the right, to take any of the works by paying the owners the true value thereof, to be ascertained by competent persons, appointed by the Legislature, or to grant new leases on like terms, for the term of seven years. Individuals were made punishable for occupying any part of the reservation without a lease from the Superintendent, who was to receive a salary of eight hundred dollars per year, and was not to allow the duties, to be done by another. It may be worthy of remark, that it was sometimes customary for the Superintendent to give certificates, for deposites of salt in the public store-house, and these certificates passed from one to another, as cash, so that the public store-house in substance became a BANK. The manufacturing of salt steadily increased. The business, except sufficient to pay the rents and duties was mainly carried on by exchanges of the productions of the soil for salt, and not much more was made, than to satisfy the demands of home consumption. Some, however, made its way to Canada, by water carriage, and to Utica, through Oneida Lake, and through the Seneca River, to the villages
on the lesser lakes. In winter, the store-houses and works, in seasons of sleighing, were nearly emptied; the article having a demand in the southern counties of Tioga and Chenango. The business of manufacturing sal tbecame more extensive than the Legislature had anticipated, and it was found impossible for the Superintendent to store all hte salt that was made, and charge the rents and duties thereon, according to the proivions of the statute. It was therefore enacted, 30th of March, 1798, that lessees should account to the Superintendent, under oath, for the quantity made, and lessees were allowed to pay rent, according to the capacity of their kettles, at the rate of two cents per month for every gallon of the capacity of their pns or kettles, instead of the rent of four cents per bushel, as provided for in the several leases All persons who complied with this new regulation, and accounted punctually, once a week to the Superintendent, for the quantity made, were permitted to sell the same on the premises, but only in quantities less than three bushels, unless the same was put up in casks, boxes or barrels, well made, of seasoned timber, and branded with the initials of the first names, and the surname in full and inspected by the Super-intendent. All salt made at any manufactory, should be sold by weight, at the rate of fifty-six pounds per bushel. The Superintendent was authorized to lease lots to new applicants, and whenever they had erected a sufficient manufactory, with kettles or pans, with a capacity of three hundred and forty gallons, the lesse was to be confirmed. In 1799, an act was passed, requiring all salt, manufactured at the salt springs, to be deposited in the public store-house, for inspection, and if necessary, sort it into two qualities. The first quality to be free from dirt and filth, with the bitterns properly separated therefrom, and fully drained from brine. The second quality, to be free from impurities, dry, and not more that twenty-five per cent. inferior to the first quality. All salt so manufactured, was directed by law, to be packed in good, seasoned white oak casks, water tight, well hooped with twelve hoops, three on each head and three on each
bilge, to be thirty inches long, and the diameter of each head to be nineteen inches. The Superintendent was directed to mark the tare on each barrel, and after the whole was weighed deduct the tare, and brand the weight and quality, and put on the number of cents, he should adjudge the salt to be worth per bushel, and brand his name on the same. The Superintendent, on receiving and inspecting any salt, as aforesaid, in the public stores, gave the manufacturer a certificate for the same, and he delivered the same salt to the bearer of the certificate, on his paying five cents for rent and storage, for every fifty-six pounds weight. The Superintendent was authorized to inspect salt, ready for transportation by water, and no salt was to be shipped, but from the public wharf, on penalty of five dollars, for every bushel so shipped, to be paid by the shipper, or the person receiving the same in any boat or vessel, besides the forfeiture of the salt, which was to be seized for the benefit of the people of the State of New-York. It was made the duty of the Superintendent, to seize any salt on board any boat, wagon, sleigh, or other carriage, and remove the same to the public store-house, for the benefit of the people of the State. Any person packing. any uninspected salt, was to be fined five dollars. The Superintendent was required to provide and keep for every manufacturer, a separate bin for his salt, previous to its being inspected and sold. A penalty of five dollars was forfeited by any person, who should buy or sell any uninspected salt. Settlements were required to be made quarterly with the lessees, and arrears of rent were allowed to be paid in salt. The Superintendent was allowed this year, one hundred dollars for the hire of an assistant, and pay for stationery, brands and implements, necessary for the inspection of salt. Heavy penalties were enacted against any who should cut or carry off wood from the reservation, without consent of the Superintendent. He was required to settle all accounts with each lessee or manufacturer on the first day of January in each year, account with the comptroller yearly, and report to the Legislature the state of the Onondaga Salt Springs.
In 1801, the act relative to the Superintendent's keeping a quantity of salt in store was repealed, and the one cent duty was not to be demanded. Williarn Kirkpatrick was appointed Superintendent of Onondaga Salt Springs, April 8, 1806. His is the first report to which we have had access. On the first of January, that year, he reports 159,071 bushels as made during the year ending January 1, 1806; and the year following, he reports 154,760 bushels as manufactured at the salt springs. About this time, John Richardson, Esq. erected a frame salt works and ten kettle block in a rude arch, which was thought to be almost a miracle, far exceeding any thing before erected. The first well of any note was at Salina-a, large hole twenty feet square and about thirty feet deep-sunk during the superintendence of Dr. Kirkpatrick. Each manufacturer then set his own pumps; the water was pumped by hand and conducted in spouts to the several works. The introduction of Hathaway's patent hand pump was considered a vast improvement. John Richardson was appointed Superintendent, February 16, 1810. While in office, he conducted the water or Yellow Brook from Syracuse to Salina, for the purpose of driving a wheel for the elevation of Brine. This is believed to be the first machinery erected for that purpose. Pumps were soon after worked by horse-power. From 1812, after the reinstatement of Dr. Kirkpatrick, we have nearly all the Superintendent's reports. First of Janu-ary, 1813, Dr. Kirkpatrick reports 221,011 bushels, besides one hundred bushels delivered to the Onondaga Indians; and the duty of three cents per hushel, then collected, yielded a revenue of $6,630 33. In 1812, an act was passed directing that the Superintendent should be appointed by the Legislature, and hold his office during their pleasure, having been previously appointed by the Governor and Senate. He was required to give bonds within thirty days after his appointment, in the penalty of $25 000, for the faithful administration of his office, and to make a full
report of the condition of the salt springs on the first of Jan-uary in each year-a duty which Dr. Kirkpatrick faithfully performed during the long period of his holding the office. He was required to appoint a deputy for each of the villages of Salina, Liverpool and Geddes. A duty of three cents per bushel was to be paid by the purchaser or seller, at the time of inspection. If any lessee did not elect to pay the duty, then he was bound to pay five cents per quarter on each gallnf capacity of pan or kettles used in the manufacture of salt. The Superintendent was required to lay out two acres of land on such part of the reservation as he should think proper, for the purpose of making salt by evaporation, other than by fire; and he was further authorised to lease the same, free of rent or duty, as he should think proper, to encourage the experiment of making salt by such evaporation. His salary was continued at $800 per annum, and he was allowed $850 for the salrines of his three deputies, with allowances for instruments, stationery, &c. necessary for the performanoe of his duties. January 1, 1814, he reports 226,000 bushels of manufactured salt; revenue, from duties, $6,780 00. In 1813, an act was passed providing for the appointment of an assistant deputy superintendent, to keep the office of inspection, which ofilce was to be kept open from the rising to the setting of the sun; and no deputy or assistant deputy was to have any interest whatever in any salt works. January, 1815, Superintendent reports 295,215 bushels as the amount of salt manufactured at the several salt works in the town of Salina, and the revenue at three cents per bushel, $7,856.45 Other sources, 940.00 Whole revenue for year cnding 1st. Jan.,1815, $8,796.45 In 1816 the office of Deputy Superintendent was abolished and the salary of tbe Superintendcnt increased by $250 per year. In 1816, for the increase of the canal fund a duty of twelve and a half cents per bushel was laid upon Onondaga salt, to
be collected as heretofore, the three cent duty being set aside,and the Superintendent instead of making a yearly report to the Legislature, was required to make a quarterly report, to the Commissioners of the Canal Fund, and pay into the treasuryof the State, all monies collected, except satisfaction for salaries and expenses, on the first Tuesdays of February, May, August and November, in each year. First of January 1816, Superintendent reports 322,058 bushels manufactured and the revenue at three cents per bushel, $9,661,74. The annnal reports of Superintendent from 1818 to 1823 have not been obtained and the statistics for those years are necessarily omitted. In 1820, the Commissioners of the land office were author-ized, to survey and lay out lots on the salt spring reservation, like other unappropriated lands in the State, and sell them for the convenience and furtherance of the growth of the villages on said reservation, and to lay out so many village and manufacturing lots, with such additional streets, squares, &c., as the wants and future growth and accommodation of the villages, and the extension of salt manufactories on said tract might require. These lots were to be sold and the proceeds handed over to the Commissioners of the Canal Fund and $20,000, arising from the first of said sales, was to be applied and appropriated, to the improvement of the navigation of Oswego river. Additional caution was used in the manufac- ture and inspection of salt. The use of lime or ashes was prohibited in the manufacture of salt, under a penalty of fifty dollars for each and every offense, and manufacturers were required to keep in use two good bittern pans, for every three kettles, employed in the manufacture of salt, under penalty of twenty-fve cents for every case of neglect. The effect of these seemingly arbitrary laws and their wholesome administration was the means of improving the quality of the Onondaga salt, vhich for years had been mingled with impurities incident to carelessness and neglect. The term reservation, was construed to mean and be, all
the territory, which was originally set apart and reserved for salt springs of Onondaga County. Privilege was given to every individual or company, to erect works for the manufacture of coarse salt, by evaporation in the sun, or bv artificial heat in vats or pans, on any of the public lands, reserved by the commissioners of the land office, for the purpose of manufacturing coarse salt only, for the term of twenty years. Such individuals or companies, erecting manufactories of coarse salt, were allowed to pump and use any surplus water from any of the salt springs at Salina, and carry the same in aqueducts, to reservoirs, to be erected at proper elevations, and from the reservoirs to these manufactories, and to use so much of the surplus water of the Erie canal on the Salina level, as might be necessary to pump the same; subject to the supervision of the canal commissioners, and they were obliged to pump for any other manufactories at a rate not exceeding two mills per bushel whenever there was sufficient water in the Erie Canal, for driving machinery and sufflcient surplus brine in the springs at Salina. The State might take and occupy the same at any time by paying the owners a fair value for the same. Major Benajah Byington, who for a number of years had been engaged in the manufacture of salt at Salina, was authorized by an act of the Legislature, passed in 1820, to bore for rock salt, at any point on the reservation. In case of discovery within three years, the State was to give him a premium of two cents per bushel of fifty-six pounds, on all salt dug, used or manufactured from such rock salt, for the term of ten years; at the same time, reserving the right to take back, into their own hands, any works, pits, mines, or erections, at any time, by paying three times what the same should cost the proprietor. This act was renewed and strenuous efforts were made to find rock salt, but without success; and it is now generally conceded that rock salt is not to be found, by boring in the immediate vicinity of the salt springs. His borings and explorations were mostly made on the high grounds east of Salina.

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12 April 1997