Winona County- is the second in point of population in the state. It has an area of about 407,040 acres. The Mississippi River forms its eastern boundary. The bluffs along its course reach a greater height in this county than in any other county along its course. The eastern portion of the county is very broken, detracting much from its value for agricultural purposes. The western portion consists of very rolling prairies, interspersed with ravines and valleys. The county has numerous streams, which abound in speckled trout, and furnish a large amount of water-power. The soil is peculiarly adapted to wheat, which is the leading production.
Its Early History. -The first white man known to have lived where the City of Winona now stands was the Rev. J. D. Stevens, now living near Beloit. He was one of the early missionaries to the Sioux. He was appointed by the officers at Fort Snelling to act in the double capacity of farmer and teacher to a band of Sioux whose headquarters were at the spot where the City of Winona now stands. He came through the country from Lake Harriet, near Minneapolis, to Wabashaw Prairies. In this lone journey he was lost for three days without food. He started out in the morning and walked all day and camped alone for the night. The second day he traveled on and came to the place where he started in the morning, and so continued for three days, reaching the same spot at night. Then he lay down to die, after writing a few brief words in his pocket Bible to his family. He was found in a dying condition by some friendly Indians, who, with food, restored him to life, and in time guided him on his journey to where the City of Winona stands.
After completing his work here he returned to his family and brought them down the Mississippi in a boat late in the Fall of 1839. He landed on a little island on the Wisconsin side of the channel, near where the great railroad bridge crosses. Here he built a log house and spent the winter. At this time there were not ten white men within one hundred miles of the place where he lived. Early in the Spring he moved his log house piece by piece across the river to a spot within a stone's throw of the present Huff House.
He spent the Summer in trying to teach the Sioux to farm. Failing, in his opinion, to do them much good, he left, and was succeeded by Mr. James Reed, who came here in 1842, and cultivated a small portion of land near the mouth of Gilmore Valley, three miles from Winona, and remained three years.
In 1847, Nathan Brown settled at a point on the river known as Dakota, as a licensed Indian trader.
August 20, 1849, W. B. Bunnell settled at Minnowah, also as a trader with the Indians. His daughter, Frances Matilda, born February 22, 1850, was the first white native of the county.
The site of Winona was selected by Orrin Smith, captain of the steamer Nominee, in 1851. He engaged Mr. Ervin H. Johnson, a carpenter on his boat, to locate and hold a claim for his benefit, which was done late in the Fall of the same year. Johnson landed with provisions, lumber for a shanty, and an ox team. The claim was staked out one-half mile square upon the highland in the eastern part of the city. The shanty was erected just in front of the present residence of J. Keys, Esq., on the bank of the river. Of course Mr. Johnson kept a hotel, the first in this portion of the state. The hotel building would, if it had been preserved, have presented something of a contrast to the hotels of Winona at this date. Less than 800 feet of lumber was used in its construction.
Wabashaw Prairie was still the property of the Sioux. Elder Ely landed here May 4, 1852. He found the hotel family to consist of E. H. Johnson, S. K. Thompson, and John Evans, who was officiating as cook. Wm. H. Stevens was "keeping bach " in a small board shanty about eighty rods below the "hotel." Henry Gere with his family were back on the prairie about half a mile; Augustus Pentler and wife, one and one half miles down the river, in the shanty first built by Johnson. Mrs. Pentler was the first white woman that ever settled upon the present site of Winona. Mrs. Gere, the second.
The Indians were still numerous, their trails marked the prairie in all directions to the landing. The whole prairie was marked out in claims; four rails with the assistance of a vivid imagination was supposed to represent a house. The claimants' names were Captain Orin Smith, E. H. Johnson, Edward Hamilton, William H. Stevens, C. B. Nash, John Evans, I. McDermont, William B. Gere, E. Silsbee, F. Curtis, G. W. Clark, and A. Gilmore.
The present site of the Village of Minnesota City had just been selected by a colony numbering about 200, which had been organized in New York as the Western Farm and Village Association.
The weather was cold, and as new settlers were constantly arriving many were without shelter, except a large tent. Household goods and farming utensils were scattered about promiscuously. "Gopher holes" were made by cutting small timber, setting it up in form of a cone and covering it with sods.
A party of more than forty left St. Louis for Minnesota City April 26, the captain of the Excelsior agreed to land them at the nearest point possible; May 2, reached Holmes' Landing, now Fountain City; there they made fast to a wood boat, and unloaded while steaming up the river; the party put all their goods into the wood boat, and just at dark, before supper, unfastened in the middle of the river. After five hours the party landed on the high table-land north of Minnesota City near the present site of Troost's Mill. A little shanty 7 by 12 built of stray boards found on the Islands was the only shelter, and that was not reached until nearly morning. The prospect was so discouraging that Dr. Childs and many others decided to go back to " America." They chartered the wood boat and started down the river, and landed near the "hotel, " May 7. Mr. Johnson's hot biscuit and fat pork disappeared with remarkable rapidity, and the spirits of the party began to rise slightly. Mr. Johnson, anxious to obtain settlers, made them the offer of an acre each to such as would remain and build upon it. Several accepted. Dr. Childs chose the acre where the post-office now stands. Mr. Thomas the one where the city building is located, and J. S. Denman the present site of Hill's block, etc.
Several of the parties mentioned were members of the Minnesota City Company, as was Mr. William Christie, who arrived on the 9th of May only to die on the 10th. Boards for a coffin were found after much trouble, and a grave was made on the claim of John Evans, where he was buried. Fifty or sixty more of the Farm and Village Company, mostly from New York City, arrived on this day bound for Minnesota City. They had all kinds of agricultural implements and seed, with clothing in abundance; also, pigs, chickens, canary birds, house plants, and some cats and dogs. As Johnson's Hotel would not accommodate them all, they chartered the wood boat upon which Dr. Childs came down, and proceeded to their destination, but even then the tent was inadequate to contain all. Many were discouraged and sick, and it would seem that some of the leaders did not appreciate the healthfulness of the climate, as it is recorded that on May 11, Mr. Haddock was laying out a 160 acre lot for a cemetery at Minnesota City. The first party that started out in search of farms beyond the bluffs consisted of O. M. Lord, William Sweet, and Benjamin Williams. They landed from the old "Dr. Franklin" in the night, near Mr. Pentler's shanty, April 30. They afterward went toward the Sugar-loaf Bluff, mistaking it in the distance for a hay stack. They were compelled to camp on the open prairie until morning, when they proceeded to the West Rollingstone Valley. Williams and Sweet made claims about three miles from the head of the valley. Mr. Sweet was the first to make a claim beyond the bluff. and the first death that occurred there was of his son, who was found a few rods from his house frozen to death. There were no tools to break the frozen ground, and the body was not buried until Spring.
Less than the usual privations were experienced by the early pioneers, as they were in communication with the rest of the world by boats, and those who had money could procure any luxuries desired, but the rush of emigrants made some inconveniences, Governor Ramsey being in the habit, when visiting the infant settlements, of bringing his blanket and sleeping in the open air.
On May 14, 1852, the first money was paid for land in Southern Minnesota by Dr. Childs, who abandoned his acre and purchased eighty acres, at one dollar an acre, of I. McDermont. The purchase had upon it twelve Indian tepees which were built in 1849 by the Winnebagoes, who were waiting for a boat to be removed to their agency at Long Prairie on the Upper Mississippi.
The Sioux and Winnebagoes were with difficulty kept from open war, and it was only checked by the officers in charge arresting their chiefs. This piece of land is situated just above the railroad machine shops.
Mr. Denman fenced and planted to corn about four acres upon which now stands the city building, post-office block, and others. It was not profitable, as the blackbirds Were not willing to make an honest division, but claimed the whole.
The trade and commerce of the place was not large, as it is recorded that Captain Orin Smith furnished E. H. Johnson with a large lantern to be hung up at the landing at the foot of Main Street as a signal whenever he had any business for the boat to do. The lantern was frequently used until an opposition boat was put on-the West Newton, commanded by Captain Harris. Both the Nominee and the West Newton were sunk during the season of 1854.
The only post-office at that time in the county was "Elder Ely's hat; " the nearest one recognized by the United States was at La Crosse, and as the Elder's family was waiting there he visited them often, and obtained all the letters for parties who lived in what is now Winona County. This arrangement continued for quite awhile after the Elder's family came to Winona, and even after Mr. Pike was appointed postmaster at Minnesota City. George F. Barber was appointed postmaster at Winona in the Fall of 1852.
May 21, 1853, the last official act of the Sioux government was committed. Six Indian Chiefs came in the name of Wabashaw, and demanded of every one who had settled on their lands a barrel of flour or its equivalent, threatening to burn the shanties unless their demands were complied with. They were satisfied, some with the flour and some with money. After this was done they brought out their pipes of peace, shook hands, and left for their tepees until the next morning. They then gathered up everything they considered of value, and took away the fence around some graves and leveled them to the ground; these were said to be the graves of Wabashaw's children. The bones were recently dug up on Third Street In carrying out some improvements; the skulls bad been previously excavated to adorn the shelves of the British Museum.
Fragments of the pottery of an ancient race are found near Minnesota City. It is crude, and evidently formed by hand, and ornamented in a rude manner, which was done in a plastic state. The material of which it is made appears to be finely powdered clam or mussel shells mixed with clay. It is doubtful if they could have been used as receptacles for water, as they do not appear to have been burned but rather dried. The most plausible theory is that they were used for storing the grain, probably Indian corn, of what was undoubtedly an agricultural race.
In November, 1854, the government land sales were held at Winona, and as in all new counties, many disputes arose in regard to claims, and some blood was spilled by the claimants in settling them. To show the state of feeling, a representative instance, one of many, will here be given: An old gentleman, who had made a claim of a quarter section of land, situate ln Saratoga, and was a bona fide settler on the same. and entitled to bid it off: another person bid $1.25 per acre, and cried "settle." The old gentle man then raised the bid fire cents, and cried "settle." Upon which one of the Club Society, told him if he did not withdraw his bid he would put him into the river. The old gentleman refused to do so. The ruffians seized him and were dragging him toward the river, when he drew a revolver and shot at one of the ruffians, wounding him in the thigh. Another man was wounded in the fleshy part of the loin. In the affray, the old gentleman had his thumb shot off. He was trodden down by the gang and severely injured in the breast. He finally succeeded in getting up and taking refuge in the land office, where the mob tried to get hold of him again, but was prevented by the officers. In about two weeks he died.
About twenty years have passed since this county was the home of a few blanketed Indians; now its rich plains and fertile valleys furnish homes for many thousands of industrious citizens. Instead of a few Indian "tepees," stately mansions are to be seen in all directions. Where once stood a small Sioux village, now stands the beautiful.
Which is located upon a beautiful prairie, about nine miles in length, and three miles in width, and known as Wabasha Prairie, and was the home of the Sioux chief of that name. Elevated about twenty feet above high-water mark of the Mississippi River, it is almost as level as a house floor, and requiring no grading for the laying out of streets. The landing is accessible for the largest steamers at all stages of water. There are no marshes at any season.
The shape of the town site is that of a vast amphitheatre, bounded by a semi-circle of verdure-covered hills: utility, beauty and romance, are so singularly blended in this charming spot as to earn for Winona the appellation of the "Queen City of Minnesota." It is the oldest city in Southern Minnesota, its name being in the language of the Sioux, "the first born daughter."
It is the largest and most important commercial city in Southern Minnesota, and the third in point of population in the state, and is the county seat of Winona County. In June, 1852, it was surveyed and laid out as a town. Its growth did not fairly commence, however, until the Fall of 1855, when the government lands were put in the market. In 1857 a charter was obtained, and a city government was organized. Since that period the growth of the place has been steady and permanent. The population in 1855 numbered 813; in 1860 it had increased to 2,468; in 1865 it was about 4,900; in 1870, according to the United States census then taken, it was 7,200. It is now estimated to exceed 10,000.
Winona is noted for the natural beauty of its site; for its healthfulness; for the air of taste, comfort and culture which pervades its residences; for its excellent system of schools, and generally for its thrift, energy and commercial activity.
In 1862 the great fire swept away nearly all the business portion of the city. Property to the amount of a half a million dollars was destroyed. More than 100 buildings, including the most valuable portion of the city, were burnt in a night. Substantial brick Buildings have replaced those destroyed.
There are in the city fourteen or fifteen organized churches, all of which have regular pastors.
The hotel accommodations of Winona are unsurpassed in any city or town of its size in the West.
Three newspapers are published here. The first paper issued in
this city, the Winona Argus (September 20, 1854), was
Democratic in politics. It changed hands several times. Its
successor is now the Winona
The Winona Republican (daily) numbers 4,320 subscribers. It has been issued with commendable regularity for fifteen years, under the same editor, and the same business manager. The weekly is now nearly twenty years old. Mr. Dye, the business man of the firm, set the first type in Winona, on the old Winona Argus, in September, 1854. Mr. Sinclair is the oldest editor in the state whose time has been confined to the same paper.
The Adler, a German weekly, is liberally supported by those of its own nationality.
Among the business and manufacturing establishments of the place there are: Three national banks; ten dry goods stores; twenty-two grocery stores (including three wholesale dealers); four hardware stores; four bookstores; eight clothing stores; two hat, cap and fur stores ; four jewelry stores ; five boot and shoe stores; one saddlery hardware store; three large saw mills; five sash and door factories; six flouring mills; two foundries; several factories of agricultural implements, plows, etc.; six carriage and wagon manufactories, one of which employs about forty men, and is the largest west of Lake Michigan ; one blank book manufactory ; one confectionery and vinegar manufacturing establishment; gas manufactory; a tannery; a cracker factory; two steam barrel factories, etc. The business portion of the town is compactly and substantially built of brick and stone; the streets are wide and regularly laid out, and its whole appearance betokens business activity and prosperity.
The aggregate value of personal and real property in the city, according to the assessment for 1873 on a basis of 40 per cent of actual value was $2,437,643.
Winona is fast attaining to the rank of the most important lumber distributing point on the Upper Mississippi, between the Falls of St. Anthony and St. Louis, if it does not deserve that distinction now. The sales of lumber, in its various forms, in 1873, are estimated at nearly- $750,000.
But, the commercial importance of Winona is more strikingly illustrated by its grain trade than any other. The following table gives a comparative exhibit of the exports of wheat from Winona for a series of years, commencing with 1859:
These figures show that Winona is the largest grain shipping point in the Northwest, outside the Cities of Milwaukee and Chicago.
The railroad system of the city embraces the line of the Winona and St. Peter Road, now completed to the Big Sioux River, 278 miles; the St. Paul and Chicago Railroad, now running from St. Paul to Winona, 103 miles; an extension of the same road to LaCrescent, where it connects with the Dubuque and Minnesota Road; the Madison and Winona branch of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, connected with the Winona and St. Peter by a handsome iron bridge across the Mississippi; the Green Bay and Minnesota Railroad, on Lake Michigan, to Winona, 195 miles-making five lines of railroad in actual operation centering in this city.
The Winona and Southwestern Railroad, from Winona to Central Iowa, about 185 miles, Is projected and surveyed, and there is good reason to believe that its actual construction will soon begin. There is also a project under discussion, and which will eventually be realized, for building a railroad from Ashland, on Lake Superior, down the valley of the Chippewa River, to Winona. Another points to the construction a road from Winona through Plainview and Cannon Falls to St. Paul.
Public Buildings. - The court-house is s large sad commodious structure &be 70x50, two stories; in height, and in fully occupied by the court room and differs county officers.
The jail building is a model one; was designed by John J. Randall. It is built of stone found within two miles of Winona. The cells, of which there are twenty-eight in the male department, are of sheet iron, and are surrounded by a corridor of latticework, formed of iron bars 1 1/8 inches in diameter; the outer walls are two feet thick solid masonry. There is a department for female occupants, so that they are entirely secluded. The whole is lighted with gas throughout, and heated by a furnace; the water is carried through the entire building from a tank in the third story. The family apartments, designed for the residence of the sheriff, are entirely secluded, and are large and well lighted, giving him the advantages of being near his charge, combined with the same privacy and retirement as can be enjoyed in any private residence. The cost of the building was only $28,000, showing that the money must have been spent with good judgment and the strictest economy. The main building is 54x34, with three stories and a basement; the wing is 44x40, and two stories in height. The whole under the charge of W. H. Dill, the present sheriff of Winona County.
The Public Schools of Winona.- The Central School Building is a large and commodious edifice, built of brick, at a cost of about $60,000, in which the city high school is held. It will accommodate 600 pupils. There is now in process of erection a new building, at a cost of $35,000, with a capacity for 500 pupils. Prof. F. M. Dodge formerly of Winham, Mass., is superintendent. He has a national reputation. The principal, J. B. Richards, formerly of St. Charles, is a graduate of the State Normal School at Albany, N. Y.
Aside from the high schools, each ward has its own primary and intermediate schools, of which there are ten within the city.
State Normal School, Winona.-This is an institution for the preparation of teachers. It is supported by annual appropriations from the State Treasury. It was established by an act of the Legislature approved August 2, 1858, but was not organized until September 3, 1860, at which date it occupied a building temporarily fitted up and tendered for the purpose by the City of Winona. The appropriation for the first year was but $1,500. and that was discontinued at the end of the year. As the institution had no resources beyond those afforded by the Legislature, it was compelled to discontinue its work in March, 1862.
Re-Establishment of the School.- By an act of the Legislature passed on the 19th February, 1864, however, the Normal School at Winona was re-established on a permanent basis, an appropriation of $3,000 having been made for that year, $4,000 for the year following, and $5.000 annually thereafter.
It was accordingly reorganized and reopened on the 1st of November, 1864, and the supervision of the present principal, William F. Phelps, A.M., a gentleman who has had a wider experience in the management of Normal Schools than any other person in America. From its reorganization in the year above named it has enjoyed career of uninterrupted prosperity. The annual appropriations now made for its support amount to $11,000.
History of the Building-The first appropriation for the present magnificent building was made in 1866 and amounted to $10,000. The building was commenced on the 17th of October, of the same year, the foundation only having been laid prior to close. The Legislature of 1867 made a further appropriation of $50,000, and the City of Winona donated in lands and money the sum of about $30,000 in aid of the enterprise. In the Winter of 1869 an appropriation of $34,000 was made by the Legislate for the completion of the edifice, and it was occupied by the school September 1, 1869 although it was not finished until December of that year. The total cost of the building and grounds is not far from $140,000. The furniture and fixtures in the ediface have cost about $10,000. It is regarded by experts as one of the best of its kind on this continent.
Description of the Building. -It contains about fifty apartments, the two largest which are fifty-six by eighty feet. It comprises a fine chemical laboratory and lecture room, a library, a museum of natural history, and two art galleries lighted by splendid dome lights in the crown of the ceiling. Its school, class, and cloak rooms are spacious well lighted and perfectly ventilated. The ceilings of the first floor are twelve, the of the second sixteen, of the third nineteen, and the fourth thirty feet in height. The extreme length of the building is 166 feet, and its width is ninety feet. The main ventilating shaft is 105 feet, and the tower is 130 feet high. The grounds consist of two complete squares and an intervening street, comprising in all nearly five acres. The remain to be graded, ornamented, and enclosed in a style corresponding with the character of the building and of the state which has erected so creditable a monument honor of its appreciation of popular education.
Board of Directors of the Minnesota State Normal School for 1874-5. General Hen H. Sable, President St. Paul; Hon. Thomas Simpson, Winona; G. W. T. Wright, D. D. Mankato; J. G. Smith, Esq., St. Cloud; Rev. D. L Kiehle, Preston; Sanford Niles, Esq., Rochester; N. B. Wilson, Supt. Pub. Ins., ex-officio Secretary. St. Paul.
Board of Instruction.-William F. Phelps, M.A., Principal; C. C. Curtiss, M.. Penmanship and Accounts; Belle S. Thompson, English Language, Int. Philosophy, and Methods of Teaching; Eugenie A. Wheeler, Geography, History, and Methods; Mary A. W. Cooley, Vocal Music; Charles A. Morey, Chemistry, Physiology, and Physics; Clarence M. Boutelle, Theoretical and Applied Mathematics; John D. Lord, Drawing and the Arts of Design; Sarah L, Wheeler, Critic and Teacher Fourth Model Class Myra Kimball, Critic and Teacher Primary Model Class; Franc. V. Sharps, Critic and Teacher Third Model Class; Delis A. Browning, Critic and Teacher Second Mod Class.
Progress of the School.-This institution comprises a normal department proper, and a school of observation and practice, sometimes denominated a " model school." The former is composed of students of both sexes, not less than fifteen years of age, drawn from all parts of the state, and whose aim is to prepare themselves for successful work as teachers of the public schools. The school of observation and practice, on the other hand, is made up of children of the ages usually found in the common schools, and graded into four or five departments. Each of these departments occupies a separate room, and is supplied with a permanent teacher, who also acts as critic to the student teachers detailed daily from the normal department for observation and practice. The normal school is free to all who enter it for the purpose of becoming teachers. The school of observation is self-sustaining, a tuition fee being charged the pupil sufficient to defray its ordinary expenses. About one-half of these pupils, however, are children from the State Soldiers' Orphans' Home, who, until the tear 1874, were educated free charge for books, tuition, or stationery. The children of the Orphans' Home were first received into the normal school in 1871. Several of them have graduated, and have been successfully employed as teachers in the common schools of the state.
The progress of the normal department, as shown by the increased attendance, will he seen at a slants from the subjoined figures:
The school of observation and practice was opened in the early part of 1865, with about forty children comprising a single department. In 1873 the number had increased to 263, comprising five departments. The total enrollment for the year 1873 in all departments was 544. The total number instructed in the normal classes up to December, 1873, is reported at over 700, and in the model schools at 1,200, giving a total of over 1,900. Up to the present date, September 1, 1874, the number thus taught is more than 2,000. The number from the Soldiers' Orphans' Home is now about eighty, of both sexes. The number graduated from the Normal School, including the class now nearly ready, is over 200. These graduates enjoy an excellent reputation, and many of them are occupying some of the most important positions in the state as principals of graded schools, teachers of high schools, conductors of institutes, etc. Six of its graduates have already been employed as instructors in the State Normal School at St. Cloud.
Present Condition. of the School. -The institution has just entered upon the eleventh year of its existence since its reorganization. It has been assailed with bitter opposition, and the most persistent efforts have been made to cripple its usefulness and to destroy it altogether. But it has survived all assaults from every quarter, and It is believed stands to-day upon a firmer foundation than at any previous period of its history. It begins to be judged by its fruits, and to command a support commensurate with its great capacity for usefulness. Its academic staff numbers twelve instructors, eleven of whom have received the diploma of the school. The daily attendance is now from 260 to 275 in all the departments. The total enrollment for 1674 will not be far from 600.
Courses of Study and Training.-Two courses, an elementary and a higher, have been provided. The first named only has yet been put in operation. The higher course will probably be inaugurated during the year 1875. The elementary course embraces only the English studies, with the professional drill implied in the subjoined syllabus, arranged according to the five classes for the two and a half years required to complete it.
FIRST TERM-E. CLASS.
Arithmetic. -To fractious. Thorough drills in notation, numeration, and the fundamental rules generally.
Grammar. -Construction of sentences, illustrating principles of punctuation and use of capital letters. Analysis based upon use of words.
Penmanship. -Short, small letters and their combinations. Drill In movements. Blackboard practice.
Vocal Music. -Simple music in all major keys.
Drawing. -Inventing and copying designs. Elements of perspective. Free hand. Blackboard exercises.
Beading. -Vocal exercises. Analysis of lessons. Critical exercises in reading.
Spelling. -Patterson's course.
Professional Work. -Criticism lessons daily.
SECOND TERM-D. Class.
Arithmetic. -To percentage. Analysis of mental and written examples.
Grammar. -Analysis and parts of speech.
Penmanship. -Extended small letters and their combinations: Drill in movements. Blackboard practice.
Vocal Music. -Transposition, modulation, chorus practice.
Drawing. -Free hand. Perspective. Human figure. Shades and shadows. Black board exercise.
Geography. -Minnesota and the United States drawn and described.
Spelling. -Written exercises. Definition.
Art of Teaching. -Primary lessons in number, language and form.
THIRD TERM-C. CLASS.
Arithmetic. -Percentage. Demonstration of principles. Practical applications.
Grammar. -Properties of the parts of speech and rules of construction. Blackboard exercises. Impromptu compositions.
Penmanship. -Capital letters. Drill in movements. Blackboard practice.
Vocal Music. -Minor keys. Chorus practice.
Descriptive Geography. -Geography of the Western Continent Map drawing. Topical exercises and sub-lectures.
Analysis of Words. -Exercises in roots and affixes.
Spelling. -Written and oral exercises.
Professional Work. -Sketches of lessons. Practice and Criticism.
FOURTH TERM-S. CLASS.
Arithmetic. -Proportion. Roots. Progression. Demonstration of principles. Applications.
Grammar. -Complex Analysis. Parsing. Composition. Blackboard exercises. Criticism.
Accounts. -Development of principles. Exercises in double entry. Business forms.
History. -United States. Early settlements. French and Indian war. The revolution. The war of 1812. The civil war, etc..
Descriptive Geography. -Eastern Continent. Map drawing. Topical recitations. Method of rapid delineation.
Physiology. -Use of charts and preparations.
Algebra. -To quadratics.
Spelling. -Oral and written exercises.
Professional Work. -Practice, teaching and criticism.
FIFTH TERM-A. Class.
Lessons. -Method of preparing lessons. Sketches of lessons.
Criticism. -General criticism lessons before the school daily.
Theory of Teaching. -Principles of Instruction. Practice teaching and criticism in class-room.
Model School. -Practice teaching in model schools. Criticisms and suggestions.
Science. -Science of common things. Physics. Chemistry. Geology.
School Economy. -Organization. Conducting recitations. Formation of habits. Discipline.
Spelling. -Oral and written exercises daily.
Prospects of the School.-The future prospects of the institution may be reasonably inferred from its past history and present condition, as herein set forth. In 1864 it really began its continuous history, with one teacher, the present principal, and thirty two pupils. In 1874 it had twelve teachers and a total enrollment of nearly 600 pupils. In 1884 It occupied a small, inconvenient one-story and a half frame building, on a street corner. In 1874 it rejoiced in the possession of one of the most tasteful, elegant and convenient edifices in the country. In 1864 it was regarded as a doubtful experiment. In 1874 it was not only an accomplished fact, but it possessed the confidence of the people, and enjoyed a national reputation. Inasmuch as it meets the most urgent want of a public school system in supplying capable and earnest teachers, it is fair to presume that it will grow with the growth and strengthen with the strength of a great commonwealth, rich in natural resources, and the prospective home of a free and prosperous people, its influence. widening and deepening as year after year and generation after generation shall pass away.
Its plans are of the broadest and most liberal scope. It was founded, and has thus far been conducted, under the earnest conviction that the teachers of the people cannot be too thoroughly and wisely prepared for their work. It assumes, in fact, that the office of instructor is one of the highest and most important in the community, and that to provide those who are worthy of its functions, is a duty that demands the best efforts, of a free and Christian state. Highly educated, skillful and devoted teachers cannot be prepared in poor, inefficient half-starved schools. The state cannot therefore, be too generous in its support. of, nor too earnest in its sympathy with, such training schools as this. It is through the influence of such that its youth is perpetually renewed, and its happiness and prosperity rendered perennial.
As a matter of information and public interest we make a few extracts from the circular for 1874. since they refer to topics that possess a permanent value:
Conditions of Admission.
1st. Applicants must beat lease fifteen years of age.
2d. They are expected to sustain a good examination in reading, spelling, writing geography, arithmetic, and the elements of English grammar.
3d. They must be willing, if admitted, to declare, in writing, their intention to teach in the common schools of this state for at least two years; sign an agreement to report themselves to the principal semi-annually, by letter, for the aforesaid period of two-years after having left the institution; and also to obey all the regulations prescribed for its government during their connection with it.
4th. Candidates should be present promptly at the opening of the term. They will not be received for less than one term, and once admitted they will be entitled to the privileges of the school until honorably discharged, or until their rights shall have been forfeited by unauthorized absence or other misconduct.
Privileges of Pupils.- To persons designing to become teachers in this state, and assuming the required obligations to that end, tuition will be free. Books of reference on subjects collateral to the course of study are already secured, and maps, charts, and other means of illustration are furnished for the gratuitous use of students. Apparatus for a thorough course in experimental chemistry has been provided, and collections illustrating the geology and paleontology of Minnesota are in a forward state. A gallery of art, embracing collections of statuary, sketches and copies of the works of the great masters, has already been opened, and will be freely used in the cultivation of the taste and imagination. These museums and art galleries will be free at all times to the students of the school and their friends.
Department of Accounts- In addition to the usual coarse of training for the prepartion of teachers. a department of accounts has been organized and placed in charge of an accomplished instructor. The course embraces business forms, penmanship and bookkeeping by double entry in all its applications. All who enter the Normal School and remain a sufficient length of time, will enjoy the advantages of this course.
Vocal Culture -Vocal music is taught daily to all the classes by an able and successful teacher.
The Theory and Practice of Teaching.-This most be the special study of all who enter the Normal School. It is one thing to understand a subject; it is quite another thing to know how best to lead others to a knowledge of it. To " keep a school" is an easy matter; but to teach, in the full sense of the term, to arouse the latent energies and draw out the faculties of the young, is one of the most complicated and difficult of all undertakings. Every effort will be made at the Normal School to lead the student teacher into the path of true success. To this end, all subjects in the course will be taught with reference to being taught again. The principles of education will be developed in the class and lecture room, and exemplified and practiced in the model and practice classes connected with the institution. Every appliance which can tend to produce well qualified and successful teachers will be made to contribute to this great end.
Discipline. -The discipline of this school is thorough and exact. No disorder or confusion will be allowed under any circumstances. Students who cannot cheerfully conform to the discipline will he promptly dismissed.
Foreign Students. -While it is the prime object of the State Normal Schools to prepare teachers for the common schools of this state, yet applicants from other states will not be refused admission so long as the accommodations of the schools will permit.
Persons from other states not desiring to pledge themselves to teach in Minnesota for at least two years, will be received on the payment of a tuition fee of ten dollars per term, in advance, and supplying the prescribed text books at their own expense.
Tuition Pupils are charged $20 per term, in advance, their books being supplied at present by the school. Tuition pupils and students from other states are received subject to the condition of vacating their seats whenever necessary to provide for those desiring to prepare to teach in this state.
Special Notice. -No person should seek admission to this school until thoroughly informed of its character, courses of study, and objects. It must be understood that the classification and studies of the pupil will be determined in all cases by a careful preliminary examination. If a candidate be deficient either in a knowledge of the elementary branches, or of the power of expressing his ideas clearly, he will be required to turn back and master these first principles before be can take up higher studies. He will be excused from no exercise of his class, unless proven to be capable of omitting such exercise, or incapable of taking part in it. His attainments will be judged by his ability to perform rather than to profess. No idle or indifferent person of either sex, and no one who is not in sound, robust health, is advised to seek admission to this school. It is a good place only for those who are earnest in purpose, honorable in every impulse, and ambitious to prepare themselves for a noble and useful profession.
Candidates are also notified, and they are requested to take particular notice of the fact, that they will not be received for less than one full term, without an express understanding to the contrary at the time of entering. Any person who shall leave the school in violation of this regulation will be gazetted as "dishonorably dismissed."
Boarding Accommodations. -Good boarding is furnished by private families at from three-and-a-half to four-and-a-half dollars per week, including fuel and lights. but not washing. Rooms can be rented for self-boarding, and the expense can thus be reduced to one-half the rates charged in families. Many of the students are now boarding themselves at a cost of one to two dollars per week. Others who have brought their furniture and provisions from home are expending less than one dollar per week, including room rent.
Correspondence. -All letters of inquiry and applications for admission should be addressed to Professor Wm. F. Phelps, Principal, Winona. School officers desiring well qualified teachers are invited to correspond with the principal.
An Appeal -It is of the highest importance to the success of our public schools that they should be supplied only with able and skillful teachers. Hence only young ladies and gentlemen of good health and rigorous intellectual powers should be encouraged to resort to the Normal School. County superintendents and the friends of education are earnestly urged to recommend only those who have strong bodies and active minds, for admission here. The resources of the state should not be wasted upon physical weakness and intellectual mediocrity.
The discipline of this institution is one of its admirable features, tending to develop a manliness and uprightness of character that gives to the school the highest rank among those of its class throughout the country. The subjoined regulations will afford a clear insight into the means by which the discipline is secured
First State formal School.-The subjoined regulations for the government of the students of this institution, are promulgated for their information and guidance:
1. Promptness and regularity- of attendance upon all the exercises of the school will be rigorously exacted of every student. Tardiness will, under no circumstances, be excused. Absence, except for sickness or other extreme cause, is prohibited, except on leave previously obtained from the principal. Students once admitted are not allowed to leave school before the close of the term, without the consent of the principal. Any person leaving without such consent will be reported as expelled.
2. Load conversation and boisterous conduct of every kind, either within or about the building, or at the private rooms of students, will be regarded as offense prejudicial to good order and discipline, and will be treated accordingly. You will not assemble in crowds upon or about the steps of this building, or elsewhere, nor make any demonstrations which would attract attention or disturb the quiet of the neighborhood.
3. Students are strictly enjoined from marking, cutting, or in any way defacing or damaging this building, its walls, furniture and fixtures, or any of the appurtenances thereof. You will carefully abstain from all acts which will in any respect tend to injure the building, furniture, grounds, shrubbery, or fencing; but will strive constantly to protect and preserve them from destruction, to the end that they may ever impress upon you their lessons of harmony and beauty. You will under no circumstances climb the fences, or enter the yards or gardens of citizens, without their express permission. Those who are to be the teachers of a state should learn to respect the property of a state, and that of its citizens also.
4. You will under no circumstances use the speaking tubes, bells, or other signal apparatus on these premises without a special order from the Principal.
5. You will not absent yourselves from class exercises to entertain visitors, or for any other cause, without special permission previously obtained from the Principal.
6. Gentlemen will not be allowed to call upon the ladies, to remain after six o'clock P.M., nor will they attend them to concerts, balls, or other entertainments, either public or private, without permission previously obtained from the Principal in each case.
7. This is a training school for teachers, and not a reform school. Hence a good moral character must be taken for granted until otherwise proved. Any student indisposed to respect these regulations, the rightful authority of the Principal and teachers, or the wholesome rule of RIGHT, will be promptly dismissed, as unworthy to become an instructor of youth. The great object for which you are professedly here can never be accomplished without a conscientious devotion to duty, both in and out of session hours, Hence, be studious; be quiet and orderly at all times, and seek, by patient, honest industry, to show yourselves worthy of the high vocation of a teacher.
8. Students will not have access to this building after the close of the daily session, without a permit from the Principal. On Saturdays they will be admitted from 9 A.M. to 12 M., and from 2 to 5 P.-M., on business connected with their school duties. The building will be closed to all on Sundays.
9. The use of all spirituous liquors, and tobacco in all its forms, by the students, is prohibited on penalty of prompt expulsion.
10. No profane or obscene language will be allowed among the students or pupils of any department, at any place or under any circumstances.
11. Bulletin boards are placed in the wardrobe rooms, and all special notices, orders and regulations, will be posted upon them front time to time, as circumstances may require.
12. You will carefully preserve a copy of these regulations, and endeavor to familiarize yourselves with them, to the end that you may be able to observe them fully.
Signals.-All movements of the school, and of the several classes, will be by signal. For the present there are established five classes of signals.
1. The "Call Signal," which will be given at the commencement of each daily session, at the close of recesses, and at such other times as it may be found necessary to call the school together. The signal will be made by four distinct strokes of the large gong bell in the east corridor.
2. The "Pass Signal." This signal will be given when classes are to pass from the assembly to the recitation rooms. It will consist of three distinct strokes of the "pressure bell" in the assembly room. At the first stroke the members of the classes to be moved will promptly rise. At the second they will face in the direction toward which they are to move. At the third they will pass to their respective positions and await orders.
3. The "Warning Signal." This will be given five minutes before the close of a recitation, and will consist of one stroke of the small gong bell in each corridor. This signal having been given, the teacher will prepare to close the recitation or exercises, and assign the lessons for the following day.
4. The "Return Signal." This signal will be given by two deliberate strokes of the small gong bell in each corridor. At the second stroke the "class officers" will at once rise and give the commands, "stand," "right face," or "left face," as the circumstances may require, and "march." At the command "march," the classes will repair promptly to the assembly room.
5. The "Alarm Signal "will consist of three rapid strokes of the large gong bell. Immediately upon the sounding of this signal, every pupil and every teacher in the institution will repair to the room and position to which cash is assigned, and there await further orders in a standing attitude.
For the maintenance of order and discipline in the several departments of the First State Normal School, all teachers in its service will carefully observe the subjoined regulations:
1. You are expected to be in the rooms assigned to you promptly, at least thirty minutes before the opening of each daily session.
2. For the preservation of order, and to afford pupils an opportunity for consultation in respect to their studies, you will remain in your respective places until the regular duties of the day shall begin.
3. You are cautioned to exercise, at all times, a watchful and vigilant care over the morals, manners and general deportment of your pupils. You will be held responsible for the order and neatness of the rooms assigned to you. You will see that everything is in its place, and that no dirt, scraps of paper or refuse of any kind is allowed to accumulate in your rooms, to the detriment of the health and manners of your pupils.
4. You will not suffer yourselves to be interrupted in your duties by visitors. If citizens or strangers enter your rooms unattended by an usher, you will please see that they are seated, and then proceed immediately with your work. Your time during session hours should be occupied exclusively in the discharge of your school duties.
5. As a general thing, leaves of absence cannot be granted to teachers during term time, except in cases of urgent necessity; therefore you will not be expected to apply for them.
6. You will promptly attend all teachers' meetings, and exert yourselves earnestly to promote in all suitable ways, the good order and progress of the school, and the personal well being of all connected with it,
7. You will not be expected to leave the building until the close of the daily session.
8. Please preserve and read these regulations frequently, and aim constantly to carry them out in their full spirit.
Perhaps this somewhat extended notice of the State Normal School at Winona cannot be brought more fittingly to a close than by inserting the subjoined communication, which appeared in the St. Paul Daily Press of May 13, 1873. It is understood to have been written by a prominent and successful educator from Ohio, at the time of his visit an entire stranger to the institution and to every person connected with it. The views expressed as to the character and management of the school are the result of a close and critical observation of its operations through three consecutive days:
"Having lately enjoyed the pleasure of visiting the State Normal School at Winona, I beg leave to offer, through the medium of your widely circulated and valuable journal, a brief statement of my impressions of the working of that institution.
"I was there for three days, and spent a portion of the time in each department, and made critical observation of everything that transpired there.
"The object of this school is the systematic and thorough training of teachers for the common schools of this State. The theory and practice of teaching are made a specialty. Those youth, however, who have not a knowledge of the elementary branches sufficient to enable them to enter at once the Normal department, are placed in some of the primary departments, or model schools, of which there are five grades, carefully marked. These model schools are of the highest importance; for professional instruction cannot be engrafted upon ignorance: it must have a basis of intelligence. Moreover, the pupils of the Normal School proper are required to observe the workings of these model schools, and to do a good share of the actual teaching therein, under the eye of some member of the factulty of the institution. This affords a most capital drill for the "coming teachers." An experience of this character is, in this age of educational improvement, all indispensable element in their qualifications. The reason why so many schools throughout our country are comparatively worthless, is because we have so many incompetent teachers. The model department was opened in 1865, with forty pupils. It now numbers upwards of two hundred
" The methods of instruction pursued at this school are most admirably adapted to the needs of those who propose to engage in the profession of teaching. They are such as will most effectually arouse the dormant energies of the mind. Nothing is done haphazard, but everything conforms to a carefully-defined and well-matured plan. The principles of teaching are reduced to a system which rests upon a strictly scientific basis, and the system itself is a model of excellence and beauty.
"The discipline of this institution surpasses anything of the kind that I have ever seen, although I have been connected with educational interests for nearly a quarter of a century. Not even in the long-established institutions of the East are pupils held under such perfect control as here. They are required to exercise a sacred regard for all rightly constituted authority. They are taught obedience for its oven sake.
"This principle of order, involving, as it does, prompt obedience, is one which no intelligent educator call overlook. Its importance cannot be over-estimated. It is the very life, not only of our school system but of our national fabric. Without it, both intellectual and moral culture are simply impossible. Without it, we have anarchy, ruin, death. But order and obedience once established, become elements not only of intellectual culture, but of moral culture as well. No one is fitted to require obedience in others, who has not himself learned to obey. To try is half the battle; to learn to obey is more than half of education.
"Now when we contemplate the fearful fact that a vast majority of our American youth are growing up without learning even the first principles of order or of obedience, the value of such educational influences as obtain at this school cannot be set forth in words, nor can it be computed in dollars and cents.
"Another feature that characterizes this institution -one which is indispensable to educational success, and one which follows in the wake of good order-is its thorough scholarship.
" This matter was put to the severest test under my personal observation. In every department, from the senior class to the lowest primary school, I found a thoroughness in scholarship that was not only refreshing, but which absolutely surpassed anything that ever came under my notice. A few good scholars can be found in almost any collection of pupils; but a general thoroughness, such as I witnessed at this school, is a thing worthy of handsome notice. Failures in recitation are the exception, but when they do occur, they are dealt with in such a manner as to create in the pupil a strong desire not to be caught on the same point a second time.
"This school began with thirty-two students in 1864, and this year the number will amount to two hundred and fifty. The number of teachers has increased from one in 1864 to eleven in 1873.
"For the first five years, the school was conducted in a little, cramped, inconvenient story-and-a-half frame building, standing directly on the street. Now it occupies one of the most convenient and best-constructed school edifices on the continent. And while I am speaking of the architectural appliances, I must not fail to notice a thing that will impress every visitor with profound admiration, and that is, the neat condition of the building. One cannot pass through the building without observing that the most scrupulous neatness prevails everywhere. Every part of it is kept in prime order. Although it has been in use four years, yet not a pencil or crayon mark, or any other indication of abuse, can be found in any of its apartments. Even those more private portions. which in other schools seem doomed to desecration by obscenities at the hands of pupils, are as free from such things as a lady's parlor. This fact speaks for itself, and is alone sufficient evidence of the wholesome moral influence there exercised. If a like neatness can lie found in any similar institution in the country, that fact ought to be known, and the name of such institution should be heralded throughout the land, for it is a thing that would command universal admiration.
"The cost of this beautiful structure has been made the subject of some criticism; but a thorough inspection of it will show that every dollar has been well expended. Of the cost of the entire premises-about one hundred and forty thousand dollars-upwards of thirty thousand was donated by the City of Winona and its citizens. Another fact to temper the criticism on expenditures is the one just alluded to-the most excellent care that is taken of the property. Thousands of dollars of public money are shamefully squandered in repairs on public buildings, simply from the fact that a decent care is not exercised in their use.
"In this connection it may be proper to call attention to the statistics presented in the last report of Prof. Phelps, the Principal. From this report it appeals that by comparing the expense of running the Winona Normal School for 1872 with the expense incurred by any one of the twenty-two similar schools in other states, the cost of instruction per capita was less in the Winona school than in any one, of the twenty-two in the other states named.
"By comparing the per capita cost of instruction in the Winona school for 1871 and 1872 with the per capita cost in the other normal schools in Minnesota for the same years, it will be seen that it was less than in either of the two other normal schools.
"But notwithstanding this school has furnished such cheap tuition, it has in addition to this given gratuitous instruction, to nearly one hundred pupils from the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, which thing, of course, makes a heavy tax upon the resources of the school.
"The foregoing items furnish a very gratifying exhibit, inasmuch as they show that the Winona Normal School is one of the most economically conducted institutions of the kind on the continent. This school has given instruction to nearly eight hundred pupils, still to over fifteen hundred children in its model departments. With the present class, it will have graduated over one hundred and fifty. Many of its graduates are already employed in a large proportion of the most important schools in Minnesota, and are working with great acceptance, giving character and tone to their respective institutions. The St. Cloud Normal School enrolls among her teachers several graduates from the Winona Normal.
"I should leave this already- too lengthy article incomplete did I not add one word in regard to the needs of the school. The school grounds are in an exposed and neglected condition, and ought, for the credit of the state as well as for the prosperity of the institution, to be at once properly enclosed, and beautified by trees, shrubs and flowers.
"Some apartments of the building are still in an unfinished condition; for example, the library, museum, and the rooms for instruction in drawing which last-named branch is fast becoming all indispensable aid in education. Money expended for the completion of the plans would be in every respect a judicious investment for the state. There is no danger that our teachers shall be too thoroughly educated. Let the Legislature of this noble young commonwealth do itself the justice and the credit to remember her educational interests with that liberality which their paramount importance EDUCATOR." St. Paul Press
Schools of the County outside of Winona City. -The educational wants are well supplied outside of Winona City by four graded schools, and over one hundred single schools. These schools compare favorably with others of like grade in any state. The largest graded school is located in St. Charles City, and consists of six departments one high, two grammar, one intermediate, and two primary schools, all under the immediate control of the principal, Prof. J. R. Richards. He has been at the head of this school for the last four years, during which it has steadily advanced in point of numbers and in thorough work. Here, an average of twenty-five teachers are annually fitted for the country schools, and in 1873, thirty-four pupils left the schools to engage in teaching. Thus the school wields an influence in this and adjoining counties, and as only the latest and best approved methods of instruction are used, it will readily be seen how great the advantage of such a school to the rest of the county.
All of the schools outside of Winona City are under the supervision of the county superintendent. He examines all applicants for teaching, visits every school each term, criticises, counsels and assists the teachers and the people, and by lectures, institutes, and the public press keeps the educational pulse active. The present incumbent, Rev. D. Burt, has held the office over four years. His ripe experience, thorough scholarship energy, and tact in managing the many delicate questions that arise among so many diverse elements, have all been unsparingly used for the good of the schools, until this county has a reputation second to none in the state for thorough supervision.
We append the following tabular statement:
|Number of Districts||107|
|Number of School-houses||110|
|Value of School-houses||$146,377|
|Number of persons between 5 and 21 years of age||8,606|
|Number of pupils in winter schools||4,864|
|Number of pupils in summer||4,168|
|Number of male teachers||42|
|Number of female teachers||86|
|Average wages of male teachers per month||$46.78|
|Average wages of female teachers per month||$39.61|
|Average daily attendance in winter schools||28.6|
|Average daily attendance in summer schools||26.1|
|Salary of Superintendent, per annum||$1,200|
The Soldiers' Orphans' Home is supported by appropriation from the state treasury. Ninety-three orphan children occupy a fine edifice built expressly for the purpose. It is 72x40, two-and-a-half stories in height, with a finished basement; the whole establishment is lighted with gas, and supplied with hot and cold water; the children are neatly and cleanly clothed, and their pleasant, smiling faces give evidence of the judicious care with which their physical and intellectual wants are supplied.
Cleanliness, light, air and exercise, together with regular habits, and wholesome diet at regular hours, are the best promoters of good health, and none of these are wanting in the Home.
The children are being educated under the charge of Prof. W. F. Phelps, at the First State Normal School, where they enjoy the highest advantages which could be secured for them anywhere.
The following persons constitute the Board of Trustees of Soldiers' Orphans, and may be addressed by persons desiring information regarding the management of the Home, or anything pertaining to the soldiers' orphans of the state: Henry G. Hicks, Minneapolis, President; Mark D. Flower, St. Paul, Secretary ,i.ex-officio; Ara Burton, Northfield, and Henry A. Castle, St. Paul, Executive Committee; O. B. Gould, Winona Superintendent of Home; J. E. West, St. Cloud; E. C. Saunders, Gardea City.
The Winona Preparatory Medical School was organized and put in active operation in the Spring of 1872. Its objects are first, to afford students of medicine better facilities and more thorough instructions, when they are not in attendance upon college lectures, than can be afforded in the office of a single practitioner. It is in no way designed to be a substitute for the regular medical college, but to do, as its name indicates, preparatory work only. Secondary, an object of the school is to afford a means of culture and professional intercourse among the members of the profession engaged in the work. In this it has been eminently successful, and in affording superior advantages to students it promises well. Daily recitations are held. The dissecting room has now been opened and well supplied with material for two seasons, and already quite a museum of pathological specimens has accumulated. The faculty of the school is at present organized as follows: James M. Cole, M.D., President: James B. McGaughey, M.D., Secretary; Franklin Staples, M.D.; A. B. Steward, M.D.; D. A. Stewart, M.D; S. B. Sheardown, M.D.; Ferdinand Lessing, M.D.
ST. CHARLES CITY is situated in the extreme western part of Winona County, twenty-eight miles from Winona, on the south branch of the Whitewater River, has a population of about 2,000, and is the center of a rich farming country. It receives annually about 500,000 bushels of wheat directly from the producers. It has about thirty stores, several fine hotels, a bank, two large elevators, and a very fine school building, built at a cost of $15,000. It is one of the oldest inland towns in this section of, the state.
MINNESOTA CITY is situated at the mouth of the Rollingstone River. It was laid out and settled by a colony organized in New York, and at the time was supposed to be on the Mississippi River. It proved to be on a bayou not navigable. The water power upon the Rollingstone has made its milling interest a very important one. Troost's mill is the largest in the state outside of Minneapolis.
STOCKTON, on the W. & St. P. R. R. A small town of about 300 inhabitants, with three stores and two churches. It is one of the oldest inland places in Southern Minnesota. It is pleasantly situated on the south fork of the Rollingstone River. It has a fine flouring mill at present, with four run of stone, but the owners are now putting in a large steam engine, and propose to largely increase its capacity.
DRESBACH is situated upon the Mississippi River, and St. Paul and Chicago Railroad. Was laid out by George B. Dresbach, in 1857. It has four stores, and is an important for the manufacture of brick.
LEWISTON and UTICA are thriving villages upon the W. C St. P. R.R. Each have warehouses and elevators for handling wheat, with stores, blacksmiths, and other shops. They have sprung up since the completion of the railroad, and give promise of a prosperous future.
From An Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Minnesota Published by A.T. Andreas 1874