John Barr 1779

The Diary of Ensign
John Barr

Courtesy of Don Wilt. Transcribed by Arlene Goodwin


Names of Places

Miles By Land

Miles Total

Miles By Water

Miles Total

Names of Places



From Cannajoharry To

Lake George












3 ½



South End D






15 ½

330 ½

Burris Farm






13 ½


Yachems, D






12 ½

356 ½








363 ½






Chenesee Castle

5 ½
















To Whissanking Creek
















Vandoolips Farm








Hoppings Creek








Tunkhannah Creek



















Fort At Newton



8 ½

254 ½




Cathrine’s Town




272 ½







27 ½





[ ]nt Set of

Senekee Lake



11 ½

311 ½





Names of Places

Miles Total

Names of Places

Miles Total




May 1782 in the Levies





From Sharon to Fishkill






To Sharon






To Fishkill






To Esopus



February 1780 Northward from Morristown from the Hutts to Esopus or Kings Eastward



To Marble Town



To Sharon



The Stone Bride



[ ] Orange Town



To Rochester or Numbau- chus



Kings Ferry






West Point















Barkes Kill or Land






Peenpack….Newns Kill






Block House






From Peenpack to Wollhill

James Dolson’s



Fort Plains






Fort Herkimer



Warwick Capt Minthoms



Fort Dayton



Stagg’s at Sterling Furnace



Fort Pickering



Widow Sidman’s






Squire Suffran’s



Fort Schuyler









Clarks Town



Orange Town




June 1779

Thursday 17th The Regt marched about 10 OClock & encamped about two Miles from the Mohawk River.

Friday 18th Marched on about four Miles farther & encamped on Dun’s Farm waiting Orders

Saturday 19th The 4th Pennsylvania Regt & Rifle Corps passed our Encampment marching for Springfield.

Sunday 20th Nothing material but a Part of the 6th Massachusetts Regt passed bound for the Lake Otsego.

Monday 21st One Hair a Spy from Niagara was hanged to Day at the Mohawk river

Tuesday 22d Nothing Material but the Boats & Provisions are Transported with Great Expidition.

Wednesday 23d Nothing Remarkable.

Thursday 24th On Titus, (*name not found) a Soldier of our Regt was Executed at the River & Shot for Desertion.

Friday 25th The 5th N. York Regt passed our Regt & encamped near the Salt Spring on their March for Otsego Lake.

Saturday 26th Nothing Remarkable

Sunday 27 The Troops at the Ferry attended the Execution of a Criminal at the River he belonged to the Enemy’s Service

Monday 28th Nothing Stirring

Tuesday 29th Had Intelligence of one of the Riflemen being taken by the Indians, the Hospital Stores are transported by our Regt to the Lake to Day.

Wednesday 30th The 3d N. York Regt passed us to Day on their March for Lake Ostego.

1st July Our Regt being the 4th N. York marched to Day &

Thursday & 2d Arrived to this Lake about 3 OClock P. M.

Saturday 3d Loaded our Baggage in Beauteaus & embarked our Regt & crossed the Lake, arrived there about 2 OClock P. M. & there encamped with Col. Gansivoorts (Colonel Peter Gansevoort, 3d New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 242) Col Duboys (Colonel Lewis DuBois, 5th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 205) & Col. Butlers (Colonel Richard Butler, 9th Pennsylvania Regiment. Ibid., p137) with the Rifle Corps Regts on the South East end of the Lake.

Sunday 4th Genl Orders for all the troops at this Post to assemble at 3 OClock P. M. being the anniversary of our Independance, now entering the 4th Year thereof the Troops paraded on the banck of the South East End of the Lake, had thirteen Cannon fires attend with a Running fire from the Right to left to the troops of Musquettry. After Joy ("Foe de Joye." (Feu de pois)) attended Divine Service, then Returned to Camp, then all the Officers of the Brigade were invited by Col. Reignier (Lieutenant Colonel Pierre Reignier de Rossi, 2d New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 195) to wait upon him to Drink Grogg

Monday 5th Co. Aldens (Colonel Thomas Nixon commanded the 6th Massachusetts Regiment January 1, 1770 to January 1, 1780, Ibid., p. 38) or the 6th Mass. Regt Crossed the Lake & encamped with the Brigade also a Number of Indian Joined us to Day.

Tuesday 6th the troops of the Front Line were off Duty to be inspected to Day.

Wednesday 7th all the Troops of the Second Line are of Duty to Day & are inspected by Col. Regnier.

Thursday 8th }

Friday 9th } nothing remarkable

Saturday 10th }

Sunday 11th The Surveyors went to the North End of the Lake to Survey the Country.

Monday 12th Nothing Stirring

Tuesday 13th lay waiting Marching Orders

Wednesday 14th Capt. Sacket (Captain Samuel Sackett, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 479) went to the Country to recover his Health Orders came to turn out 100 Men properly Officered as a Piquett in Camp to be ready at any Hour. About 12 this night were alarmed by the firing of three Centinels lay upon our Arms that Night.

Thursday 15th Thos. Sibbo (Thomas Scibbio, Ibid., p. 485), late Surgeons Mate was discharged for the Regt.

Friday 16th Nothing remarkable

Saturday 17th the Sick of the 4th N York were Sent to Hospital under the Direction of Doctor McCrea. (Dr. Stephen McCrea. Ibid., p 367)

Sunday 18th Nothing Material

Monday 19th Coll. Gansivoort (Colonel Peter Gansevoort, 3d New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 242) Just from Albany informed us of the Excursion of the Enemy in West Chester County they being attacked by Coll. Sheldon (Colonel Elisha Sheldon, 2d Continental Dragoons. Ibid., p. 493) Horse they destroyed Some buildings their Loss unknown, our Loss but two or three taken Prisoners, Some of them fell into our Hands.

Tuesday 20th two Deserters were brought into Camp in Irons belonging to our Brigade they deserted us when on the Western Expedition (Probably the preliminary expedition sent against the Onondagas in April 1779)

Wednesday 21st}

To } Nothing Remarkable

Saturday 24th }

Sunday 25th had Intelligence of the Capture of 550 of the Enemy at Stonny Point by Genl. Weyne ( Brigadier General Anthony Wayne, Continental Army. Ibid., p 577) our Army retook the redoubt that they had in their Possession.

July, 1779

Monday 26th the whole Army was Ordered to attend the Execution of three Criminals who were under Sentence of Death convicted convicted (Repetition in manuscript) of having deserted the Service—but on their Petition was reprieved until the 28th Inst.

Tuesday 27th an Express arrived in Camp tells of the advance of the Enemy into Tryon County, that they had Killed 36 of Coll. Vanschaik’s Regt. (Colonel Goose Van Schaick, 1st New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 557) a Scout being immediately Ordered out Consisting of about three hundred Men to take Bateaus & Cross the Lake, they being Commanded by Coll Gansivoort, Crossed the Lake took Quarters at Lows Landing at the North End D.

Thursday 28th One of the above Criminal was Shot to Day but the other two were reprieved.

Friday and }

Saturday the 29th } Nothing Remarkable

& 30th }

Saturday 31st Coll. Gansivoorts Detachment arrived in Camp after having been at Fort Plank German Flats Fort Harkimar & Fort Dayton but found nothing of the Enemy.

Sunday 1st Nothing worth Mentioning

Monday 2d Capt. Davis (Captain John Davis, 4th New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 188) & Capt. Titus (Captain Jonathan Titus, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p 545.) Joines the Regt. being on Furlough.

Tuesday 3d Nothing Remarkable

Wednesday 4th being a Member of Court Martial whereof Capt David was President, Sergeants Pollard (Sergeant Thomas Pollard, 6th Company, 4th New York Regiment. Archives, p. 215.) & Stitt (Sergeant John Stitt, 7th Company, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 217) were tried for leaving Camp & being out all Night without Leave were sentenced to be reduced to the Ranks & Corpl Goodwin ( Corporal William Goodwin, 5th Company,1st New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 180) for the same Crime to be reduced & received 39 Lashes, also John Stanford (John Stanford, 6th Company, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p 216) & Willm Hill (William Hill, 6th Company, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p 216) for Same and Sentenced to receive 50 Lashes each.

Thursday 5th Nothing Notable

Friday 6th the Carpenters are employed in repairing the Bateaus to be ready to march at a Moments warning, orders for the Light Infantry Companies to be filled up by Drafts out of the Regt. to compleat each Company 3 Sergts 3 Corpls & 50 Privates to be commanded by Coll. Butler (Colonel William Butler, 4th Pennsylvania Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 138)

Saturday 7th Nothing Remarkable

Sunday 8th the Brigade was ordered to March on the Day following

Monday 9th Left Lake Otsego with our little Army consisting of 1500 Effective Men with 208 Bateaus loaded with Provisions, Ammunition & c. and proceeded in the following Order 300 Light Infantry commanded by Lieut Coll Buttler (Colonel William Butler, 4th Pennsylvania Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 138) & Majors Cochran (Major Roger Cochran, 3d New York Regiment. Ibid., p 162) & Parr, (major James Parr, 7th Pennsylvania Regiment. Ibid., p 427) which formed the Advance or Front Guard, the rest of the Troops that could be Spared from the boats formed the Flanks & Rear Guards. The Horses & Cattle marched between the Flanks. The Line of Boats in the following Order.

1779 1st The Infantry Boats formed the advance [Guard]

August 2d Then one Piece of Artillery & the General

3d The 4th Pennsylvania & the 4 N York Regiments

4th Military Commissarys, Hospitals & Q. M. Stores

5th The 5th N. York & the 6th Massichusetts Regiments

6th another Piece of Artillery

7th the 3d N. York Regiment brought up the Rear.

The General Course of the River to Day is about South West for about 10 Miles it is no more than 20 Yards Wide, and from 1 ½ to 5 feet Deep, 8 Miles lower down comes in the Oakes Creek from Lake Schuyler, about as large as this Branch of the Susquahannah, and 7 Miles further Cherrey Valley Creek empties in about half as large as the Oakes Creek, here it widens to 40 Yards, this River is very navigable here for Bateaus &c., only Obstructed in Many Places by Trees blown down, the adjecent Country is very level, Rich and fertile; and abounds in divers sort of Timber the Land low but rises into Hills at some Distance from the River on each Side but free form Rocks and Stones, the River is very Crooked with many Short turns, & runs every Point of Compass in a Small Distance; encamped on Burris’s Farm, Distance by Land 17 miles by

Tuesday 10th Water 30 Rattle Snakes are very Plenty here: Rains all night rained till near Noon then cleared up; decamped about 3 OClock P. M. arrived at Yackam Farm about Sun Set Distance by Land 5 miles by Water 6 about a Mile below Burris’s Farm the Rapids begin and Continues, about half a Mile above this Place is one very bad Rapid called the Flat Rock; the Land is flat & good on both Sides of the River, some little Hills at some Distance from the River on each Side at this Place found a Piece of Bark with the following Inscription in the Indian Language, which Mr. Dear Interpreted, viz, this was wrote the Day before Hole Day 1779 on this Ground were 200 Indians all Friend [s] to General Washington; this has been a very an[cient] Indian Settlement, it is exceeding Pleasant, one House here which are burnt and an old Orchard.

Wednesday 11th This Day I marched by Land waded the River near Waist High, to the West Side; marched through Some fine Land & crossed Some Defiles & several Creeks weather very hot. I drank very free of the Water which made me Sick but kept my Post until the Army encamped; the Boats crossed Severy (*Several) Reefs and Rapids which Occasioned our Troops in the Front to halt until the Rear Boats came up, this Halt was made about three Miles for Yuakams, the Rapid continued 8 Miles, encamped on Ogden’s Farm, West Side Distance by Land 15 Miles by Water 21; the Part of the River we passed to Day was very Crooked, with Several Islands. The River is from 40 to 50 Yards Wide the Banks in some Places very high, the Land Good, free from Stone Timber Butter Nutt, Elm, Horn Beam, Maple & Birch, thick Foggy air.

Thursday 12th Continues very Sick decamped & embarked about 7 OClock A. M. the River for about 9 Miles is a very easy Current, but the Water pretty deep and wide so as to admit our Boats to tow three a Breast, lower down we had some Rapids encamped at Unadilla on the East Side about a Mile above the Junction of this Branch and the Unadilla River, the Country we passed to Day is very Good, there has been a Number of very fine Settlements on both Sides of the River Passed Several Indian Encampments on both Sides of the River very large, this Place was chiefly Inhabited by Such emigrant as were obliged to flee the Indian as for Protection to Screen them from the Gallows, their Habitations are now totally Destroyed, the Remainder we burn as we pass; this Place was an Old Indian Settlement which was burnt by Coll. Buttler (Lieutenant Colonel Commandant William Butler, 4th Pennsylvania Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register. P. 138) last Fall, at this Place is also an Old Indian Fort which appears to be very Old, and is made of a Circular Form & Contains about half an acre &c. Distance by Land 15 Miles by Water 10.

Friday 13th continues very unwell, embarked this Morning about 7 OClock passed some bad Reefs also the Mouth of the Unadilla, encamped at Chanaoughrunto on an Island containing about 200 Acres of very Good Land Distance by Land 14 Miles by Water 17 The Country very Good and level, passed Several fine Settlements on both Sides of the River, after the Junction of the Unadilla the River is near 100 Yards wide, Some Reefs and rapids Occasioned by Fish Dams erected across the River.

Saturday 14th embarked about 9 OClock this Morning, passed Several fine Indian Settlements, River pretty deep with a fine easy Current, encamped at Annaughquago ( given as Aughnaquago in the table, p. 791) distance by Land 12 Miles by Water 15. this is an Old Indian Settlement and Town that contained upwards of 50 Large Houses, there has also been a Church here at this Place with a Christian Minister, the Land for about half a Mile from the River is low and Rich on both Sides of the River Clear of Rocks and Stones, well Timbered

1779 This Place has been Settled on both Sides of the River for many Years, and has long been the Assylium of Refugees from the Neighbouring States, until last Fall, when it was burnt & totally destroyed by Coll. Buttler (Lieutenant Colonel Commandant William Butler, 4th Pennsylvania Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 138) of the 4th Pennsylvania Regt. Annaughquago lies on the East Side of the River.

Sunday 15th lay waiting for 300 Militia expected from Esopus.

Monday 16th Sent a Detachment of the 4th Pennsylvania Regt. 5 Miles out to see if the Militia were coming, but returned without them.

Tuesday 17th find myself a little better, embarked about 9 OClock, the River running nearly South & for about 10 Miles a very easy Current, then begins to be very Shallow, Occasioned by a Number of Islands, the River turns West, encamped at the Tuscarora on the West Side, Distance by Land 20 Miles by Water 25 The Country we passed to Day is very Good, only a few Mountains & Rocks at about a Miles Distance from the River burnt a Number of Indian habitations, to Day by the Way.

Wednesday 18th found myself worse this Morning was lett Blood by Dor Cook (Dr. Samuel Cook, surgeon, 5th New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 170) in the right arm, but was nothing bettered by it: embarked about 7 OClock, the River continues to run N. W. Water pretty Deep, passing Several Islands as also the Chiningo River, and encamped a little below on the West Side, Distance by Land 20 Miles, & 24 by Water the Country to Day is very level and good, there has been a large Indian Town about 3 Miles up the Cheningo River. Detached a Party to that Place to burn it, but found it already destroyed, two Men Sent from Genl Poor’s (Brigadier General Enoch Poor, Continental Army. Ibild., p. 446 ) Detachment came to us this afternoon; giving an Account that Genl Sullivan was at Tiago, and had also Detached a Party under the Command of Genl Poor to meet us up the River.

Thursday 19th is much better to Day embarked about 9 OClock the River very Shallow & full of Islands, at 6 Miles down we met Genl Poor and Genl Hand with a Detachment of 900 Men sent from Genl Sullivan to Escort us Down the River, halted about 3 hours there on a fine level Farm

1779 of Extraordinary Good Land, but has been evacuted a long Time, from August Thence proceeded, on our March, the Detachment returning with us. encamped at Auquago (*Given as Aughnaqugo in the table. p 791.) on a fine Plain on the West Side Distance by Land 20 Miles, by Water 24; about 1 ½ Mile below has been a Large Indian Town called Awago which we burnt.

Friday 20th rained all Day which obliges us to lay Still.

Saturday 21st embarked about 8 OClock A. M. two Boats of Ammunition were Sunk to Day, lost 14 Boxes of Marquett Carthriges, but no further Damage Water very Shallow with many Islands encamped at a Place Called Fitzgeralds Farms, but by the Indians Magatawaungo, Distance by Land 12 Miles, by Water 14 pitched in an Open Piece of Woods on a very Extensive Plain on the East Side;

August embarked about 7 OClock A. M. arrived to Tioga about 11 OClock Sunday 22d A. M. Distance by Land 8 Miles by Water 9 &c. when we passed the Light Corps encampment, who where commanded by Genl Hand, (Brigadier General Edward Hand, continental Army, Heitman, Historical Register, p. 272) we Saluted them with one Piece of Cannon, they returned the Salutation with 13. on our arrival to the Encampment of the Main Army, which lay about a Mile below the Infantry, we received a Salutation of thirteen there also, followed with three Cheers which we returned in Good Order. we encamped on a very Extensive Plain which is a Neck of Land between the Susquahannah and the Tioga Rivers, being very level & produces Large Quantities of Grass, Genl. Hand’s Brigade of Light Infantry’s Encampment extends from one River to the Other, which is abut 40 Rods wide, where are built 4 Block Houses for the purpose of building a Fort, at this Place were encamped Genls Poor’s Maxwell’s (Brigadier General William Maxwell, Continental Army. Ibid., p. 385) & Hands Brigades with Coll Proctor’s (Colonel Thomas Proctor, 4th Continental Artillery. Ibid., p. 453) Regt. of Artillery with two six Pdrs two 5 ½ Inch Howatz (Howitzer) two 3 Pounders and a Small Cohorn all Brass.

1779 the Genl Course of the River Since we left Lake Otsego is near South August West, very Shallow in many Places, but upon the whole very Navigable for Boats came down very Safe, only with the Loss of one Boat, the Order of March was changed Resiprocally from Front to Rear Daily.

Monday 23d Genl Orders for the prepare for the Expedition all the Spare Tents were taken to make Baggs to put Flour up in for the Expedition, allowing only a Tent for every Eight Men, all the Pack Horses were Collected, & got in Readiness, & Pack saddles fitted. A Melancholly Accident happened, Viz, Capt Kindall [Benjamin Kimball ] of the 1st N. Hampshire Regt Sitting in his Tent, when a Soldier at some Distance was preparing to Clean his Firelock went off by Chance & Shot the Capt through the Body who died immediately, it also wounded another Solder in a Nother Tent but not mortally.

Tuesday 24th Lieut Silas Gray (Lieutenant Silas Gray, 4th New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 258) and I with 2 Serjts & 23 Privates of our Regt were detailed for to stay with an equal Number from each Regt to the Number of 23 [?] exclusive of Officers with upwards of that number of Sick Invalids under Coll Shreve, (Colonel Israel August Shreve, 2d New Jersey Regiment. Ibid., p. 495) to build the Fort & Garrison the same, at 3 OClock Tuesday 24th a Signal gun was fired to decamp, that Each Guard, Flank, Detachment & Brigade might take their Post in the Order of March, & were to encamp again by the Same Signs our small Garrison took Post at the 4 Block House.

Wednesday 25th found myself much worse this Morning, we began the Fort with Great Spirits, our Garrison Consisted of 1214 Men Women & children, but most of them Sick, had about 100 Men fit for Duty.

Thursday 26th Continues worse the Troops March about 1 OClock P. M. our Fort goes up Merryly.

Friday 27th Nothing Material

Saturday 28th Nothing Stirring

Sunday 29th had the Newes of our Troops having an engagement with the Enemy Consisting Chiefly of Painted Tories & the five Indian Nations of the Ganasee commanded by Buttler (Either Colonel John Butler or his son Captain Walter N. Butler.) and Brandt, (Joseph Brant.) defeated them after a warm engagement between them and General Poor’s Brigade, Killed a Great Number of them and one Painted Tory & one Negroe Prisoners.

Monday 30th }

Tuesday 31st } Nothing Remarkable

Wednesday 1st Sent off a Number of Boats to Wyoming with 500 Sick and

September Women, to load back with Provisions.

[From Thursday 2d to Thursday 9th, the diary records "Nothing Remarkable."]

Friday 10th Our Boats returned with Provisions & an Express which gives us the Intelligence of our new Alley the King of Spain that he allowed (Recognized) the Independency of America & also at the same Time declared War against England

Saturday 11th }

Sunday 12th } Nothing remarkable

Monday 13th Fired thirteen Cannon as a Rejoicing at the Connection of our New Alley the King of Spain and had a Great Entertainment.

Tuesday 14th The Entertainment continued to Day at the Expence of Coll Commandant Shreve, (Colonel Israel Shreve, 2d New Jersey Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 495) His Guests each Day one Capt & three Subaltern

Wednesday 15th The Entertainment continues but the Number of Guest encreased.

Thursday 16 I had an Invitation as a Guest to Day but was so ill Could not attend.

Friday 17th

Saturday 18th

Sunday 19th This Day sent more Boats off [to] Wyoming for More Provisions.

Monday 20th 200 Sick of Genl Sullivans Army Sent back to Chem[ung] Sent up Provisions to them Escorted by a Party under the Command of Lieut Silas Gray, (Lieutenant Silas Gray, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 258) as far as Chemung

Tuesday 21st Lt Gray Returned & Also the Sick with him.

Wednesday 22d a Detachment was Ordered to Newton under the Command of Capt Reed of the 6th Massechts Regt with Six Days Provision for Genl Sullivans whole Army I receive 2 Gallons of Rum agreeable to 10 Days Order.

Thursday 23d Gets better nothing Material

Friday 24th our Army arrives to Newton and also the Boats with Provisions from Wyoming, & And Express which had orders for us to march immediately to Head Qurs.

The next two pages are pictures of the Order of Battle, locating position of men

25th Saturday Nothing Remarkable

Sunday 26th Major Cochran (Major Robert Cochran, 3d New York Regiment, Heitman, Historical Register, p. 162) & several Officers sick arrives in Camp, Sent up more Boats to Chemung.

Monday 27th }

Tuesday 28 } Nothing Remarkable

Wednesday 29th Recd. Two Gallons of Whisky agreeable to yesterdays Orders

Thursday 30th September   Great Preparation for the Reception of Genl Sullivan’s Army, which arrived about 2 OClock P. M., we paraded our Small Garrison & Saluted them with 13 pieces of Cannon, which they Returned in the Greatest Order, passing our Fort, & encamped on the Old Encampment, each Brigade taking their former Ground, the Genl Dined with Coll Shreve & the Officers of each Regt dined together where we had a fine Dinner & a Great Plenty of Liquor.

Friday See Page 36 (*page 36 in the manuscript corresponds to page 804 in this edition. [At this point in the Diary occurs a break of twelve manuscript pages which are interpolated with the Following items.]

A Cure for the Veneral Disorder
Take of the Roots of Upland Shumake and Mullin each an handful, boil them in four Quarts of Spring water, to one Quart, Strain it then bottle it adding an half Gill of Gun Powder, let it dissolve, dose, half a Gill of it three or four Times each Day.
N. B. first prepare, by Taking of the sulfur of Brimstone for three or four mornings before the above dose is put in Practice if the Disorder Still Keeps running use some of Spirits Turpentine last of all take one oz: of Sals to Clear off.

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Here are given diagrams of the Order of March and the Order of Battle. 

(*Sketches of these orders may be found in the following works: The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign in 1779 (Albany, 1929), p. 181, 199; Journal of Lieut. Col. Adam Hubley, Jr., 1779 p. 54-55; Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan (Auburn 1887), p 66-68. The last mention book contains a detailed description of these orders.

Ensign Talmadges Journal from Tioga to the Jansee Flats & his Return (*In Barr’s handwriting,. This section of Tallmadge’s Journal is missing.)

Tioga August Monday 23d 1779

Genl Orders for the Army to Strike Camp at the firing of the Cannon & encamp by the same Signal in Order to form the Army for a March.

Tuesday 24th Lay waiting Orders

Wednesday 25 the Army was Ordered to March by 8 OClock but could not get ready.

Thursday 26th the Army under the Command of Genl Sullivan decamped & marched about 2 OClock P. M. 4 Miles & encamped. Genl Hands ( Brigadier General Edward Hand, Continental Army. Heitman, Historical Register, p 272) Brigade in Front, Genl Poor’s (Brigadier General Enoch Poor, Continental Army. Ibid., p. 446) on the Right, Genl Maxwells (Brigadier General William Maxwell, Continental Army. Ibid., p 385) on the Left, Genl Clinton’s (Brigadier General James Clinton, Continental Army, Ibid., p 161) in the Rear the Cattle and Pack Horses in Front of Genl Clinton’s.

Friday 27th decamped and came up with the Army about 2 Miles to a Defile were Obliged to encamp all the Army crossed but our Brigade.

Saturday 28th decamped and came up with the Army about 2 OClock destroyed a field of Corn then the Army marched to Chemung & there encamped.

Sunday 29th Marched about 3 Miles where we attacted the Enemy drove them from their Works and pursued them up a very high Hill they having the advantage fires upon us, killed 2 & wounded upwards of twenty their Loss much Superior, Lt Mc Calley (Lieutenant Nathaniel McCauley, 1st New Hampshire Regiment. Ibid., p. 364) Wounded in his Thigh had to cut off died of the Wound.

Monday 30th 200 Men detached from each Brigade to destroy the Corn on the River, on the same Night the Wounded were sent to Tioga.

Sept 1st Wednesday decamped & marched about 4 Miles where we entered a Great marsh or Swamp our Brigade was in it till 12 OClock the Pack Horses & Provisions left behind along the Road we encamped in the swamp in Great Confusion.

Thursday 2d after Collecting the Baggage & Provision the Brigade marched to Join the Front at Cathrine’s Town. We arrived there about 12 OClock & encamped

Friday 3rd decamped and marched on about 12 Miles & encamped in the Woods

Saturday 4th marched about 12 Miles up the Lake & Encamped in the woods.

Sunday 5th decamped & marched to Canday (Given as Kanandawgue in table on page 791) where we arrived about 2 OClock & encamped discharged our pieces & prepared for Action found a Prisoner they left behind

Monday 6th decamped and marched on the North End of the Seneky Lake where the Army forded the Outlet of the Lake which leads into Lake Ontario—then marched on to Canodosago the Metropolis of the Sanakees where we found a Child, we encamped.

Tuesday 7th A Regt from Each Brigade detached to look for Horses and Cattle that Strayed from us & about 3 OClock the Army marched about 4 Miles & encamped after passing several Defiles.

Wednesday 8th The Army lay Still Sent out Detachments to destroy Corn.

Thursday 9th all Sick who were not able to proceed on the Expidition were sent back to Tioga, the Army marched about 12 OClock to the 9 Mile Creek & Encamped

Friday 10th decamped about 4 OCLock & marched (three lines of the manuscript are scratched out at this point) on to Kannadawgue Lake where we forded and then marched on to the Town and encamped.

Saturday 11th September  decamped about 4 OClock & marched to Hannanya[wye] about 14 Miles & encamped at the North End of the Lake destroyed the Town.

Sunday 12th being detained in the Morning by the Rain decamped about 12 & marched about 10 Miles left our Stores behind with a Guard.

Monday 13th The Army marched about 2 Miles to Conough where the Army halted, Lieut Boyd (Lieutenant Thomas Boyd, 1st Pennsylvania Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 114) was sent out with 12 Rifle men 6 Musquett men were surrounded by the Indians the Army immediately marched on for his Relief but was to late, 14 of his men were Killed Several made their Escape, we immediately Surrounded the Towns formed the Line of Battle but they had escaped before we came, we took Possession of the Town & encamped in the Night.

Tuesday 14th after destroying the Town and Corn, decamped and marched to the Janasee Flatts & forded the River, then proceeded to the upper Janasees Towns where we found Lieut Boyd & one of his Party inhumanly murdered and left on the Ground.

Wednesday 15th The Army was Ordered to parade at 6 OClock to destroy Corn where it was burnt to prevent it falling into the Enemies Hands, after destroying the Corn & Towns the Expedition begin compleated about 2 OClock set out on their Return for Tioga & forded the Janasee River & encamped on the Flatts.

Thursday 16th The Army marched on to the lower Town & took up the Dead which were killed on the 13th we burried 14 with the Honours of War and encamped.

Friday 17th The Genl Beat & the Army marched to Hannayawye where we left the Stores & encamped Distance 12 Miles.

Saturday 18th marched to Kannadawgue Lake about 15 Miles & C encamped

Sunday 19th Decamped about 8 OClock & marched to Cannodasago distance 15 Miles & encamped

Monday 20th a Detachment from Genl Clinton’s (Brigadier General James Clinton, Continental Army. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 161) Brigade of 100 Men commanded by Coll Gansivoort (Colonel Peter Gansevoort, 3d New York Regiment. Ibid, p. 242) Set out for a Fort Stanwix, to take the Baggage of the Brigade which was left at the Mowhawk River also a Detachmen [t] commanded by Coll Buttler was sent to Destroy the Kingas.

marched about 4 OClock forded the Outlett of the Lake & marched about 4 Miles & encamped

Tuesday 21st marched about 15 Miles & encamped

Wednesday 22d decamped at 7 OClock marched about 16 miles & encamped by the Senakee Lake.

Thursday 23d we marched to Cathrines Town & halted on the Side of the Long Swamp & encamped

Friday 24th September   decamped at 5 OClock & crossed the Morass & arrived at Fort Reed where our Stores were left, was received by the firing of thirteen Cannon From the Fort returned the Same from the Army & encamped

Saturday 25th The Army was paraded for rejoicing of the New Alley the King of Spain, fired thirteen Cannon then a Running Fire from Right to left of the Army, the Genl presented one fat Ox & 5 Gallons of Spirits to the Officers of each Brigade on the Occasion after Joy assembled eat & Drink the following Toasts 1st for Congress 2d the United States 3d the King of Spain, and three Cheers Given for each of the whole Army.

Sunday 26th dined on the Remainder of our Ox.

Monday 27th went up the Tioga River to destroy Corn and returned to Camp about 8 OClock at Night.

Tuesday 28th the Same Detachment was-ordered to go up the River about 12 Miles on the same Business where we tarried all that Night.

Wednesday 29th returned to Fort Reed the Army had marched we refreshed ourselves & marched to Chemung where we Joined the Army about 10 OClock at Night & encamped

Thursday 30th decamped & arrived at Tioga about 3 OClock where we were Saluted with 13 Cannon on our arrival from the Fort the Same returned from our Artillery marched down to the Point & there encamped, and Entertainment was prepared for all the Officers of the Army we dined at Fort Sullivan & returned to Camp. End of Ensign Samuel Talmage’s Journal

October 1779 Continuation of My Journal

Tioga Friday

1st October Nothing Remarkable

Saturday 2d Joined the the Regt this Evening.

Sunday 3d found James Beaty Spent 3 or 4 Hours with him & Mr. Wark. fort Sullivan is Demolished to Day & the Detachment that Garrisoned it Joined their Respective Regiment, Gel Orders to Load the Boats and prepare for a March by 6 OClock to Morrow Morning down the River.

Monday 9th decamped about 7 OClock & part of the Troops with all the Artillery embarked on Board Bateaus Genl Sullivan went by Water, Genl Clinton commanded the Land Troops. The Land adjecent middling rough but abundance of good Land on each Side of the River, & several fine farms from which the Indians drove the Inhabit [tants] & burnt their Dwellings, the River is exceeding Crooked, but from Tioga its Course is nearly South East, Encamped by Whisanking Creek Distance 16 Miles

Tuesday 5th rained all last Night & this Morning, till about 7 OClock then Cloudy and Cold all Day, decamped about 11 OClock & embark the whole Army only as many as Could take the Horses & Cattle by Land. Encamped very Scattering about 7 OClock in the Evening about 5 Miles below Wyloosing, the River runs near South East to Day, very Crooked with many Islands & Shoals, the Land is Chiefly rising into Hills, but some intervails of good Land and Great Many very fine Farms.

Wednesday 6th embarked about 6 OClock the Boats very scattering encamped about Sun Set on the East Side of the River by a little Brook, the River runs about South to Day, the Land on both Sides is very Mountanious tho’ many fine farms intermixt on both sides. We passed many Shoals & Islands to Day.

Thursday 7th The River runs near South East all the Way from Tioga to Wyoming & the Land mostly abounding with Pine on the Large Rocky Mountains of which there are abundance on both Sides of the River, Nevertheless there are Many fine Farms & Large Settlements one of which is named Lackawanack which extends between 10 & 12 Miles in Length & is Chiefly very fine Land until about 1 ½ Mile of Wyoming where is about a Mile of Scrubby bak Land, then comes in an Extensive & an Extraordinary fine Country being very level on both Sides of the river then Rising into Gradual little Mountains. There is a little Piquetted Fort with three other Redoubts & also a Great Plenty of Sea Coal.

Friday 8th An express arrives which brings Orders for us to march immediately for Head Quarters. Accordingly Orders are Issued to prepare with all Alacrity to be in readiness to march by 6 OClock on the 10th instant.

Saturday 9th prepared for a March on the Morrow agreeable to General Orders.

Sunday 10th marched about 12 OClock and encamped about 8 OClock at Night on Bull’s Farm called the 7 Mile House, this Road from wyoming runs nearly East, very Hilly and Rocky, as also the Land in General, N, B, about 3 ½ Miles from Wyoming found a Board set up on the North Side of Road with this Inscription, Viz, THE BLOOD OF LT JONES (Second Lieutenant William Jones of McLane’s Delaware Partisan Company; killed at Wyoming April 23, 1779. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 325) which was Killed by the Savages, about half a Mile further on the Same Side of the Road, found another Board with the following Inscription I. E. CAPTAIN DAVIS (Captain Joseph Davis, 11th Pennsylvania Regiment; killed by Indians near Wyoming April 23, 1779, Ibid., p. 188) MURDERED BY THE SAVAGES 13th APRIL 1779.

Monday 11th decamped about 6 OClock the Army marched as for as Abrahams Plains distance 7 Miles, but Captains Davis, (Captain John Davis, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 188) Titus (Captain Jonathan Titus, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 545.) and Fowler (Captain Theodosius Fowler, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 235) and I reached Locust Hill 6 Miles farther in Company with the Van and Cattle Guards, through a Miry Rough Swamp very Stony as well as muddy Obstructed with Rocks and Roots of Trees in the Road, Crossing the Leehoy River about 11 Miles from Bulls Farm.

Tuesday 12th the Army came up with us about 10 OClock and proceeded to the White Oak Plains Distance 11 Miles we cleared this Bad Swamp, thundered and Rained very fast about 4 OClock.

October 1779 Decamped about 6 OClock and encamped about 6 P. M. by

Wednesday 13th Brinkers Mills, Distance 15 Miles. This Day being cold but something Rainy in the Morning, Arrived once more to an Inhabitants whose Name was Learner, Capt Titus and I calling for a Sling with a Gill of Rum paid 5 Dollars found they Sold the Rum for three Dollars pr Gill afterwards Getting a Small Buckwheat Cake wt ½ lb for which we paid 2 Dollars, resolved to purchase no more Rum or Buckwheat Cakes at that Rate; after marching a Mile farther Stopped at a House where we found Capt Charles Graham, Cooking Bears Flesh Potatoes and Cabbage for a Number of Officers, we eat very hearty of the Flesh Cabbage and Potatoes but no Bread nor Salt which Cost us 3 Dollars each, the roads very Good to Day. We supped at Mr. Brinkers on Beef, Potatoes Bread, Butter and Cheese cost us four Dollars each (It should be kept in mind that continental currency was rapidly depreciating at that time.)

Thursday 14th This Morning chose a Committee out of each Regiment to meet together to Consider of some Regulations Concerning purchasing of Liquor which the agreed that we or any of us should not purchase any Liquors at 3 Dollars pr Gill or any Vegitables in any Tavern or Public House which the Officers and Soldiers unanimously agreed to, decamped about 10 OClock and marched about 8 Miles and encamped.

Friday 15th decamped about 6 OClock and marched to Easton Distance 11 Miles from Wyoming to Easton 65 Miles near a Direct East Course from Wyoming being a very Scruby Barren Land all the Way, Easton is Situated between the Deleware and the Leehoy Rivers, very Pleasantly passing the Wind Gap in the Blue Mountains about 6 Miles west of Easton.

Saturday 16th Nothing Remarkable

Sunday 17th were Mustered by Nehemiah Wade C (*Probably Commissary or Captain) of Musters

Monday 18th in Company with Captain Davis, Titus and Dunscomb Lieut Hyatt (Lieutenant Abraham Hyatt, 4th New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register. P. 312) & Frilick, ( Lieutenant Joseph Froelich, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 238) & Ensign Talmage (Ensign Samuel Talmadge, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 532) Dinneston (Ensign Daniel D. Denniston, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 194) Woodruf ( Ensign Ephraim Woodruff, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p 604) & Griffin (Ensign Stephen Griffing, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 263) of our Regt and Capt Johnson ( Ensign John Johnson, 5th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 320) and Ensign Johnson (Ensign James Johnston, 5th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 322) of the 5th Regt dined at Mr. Valentine Bidleman’s in the Grange Sussex County in the Jersies about a Mile from Easton, Had a fine Dinner and Grog Plenty which cost us Seven Dollars each.

Tuesday 19th Nothing Remarkable

Wednesday 20th marched across the Delaware three Miles and encamped in a Piece of Woods on the Sussex Road in the Grange in Sussex County, & State of West Jersies.

Thursday 21st dined at Mr. Bidleman’s in Company with Coll Weissenfells, (Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Frederick Weisenfels, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 579) Capts Davis, Titus, Norton, (Captain Nathaniel Norton, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 258) Fowler, and Dunscomb *Captain Lieutenant Edward Dunscomb, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p., 207) Lieuts Gray, (Lieutenant Silas Gray, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 258) Hyatt, Elsworth, (Lieutenant Peter Elsworth, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 216) Hunt, ( Lieutenant Thomas Hunt, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 310) Frilick, and Hovenbargh, (Lieutenant Rudolph Van Hoevenbergh, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 556) and Ensigns Talmage, Griffin (Ensign Stephen Griffing, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 236) and Dodge, ( Ensign Samuel Dodge Jr 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 199)

Friday 22d Dined there to Day in Compy with Capt Fowler, (Captain Theodosius Fowler, 4th New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 235) Lieut Barrett, ( Lieutenant James Barrett, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 89) and Ensign Morrel (Ensign Joseph Morrill, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 402) of our Regt and Capt Wright, (Captain Jacob Wright, 2d New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 607) Lieut Livingston (Lieutenant Gilbert James Livingston, 2d New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 353) and Doctr Monemy (Dr. Daniel Menema, surgeon, 2d New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 388) of the 2d N. York Regt cost each of us nine Dollars.

Saturday 23d wrote three Letters, Viz, one to Lieut John Lloyd (Lieutenant John Lloyd, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 355) and one to Mr. Joseph Pennoyer in the Oblong Amenia Precinct the other to Mr. Zopher Jones of Charlotte Precinct all of Dutchess County State of N. York.

Sunday 24th Received two Quarts of Rum agreeable to the Orders of the 23d inst.

Monday 25th This Evening had a Dance and drank Milk Punch at the Widow De Witts Cost us two Dollars and a half each

Tuesday 26th had Orders to Morrow by 6 OClock A. M.

Wednesday 27th decamped about 10 OClock and encamped at Oxford Distance 10 Miles.

Thursday 28th decamped about 8 OClock and marched to Logg Goal, Distance 17 Miles

Friday 29th decamped about 8 OClock and marched as far as Sussex encamped on the North East Side of the Town distance 10 Miles.

Saturday 30th decamped about 8 OClock and incamped on Wallings Farm Distance 14 Miles, dined to Day at Mr. Edmond Martin’s D. W. G. (Dwelling) Distance from Sussex 5 Miles, from Walling 9 Miles, in Compy with Capt Titus and Lieut Hunt, paid 3 Dollars Each

Sunday 31st marched by 6 OClock, encamped at Warwick Distance 14 Miles, being 4 Miles in the State of N. York

November 1st Monday marched at 11 OClock, encamped about half a Mile South of  Sterling Furnace Distance of 11 Miles passed Bell Vale Furnace at the 3d Mile of our march.

Tuesday 2d decamped by 8 OClock and encamped a Mile South of Suffrans Tavern in Ramapough (Ramapo, Rockland county, New York) in York State, Distance 12 Miles, passing a Forge at the 2d Mile of our March and also the 3d Mile Ringwood Furnace.

Wednesday 3d snowed several Time to Day being very Cold

1st Snow

Thursday 4th moved our encampment about ¾ of a Mile East into the Woods eat Breakfast at Mr. Abraham Westerfelts where Leut Hyat had the Guard.

Friday 5th have Orders to march but are prevented for the want of Teams, do Qar Mr. Duty as Lieut Barrett is on furlow

Saturday 6th the Artillery and Genl Hands *Brigade General Edward Hand, Continental Army, Heitman, Historical Register, p. 272) marched to Day for Pompton in the Jersies.

Sunday 7th march about 9 OClock and encamped in a fine Grove of Young Timber near Pompton Forge Distance 12 Miles

Monday 8th Nothing Material

Tuesday 9th his Excellency Genl Washington Road through Camp to Day

Wednesday 10th Settled our Mess Bill cost me 28 Dollars and also with my Wash Woman cost me 18 Dollars since the 1st of June 79

Thursday 11th Lieut Hyatt went on furlough

Friday 12th moved our encampment 2 ½ Miles east near Pompton Furnace in the Woods

Saturday 13eh built a Chimney to our Marquee

Sunday 14th washed my Hat, also drew a Portmantua

Monday 15th Nothing Remarkable

Tuesday 16th &c.

Wednesday 17th Snowed some this Morning, Rained all last night one Skankling, tried by a Regimental Court Martial, for Stealing a Tea Post, found Guilty & was Sentenced to receive 100 Lashes on the bare Back, received his Punishment this Evening.

Thursday 18th a Regimental Court Martial, whereof Capt Lt Dunscomb Presided Patrick Conner was convicted for Stealing a 70 Dollar Bill from Patrick Davis, found Guilty and Sentenced to receive 100 Lashes on his Bare Back and put under monthly Stoppages until he paid said Davis, the lashes were remitted.

Friday 19th } Nothing Notable but Coll Gansivoorts (Colonel Peter 4th Snow Gansevoort, 3d New York Regiment. Saturday 20th } Heitman, Historical Register, p. 242) marched to Morris Town, there to build Hutts

Sunday 21st Coll Duboy’s (Colonel Lewis Du Bois, 5th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 205) marched for Morris Towns there to build Hutts for winter Quarters.

Monday 22d were mustered by Nehemiah Wade C. of M. drew a Quart of Rum agreeable to to Days orders.

Tuesday 23d had Orders to march but could not for want of waggons.

Wednesday 24th Genl Poor’s ( Brigadier General Enoch Poor, Continental Army, Ibid., p. 446) marched for Danbury.

3d snow Snowed this Afternoon

Thursday 25th marched for Morris towns about 8 OClock and encamped near Rockaway bridge Distance 17 Miles had Orders to remain here, till further Orders.

Friday 26th Snowed all Last Night and to Day the Wind blowing very hard,

4th Snow the snow fell about Six Inches deep.

Saturday 27th cleared off Last Night very Pleasant to Day

Sunday 28th dined at Mr. Pieers in Company with Capts Davis, Titus and Fowler, Lieuts Barrett, and Frilick Tunis Van Waggoner (Second Lieutenant Tunis Van Wegenen, 2d New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 558) Brigade Qr Master and Mr. Coe Brigade Waggon Master, cost 4 Dollars

Monday 29th Genl Woodfords (Brigadier General William Woodford, Continental Army. Ibid., p. 604) Brigade passed us on their way to Morris Town for winter Quarters.

Tuesday 30th Genl Parsons (Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons, Continental Army. Ibid., p. 438) and Huntington’s ( Brigadier General Jedediah Huntington, Continental Army. Ibid., p. 311) Brigades Came here from West Point on the North River. encamped abut a Mile North West of us.


Wednesday 1st Nothing Material

Thursday 2d Hailed Snowed, Rained and Wind Blowing very hard which

5th Snow caused a violent Storm, had Order to march to the Place of our Winters Quarters.

Friday 3d The Virginia Troops passed to Day on their way to Winter Quarters, we have Orders to march by 7 OClock, to morrow Morning.

Saturday 4th Lay Still for want of Teams his Excellency’s Guard passed us to Day

Sunday 5th decamped and Marched about 8 OClock and encamped on the Ground of our Winters quarters three Miles West of Morris Town Distance 12 Miles.

6th Snow began to snow about 9 OClock & the wind rising gradually until it blew up a violent storm. The snow fell about Six Inches deep.

Monday 6th continued Snowing, till about 12 OClock Last Night, drew Tools for the purpose of building our Hutts, Clean and very Cold

Tuesday 7th began our Hutts to Day

Wednesday 8th Nothing Remarkable &

Thursday 9th Do to 10th

Saturday 11th rained a little to Day but cleared away by Noon

Sunday 12th rained last Night and some this Day but turned to Snow about

7th Snow Noon.

Monday 13th Rained to Day but cleared off before afternoon

Tuesday 14th very Cold. Gen Starks (Brigadier General John Stark, Continental Army. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 515) Brigade arrive here from Rhode Island and encamped on our Right.

Wednesday 15th Nothing Remarkable

Thursday 16th more moderate but snowed a little Last Night and this

8th snow morning

Friday 17th The Virginia Troops march to Day for Georgia

Saturday 18th Snowed last Night and until Noon to Day

9th snow

Sunday 19th Very Cold Nothing Remarkable

Monday 20th Sergts John Holly ( Probably James Holly, 8th Company, 4th New York Regiment. Archives, p. 218) and Selah Brush (Selah Brush, 8th company, 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 218) had Furlough each for 42 Days, very Cold.

Tuesday 21st Nothing Material

Wednesday 22d moved into our Hutts with Capt Davis & Lt Elsworth

Thursday 23d Nothing remarkable

Friday 24th moved to Mr. Samuel Broadwells about 5 Miles from Camp to recover my Health, in Morris County three Miles and a half from Morris Town.

Saturday 25th CHRISTMAS DAY Pleasant weather, went to Capt Greens (Name Not found) in Company with Ensign Tuthill, ( Ensign Azariah Tuthill, 4th New York Regiment. Heitman, Historical Register, p. 552) being Doctr Vacher’s (Dr. John Francis Vecher, surgeon 4th New York Regiment. Ibid., p. 554) Quarters, borrowed of Capt Green Count D’Saxes Memoirs on the Art of War.

Sunday 26th took a vomit this Morning, Capt Davis and Capt Titus came to see me.

Monday 27th St. Johns Day, was a Grand Procession of the Free And accepted Masons his excellency (General George Washington) attended, has a Discourse delivered on the Occasion by the Revd Mr. Jones ( Rev. David Jones, brigade chaplain. Ibid., p. 324) well suited the Purpose.

Tuesday 28th snowed till about noon then turned to rained. The Wind blew up a very tedious Storm scalded my ancle this afternoon.

Wednesday 29th Nothing Remarkable

Thursday 30th began to snow about Break of Day, about Noon turned to rain

11th snow     very Warm for the season.

Friday 31st very pleasant for the season.

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