History of Pictou County, Patterson, Chapter 7 *Pictou County GenWeb Electronic Edition, May, 2005.*

[Notes from Editor: As page numbers in electronic editions do not correspond to those in original printed versions, they are omitted from any Tables of Contents or Illustration Lists in works that we transcribe. Spellings are left as they were in the original work. Sentence & punctuation anomalies are also (mostly) left intact. Footnotes follow the paragraph in which they are referenced, enclosed by square brackets. Richard MacNeil]

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A special thank you is extended to Ruth Miller of Wawa, ON
for preparing this transcription, May 2005.






The next accession of settlers to the county, and the largest it had yet received, was at the peace of 1783. These, however, were not loyalists from the revolted colonies, as in some other counties. It might have been well for them and for the county, had they occupied such a rich district as Pictou, instead of the rocky shores of our southern coast. The most who came here were disbanded soldiers, with a few families who had emigrated from the old country about that time. The largest body of them were of the 82nd , or Hamilton Regiment, as it was called. The main body had been employed in garrison duty in Halifax, with the exception of an expedition to Casco Bay, in the State of Maine, under General McLean. Another portion were employed in the Southern States, at least some of the men saw severe service there. The most important event, however, which befell the regiment was, the loss by shipwreck of a transport on the coast, near New York, when, of thee hundred men on board, only eighteen were saved, who were taken off the rigging to which they had clung for some time.

Being disbanded in Halifax at the close of the war, a large tract of land was set apart for them in Pictou, principally of the grants of Fisher and others, which had just been escheated, in spite of the efforts of Wentworth, who strove to maintain the titles of the old grantees, but only succeeded in upholding his own. This tract , which has since been so well known in the county as the 82nd grant, embraced the shore on the south side of the harbour, at Frasers Point, and from the upper part of Fishers Grant around the coast, almost to the eastern extremity of the county, including Fishers Grant, Chance Harbour, Little Harbour and Merigomish, with the excemption of the Wentworth grant and some of the smaller grants previously made at Barneys River, and extending into the interior to the depth of three or four miles. It was said to " contain in the whole 26,030 acres, allowance being made for a town plot, common, glebe and schools, and for other public uses." It was divided as follows: to the Colonel, (Robertson, of Struan, in Perthshire,) the Big Island, hence often known as Robertsons Island, estimated at 1,500 acres, though in reality containing considerably more; to Capt. Fraser, 700 acres at Frasers Point, which obtained its name from him; to four other officers, 500 acres each; to another, 300 acres; to thirty-two non commissioned officers, 200 acres each; to two others, 150 acres each, and to 120 privates, 100 acres each. The following is the description of the grant, which was dated 15th February, 1785:

"Six certain several lots or tracts of land, containing on the whole 22,600 acres.

" One tract beginning at west boundary of land granted to Robert Patterson, near the head of Merigomish harbour, thence to run south by the magnet 373 chains of 4 rods each, thence west 120 chains, thence south 38 chains, thence west 109 chains, thence south 26 chains, thence west 187 chains, 50 links, or until it comes to Wentworth grant; thence north 276 chains to the harbour aforesaid; thence by the several courses of the said harbour, running east up to the grant made to Robert Patterson as aforesaid; thence crossing on that line to the west side said harbour, and running west down the harbour and round the sea-coast, running east to the bound first-mentioned, containing 11,388 acres. Also, one other tract beginning at a stake and stones on the west point of the entrance into the harbour of Merigomish, thence to run south 48o west 300 chains, thence north 78o west 107 chains, thence north 12 chains, thence north 45o west 48 chains, to the harbour of Pictou; thence bounded by the several courses of the said harbour and sea-shore, running east to the bounds first mentioned, containing 12,000 acres. Also, one other tract beginning at the point between East and Middle Rivers in Pictou harbour, thence to run south 65o west 43 chains, thence south 67 chains, thence east till it comes to the East River aforesaid, thence bounded by the several courses of the shore to the bound first mentioned, containing 500 acres, hereby granted wholly to the said Colin McDonald. Also, one other tract beginning at the first mentioned bound of the last described tract, thence to run south 65o west 43 chains, thence south 104 chains, thence north 85o west till it comes to the harbour of Pictou, thence bound by the several courses of the said harbour to the bounds first mentioned, containing 700 acres, hereby granted wholly to the said John Fraser. Also, one other tract, beginning at the northern bound of lands granted Archibald Allardyce, on the aforesaid harbour of Pictou thence to run south 85o east 158 chains,or until it comes to lands granted to Rod. McKay thence north 48 chains, thence west 34 chains, thence south 3 chains 50 links, thence north 85o west to the harbour, and by the several courses of the said harbour to the bound first mentioned, containing 500 acres hereby granted to the said Donnet Fenucane. Also one other tract beginning 28 chains to the east of land granted to R. Patterson aforesaid, thence to run south 140 chains, thence east 75 chains, thence north to the sea-shore, thence running westwardly by the several courses of the sea-shore to the bound first mentioned, containing 950 acres, and containing in the
whole of the aforesaid tract of land, 26,080 acres of land, allowance being made for a town plot, common, glebe and school, and for other public uses, excepting always the land marked on the plan as reserved, and being all wilderness land."

The ground reserved for a town was at Fishers Grant, which was laid out to contain every public convenience, and was duly named Walmsley, but as our readers are aware, it was a town only in name, and we venture to say even its name is entirely unknown to the majority of the young generation of Pictonians.

By the tenure of the grant, " all mines of gold, silver, copper, lead, and coals" were reserved, and also an "entire right to all His Majesty's subjects to fish on the coasts of the tract hereby granted, where it butts upon the sea-shore." We hope, therefore, none of those resident on the grant will attempt to hinder any of the lieges of Queen Victoria from this privilege. It proceeds: "also saying and reserving to His Majesty his heirs and successors, all white or other pine trees of the growth of twenty-five inches diameter and upwards, at twelve inches off the earth, and if such trees shall be so cut or felled without license for so doing, either from the Surveyor-General of the Woods or his deputy, or from the Governor of the Province for the time being, the lot or share of land which said trees shall be so cut, shall be forfeited and the lands revert to His Majesty, his heirs and successors." Surely with such a penalty nobody on that grant has ever cut down any big pine trees on his lot, and surely Her Majesty, as the lawful heir of George the Third, must have a large reserve of masts for her navy. But somehow we don't see them there nowadays.

The grantees were also required to pay a quit rent of two shillings sterling for every hundred acres on the Feast of St. Michaels (which we may inform our ignorant readers is on the 29th September) in every year, the first payment on the first term after the expiration of ten years from the date hereof. There were also the same conditions as to working as in Cameron's grant.

We have given the conditions of the various early grants, as curious exhibitions of the ideas of the times, but it is to be observed that those issued at the same period in the other counties were in the same terms. At this time, however, a condition was inserted, not in previous grants, as follows:- "If the land hereby given and granted shall, at any time or times hereafter, come into the possession and tenure of any person or persons whatever, inhabitants of our said Province of Nova Scotia, either by virtue of any deed of sale, conveyance, enfeoffment, or exchange, or by gift, inheritance, descent, or marriage," (most likely, we think, it would at some time in some one of these ways)," such person or persons being inhabitants, as aforesaid, shall, within twelve months after his, her of their entry, take oaths prescribed by law, and make and subscribe the following declaration, that is to say:___ "I,_____ _______, do promise and declare that I will maintain and defend, to the utmost of my power, the authority of the King in his Parliament, as the Supreme Legislature of this Province," before some of the magistrates of the said province, and such declaration and certificates of the magistrate that such oaths have been taken, being recorded in the Secretary's office of the said Province, the person or persons so taking the oaths aforesaid, and making and subscribing the said declaration, shall be deemed the lawful possessor or possessors of the land herby granted."

The land was surveyed by Squire Patterson and a son of the Surveyor-General, and divided into lots, which were duly numbered. The men were drawn up on the Barrack Square in Halifax, and each man drew his lot by number.

The attempts made in the Colonies to form settlements by disbanded soldiers have not generally been very successful. Governor Lawrence, writing sometime previously to the Lords of Trade and Plantations on this subject, says:---"According to my ideas of the military, which I offer with all possible deference and submission, they are the least qualified, from their occupation as soldiers, of any men living, to establish a new country where they must encounter difficulties with which they are altogether unacquainted." This was soon realized in the present attempt. Some came and looked at the land they had drawn, and without cutting a tree upon it, returned to Halifax and re-enlisted. Others sold out for trifling sums. The county records, for 1785 particularly, contained a number of transfers of their lots, sometimes " with their right to a town lot and their share of provisions," for sums of four or five pounds. A number never sold, and their land has since been unoccupied, or occupied without title.

Still a good number came to settle their grants, some arriving in the fall of 1783, others in the spring of 1784, and thus the whole shore of the eastern part of the county was in some measure occupied. A large proportion of these settlers were reckless and profligate, but a number proved steady and industrious, and from them are descended many of the most prominent and useful members of society in the county at the present day. The most of them were Scotch, and of these the majority were Lowlanders; but a number were Highlanders, of whom a considerable proportion were Catholics, principally from the Island of Barra, who had enlisted under that persuasive influence which Highland Lairds were accustomed to exercise over their dependents. A number of these afterward removed into the neighboring county of Antigonish. We give in the appendix a list of grantees, with such notices of them as we have been able to obtain. [Appendix F.]

[Beginning of Appendix F

List of Grantees of the 82nd Regiment.

Col. Alex Robertson. Obtained the big island of Merigomish as his share, hence sometimes known as Robertson's Island. Never lived on it himself, but some relatives of the name settled upon it. Employed an agent, who built a large house on it, which he called Struan House. At his death, his property in this county descended to his nephew, Oliphant, of Gask.

Capt. John Fraser. Lived at Frasers Point, appointed a magistrate October 15th, 1784. His wife and two sons followed him from Scotland, one of the latter, John, being afterward known as Collector Fraser, the other common Simon, called also Major, and sometimes Colonel Fraser, afterward employed in bringing out passengers.

Alex. McDonald. Unknown.

Colin McDonald. I believe the same that known as Cole McDonald, who lived on the Big Island, near what is still known as Coles Brook.

Donnet Fenucane. His land located to the west of Frasers Point, but his history unknown.
These three received each 500 acres.

John McNeil. Received 300 acres, but history unknown

Non-commissioned officers receiving each 200 acres.

Charles Arbuckles. A native of Falkirk, moved afterward to the Ponds. Married to a daughter of B. McGee. His descendants numerous.

David Ballantyne. Removed to Cape George, where his descendants are numerous.

George Brown. Settled on Frasers Mountain.

John Brownfield. A native of Derry, in Ireland, and a Presbyterian, died near French River, where his descendants still are.

James Carmichael. A native of Perthshire. His descendents well-known.

Robert Dunn. A native of Glasgow, settled on the property now owned and occupied by his sons.

John Fraser. A Highlander from Inverness. One of 18 who survived out of a detachment of 111 men, employed in the Southern States during the war, the rest having been cut off by fever. He lived at Fishers Grant, where he was one of the first Elders of Pictou congregation. Afterward removed to French River, where his descendants still are.

Deffey Gillies. Believe the same as James Gillies, who lived where R. S. Copeland now resides, afterward removed to Big Island, where his descendants still are.

James Peacock. Lived near Chance Harbour, but do not know what became of him.

John Robson. From being able to bleed, and his skill otherwise, he was usually known as Dr. Robson. His descendants still there.

Charles Robinson, properly Robertson. Was a son of the proprietor of the estate of Lude, at the foot of the Grampians. Was a student attending college when he enlisted. One daughter, married to Robert Patterson (Black.)

John Scott. Sold out to John Fraser, 1785.

Robert Smith. His lot where the Merigomish church now stands. His descendants still there.

David Simpson. Had been a student at college, but he and some others having indulged in "a spree," some eighteen of them found themselves in the morning with that King's shilling in their pockets. Their professors endeavored to obtain their discharge, but without success. From his education, he obtained some office in the Regiment. His lot, on which his descendants still live, the farthest up in Merigomish, in the grant. He was afterward employed as a schoolmaster in several parts of the county.

Robert Stewart. Usually known as Smashem, from this being a favorite expression in describing battle scenes. He acted as agent for Col. Robertson, and lived on the Big Island, at a point which has since received the name of Smashems Head.

Robert Miller, Gerard Cullen, heirs of John Eves, John Fowler, John Foot, Thomas Loggan, Archibald Long, John Morton, Alexander McKinnnon, John McNeill, Jun., George Oswald, James Robertson, Alexander Stewart, James Struthers, William McVie, William West, Archibald Wilson. History unknown.

Receiving 150 acres each.

John Baillie. A native of Sutherlandshire; afterward took up land at the mouth of Baillies Brook, which received its name from him.

Archibald Cameron. History unknown.

Privates receiving 100 acres each.

Andrew Anderson. A native of East Lothian, and the first settler on Anderson's Mountain. Died 3rd August, 1845.

John Bradaw (properly Brady). Sold out.

David Boggey. Died at Fishers Grant, leaving no family.

Duncan Chisholm. Removed to Baillies Brook, where his descendants still are.

William Campin or Campden. Sold out and removed to Truro.

John Colly. Suppose the same who afterward settled on Middle River, where his descendants still are. A native of Elgin.

James Dansey or Dempsey. An Irishman; settled at French River Bridge. His descendants still there.

British Freedom. Strange is this name is, there is in the Registrar's office in Pictou a deed from him of his lot, under this inspiring name. Hence I presume that he moved away.

Hardin Ferdinand. A very stout, well-made Irishman, who afterward enlisted in Governor Wentworth's Regiment.

Thomas Flemming or Fleeman. Sold out and removed away.

Robert Ferrett, properly Gerrard. An Irishman; afterward removed to Rogers Hill.

Alexander Gordon. "Died at Fishers Grant on the 18th inst, after an illness of eight days, which he bore with resignation to the divine will, for which he has always been exemplary, Mr. Alexander Gordon, aged 80 years, leaving a circle of relatives and friends to mourn their loss. He was of the old 82nd Regiment, and one of the earliest settlers in the district of Pictou."-Bee, August 31st, 1836.

John Ives. A native of Nottingham, England, but married in the North of Ireland. Died in Halifax, and his children, the eldest, the late George Ives, Elder, then 12 years of age, came to take possession of their lot at Fishers Grant. His descendants well known.

William Kirk. Afterwards removed to St. Marys, where his descendants are numerous. A grandson in the Dominion Legislature.

Andrew Muirhead. A Lowland Scotchman; first settled at the Ponds. His descendants at Little Harbour and other places.

Hugh McCarthy. A tailor. Sold out and removed to Truro.

John McDougall. Blacksmith in the Regiment. Lived at Fishers Grant. The ferrymen, Donald and Williams, his sons.

Angus McQueen, and native of the Isle of Skye; settled at Little Harbour; a number of his descendants still in that neighbourhood. Donald McDonald (Lochaber), Donald McDonald (Bann), Angus McDonald. These four the first settlers in Little Harbour.

Charles McKinnon. From the Isle of Barra. Moved to Baillies Brook where his descendants still are.

John McNeil, Donald McNeil, Murdoch McNeil, Matthew McNeil, John McNeil, Jun. Isle of Barra men, most of whom removed to Antigonish County.

John and James McPherson. Settled at Fishers Grant; John dead in 1785. James at his death described as a native of Badenoch. Their descendants still there.

William Robinson. A Scotchman. His descendants settled there.

William Sharp. Died at the Beaches.

William Symptom. Married to Ives' widow, lived at lower part of Fishers Grant.

John Small. Afterward the Elder, belonged to the Grenadier Company. One of the 18 saved from the wreck of the Transport. For some time in an American prison, but with fifteen others made his escape; and passing through the American lines reached a British man-of-war. But afterward drowned near his own house, at a part of the Harbour of which it was said that he knew every foot as well as his own farm.

James Truestate, properly Truesdale. Sold out and removed to Truro.

James Arthur, Wm. Adams, William Bilboa, William Branon, Michael Branon, George Brown, Charles Brown, John Brown, Archibald Cameron, Robt. Clawson, Finlay Campbell, Donald Campbell, sr., Donald Campbell, jr., Alex. Campbell, Matthew Campbell, John Chisholm, Archibald Cochrane, Thomas Connelly, Robt. Dewar, John Dickson, Alex. Dickson, Dennis Dirkham, Lawrence Donnachie, Charles Dunce, Francis Gobbiel, Angus McDonald 2nd, Angus McDonald 3rd, Peter McDonald, John McDonald, Roderick McDonald, William Gowe, Peter Gowe, Richard Griffin, James Gibes, Robert Gardner, Patrick Hayne, or Kane, Archibald Henderson, Wm. Hodges, John Holmes, Patrick Hunt, John Ives, Wm. Jack, Alex. King, Alex. Kennedy, John Little, John Lunn, Wm. Lamplash, Peter Lamplash, Thomas Matheson, John Munro, Hugh Miller, John Muir, John Morton, Samuel McBawe, Neil McCallum, John McCladdy, Bryan McDermaid, Archibald McGavy, John McGillivray, Alex. McKenzie, Robert McKenzie, Alexander McLean, Ewan McLean, Alexander McLean, Samuel McLean, John McLeod, Kenneth McLeod, John Patterson, William Riddle, Robert Reid, Thomas Ryan, George Robertson, Alex. Shaw, Charles Stewart, David Skervine, John Sovereign, Patrick Skey, James Struthers, John Scott, John Stevenson, Matthew Talbot, Thomas Townsend, Robt. Thyne, Wm. Wood, Thomas Wood, John Wright, Robt. Warren. Unknown.

We find also in the County Records, the names of the following as soldiers of the 82nd, whose names are not in the grant, viz.: John McIlvain, Robert Irvin, Wm. McKay, John McGarvie, Wm. Hogan, George Osborne, Thomas Crowe, as selling out their lots. There were others also who occupied theirs, such as Owen McEwan, or McKowan, a native of the County of Down, whose descendants are numerous.

End of Appendix F]

We must now notice another band who arrived----some of them at this time, and others not till a little later, who first occupied the upper settlement of the East River. These belonged to the 84th Regiment, known at that time as the Royal Highland emigrants. It consisted of two battalions, originally embodied in the year 1775, though not numbered as the 84th till the year 1778, when each battalion was raised to 1,000 men. Their uniform was the full Highland garb, with purses made of raccoon instead of badgers' skins. The officers wore the broadsword and dirk, and the men a half basket sword. The first battalion was raised among the discharged men of the 42nd, Fraser's and Montgomery's Highlanders, who had settled in Canada or the old colonies at the peace of 1763. It was stationed at Quebec, under the command of Col. Allan McLean, where it did good service in defence of that post, and was thus the principle means of preserving the Province to the British crown. The other battalion was raised principally among immigrants arriving in the United States or Nova Scotia. At the time the war broke out, a large number were on their way from Scotland to settle in various parts of the old colonies. In some instances the vessels were boarded from a man-of-war before arrival. * After arrival they were induced partly by threats and partly by persuasion, to enlist for the war, which was expected to be of short duration. They were not only in poverty, but many were in debt for their passage, and they were now told that, by enlisting, they would have their debts paid, have plenty food as well as full pay, and would receive for each head of a family 200 acres of land and 50 more for each child, "as soon as the present unnatural rebellion is suppressed," while, in the event of refusal, there was presented the alternative of going to jail to pay their debts. Under these circumstances, most of the able-bodied enlisted, in some instances fathers and sons serving together. Their wives and children were brought to Halifax, hearing the cannon of Bunker Hill on the passage.
[* The tradition in several families is, that they were captured by a British man-of-war. I do not understand how this could be. A number were on their way to Virginia. ]

This battalion was under the command of Col. Small. Stewart, in his history of the Highland clans and regiments, says:" No chief of former days ever more firmly secured the attachment of his clan, and no chief certainly ever deserved it better. With an enthusiastic and almost romantic love of his country and countrymen, it seemed as if the principal object of his life had been to serve them and promote their prosperity. Equally brave in leading them in the field, and kind, just, and conciliating in quarters, they would have indeed been ungrateful, if they regarded him otherwise than they did. There was not an instance of desertion in the battalion. Five companies remained in Nova Scotia during the war. The other five joined General Clinton and Lord Cornwallis to the southward. At Eutaw Springs, the Grenadier company was in the battalion, which, as Col. Alex. Stewart, of the 3rd Regiment, states in his dispatches, drove all before them."

That portion of the regiment which remained in Nova Scotia, was stationed at Halifax, Windsor and Cumberland, and the men were distinguished by their good behaviour, in which they presented a remarkable contrast to the rest of the army at that time.

At the close of the war, both battalions were disbanded. The first battalion settled in Canada , the second in Nova Scotia. The transports, with the flank companies, from the Southern army were ordered to Halifax, where the men were to be discharged, but owing to the violence of the weather, and a consequent loss of reckoning, they made the Islands of St. Nevis and St. Kitts, which delayed their final reduction till 1784. The largest portion of the battalion obtained their land in Hants County, where they formed the township of Douglass, but a number of them settled on the upper settlement of the East River. The first who came was James Fraser [Big] who, in company with Donald McKay, the elder, followed the river up till he reached the intervale, a little below St. Paul's Church, where his grandson Donald resides, which he chose as his future home. We may mention that intervale land was then eagerly sought, and that it was this that principally attracted the settlers to such a distance from shore. Accordingly he and fifteen of his comrades took up a tract of 3,400 acres, extending along both sides of the river,* on the east side , from Finlay Fraser's, a little below Springville, to a little above Samuel Cameron, Esq.'s house, and on the west side, from John Forbes' to James Fraser's [ Culloden ]. This grant, usually known on the East River,as " the soldiers' grant ," is in the same terms with that of the 82nd. The settlers also received a town lot at Fishers Grant and a supply of provisions.
[* The discharges we have seen are dated 10th April, 1784, but the grant is dated 3rd November, 1785. There was, however, always delay in the issue of the old grants. Curiously enough I could find no record of this in the Crown Land office at Halifax. It was surveyed and the lots laid off by Squire Patterson.]

They made a beginning of settlement here, as near as we can ascertain, in the summer of 1784. We may say of these as well as those of the same class who settled on the West Branch, that they were very different from disbanded soldiers in general, being sober and industrious, and many of them serious. But they had for some time great hardships to endure. Till they made a blaze, there was no path to the neighboring settlement. All their seed and supplies for their families, they were obliged to carry on their backs, or in winter, to drag on handsleds. And from their seclusion from the rest of the settlement, they were for a time exposed to peculiar privations. We append a list of these grantees with notices of them. [Appendix G.]
[Beginning of Appendix G

List of Grantees of 84th Regiment on East Branch.

On the east side of the River.

Donald Cameron. 150 acres. With his brothers, Finlay and Samuel, afterward mentioned, were natives of the parish of Urquhart. Served 8 years and 4 months. His son, Duncan, long the elder, was a drummer boy in the Regiment, having served two years, and being 15 years of age at his discharge.

Alex Cameron. 100.

Robt. Clark. 100.

Finlay Cameron. 400. Enlisted in Canada with the view of joining his friends in Nova Scotia. Returned thither to bring his family at the peace. Was drowned shortly after his arrival, along with John Chisholm at the Narrows.

Samuel Cameron, Jr. 100 acres.

James Fraser (Big). 350 acres. A native of Strathglass. Settled where his grandson Donald, lives, a little below St. Pauls.

Peter Grant. The first elder in this settlement.

James McDonald. Long the Elder; said to have been the strongest man in the Regiment. Removed to the London District of Ontario. Hon. James McDonald his grandson.

Hugh McDonald. 100.

On the West side.

James Fraser, 2nd. Usually known as Culloden; 100 acres; farthest-up settler on that side. His descendants there still. Rev. James W. Fraser descended from him.

Duncan McDonald. 100 acres.

John McDonald. 250 acres; brother of James.

Samuel Cameron. 300 acres; brother of Donald and Finlay, already mentioned.

John Chisholm, Sen. 300. A Roman Catholic from Strathglass; drowned with F. Cameron, as mentioned; father of Mrs. John McKenzie, Sen., West River.

John Chisholm, Jun. 200 acres. Son of the last.

John McDonald, 2nd. 250 acres.

End of Appendix G]

About the same time with the occupation of the East Branch, or a little after, the West Branch was occupied, principally by men of the same regiment. The first to make their way thither were David McLean afterwards Esquire, and John Fraser, who made their way along the bed of the river to the falls, at Gray's Mills, where they spent the night sleeping in the open air. Their grant however did not come out for some time after. The one in use is dated 13th December 1797, and includes a number of other parties, who had settled on other parts of the river. This grant is not on record, but there is one registered for the same quantity of land with nearly the same names, dated 1st April 1793. We subjoin a list of the grantees with brief notices of them.[ Appendix H]

[Beginning of Appendix H


List of grantees at West branch and other places on the East River, 18th December, 1797.

William Fraser. 350 acres. From Inverness, land situate at Big Brook, now owned by his grandchildren.

John McKay. 300.

John Robertson. 450. At Churchville.

Wm. Robertson. 200. Son of the last, also near Churchville.

John Fraser. 300. From Inverness, Springville, now occupied by Holmes and others.

Thomas Fraser. 200. From Inverness. An elder and noted for piety. His lot was at the head of the West Branch.

Thos. McKenzie. 100. Settled near Fish Pools.

David MacLean. 500. A sergeant in the army, or as some say a petty officer in the Navy. Was captured by the Spaniards, and afterward exchanged as a prisoner. He was a better scholar than usually found among the settlers, was a surveyor, a magistrate, an elder in the Church, and a leading man in that section of the county.

Alex. Cameron. 300.

Hector McLean. 400. From Inverness. Land still occupied by his descendants.

John Forbes. 400. From Inverness. Land on East Branch River.

Alex McLean. 500. Brother of Hector. Land opposite Stellarton, part of it still occupied by his descendants.

Thos. Fraser, Jr. 100.

Jas. McLellan. 500. From Inverness. Land above the Fish Pools, on the opposite side of the River, occupied by his descendants.

Donald Chisholm. 350. From Strathglass, originally a Catholic, but became a Presbyterian. St. Columbas Church built on part of his farm.

Robert Dunbar. 450 Three brothers from Inverness. All we believe in 84th. Their land still occupied by their descendents.
Alex Dunbar. 200
William Dunbar. 300

James Cameron. 300. Of the 84th. Land still occupied by his descendants.

John McDougall. 250. In the Registrar's book," J. M. Douglass."

John Chisholm. 300.

Donald Chisholm, jun. 400. From Inverness. Land occupied by his grandsons.

Robert Clark. 150. Of the 84th, but moved away. Land now occupied by Mr. Thomas Fraser.

Donald Shaw. 300. From Inverness. Land occupied by his grandsons.

Alexander McIntosh. 500. From Inverness. His land now partly occupied by Hopewell Village.

John McLellan. 100. From Inverness. Land occupied by D.H. McLean and James Fraser.

The most of those marked as from Inverness were from the parish of Urquhart, in that county, and served in the 84th. In the record of the grant, dated 1st April, 1793, there are the additional names of Colin Robinson, William Robinson, William McKenzie, William Robertson, heirs of John Forbes, Hugh Dunoon, and Thomas Fraser, but Hector McLean's is omitted.

End of Appendix H]

The same summer (1784) there arrived at Halifax a vessel with immigrants, of whom some eight families, all Highlanders, removed to Pictou, all of whom, so far as we know, settled on the East River. Perhaps the most noticeable of these were Thomas Fraser, who settled nearly opposite where New Glasgow now stands, and who was long known as Deacon Thomas, and John Robertson who was the first settler at Churchville. A list of these settlers so far as we have been able to obtain, we subjoin. (Appendix I.)

[Beginning of Appendix I


List of Highland Emigrants by Halifax in 1784.

Thomas Fraser. A native of Kirkhill Parish. Settled nearly opposite new Glasgow, where he was known as Deacon Thomas, and his descendants are still so distinguished.

William Fraser (Ogg). Settled just above him.

---- Fraser. Usually known as " basin."

Alexander McKay. A brother of Roderick and Donald, already mentioned as passengers in the Hector. Had served in the Fraser Highlanders at the capture of Louisburg and Québec. Near the latter place received a ball in his leg, which he carried till his death. Was a very powerful man. Lived to be 97 years of age, and almost to the last, a reference to the campaign at Québec would stir up his blood. Settled near Fish Pools, where his son lately resided.

Thomas McKenzie. Settled near Fish Pools, where Thomas Grant now resides.

Alexander Fraser or McAndrew. From the Parish of Kilmorack, settled at McLellans Brook, but did not live long.

Simon Fraser. Also an Elder. Settled on McLellans Brook, where his son, William, filled the same office for 50 years.

John Robertson. A brother-in-law of Roderick and Donald McKay. The first settler at Churchville. His first clearing was made where John Robertson, miller, nowresides.

There was also a family of Frasers, who came, we believe with this band. The father died, the widow married William Dunbar, and the only son moved into Antigonish County.

End of Appendix I.]

About the same time a number of others, who had served during the war, settled in various parts of the county. Thus we find Lieutenant Gordon, who lived at Mortimers Point, hence for some time after known as Gordons Point, Henry Burnside, a native of Glasgow, who had served ten years in the 42nd Regiment, who joined the settlers on West Branch , taking up the farm since occupied by Peter Ross, Esq., Robert and Joseph McDonald, brothers, who settled on Barneys River; and William McKay, Archibald Gray and Dalgliesh, who had served in one of the Highland Regiments, and Donald McGillivray, who had been a dragoon, all of whom settled on the lower part of the Eight Mile Brook; Samuel Cameron, who had been a light horseman, and who settled at Merigomish, and Gregor McGregor, a native of Perthshire, who had also served in the army and now settled at Barney's River. There came also others of those whom we have mentioned as having been on their way to the United States when the war broke out, among whom may be named Alpin Grant, who, we believe, belonged to the 84th, and who settled below the town, where Capt. Foote now lives, the McMillans, (though one son William served his full time as a soldier in the Cavalry and did not arrive for some time after) and James McDonald and John McKenzie, of West River, who had been employed in Halifax during the war, the former as a tailor to the troops, and the latter as a carpenter. To these we may add James Chisholm, a son of a parish minister in the North of Scotland, who had been on the staff of Gen. Washington, but finding his Highland countrymen generally taking the other side, deserted and had a price set on his head.

About the same time, Governor Wentworh made efforts to settle his grant. In a letter written in the year 1783, to prevent process of escheat against him, he says, "I had made an agreement with agents of 120 families in Connecticut, all loyalists, and churchmen, with their missionaries, to remove upon our lands in the spring next, to give them alternate lots of 100 acres, and something more to the missionary and one or two principals among them. They are dissatisfied with their present Government, are well recommended, and determined to sell their present possessions."

This scheme was never carried out, but at this time to secure his grant from forfeiture, he offered liberal terms to those who should occupy it. Several embraced his proposals, the first of whom was Mr. John Sutherland. He had immigrated a young man in the Hector, and removed to Windsor, where he married. After this he returned to Pictou, he and his wife traveling on foot, and carrying that distance an iron pot, as the beginning of house furnishing. After being a short time on the East River, he removed about the year 1785, and settled at the mouth of Sutherland's River, which received its name from him, on the farm still occupied by his descendants. Among others, who settled on the Wentworth Grant about this time, we may mention Alex. McDonald, (Garty) who had been a soldier in one of the Highland Regiments during the war, and three brothers, George, Charles, and Joseph Roy, who had just emigrated from Scotland.

The most important accession to that settlement at that time was Nicholas Purdy (properly Purdue, that being his mothers' name) Olding. Both by his father and mother's side he belonged to families of some rank in the County of Kent, England. He was well educated, had studied for the bar, and commenced practicing in the State of New York, where he married, when the war broke out. He took the British side, though his father-in-law took the opposite, and joined one of the loyal American regiments, and served throughout the war as a chasseur, or light horseman, with great credit. At the end of the war he removed to Halifax, and commenced practicing law, and might have attained to the highest honors of his profession. But he had received a wound in the head, which had been trepanned, and rendered him unfit for the excitement of the bar and the social habits of the time. He had drawn his land at Sheet Harbor, but not liking the situation, he, at the solicitation of Governor Wentworth, removed to Point Betty, where he spent the rest of his life. He was for many years a magistrate, and on the list of lawyers, though he did not practice much, and, in his old age, recognized as the father of the bar of Nova Scotia.

The large influx of settlers produced important changes upon the state of the community. Perhaps the most important was the injury done to its morality, by the large number of drunken profligates, discharged from the army, a fact which will come under our notice hereafter. Another circumstance must here be mentioned. From the large influx of male settlers, there was such a scarcity of the gentler sex, as we now hear of at the first settlement of some of the Western States. An old woman in the author's congregation used to say that she recollected the time when there was "only one girl in all Pictou"---marriageable, of course, she meant. Why that one remained in the market, we regret that we omitted to enquire, but presume that it was because she was "owre young to marry yet." But extreme youth was not always a protection. A case is well authenticated of a young woman who was married when she was fourteen years of age, and had six children before she was twenty. What a contrast to our present degenerate race! Men then travelled, like Jacob, long distances for wives, and married them with as little previous acquaintance as an Oriental. A vessel having arrived in Halifax with immigrants, three young men on the East River set off through the woods to the city. On their arrival, they went among the newly arrived, and each selecting the girl whose appearance caught his fancy, at once made proposal to her. We suppose it must have been through the persuasive influence of the Gaelic language, but, at all event, the fair ones yielded, went home with men they had never seen before, and proved faithful and, we have no doubt, happy wives. One reason given for so many of the 82nd men leaving was that they could not get wives in Pictou.

We must here notice another class of settlers who, about this time, commenced in River John, and as their history is somewhat peculiar and interesting, we shall give it at some length. They were originally from the town of Montbelaird [ pronounced Mong bilyar] which formerly formed part of the dominions of the Duke of Wurtemburg, but which was annexed to France by the ambition and treachery of Louis XIV, after the treaty of Nimeguen, in 1679.*
[* " The late -treaties had ceded to France several important cities and districts, ' 'with the dependencies belonging to them.'
This vague expression opened a wide field to the grasping ambition of Louis. He proceeded to institute courts called Chambres de reunion, for the purpose of ascertaining what dependencies had appertained at any former period to the territories now annexed to France, and by this ingenious device he soon added to his dominions no less than twenty towns, wrested from neighbouring princes, including Saarbruck, Luxemburg, Deux-ponts and Montbeliard." --- Smith's History of France.]

In the third volume of D'Aubigne's History of the Reformation will be found an interesting account of the introduction of the Reformation into this place, by Farel, in the year 1524. His labours were successful; a large number embraced that system which also spread through the surrounding districts. Soon after their annexation to France, came the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in the year 1685, which let loose the floodgates of suffering upon the Reformed Church of France. But in that act the districts referred to, were excepted, and the Protestants for some time suffered no molestation, owing to the stipulations of the Treaty by which they were annexed. But after a time the Lutherans in the annexed Provinces were exposed to the same sufferings as their Reformed neighbours, and the remembrance of these is still handed down among their descendants in this country. One incident connected with their emigration may be mentioned. Orders had been given that one of their chapels should be taken away from them and handed over to the Romanists. Fifty young men, among whom were George Tattrie and Peter Millard, assembled at it, armed only with stones, prepared to resist. A detachment of troops was sent against them, with a priest at their head. He warned the party gathered of the uselessness of resistance. They, however, refused to yield, when a section of the troops were ordered to fire, which they did, killing two and wounding others, among whom was George Tattrie, who received a ball in the fleshy part of the leg. The order to fire was answered by a volley of stones, by which some of the soldiers were badly injured, and, it was said, one killed. The Protestants were again summoned to surrender, but refused, until a priest called on the whole detachment to fire, when they submitted, and saw the houses where their fathers had worshipped given to their enemies.

As soon as his wound was healed. George Tattrie,*' who we may here mention , had previously been a French soldier, and fought at the battle of Fontenoy Millard, and most of the party joined a body of their fellow-countrymen, who were preparing to emigrate to Nova Scotia, in response to the invitations, which had been addressed to Protestants on the Continent by the British Government, offering liberal terms to those who should settle in this Province. They came down the Rhine and took shipping at Rotterdam for England, in the year 1752. They landed at Portsmouth, and for a time were left in destitution by those who had brought them there. But their case was taken up by the British Government, by whom they were despatched in four vessels, two for South Carolina and two for Halifax. Those who came in the latter reached their destination in the following spring, and were landed at Georges Island, to the number of 224. From Halifax they proceeded to Lunenburg, where they endured the hardships and dangers of the first settlers.
[* In 1873 I conversed with a son of his, over ninety years of age, from whom I received these particulars, as I had received them some years before.]

After the peace of 1763, Col. DesBarres, a countryman of theirs, and a son of one of their old Protestant ministers, who had entered the British military service, and who had served at the taking of Louisburg and Quebec, being, it is said, one of the officers in whose arms Wolfe fell, and who was afterward successively Governor of Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island,* had obtained a grant of a large tract of land at Tatamagouche, extending from Point Brule along the shore westwardly, some distance beyond the present village. By his persuasion, a number of them were induced to settle there. Accordingly, eleven removed from Lunenburg with their families in or about the year 1771. The names of these were George Tattrie, who settled on the French River at what is now Donaldsons place; George Gratto, David Langill, who settled on what has since been known as Lombards place, and his son, John James Langill, then married, who aslo settled on the French River; Matthew Langill, his brother, James Bigney and George Mattitall, who located themselves where the village now is, and at the same time, or perhaps a little later, Peter Millard, who settled at the point below Mrs. Campbell's, and John Millard, who settled next to him to the west. There were three others settlers who did not remain; Ledurney, who settled where Waugh afterward lived, John Lowe and John Buckler.
[* Old Mrs. Mattitall, who lived where the village of Tatamagouche is now situated, had been his nurse. When he was Governor of Prince Edward Island she went to see him. He took her to Government House and showed her every kindness.]

When they arrived they found the indications of what had once been a flourishing French settlement. A considerable extent of land on the shores of the bay and harbor, from the church to McCulley's, and been cleared by them, and their furrows were still visible. The intervales both on French and Waughs Rivers had also been cultivated, and on the former they had been extracting and attempting to smelt the copper ore. The remains of no less than five mills were found; one on Mill Brook, one at Blockhouse Bridge, one at Murdochs, one on the main French River, and one at Goosar. Traces also of a graveyard, with crosses still standing at the head of the graves, and of a Romish chapel, were to be seen between what is now Mr. Wm. Campbell's field and the schoolhouse. The first settlers for a time endured great hardships. A supply of implements and provisions was to have been sent round to them in a vessel, but she never arrived. They had to carry wheat and potatoes on their backs from Truro, the former article costing them twelve shillings per bushel and the price of the latter being proportional. They frequently resorted to a plant growing on the marsh, which, when boiled, made a palatable sort of greens. But they had the benefit of clearings made by the Acadian French, those on the intervales being particularly rich, from which they soon derived a comfortable subsistence, and they were soon joined by others of their countrymen from Lunenburg.

But DesBarres was unwilling to sell his land and wished to keep the settlers as tenants, This, of course, they did not like, when there was so much land around, which might be had in full ownership. Accordingly, as the young men of these families grew up they began to look elsewhere, and were attracted by the land in River John, then known as Deception River, and, as near as we can ascertain, in the year 1785, four young families, viz.: George Patriquin, John Patriquin, James Gratto and George Langill, son of John James, above mentioned, took up their abode there*. Following the plan which had been adopted at Lunenburg, especially from fear of the Indians, of living in a town and having their farm lots outside, they laid out for themselves small lots at what is called Smiths Point, and where they intended also building a blockhouse. They took up land for farming purposes, but for several years continued to live together at Smiths Point, thus strengthening each other's hands, and overcoming the feeling of loneliness, incident to the situation of the new settler.
[* The land here belonged to the Philadelphia Company, and the first deed on record is dated 25th July , 1786, and is to James Gratto, (John) James Langill, George (Frederick) Langill. John (Fredrick) Patriquin, George Patriquin and George Tattrie, of land described as " lying on a river and bay known by the name of Deception River, near Cape Jean, beginning about a mile north from the entrance of the said river on the west side,"&c.]

John Patriquin took up and occupied for a number of years the farm owned afterward by the late Alexander McKenzie, Esq., and from him the point where the shipyard is, now occupied by Charles McLennan, Esq., was known as Johns Point. It is supposed by some that the river received its present name from him. . It was known for a length of time known as " John's River," and on the communion cups of the Presbyterian congregation of River John, it is so named; but before the English settlement the cape, at the entrance, was known as Cap Jean, or Cape John and in Des Barres' chart published in 1770, the estuary of the river is called "Harbour or River John." This John Patriquin again removed to Tatamagouche, but several of his family afterward returned to River John.

George Patriquin took up his farm adjoining John's to the north, where Thomas Mitchell now resides. He had four sons, James, who settled in New Annan, David and George, both of whom settled on the road leading to Earltown, and Frederick, who, when five years of age, was stolen by the Indians, This was a very severe trial to the afflicted parents, who mourned over their loss during their lifetime, between hope and despair, the feeling still lingering in their minds that, probably by some event in Providence, their darling might be restored to them again. Whenever they heard of any white person among the Indians, they would make enquiry, but no tidings of the lost were ever received. His daughter Phebe, universally known as aunt Phebe, wife of Joseph Langill, Brook, was the first white child born in River John. James Gratto, a son of George Gratto, one of the first settlers in Tatamagouche, took up his farm beyond Smiths Point. He left two sons, George and Matthew, and his descendants still occupy part of the old property.

The last of the four first settlers of River John was George Langill. He was the grandson of David, or John David Langill, already mentioned, as one of the first settlers of Tatamagouche, whose widely scattered family we shall presently notice.

Five tears later or about the year 1790, the settlers in River John were joined by the families of George Joudry, who settled next above him, by George Bigney, son of James mentioned as one of the first settlers of Tatamagouche, who settled where Thomas Bigney now resides, and Mattitall and George Langill , only son of Matthew Langille, already mentioned, as one of the first settlers of Tatamagouche. He obtained John Patriquin's place by exchange. His father Matthew, who had been a light horseman in the French army, came afterward to River John, and died there at the age of 76, and was the first person buried in the old graveyard, his tombstone bearing the date 1800.

At a later date, Louis Tattrie, son of George already mentioned, settled on the Tatamagouche road, and others from Tatamagouche, and two brothers, Perrin, Christopher and George , came direct from Lunenburg.

We must now notice, however, the family of (John) David Langill. By his first marriage, he had one son, John James, who, as we have mentioned, settled with him on the French River. He had five sons, George, David, James, Joseph and Frederick. This George was , as we have seen, one of the first settlers of River John, but he remained only a few years, and then removed to New Annan, and the Langills, in that quarter, are descended from him. Frederick removed to the United States, and the other three settled in River John. David is the ancestor of the Miller Langills, and James and Joseph settled on the Mill Brook, where their descendants are still numerous.

(John) David Langill, by his second marriage, had no children. He was married a third time to a woman, who had a son previously, who assumed the name of Langill, and who settled at Point Brule, where he became the ancestor of the Langills in that quarter.

By this third marriage, David Langille had (1) Nicholas, who went to the United States and was never heard from, (2) John David, (3) John George, (4) John Frederick, and (5) John Louis*. These four all settled on the shore from River John toward Tatamagouche, about the year 1792. John George was long an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and was regarded as a man that feared God with all his house. His son Ephriam was also an elder for 36 years, and now his grandson Ephriam is also an elder. One son of John Louis, David has also long been an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and is now the oldest member of Session.
[* Among the Germans in Lunenburg, it was a practice not uncommon till recently, and perhaps still existing, to give each son in a family the same first name and to distinguish them by their second names.]

The old people spoke a corrupt dialect of French, but with a German tone and accent, as the inhabitants of Alsace and neighboring districts do till the present day. But they understood pure French; some of them could read it fluently, and they could also understand the patois of the Acadians. Some of them also had Bibles and other books in that language. But among the present generation it has nearly died out. Indeed, in their general character, they show more of the staidness of the German than the vivacity of the Frenchman.

The large accessions to the population of the district induced in 1783 and 1784 an effort to obtain the services of a settled clergyman. A meeting of the inhabitants was accordingly held in the fall of the latter year with that view, when it was agreed to apply to Scotland for the services of a Presbyterian minister. For his support they agreed to "raise £80 per annum for the first and second years, £90 per annum for the third and fourth years, and thereafter £100 currency, that is, £90 sterling annually---one-half in cash and the other in produce; and if Providence should smile upon the settlement and their industry, to make additions to that sum." They also agreed to build a house and barn for their minister, and that he should have a glebe, and that they should clear so much of it, from time to time, for his encouragement. A committee was appointed, consisting of Robert Patterson (the Squire), John Patterson (deacon) , of the harbor, as it was then called, William Smith, of West River, Robert Marshall, of Middle River, and Donald McKay, of the East, to act for them in obtaining a minister. A petition, drawn up by Mr. Cock, was accordingly signed by them and entrusted to John Buchanan, Sen., and John Pagan, respectable inhabitants of Greenock, with authority to present it to any Presbyterian Church Court with which they were likely to be successful.

It was accordingly presented to the General Associate Synod of Scotland, then usually known as the Antiburgher Synod, at their meeting in Spring, 1786, and as the result, the Rev. James, afterward Dr., McGregor was appointed to proceed to Pictou. He accordingly, on the 4th June, set sail from Greenock, in the brig Lily, for Halifax, where he arrived on the 11th July, and the same week came to Truro, traveling on horseback. There was something like a road for eleven miles from Halifax, but beyond that there was only a narrow avenue through the woods, on which the trees had been cut down and sometimes cut across and rolled to one side. The ground was generally so soft that even at midsummer, as it was then, the horses sank to their knees in mud and water, and as each horse put his foot where his predecessor had, the path became a regular succession of deep holes, such as one may see in a road recently made in deep snow.

From Truro there was only a blaze, but men were then employed in opening the road, which, however, consisted only in cutting down the trees along the line of travel. On the 21st he left Truro, and arrived at George McConnell's now the ten-mile farm, and then the nearest clearing to Truro. On the following morning he was taken in a canoe to the harbour. His impression he thus describes;--"When I look round the shores of the harbour I was greatly disappointed and cast down, for there was scarcely anything to be seen but woods growing down to the water's edge. Here and there a mean timber hut was visible in a small clearing, which appeared no bigger than a garden, compared to the woods. Nowhere could I see two houses without some wood between them. "

On the following day he commenced his labors by preaching in Squire Patterson's barn. He thus describes the event:-

"The Squire gave orders to lay slabs and planks in his barn for seats to the congregation; and before eleven o'clock next morning I saw people gathering to hear the Gospel from the lips of a stranger, and a stranger who felt few of its consolations, and had but little hope of communicating them to his hearers. None came by land except certain families who lived a few miles to the right and left of Squire Patterson's. Those who came from the south side of the harbour and from the river, had to come in boats or canoes, containing from one to seven or eight persons. The congregation, however, was not large; for numbers could not get ready their crafts, the notice was so short. I observed that the conduct of some of them, coming from the shore to the barn, was as if they had never heard of a Sabbath. I heard loud talking and laughing, and singing and whistling, even before they reached the shore. They behaved, however, with decency so long as I continued to speak, and some of them were evidently much affected. I endeavored to explain to them in the forenoon in English, 'This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners;' and in the afternoon, in Gaelic, 'The Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which is lost.' The first words which I heard, after pronouncing the blessing, were from a gentleman of the army calling to his companions, 'Come, come, let us go to the grog shop;' but instead of going with him, they came toward me to bid me welcome to the settlement, and he came himself at last."

In the same vessel with Dr. McGregor arrived one who was afterward well known in the counrty, viz., William Fraser, surveyor. Having traversed the eastern part of the Province about this time, he says:---" In 1787 there were only four or five house from Salmon River to Antigonish. To the eastward of the East River there was not even a blaze on a tree. There was not one inhabitant on the Cape Breton side of the Gut of Canso, and but one on the Nova Scotia side. In 1788 there was one house at Ship Harbour. I may add that from Pictou to Cocaigne there were but four or five families at River John; a few more at Tatamagouche; some refugees at Wallace, and but one at Bay Verte. At Miramichi there were but five families."

We may add here, that by a return to Government , signed by John Fraser and Robert Patterson, dated 8th June, 1786, the following was the amount of farm stock in Pictou and Merigomish;-----
Oxen Cows Small cattle Sheep
230 356 450 1500

On to Chapter 8 of Patterson's History of Pictou
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