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Timeline Developments that 

created the City of Raleigh 

or better known as the Lost Colony

~~~~* **~~~~





12 Oct 1492

Christopher Columbus



Discovery of the Americas - The Spanish were especially well prepared by history to conquer, occupy, populate and exploit new lands and assimilate new people. America thus became the new frontier-land for those people used to its ways and with the military, diplomats and administrative arms at their disposal to face the challenge. By the middle of the 16th century, they had settled in the two most important viceroyalties, Mexico on the Atlantic, and Peru on the Pacific.


Pope Alexander (1431 - 1503)


Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance. Pope Alexander divides the world between Portugal and Spain, excluding all others

1399 - 1413

 Henry IV King of England


eldest son of John of Gaunt and grandson of Edward III; called Henry of Bolingbroke. He founded the Lancastrian dynasty.

1455 - 1485

Wars of the Roses 

WARS OF THE ROSES,1 a name given to a series of civil wars in England during the reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV and Richard III. They were marked by a ferocity and brutality which are practically unknown in the history of English wars before and since. Major causes of the conflict include: 1) both houses were direct descendents of king Edward III; 2) the ruling Lancastrian king, Henry VI, surrounded himself with unpopular nobles; 3) the civil unrest of much of the population; 4) the availability of many powerful lords with their own private armies; and 5) the untimely episodes of mental illness by king Henry VI.

1485 - 1509

King Henry VII


Henry VII was the founder of the Tudor dynasty, unifying the warring factions in the Wars of the Roses. Although supported by Lancastrians and Yorkists alienated by Richard III's usurpation, Henry VII's first task was to secure his position. In 1486 he married Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, thus uniting the Houses of York and Lancaster. Henry used dynastic royal marriages to establish his dynasty in England and help maintain peace. One daughter, Margaret, was married to James IV of Scotland (from whom Mary, Queen of Scots and her son, James VI of Scotland and James I of England, were descended); the other daughter married Louis XII of France.

June 24, 1497

John Cabot (about 1450-1499)


was an Italian-born English explorer and navigator. In Italy, he is known as Giovanni Caboto (which is his original name). 
Cabot was born in Italy but moved to England in 1495. At the request of King Henry VII of England, Cabot sailed to Canada in 1497, commanding the small ship called "Matthew." Cabot landed near Labrador, Newfoundland, or Cape Breton Island (the exact spot is uncertain) on June 24, 1497. One of John Cabot's three sons, the explorer Sebastian Cabot, accompanied him on this trip. Cabot claimed the land for England. 
Cabot explored the Canadian coastline and named many of its islands and capes. The mission's purpose was to search for a Northwest passage across North America to Asia (a seaway to Asia). Cabot was unsuccessful, although he thought that he had reached northeastern Asia. 
Cabot undertook a second, larger expedition in 1498. On this trip, Cabot may have reached America, but that is uncertain. Cabot's expeditions were the first of Britain's claims to Canada.  John Cabot died in England in 1499. 


Spanish Exploration of the Americas



Spain's conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. Beginning with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Spanish Empire gradually expanded from early small settlements in the Caribbean to over three centuries to include Central America, most of South America, Mexico, what today is Southwestern United States, the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of North America, reaching Alaska[1]. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Spanish possessions in America began a series of independence movements, which culminated in Spain's loss of all of its colonies on the mainland of North, Central and South America by 1825. The remaining Spanish colonies of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines were occupied by the United States following the Spanish-American War (1898), ending Spanish rule in the Americas


Shipwrecked off of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

Adam S. Eterovich, Croatia and the 

Croatians on the East Coast of 

Canada and America, 1492-1700 

(Calgary, Canada: Croatian Canadian 

National Federation, 1993).


Possibly seamen from Ragusa were among those on Columbus voyage along with Croatian sailors who shipwrecked off of Cape Hatteras. This legend is unsubstantiated, but not disproven. Additional information. Venetian-Slavonians who shipwrecked in 1498 off of Cape Hatteras were Croatians as carved on a tree as reported by the English in the 1580s? Were the carvers of Croatoan—Croatians of 1498? Were these Dalmatian mariners who shipwrecked and later mixed with the Indians, the fathers of the Indians with light hair and eyes later reported by the English? A number of maps made in 1597 and 1599 list Croatia—Croatian place names with variations of Croatoan. Croato is the Italian form of Croatia so a person from Croatia would be Croatoan. Cape Hatteras is spelled in a variety of forms such as Hatarask, Hotoras, Hatorask. Hrvastko means Croatia

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII of England 

the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He became heir to the throne on the death of his elder brother, Prince Arthur, in 1502 and succeeded in 1509. The second half of Henry's reign was dominated by two issues very important for the later history of England and the monarchy: the succession and the Protestant Reformation, which led to the formation of the Church of England. Henry had married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon, in 1509. Catherine had produced only one surviving child - a girl, Princess Mary, born in 1516. By the end of the 1520s, Henry's wife was in her forties and he was desperate for a son. The Tudor dynasty had been established by conquest in 1485 and Henry was only its second monarch. England had not so far had a ruling queen, and the dynasty was not secure enough to run the risk of handing the Crown on to a woman, risking disputed succession or domination of a foreign power through marriage.

September 8, 1519

Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521)


was a Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition that sailed around the Earth (1519-1522). Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean (the name means that it is a calm, peaceful ocean). Magellan and his friend the astronomer Ruy de Falero proposed to King Charles V (of Spain) that a westward voyage around the tip of South America would take them to the Moluccas (spice-rich islands) and avoid the Portuguese (with whom they were competing fiercely). The voyage began September 8, 1519, and lasted until September 6, 1522 (almost 3 years). Magellan sailed from Seville, Spain, with five ships, the Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Victoria, and Santiago. Three years later, only one ship (the Victoria) made it back to Seville, carrying only 18 of the original 270 crew members. Magellan was killed towards the end of the voyage, on the Island of Mactan in the Philippines, during a battle with the natives. The Basque navigator Juan Sebastián de Elcano (del Cano) completed the trip. 

1519 - 1521


(alsospelled Cortez), MarquésDel ValleDeOaxaca (1485-1547) 

was a Spanish adventurer and conquistador (he was also a failed law student) who overthrew the Aztec empire and claimed Mexico for Spain (1519-21). Cortes sailed with 11 ships from Cuba to the Yucatan Peninsula to look for gold, silver, and other treasures. Hearing rumors of great riches, Cortés traveled inland and "discovered" Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. He then brutally killed the Aztec emperor Montezuma and conquered his Aztec Empire of Mexico, claiming all of Mexico for Spain in 1521. Treasures from the Aztecs were brought to Spain, and Cortés was a hero in his homeland. Cortés was appointed governor of the colony of New Spain, but eventually fell out of favor with the royals. He then returned to Spain where he died a few years later.

1524 - 1542

Hernando De Soto (1500?-1542)


was a Spanish explorer who sailed the Atlantic Ocean and was the first European to explore Florida and the southeastern US. De Soto arrived on the west coast of Florida on May 30, 1539 with 10 ships carrying over 600 soldiers, priests, and explorers. They spent four years searching for gold and silver, exploring the area, and brutally contacting native societies, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Creeks, Appalachians, and Choctaws. De Soto died during the explorations and was buried on the banks of the Mississippi River in late June, 1542. 


Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon 

with six vessals carrying five hundred men and women, and eighty to ninety fine horses arrived at present-day North Carolina and Virginia  in vicinity of Albemarle Sound and Chesapeake Bay.  "Of the five hundred colonists who went on the 1526 expedition, only one hundred fifty returned safely to the Indies.  The number who remained in the interior of present-day North Carolina and Virginia is not known, however, that they survived and reproduced is a certainty.  Reference to non-Indian peoples residing in the vicinity of the Albemarle /Pamlico/Chesapeake Bay area was made by other Europeans of a later date, i.e.  The English of Raleigh's venture and Captain John Smith of the Jamestown Colony."  Eloy J. Gallegos "The Melungeons."


Panfilo de Narvaez (1470?-1528)


was a Spanish explorer and soldier. He helped conquer Cuba in 1511 and led a Spanish royal expedition to North America (leaving Spain in 1527). He was born in Valladolid, Spain and died on his expedition to Florida. De Narvaez was granted the land of Florida by the Emperor Charles V in 1526. He led an expedition there with 300 men, including Cabeza de Vaca. After surviving a hurricane near Cuba, his expedition landed on the west coast of Florida (near Tampa Bay) in April, 1528, claiming the land for Spain.

1534 and 1535 and 1541

Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) 

was a French explorer who led three expeditions to Canada, in 1534, 1535, and 1541. He was looking for a route to the Pacific through North America (a Northwest Passage) but did not find one. Cartier paved the way for French exploration of North America. Cartier sailed inland, going 1,000 miles up the St. Lawrence River. He also tried to start a settlement in Quebec (in 1541), but it was abandoned after a terribly cold winter. Cartier named Canada; "Kanata" means village or settlement in the Huron-Iroquois language. Cartier was given directions by Huron-Iroquois Indians for the route to "kanata," a village near what is now Quebec, but Cartier later named the entire region Canada.


Baltasar de Gallegos

When Baltasar de Gallegos came into the open field, he discovered ten or eleven Indians, among whom was a Christian, naked and sun-burnt, his arms tattooed after their manner, and he in no respect differing from them. As soon as the horsemen came in sight, they ran upon the Indians, who fled, hiding themselves in a thicket, though not before two or three of them were overtaken and wounded. The Christian, seeing a horseman coming upon him with a lance, began to cry out: " Do not kill me, cavalier; I am a Christian! Do not slay these people; they have given me my life! " Directly he called to the Indians, putting them out of fear, when they left the wood and came to him. The horsemen took up the Christian and Indians behind them on their beasts, and, greatly rejoicing, got back to the Governor at nightfall. When he and the rest who had remained in camp heard the news, they were no less pleased than the others

1547 - 1543

Edward VI 

King of England 

Edward VI became king at the age of nine upon the death of his father, Henry VIII, and a Regency was created. Although he was intellectually precocious (fluent in Greek and Latin, he kept a full journal of his reign), he was not, however, physically robust. His short reign was dominated by nobles using the Regency to strengthen their own positions. The King's Council, previously dominated by Henry, succumbed to existing factionalism. On Henry's death, Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford and soon to be Duke of Somerset, the new King's eldest uncle, became Protector. Seymour was an able soldier; he led a punitive expedition against the Scots, for their failure to fulfil their promise to betroth Mary, Queen of Scots to Edward, which led to Seymour's victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 - although he failed to follow this up with satisfactory peace terms. During Edward's reign, the Church of England became more explicitly Protestant - Edward himself was fiercely so. The Book of Common Prayer was introduced in 1549, aspects of Roman Catholic practices (including statues and stained glass) were eradicated and the marriage of clergy allowed. The imposition of the Prayer Book (which replaced Latin services with English) led to rebellions in Cornwall and Devon. Northumberland took greater trouble to charm and influence Edward; his powerful position as Lord President of the Council was based on his personal ascendancy over the King. However, the young king was ailing. Northumberland hurriedly married his son Lord Guilford Dudley to Lady Jane Grey, one of Henry VIII's great-nieces and a claimant to the throne.
Edward accepted Jane as his heir and, on his death from tuberculosis in 1553, Jane assumed the throne.

10/19 July 1553

Lady  Jane Gray

Queen of England 

The accession of Lady Jane Grey as Queen was engineered by the powerful Duke of Northumberland, President of the King's Council, in the interests of promoting his own dynastic line. Northumberland persuaded the sickly Edward VI to name Lady Jane Grey as his heir. As one of Henry VIII's great-nieces, the young girl was a genuine claimant to the throne. Northumberland then married his own son, Lord Guilford Dudley, to Lady Jane. On the death of Edward, Jane assumed the throne and her claim was recognized by the Council. Despite this, the country rallied to Mary, Catherine of Aragon's daughter and a devout Roman Catholic. Jane reigned for only nine days and was later executed with her husband in 1554

1553- 1558

Mary I   Queen of England and Ireland, 

Also known as Bloody Mary due to 

having almost three hundred religious 

dissenters burned on the stake in the 

Marian Persecutions,


daughter of Henry VIII and his 1st wife Mary Princess of Spain. At age 37, Mary turned her attention to finding a husband and producing an heir, thus preventing the Protestant Elizabeth (still her successor under the terms of Henry VIII's will) from succeeding to the throne. Mary rejected Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, as a prospect when her cousin Charles V suggested she marry his only son, the Spanish prince Philip, later Philip II of Spain.  Mary's decision to marry Philip, King of Spain from 1556, in 1554 was very unpopular; the protest from the Commons prompted Mary's reply that Parliament was 'not accustomed to use such language to the Kings of England' and that in her marriage 'she would choose as God inspired her'. The marriage was childless, Philip spent most of it on the continent, England obtained no share in the Spanish monopolies in New World trade and the alliance with Spain dragged England into a war with France. Popular discontent grew when Calais, the last vestige of England's possessions in France dating from William the Conqueror's time, was captured by the French in 1558. Dogged by ill health, Mary died later that year, possibly from cancer, leaving the crown to her half-sister Elizabeth.


Phillip II of Spain (Mary I's Widow)



Philip II ascends the throne of Spain and controls half of Europe. Although, upon the death of Mary I, he loses control of England.  Philip was the only son and heir of Holy Roman emperor Charles V. When his father abdicated in 1556, he inherited a vast empire, including territory in Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and the New World.  To Philip, his marriage to the English queen Mary in 1554 was simply an alliance of two Catholic realms against the growing Protestantism of much of Europe. To Mary, it was a match literally made in heaven. To the English, it was an extremely unpopular union and led directly to Wyatt's Rebellion, which Mary suppressed with difficulty.  A year after the wedding, Mary went through a phantom pregnancy. Embarrassed, Philip left England with the excuse that he needed to look after his extensive possessions. He returned to persuade his wife to go to war with the French. She agreed, but the venture was unpopular and financially draining and, worst of all, England lost Calais, its last foothold in France. .Philip toyed with the idea of marrying Mary's half-sister Elizabeth, the new queen, but his plans fell through. 

 Nov 17, 1558

 Elizabeth I Queen of England (1558 - 1603) Ascends throne


The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed three years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Perhaps for that reason, her brother, Edward VI, cut her out of the succession. His will, however, was set aside, as it contravened the Third Succession Act of 1543, in which Elizabeth was named as successor provided that Mary I of England, Elizabeth's half-sister, should die without issue. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In government, Elizabeth was more conservative than her father and siblings.[2] One of her mottos was video et taceo: "I see, and say nothing".[3] This strategy, viewed with impatience by her counsellors, often saved her from political and marital misalliances. Though Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland, the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588 associated her name forever with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in British history. Within twenty years of her death, she was being celebrated as the ruler of a golden age, an image that retains its hold on the English people. Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake and slave-trader John Hawkins.  After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585. In that year, she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands. 


Sir Walter Raleigh


Was a famed English writer, poet, courtier and explorer. Walter Raleigh born at Hayes Barton in Devon, the youngest of 5 sons, and attended Oxford. He rose rapidly in Queen Elizabeth's favour, being knighted in 1585, and was involved in the early English colonisation of the New World in Virginia under a royal patent. In 1591 he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without requesting the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London. After his release they retired to his estate at Sherborne, Dorset.

February 1562

Admiral Gaspard de Coligny and Norman navigator Jean Ribault


A French expedition, organized by Protestant leader Admiral Gaspard de Coligny and led by the Norman navigator Jean Ribault had landed at the site on the River of May (now the St. Johns River) in February 1562, before moving north to Port Royal Sound. There, on present-day Parris Island, Ribault left twenty eight men to build a settlement known as Charlesfort. Ribault then returned to Europe to arrange supplies for the new colony, but was arrested in England due to complications arising from the French Wars of Religion, which prevented his return. Without supplies or leadership, and beset by hostility from the native populations, all but one of the colonists sailed back to Europe after only a year. During their voyage in an open boat, they were reduced to cannibalism before the survivors were rescued in English waters.

August 28, 1565

Captain Pedro Menendez de Aviles (Feb. 15, 1519-Sept. 17, 1574)


was a brutal Spanish sailor, soldier, explorer, and conquistador. The King of Spain sent Aviles to Florida in the New World, to start a Spanish settlement (St. Augustine, in northeastern Florida), and to decimate a nearby French settlement (Fort Caroline). July 1565 with 11 ships and about 2,000 soldiers. They landed in Florida on August 28, 1565, at the Bay of St. Augustine and established a settlement at St. Augustine (the oldest continually-inhabited city in the United States), in what is now northeastern Florida, USA. On September 20, 1565, Aviles and his soldiers attacked the nearby French colony called Fort Caroline, murdering everyone (men, women and children), hanging some of the butchered bodies from trees. De Aviles also explored the coastline of North America as far north as St. Helena Island, South Carolina, and had forts built along the coast for protection. Aviles returned to Spain in 1567, and later died while fighting the British in a naval battle at Santander, Spain. 


Spanish Forts

The Melungeons: The Pioneers of the

 Interior Southeastern 

United States 1526-1997,

 Eloy J. Gallegos, pf timeline

Spanish Fort was erected on Beaufort River. Pardo and his men built no less than four forts and two settlement towns in the interior, and as late as the later part of the sixteenth century, those Spaniards, Pardo's men and their families were still living in the general area where their captain stationed them--more than three hundred miles in the interior of the present-day Southeastern United States. 

Feb 16, 1568

PhilipIIcontinues tooverrunEuropean countries

The entire population of the Netherlands is condemned to death within the realm of the Inquisition.

Dec 1568

French Huguenots

French Huguenots chase Spanish ships carrying a loan to finance subduing the Netherlands rebellion into the English harbor. Elizabeth confiscates the funds, causing a “furious rage” in Spain.


NorthernEngland Catholics

Catholics revolt in northern England spurred by the Spanish


Queen Elizabeth I 

The Pope excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I and encourages her overthrow.


The Jesuits arrived at Chesapeake Bay


Penny Ferguson Timeline

The Jesuits arrived at Chesapeake Bay in September 1570, then continued about 40 miles up the James River to what is now College Creek. They then traveled by land to a settlement off the York River. De Velasco soon left the Jesuits' mission to live with the Indians, and in February 1571 led the killing of the missionaries, according to the accounts. The only person spared from the group was Alonso de Olmos, a boy whose father was a Spanish settler in Florida. The fact that the Indians didn't kill the only non-Jesuit in the group indicates the Jesuits were slain because of their religion, according to Catholic scholars. [Source: AP] 


the Jesuits


Penny Ferguson TimeLine

Fr. Rogel, while taking part in the belated relief expedition to Ajacan in August 1572, wrote the following account: "Father Master Baptista [Segura] sent a message by a novice Brother on two occasions to the renegade. Don Luis would never come, and [the Jesuits] stayed there in great distress, for they had no one by whom they could make themselves understood to the Indians.... They got along as best they could, going to other villages to barter for maize with copper and tin, until the beginning of February. The boy [Alonso] says that each day Father Baptista caused prayers to be said for Don Luis, saying that the devil held him in great deception. As he had twice sent for him and he had not come, he decided to send Father Quiros and Brother Gabriel de Solis and Brother Juan Baptista to the village of the chief near where Don Luis was staying. Thus they could take Don Luis along with them and barter for maize on the way back. On the Sunday after the Feast of the Purification, Don Luis came to the three Jesuits who were returning with other Indians. He sent an arrow through the heart of Father Quiros and then murdered the rest...." 

August 22, 1572 

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris. Catholics massacre 30,000 Huguenots. Sir Walter Raleigh has dropped out of Oxford and fights in France.


French survivors


pf timeline

Only a few months after the Spanish settlement of Santa Elena was abandoned in the summer of 1576, a French ship, Le Prince, wrecked in Port Royal Sound. This ship carried a large contingent of Frenchmen who may have been intent on resettling Port Royal Sound. The survivors of the wreck built a fort on high ground, and soon they were viciously attacked by Indians who thought they were Spaniards. Once the Frenchmen were able to establish their identity, the Indians befriended them and took them to their villages. 


John White

John White first noted in history as an artist in Bristol, sketching a native, Calichoughe, from Baffin Island.



Walsingham saves Simon Fernandez, pirate, from the gallows for murdering Portuguese sailors.

June 11 1578

Sir Humphrey Gilbert

Raleigh’s brother, is granted a patent by the Queen Elizabeth I, which expires in 6 years if not successful, to discover and occupy North American lands not inhabited by Spain. Raleigh and his brother Carew captain a reconnaissance mission with Portuguese pirate, Simon Fernandez, “a thorough-paced scoundrel”.


Sir Humphrey Gilbert

leaking ships, storms and desertions cause the expedition to end in failure and Gilbert’s fortune is lost


Portugal's invasion

Spain invades and Captures Portugal in 70 days.


The Painters and Stainers Company

John White joins the Painters and Stainers Company in London.


Sir Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh hired Lemoyne in London to paint the Timuca in Florida. White may have been studying under Lemoyne


Queen Elizabeth I 

Raleigh is summoned by Elizabeth I to court to air his opinion on Irish politics and remains at court, the Queen’s new favorite, viewed as a type of oracle. Raleigh’s rise at court was meteoric, creating many enemies. Raleigh was “a tall, handsome and bold man”, and Elizabeth is quite smitten, giving him the pet name of “her Water”, her “Shepherd of the Ocean”. He is called the “darling of the English Cleopatra.” He lives at the Queen’s palace. She personally finances his Roanoke expeditions.


Sir Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake,(c.1540 - c.1596) and his circumnavigation of the world on the Golden Hind. Was Continuing westward, the Golden Hind crossed the Indian Ocean without incident, rounded the Cape of Good Hope into the Atlantic, sailed up the coast of Africa, and arrived triumphantly in England in the fall of 1580, nearly three years and some 36,000 miles having passed beneath her keel.


Sir Humphrey Gilbert

Raleigh’s brother, planned to settle Catholic dissidents in Newfoundland as expendable English colonists.

December 1584,

Philip II and the French Catholic League

In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and the French Catholic League at Joinville undermined the ability of Anjou's brother, Henry III of France, to counter Spanish domination of the Netherlands. It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong and exposed England to invasion.[97] The English and the Dutch reacted in August 1585 with the Treaty of Nonsuch, whereby Elizabeth, pressured by her advisors, promised military support to the Dutch. The treaty marked the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the Treaty of London in 1604.


Captain Barlowe

The Spanish Pioneers 

In United States History

The Melungeons:

  The Pioneers of the Interior 

Southeastern United States 1526-1997,  

Eloy J. Gallegos. 
PF Timeline

Captain Barlowe took note of the people with yellowish coloring, fine auburn and chestnut colored hair. Barlowe mentions a particular kingdom called Sequotan (Secotan) which is a peninsula located between Albemarle Sound and Pamlico Sound. His account tells of "white" people, "whom the countrey people preserved." "Frances Yeardley many years later found large group of Spaniards residing very comfortable among a great nation called the Newxes (Neuse)" 


Richarde Hackluyt of Oxforde,


A particuler discourse concerning Westerne discoveries written in the yere 1584, by Richarde Hackluyt of Oxforde, at the requeste and direction of the righte worshipfull Mr Walter Raghly before the comynge home of his twoo barkes. This long-lost MS. was at last printed in 1877. Its object was to recommend the enterprise of planting the English race in the unsettled parts of North America. Hakluyt's other works consist mainly of translations and compilations, relieved by his dedications and prefaces, which last, with a few letters, are the only material we possess out of which a biography of him can be framed. Hakluyt revisited England in 1584,, laid before Queen Elizabeth a copy of the Discourse " along with one in Latin upon Aristotle's Politicks," and obtained, two days before his return to Paris, the grant of the next vacant prebend at Bristol, to which he was admitted in 1586 and held with his other preferments till his death.



Sir Walter Raleigh launched exploratory expedition under the explorers Captain Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe.  They were the first to set eyes on Roanoke Island. They had the mission of scouting the broad sounds and estuaries in search of an ideal location for settlement. Amadas and Barlowe wrote glowing reports of Roanoke Island, and when they returned to England a year later with two Natives, Manteo and Wanchese, all of Britain was abuzz with talk of the New World's wonders.  John White was with Amadas and Barlowe on the expedition. Queen Elizabeth herself was impressed, and she granted Raleigh a patent to all the lands he could occupy. She named the new land "Virginia", in honor of the Virgin Queen.   


Military expedition

Sir Walter Raleigh launched a military expedition led by Sir Richard Granville under the direction of Ralph Lane, the garrison was doomed from the beginning. They arrived too late in the season for planting, and supplies were dwindling rapidly. To make matters worse, Lane, a military captain, alienated the neighboring Roanoke Indians, and ultimately sealed his own fate by murdering their chief, Wingina over a stolen cup. They remained on Roanoke Island until spring of 1586. (John White is among them.)

1585 - 1586

Colonizing Roanoke Island

The Only Land I know,

 a History of the Lumbee Indians

 p 2; Adolph L. Dial, David K. Eliades 

A colonizing effort was made on Roanoke Island in 1585-1586; this attempt was abortive. Beset by internal dissension supply shortages, and Indian hostilities, the colonists returned to England. Ironically, within a month after their departure, three ships reached the Roanoke area with needed supplies and additional colonist. Finding all settlers gone, fifteen courageous men were now left on Roanoke Island to maintain England’s claim to the region

1585 - 1586

Sir Francis Drake returned to the West Indies.

On Hispaniola he captured the supposedly impregnable city of Santo Domingo. Later in Columbia he captured Cartagena. By now with one-third of his men dead and many others unfit for service, Drake was unable to attack Havana. After sacking St. Augustine, he sailed up the coast to Roanoke Island where he arrived on 26 June 1586. There he visited Sir Walter Ralegh's colony headed by Ralph Lane, planted in 1585. He found a disheartened group of men. The once-friendly Indians were now hostile, and the supply ship was late. Drake offered Lane victuals for one month and a ship, the 40 tun Francis. He also agreed to take some of Lane's weaker men back to England and to replace them with his own men. A major storm, however, forced the Francis out to sea and caused a change in plans. Drake offered Lane a larger ship, the 170 tun Bark Bonner but it was too large to pass through the inlets. Instead Lane and his colonists decided to return to England with Drake. \ Concerning persons left behind on Roanoke, expedition leader Ralph Lane's own published account says that 3 men who were away on an expedition of some sort were left behind when the other survivors of the Lane colony returned to England with Sir France Drake in the summer of 1586. Lane's account has been republished many times and is not hard to find, including Quinn's "Set Fair for Roanoke: Voyages and Colonies, 1584-1590," published by the University of North Carolina Press in connection with the 400th anniversary of Raleigh's colonies 1984-7.

Aug.  1586

Relief ship


A relief ship sent by Sir Walter Raleigh arrives at Roanoke. It finds the settlement deserted and returns to England. 


Sir Richard Grenville finally returns with supplies.


Ironically, a supply ship from England arrived at Roanoke less than a week later . Finding the island deserted, the leader left behind 15 of his men to hold the fort and returned to England for reinforcements. Not finding Lane's colony there (not even the 3 men who had earlier been abandoned), Grenville returned to England, but left 15 men on Roanoke (presumably to maintain the claims of both England and his cousin, Water Raleigh).

Aug. 1586

Grenville,arrives inVirginia


Three ships, led by Grenville, arrive in Virginia. They search for the settlers. Grenville leaves behind 15 men and enough supplies to last two years. Nobody knows what happened to these men.

Aug 1586



 Shortly after Drake and the colonists had sailed, a supply ship sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh arrived at Hatoraske and after searching in vain for the colonists returned to England. About a fortnight after Raleigh's ship had left, Grenville arrived with three ships and likewise searched in vain for the colonists. Grenville found the places of colonial settlement desolate, but being "unwilling to loose the possession of the country which Englishmen had so long held," he left 15 men on Roanoke Island, fully provisioned for 2 years, to hold the country for the Queen while he returned to England.
Walking Toward the Sunset Wayne Winkler p. 34





Commentary by Admin

Actually a single ship sent by Raleigh, when he learned Grenville had been delayed, arrived about a week later. It was intended as an emergency supply.  Finding the island deserted, the men searched for the colonists and finding no one, finally returned to England with the supplies.  Grenville's ships arrived about 14 days after this ship departed. He had 6 ships and 600 intended settlers along with more supplies. He abandoned his plan to settle these people when he found Roanoke deserted. After a very thorough search into the main, he decided to leave 15 soldiers (some say 18) to hold possession of Virginia for England.  The entire fleet then returned to England.

Set Fair to Roanoke   David Beers Quinn p. 142-145, Roanoke Island    David Stick p. 148-151


This is the main point I feel proves that Drake did not leave a large number of persons behind. They could not be found even a few days later.


 Cittie of Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh send colony of men, women and children to the Chesapeake Bay with instructions to call at Roanoke on the way. Cittie of Raleigh was designed as a joint-stock corporation in which colonists were to invest and in return receive a land grant of “500 acres to a man”. Colonists includes John Jones physician, William Browne goldsmith, Anthony Cage Sheriff, Thomas Hewet lawyer, Thomas Harris faculty at Cambridge, Richard Wildye graduate of Oxford. Two had criminal records for theft. Of this group John White  was the governor of the colony and with him was his daughter Eleanor, who was married to Ananias Dare, one of the twelve assistants to the governor. From the beginning White had problems with Simon Fernandes, the pilot. Sailing from Portsmouth on 26 April 1587 the small fleet did not actually leave England until May 8. They finally reached the Outer Banks on July 22 where they were to pick up men left by the supply ship the previous year. The colony was then to settle on the Chesapeake Bay. But Fernandes refused to take the colonists any farther; hence, the second colony was also on Roanoke Island. 


John White Colony

The Only Land I know,

 a History of the Lumbee Indians  

p 2; Adolph L. Dial, David K. Eliades 

in 1587, he (Raleigh) sent a second colony of 117 men, women, and children to the New World, under Governor John White. This group was instructed not to settle on Roanoke Island, largely because of those Indians in the area who were angered by earlier mistreatment, and had become suspicious of the Englishmen’s intentions. It should be noted, however that most Indians in the vicinity remained well-disposed toward settlers. White was told to stop at the island and see if the fifteen men left there in 1686 were still alive. While none of the fifteen could be found, the visit proved to be of momentous importance. For unknown reasons and contrary to its instructions, the White expedition remained at Roanoke Island, thus precipitating a fascinating sequence of historic events. 

18 Aug 1587

Virginia Dare

There on 18 August 1587 Eleanor White Dare gave birth to a daughter, Virginia, the first child of English parents born in the New World and the grand-daughter of Governor White. 


Governor White

This colony also had limited supplies; thus the settlers persuaded Governor White to return to England for provisions. Reluctantly he agreed and after a difficult voyage he arrive in Ireland in Mid-October. In England White assembled a small fleet only to have the Council prohibit its sailing because of the impending attack by the Spanish Armada. He was, however, permitted to sail with two small ships. French ships attacked them and forced them to return to England. It would be August 1590 before White returned to Roanoke Island. There he found that the colony had disappeared, the only clue to its fate being the word CROATOAN carved on a tree. Storms made it impossible to go to Croatoan to search for the colonists, none of whom (including White's daughter and grand-daughter) were ever seen by Englishmen again. The unfortunate White returned to England, arriving in Plymouth on 24 October.


Captain William Irish 

unsuccessfully attempted to find them (The Lost Colony) on the Chesapeake Bay.  


Philip II of Spain invades England


From 1566, Philip II  was engaged in suppressing a Protestant revolt in the Netherlands. When the Dutch were supported by the English, he became determined to achieve by military conquest what Mary had failed to achieve as queen. He used Elizabeth's execution of Mary Queen of Scots in February 1587 as an excuse to invade England, sending an armada of 130 ships in 1588. But weather conditions and the maneuverability of the smaller English ships proved disastrous to the Spanish. 

7 March 1589

Sir Walter Ralegh 

signed an agreement with nineteen "Gentlemen and Merchants" of London concerning the colony, making preparations for its continued support


Protestant Henry IV, King of France

When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support. It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563. Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports. The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.[113] Lord Willoughby, largely ignoring Elizabeth's orders, roamed northern France to little effect, with an army of 4,000 men. He withdrew in disarray in December 1589, having lost half his troops. In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster.[114] As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support. In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May 1591. In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen. The result was just as dismal. Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January 1592.[115] As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad. "Where he is, or what he doth, or what he is to do," she wrote of Essex, "we are ignorant".[116]


James VI and I 

was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary, Queen of Scots. Regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1581.[1] On 24 March 1603, as James I, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue.[2] He then ruled England, Scotland and Ireland for 22 years, until his death at the age of 58.[3]Despite the smoothness of the succession and the warmth of his welcome, James survived two conspiracies in the first year of his reign, the Bye Plot and Main Plot, which led to the arrest, among others, of Lord Cobham and Sir Walter Raleigh.[51] 


Some of the above information is also cited from "Roanoke, 

Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony

" by Lee Miller






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