The difficulties which beset the traveler to St. Joseph county retarded settlement. Old letters in the possession of many of the early families tell of the hardships. A typical pen picture shows "a white haired patriarch with head erect and firm step going steadily onward at the head of ox teams; stalwart sons and daughters undaunted by hardships guiding the ox teams; the younger children driving cattle or sheep or swine; and weary with the long tramp, trudged the pioneer mother, a child by the hand and a child in her arms."

Civic grandchildren of these women of the covered wagon days may well pay special tribute in this centennial year to the pioneer mothers. "They, who never faltered, though they walked with unsteady footsteps through purvation and suffering. If the fortitude of the pioneer fathers opened the way through the wilderness, the abiding faith, courage and endurance of the mothers, sustained the family after the see elements were made."

People came to St. Joseph County by two great movements of immigration and the early population of the section is therefore varied. Settlers of St. Joseph county came directly through Ohio and Indiana and, in less numbers, from Kentucky and Tennessee-a great many from Virginia and Pennsylvania. The French traders came from Detroit.

The Carey Mission established on the St. Joseph river in 1822-23, under the direction of Governor Cass, was the result of his expedition to this region in 1820. Rev. Isaac McCoy from Fort Wayne had charge of the mission and it drew many settlers into southwestern Michigan. "The mission, the prairies, the Chicago trail and water power were the combined influences which determined the first settlements and led the immigration along the "blazes." In 1827 at the first election held in White Pigeon, the county polled fourteen votes; four years later two hundred votes. Crawford county, Ohio, sent several families to the Grand Traverse and selected it as a most valuable mill site and in the next year opened a typical first store with codfish, a keg of tobacco and five barrels of whiskey as stock in trade."

In 1829 St. Joseph county was organized and local government established on the township system.

In "The St. Joes" by B. C. Kedzie, published in Volume 28, of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Mr. Kedzie writes of his boyhood life in pioneer Michigan "nine miles from a lemon and twenty-five from post office, doctor, and civilization."



He describes the United States Land Office at Monroe, and the settlers and speculators who frequented it, and from memory pictures the movers, their families and household gods and goods, always going west and always asking directions for finding "St. Joe County." The Kedzies dubbed them the "St. Joes." A white covered wagon proclaimed their mission and destination. Twenty, forty a day the wagons filed past to the Canaan of the west. They were hardy, sober, honest. Rarely they traveled on Sunday, more rarely did they turn their faces east."

Mr. Kedzie tells of his home being over crowded with the St. Joes, sometimes forty would remain over night-dooryard, barnyard and lane were crowded. He tells of coming down the little Jacobs ladder one morning and noted four men lying side by side "packed as close as pickled herring," their heads resting on a bolster. "The four men, one after another, got up and stretched themselves into full wakefulness, and then the bolster got up and stretched into a man."

An article published in the Northwestern Journal, December 2, 1829, pictures the Ashael Savery, later the hero of the Chicago road: "Mr. Savary left this city last spring with his wife, two children, a hired man and a span of horses. He put up a block house on Pigeon prairie, fenced in a field of seventy-five acres and planted corn. He harvested a crop of three thousand bushels. He has paid the first cost of his land and expenses and has money in his pockets." With such glowing prospects were settlers urged to "at least try an exploring tour in the region of St. Joseph."

In the spring of 1829, with three yoke of oxen, and in company with the McInterfers, Abram and Molly Rickert came from Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and "took up" the land lying south of present site of Three Rivers, Abraham Rickert was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 1782; married Mary M. Engle, 1810. They had seven children: Leonard, b. 1811; Catherine, Abraham Jr., Mary, Samuel, Jacob and Abner b. 1829 near Mottville.



From 1830 the population increased steadily until White Pigeon became a center of over eight hundred people and in 1831, the government established a new land office. The village was laid out in 1829. It had three saw mills and two grist mills and was considered a center of enterprise. Many are the stories concerning "land sharpers" and "shavers." Immigrants were warned by the early newspapers not to purchase land through agents. Several villages were platted. The two serious checks in the thirties to the tide of immigration came, first from the cholera and second from the Black Hawk war, though the latter fortunately, in St. Joseph county, was only a scare.

In April, 1830, the first town-meeting was called at Savery's "Old Diggins" --- mine-host one of the most picturesque characters which early Michigan produced.

A part of "Old Diggins" was built in 1827-'28, and in its long log-hewn bar room the wheels of government for St. Joseph county were set in motion. Here in 1830, the Hon. William Woodbridge and Henry Chipman, presiding judges, held court. The old tavern occupied the site of the present White Pigeon high school.


Adams, Dr. Isaac O.; Beadle, Michael, Flowerfield; Buck, George, (Sturgis prairie); Cade, Thomas, Sherman; Calhoun, Andrew, Florence township; Clark, Robert Jr., Centreville; Coffinberry, J. W., White Pigeon; Connor, Fletcher, McMillan (who opened the first farm land on Nottawa prairie); Crawford, Robert and Mary Shannon, Constantine; Crawford, James; Engle, James, N. Y., to Burr Oak; Engle, Jonathan, Nottawa; Engle, Thomas and Sarah (Rynerson), Nottawa; Fitch, Charles B., Ohio to White Pigeon; Lothrop, Edwin H., Massachusetts to Prairie Ronde; Laird, Glover and wife, New York to Nottawa; Parker, John and Elizabeth (Leiser), Pennsylvania, New York to Sturgis; Hatch, A. T., Colon (Indian trader married Marchess Maqua); Jones, DeGamo, Sturgis; Lancaster, Columbia, Constantine; Langley, Thos. W., 1830 or 1831. First Register of Deeds, first postmaster, Centerville. Six sons, one daughter. "Laid most of the corner stones for the public buildings of Centreville;" Lawrence, Andrew, Florence township; Parker, John, Sturgis; Raymond, Oliver, Sturgis; Rhoades, Orrin, Rhoades, Lewis, came to Monroe in 1795, to White Pigeon; Savey and Lancaster, at-


torneys at White Pigeon; Trumbull, Edward A., Deputy U. S. Marshall of W. Michigan; Wheeler, Challenge S., Flowerfield; Wheeler, William, Folwerfield. (See history of Episcopal church); St. Joseph Methodist Mission for the first time appears in the general minutes as a part of the Ohio Conference and in 1830 the pastor was Erastus Felton; Sellers of 1830-1831; Schellhouse, Cyrus, Nottawa; Schellhouse, George, Colon; Schellhouse, Lorenzie, Colon; Schellhouse, Martin G., Colon; Schellhouse, Roswell, Colon.

Nottawa and the Black Hawk Scare

In 1830 Amos Howe accompanied by William Hazzard, Hiram A. Hecox, Samuel McKee and William Conner, came to St. Joseph county, sowed wheat in September and then returned the following year with their families.

The first log house erected in the township of Nottawa was built in 1830 on the farm of William Hazzard, near Centerville. It was only 18X18 and for several weeks was the residence not only of the Amos Howe family but also of the Connors, Hazzards, McKees, Lanes, Hecox, Ingalls, Shermans, Powers, Post and the Dr. McWilliams.

The organization of Nottawa was accomplished in 1832 and the first town meeting was held at the residence of Captain Henry Powers when Amos Howe was elected to that most impressive office within the gift of the early settler-a Justice of the Peace.

Mr. Howe has written for the Pioneer Society of Michigan most interesting stories of the "early days" of that period when the Sauk Indians west of the Mississippi tried to induce the Pottawatomies to "rise" against the settlers but the Pottawatomies of lower Michigan were hearth-fire lovers rather than warriors.

In his history of the United States, Bill Nye pictures the Black Hawk War of 1832 as the time of "scalping in inhabitants between soup and the remove," and explains that "it grew out of the fact that the Sacs and Foxes sold their lands to the United States and afterward regretted that they had not asked more for them; so they refused to vacate until several of them had been used up on the asparagus beds belonging to the husbandman.

Far less facetious are some of the squatter's stories of the Indian uprising as told from one cabin to another in St. Joseph county's first "whispering campaign."

Among the names listed as soldiers at the time were Ashael Savery, Major S. P. Williams, Capt. Calhoun, John Hamilton, George Thurston, Deacon Forbes, John Hartman. The latter was working on a millstone when message came,


he dropped his hammer and was off for war. John W. Fletcher, Wm. H. Cross, Wm. Langley, Charles Monroe, Michael Beadle, Adna A. Hecox, Edgar A. Trumbell and others hastened to enlist.

At a meeting of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, Mr. Cross paid tribute to the pioneer women of this period. Mr. Cross said: "When the word came to shoulder our rifles on that May day in 1832, our family found itself just moving on a new farm. The oldest settler not having been a resident five years, there were twice as many Indians as white men and the prospect of nine tenths of the men going to war gave a gloomy outlook. Then came the question from the wives and mothers and sisters: "But, do you have to go", and when we in turn asked: "Would you ask us to shirk our duty and let others go", the reply was worthy of the woman of those days: "No, go, we will do the best we can.

Two months before the so called uprising, Mr. Cross had married and brought his nineteen year old bride to the wilderness. "What am I to do", I asked and promptly came the reply: "Go, you must bear your share, I will do the best I can".

The Hon. William Connor of Nottawa, gives the following description of the settler's fort: "The contemplated site of Ft. Hogan was on the lands of J. Foreman, in the northeast corner of Colon. For its erection, a file of one dozen men was appointed each day to work upon the fortifications. On the very first day, after a trench had been partially dug and two loads of stumps drawn to the spot, the sun shone with such intense heat that the workmen grew tired, handsomely cussed the Sauks and regarding discretion the better part of valor, abandoned the enterprise.

"The committee which was appointed to draw the plans for Ft. Hogan, included Amos Howe, Rev. Mr. Alvord and Dr. McWilliams. They drew the ground plans for the square fort which, covering five acres and earth two feet high, topped with grubs, fortunately was never completed."

Col. Jonathan Engle often laughingly declared he had received but one scratch during the war and that was by the government pen, which gave him 160 acres for a month's uneasiness.

Another volunteer, Hiram Jacobs, said he was ordered out in May. Had dashed for Niles one day and dashed for home the next.

Walter G. Stevens, who came to White Pigeon in 1829, said that doubtless he would be called a tramp now. He had heard so much about Michigan in his old Virginia home that he just had to come and see it. So, afoot and with two dollars for emergencies, he started on the long lonesome journey. One


night, with frosted corn which he had toasted in a blacksmith's forge, as his only food, he decided to tell his story to "Savery at Old Diggins' and ask for food.

When he entered the tavern, Savery was pouring toddy and came from behind the bar, looking so sternly at the hungry boy that he was "nigh ready to drop". Satisfied by his scrutiny, Savery said: "You look honest" and added, "When the breakfast bell rings go in and eat your fill. Stay until you are able to pay."

Mr. Stevens was one of the first to respond to the call for troops. As a reward he received a quarter section, money and blankets for a month's service. Later he helped build the Centerville jail and served as jailer. He told amusing stories of his courtship, his walk of ten miles after the day's work to call on his sweetheart. His fortune on his wedding day consisted of two dollars and courage. One dollar, however, was given to John S. Berry to perform the wedding ceremony.

Concerning the causes of the Black Hawk War, Amos Howe writes: "The very suggestion of an Indian uprising filled the settlers with alarm; the reports were heightened by the stories told by the fun loving Frenchman, Navarre of Godfroys' Landing Post, who, it is said, never left a stone unturned in the line of humor if he could witness the fear and excitement of his Yankee neighbors." Others claim that the stories were originated by the squatters who longed for the rich prairie lands of the Indian reservations. They prodded both the Indians and the white men into trouble that the government might have cause for the removal of the Indians.

The frightened settlers appointed their committee of safety: Martin C. Schellhouse, Jonathan Engle, Sr., Benjamin Sherman, Amos Howe and Alvin Alvord, Sr.

Undoubtedly the most dominating figures in St. Joseph county during the Black Hawk trouble were Martin G. Schellhouse and his brothers. Through their kindly common sense fears on both sides were allayed.

An incident, a near tragedy at the time, but now an enjoyable story, is told of a New England family, who had but recently settled on Sturgis prairie. In order to preserve their valuables, consisting of plate, china, mirrors and other prized possessions, which could not be taken with them in hasty flight, they carefully packed the goods in a large box and in the dead of night stealthily gathered around a dry well by their cabin. With low whispers the well rope was attached to the box, the windlass having been freshly tubbed with soft soap that no tell-tale creak might reveal their work. The men seized the crank and steadily lowered the box, when suddenly the rope broke and with the crash of a cannon the box struck


bottom and shattered its contents to atoms. Shrieks from the women arose on the midnight air, the alarm was sounded along the prairie, shriek after shriek. The prairie was awake and deeming the Sac warrior at their very door, there was a general flight.

Salathiel Coffenberry's Story

The most authentic account of the Pottawatomies of St. Joseph is undoubtly that written by Salathiel C. Coffenberry for the Western Chronicle of 1858. Mr. Coffenberry was a pioneer who was highly respected by the settlements, so much so that Three Rivers' Masons named their chapter for him. We quote Mr. Coffenberry as one whose story would deal squarely with both red men and white. Mr. Coffenberry says: "Notwithstanding that the settler found himself surrounded with thousands of acres of the most fertile lands, obtainable for ten shillings per acre, he envied the Indian his little home of twelve square miles. In vain the chiefs in council said: "You have much, we have little, why you want our little?" But the settlers importuned, became unpleasant, annoying, and the Indian patiently submitted.

"On the south bank of St. Joseph river, Patrick Marantette had established himself a trading post. He exerted an almost absolute control over the Indians and his sincere aim was their prosperity and happiness. He indignantly inveighed against the inhumanity of those who introduced the liquor which turned the Indians into fiends and, as they formed the tast for it reduced them to groveling poverty, imbecility and wretchedness.

"At the commencement of the first settlement of St. Joseph county in 1829 or '30, the Nottawa bands of Pottawatomies acknowledged the sway of Pierre Morreau, as chief. He was a white man, an educated and accomplished Frenchman and because of some misfortune he sought a secluded retreat. He married an Indian woman, adopted Indian costume and habits. As a savage, he was more to be feared than the red man.

Morreau, by his Indian wife, had seven children: Sau-au-quette, the wicked, Moniss, Isadore and Wau-be-gah. His daughters were Betsey, Min-no-wis and Min-nah. Sau-au-quette, shrewd, wicked, wily, displaced his father and disputed the right to govern with Cush-ee-wes, the legitimate chief whose father, deceased, had been supplanted by Morreau.

Sau-au-quette possessed remarkable powers as an orator. Cush-ee-wes was modest and retiring. Each had his followers but all of the Indians admitted the rightful claim of Cush-ee-wes. Sau-au-quette invariably won out. He was


extraordinary in appearance, six feet, three inches tall, straight, finely proportioned, possessing an imposing and withal winning address. The tribe had been steadily deteriorating, they had ceased to hunt or trap, they had traded guns and ponies for whiskey; they hung around the post insisting, begging for more "fire water," more whiskey.

"At this crisis came the Black Hawk war scare. It is not to be wondered at that the settlers were alarmed. Panic to be wondered at that the settlers were alarmed. Panic seized them, goods and valuables were concealed, cattle sold at half their value, crops left ungathered. Amid all the alarm, there were some in the settlement that could not be persuaded that the settlement was in danger, among them the venerable Judge Sturgis, Martin G. Schellhouse and his brothers, and several others. However, the militia was organized for deadly conflict and, flushed with the glory of their mission, marvelous were the hair breadth escapes of the soldiers which were told to the frightened settlers.

"Among the stories was that of Min-no-wis, sister of Sau-au- quette who had been detected in stealthily approaching the cabin of a settler to ascertain by espionage the strength of the white enemy. It was in vain she pleaded that her children were starving and that she only had come to beg a bit of bread. In vain she said she was afraid of the white man and was trying to see his wife, who would, as a mother, perhaps pity her children and give her a bit to eat. With tears streaming from her eyes she offered her baby's little moccasins for food. "No good if squaw can buy no bread."

Among those who pleaded for the Indian as a friend was Col. Sherman, for whom a township of St. Joseph county is named. Col. Sherman's talk at the white man's council is worth reading. He said in part:

"I have as good a knowledge of the disposition of the Nottawa Indian as any one. I do not believe there is the least danger from then; the poor cusses are more scared than we. But if you must have a man go to Niles, though it is on a fool's errand, give me your dispatches, I'll be off." "Arm yourself well, Sherman", said one. "Take my horse pistols" said another. The dispatches were sent. The next day began the building of Fort Hogan."

Again, we quote Coffenberry: "Cyrus Schellhouse in the meantime stole away to the reservation. He found the Indians destitute and laboring under the impression that their white neighbors, taking advantage of the Black Hawk excitement, were planning an attack. After a brief parley with the Indians an interview was planned at the home of Captain Powers. "Cush-ee-wes, with an interpreter, accompanied Cyrus Schellhous. Cush-ee-wes offered his hand in token of


friendship to the doughty captain and stood with unaffected dignity before the fidgety commander. "What does the white man want? He has sent for his red brother. Let pale face speak." "We want to know what we have done to induce you to try to cut our throats and scalp our people," demanded Captain Powers. "Pale face does not speak words of wisdom or he would not ask what red man has done, but would ask what pale face has done," replied Cush-ee-wes.

And then there followed an eloquent plea for his people; he pictured their loss of land, their distress through the white man's influence and to the arraignment he demanded that the white man answer. After many inquiries, it was found that the only Indians off from the reservation were the young warriors who had gone with the fur trader, Captain Hatch, to fight for the white people.

Col. Sherman returned from Niles with the welcome news of Black Hawk's capture. All of the old newspaper article by Mr. Coffenberry is worth reading. His intensely human story closes with the query: "What did the red man receive from the white man and his civilization in exchange for the home land of his fathers?"

Centreville, A Centenarian

Among the villages taking their civic places in the county in the early thirties, was Centerville. It was platted in 1831 and on November 22 the governor's proclamation located the county seat there. It was platted by Robert Clark, Jr., Electra W. Deane, Charles Noble and D. B. Miller. A bronze tablet indicates the site of the first courthouse. The inscription reads:

"1832 - 1842
Site of the first St. Joseph County
Court house in Centerville.
George B. Porter.
First Judge William Fletcher.
Marked by the Abiel Fellow Chapter D.A.R."

Concerning the first court sessions held in Centerville, Chester Guerney, a learned, rather cynical old lawyer, when asked about the first court sessions replied: "Like the Irish witness who testified in court that he had known the fun in question ever since it was a pistol, I have known about the court and its first sessions in Centerville. In the early days when our circuit court went pioneering, it held session in the little frame building built by Langley for a store but used by Sam Scott, grocer. Mr. Guerney characterized Thomas Langley, the builder of the store, as a man of ready speech, quick imagina-


tion and action, a man of great courtesy of manner. Langley built the first tavern in the village and in Langley's eyes it was a feudal castle and he it's lord, whose highest ambition was to entertain every guest with knightly cheer."

Several years ago Mrs. F. H. Coon compiled from the St. Joseph History, for the D.A.R., the data covering the early courts of Michigan from which the following is quoted:

"The first term of circuit court held in Centerville was called October 21, 1833, and was held by Hon. W. A. Fletcher, Circuit Judge.

"The first divorce case on the calendar was during the October term of 1833, when Aurora Amulet Gilbert complained most bitterly of the cruel desertion by her lawfully wedded lord and master, David Gilbert, and meekly stated that if the court didn't want to take her word, they might just inquire for themselves. But the court believed Aurora for at the April term in 1835, they decreed that David should no longer have his Aurora Amulet to charm his cares away and bade her resume her maiden name.

"The first court of record ever held in St. Joseph county was a session of the probate court held at the office of the Register of Probate, John W. Anderson in White Pigeon on Friday, March 26, 1830, five months after the county was organized. It was held by Dr. Hubbel Loomis, Probate Judge, granting letters of administration to Elizabeth Thurston on the estate of Amos Codner. August 23, 1830 the first will was probated in the county; that of John Baum, deceased.

"The first probate court held in Centerville was on October 24, 1834.

"The Circuit court of St. Joseph county held its first term August 17, 1830 at Savery's Old Diggins in White Pigeon. The first foreign born applicant for citizenship to be accepted for citizenship in the county was at this meeting. His name was William Johnson and he came from Berwickshire, England.

In October 1837, the first of the bank suits appeared in the Circuit Court. In the September term of 1838, Daniel Fulton was indicted for "exercising secular labor" on the Sabbath Day but a jury of his neighbors acquitted him of the charge.

At the first meeting of the county court at Savery's in White Pigeon in 1830, a seal for the county was ordered with the following device and inscription: "A sheaf of wheat, a merino sheep and a pair of scales and the inscription was "St. Joseph County Seal."

In 1830 the commissioners appointed to investigate a suitable location for the county seat reported favorably on its


location on the plat by George Buck of the village of St. Joseph - now second ward - Three Rivers. Mr. Buck and Jacob McInterfer were to donate the lots. Because of misunderstanding the report was set aside and a new commission consisting of Thomas Rowland, Henry Desborn and George A. O'Keefe recommended the site of Centerville, which was formally proclaimed on November 22, 1831.

"The first court rooms at Centerville were furnished by the supervisors and were in the upper story of the first frame house built in Centerville.

In May 1832, it was voted to build a jail and the first man incarcerated was committed without formality by Sheriff Taylor. The door was closed but not locked. The prisoner was forgotten. When looked for, the jailor found his tenant gone but at night the prisoner returned on his own free will and offered twenty-five cents to be allowed to sleep there again.

The old jail did service for twenty-one years. August 14, 1854 it burned and one of the three prisoners there at the time lost his life. It was supposed he had set fire to the building . The old jail lock weighed twenty-five pounds and was a most ingeniously wrought combination made by E. C. White, village blacksmith and gunsmith of high repute. Long years afterwards the huge key to the old jail was an interesting curio in the collection belongs to Dr. A. W. Scidmore in Three Rivers.

The late Elias S. Swan of White Pigeon served the first legal process issued from Court of Record in the territory now constituting St. Joseph County. This was about 1828. He was then deputy sheriff of Wayne County. In 1831, Mr. Swan located at White Pigeon and brought the first stock of goods up the St. Joseph river from its mouth where they had been landed on the lake shore from Buffalo. His goods were brought in batteaux propelled by poles as far as Hartman's Landing, about a mile from the present site of Mottville (on the land later owned by Charles Fox) and from there toted overland to White Pigeon.

The following letter, written by the Hon. Columbia Lancaster from Vancouver, Washington Territory, August 10, 1887, was published in the Michigan Historical collections. "Hon. S. D. Bingham, Lansing, Michigan.

"Sir: My name is Columbia Lancaster; I was born in New Milford, Connecticut, August 26, 1803; occupation an attorney; politics, a democrat (copper-fastened).

"I came to Michigan in August, 1830; remaining at White Pigeon until the county seat was located at Centerville; erected the first dwelling and became the first citizen of Centreville.



" The territory of Michigan filled rapidly with good citizens .. When Michigan was robbed of its ten mile strip .. and a territorial military organization was effected I was made a colonel. When the state constitutional conventions were called, I was delegate to Ann Arbor. I was elected to the Legislature in 1837 or '38 (1838).

"In March, 1837, (probably 1839) with my wife and daughter, four years old, I left Michigan with an ox team for Oregon and reached Oregon City September 15.

"November 30, 1847, I was afterwards sent to Oregon's second legislature and was her first delegate in Congress (Democratic).

"I am pleased with this country but I cannot keep my mind away from Michigan and her noble system of education, the best the world produces .. In imagination I sit down in Centreville and all her incidents of early history pass in a grand panorama before me. But my old friends have emigrated to celestial regions and I shall follow soon.

Very truly,

(Signed) Columbia Lancaster"

In that quality of citizenship which ranks greater than riches -- the spirit of appreciation for sacrifice and heroism -- Centerville ranks among the highest in the county. A grey granite monument surmounted by a soldier on guard pays tribute to the loyal sons of 1861 and also stands as a memorial to the St. Joseph county men who served in Mexico, Company E. 15th U. S. Infantry, under Capt. I. D. Toll.

The county is indebted to the Hon. Frank S. Cummings for his interest in obtaining this public recognition and remembrance of the courageous old Company E. whose heroic story is told in another chapter. Mr. Cummings is a son of Soloman Cummings, pioneer, and he is entitled to credit for his splendid work through the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society in salvaging valuable historical material from oblivion.


The first settlement in Leonidas was made in 1831 by the fur trader, Thomas Hatch who married first, Marchee-o-no-qua, the sister of Chief Maguago. Other settlers were the George Matthews who came from New York city and located near the St. Joseph river bridge in the vicinity of the trading post. Many stories are told of the Matthews family, among them that of an intoxicated Indian whooping and yelling who came to the Matthews cabin and decided to stay. Matthews was very sick with ague, but when the Indian refused to leave,


Matthew's spirit rose higher than his fever, he pulled the Indian from his pony and severely slapped his face. A few days later the Indian returned with many others and demanded that because Matthews had insulted him when drunk now he must fight when he, the Indian, was sober. Mrs. Matthews fearing something wrong slipped a hunting knife under her apron and went along. Suddenly whipping out a knife, the Indian said: "Now we fight with knife." Promptly Mrs. Matthews handed over her hunting knife and the surprised Indians with him shouted "Ugh, squaw!" and applauded her, "Chemokeman", as they called his squaw", and the Indians were ever after good friends.

Leonidas is rich in folk stories of the pioneers and of their ancestors who fought for American independence: Allen Wing, William Hobart, Javiel Sherwood, Zachariah Watkins, Chapman Davis, Nathaniel Watkins, Shadrich Pierce, Peabody Kinne, Benjamin Clark, of Captain Isaac Conklin and Wakeman Foster, stories by the Kibbes, Bishops, Hodges and others. The story of Mark Watkins, buried in Leonidas cemetery, is told in the chapter of St. Joseph's Roll of Honor.

Escaped From the Red Coats

It was Wakeman Foster who was compelled by British soldiers to hitch his yoke of oxen to a flat bottomed boat which the Red Coats coveted and requested to have transported overland to the Peconic Bay, which was about three miles distant. We are told that Foster was a praying man but with expletives as strong as his orthodox Christianity would permit, he proceeded leisurely with his task to threats from the impatient soldiers. The road was obscured and darkness fell. Foster suggested that he lead the way. The British soldiers consented. They were weary and the oxen for some reason were hitting a wonderful gait. With many "whoas" and "gees" and " haws" the inpatient yoke and driver when entering a particularly dark place, vanished out of sight of the British into a dense forest. Foster's "whoas" increased as he was vanishing until the breakneck speed of the oxen lost his voice to his captors. Foster had been shouting "whoa" but with a sharpened stick had been prodding "go".


(Compiled by Miss Emma Price for the D.A.R.)

This township, which takes its name from the village within its limits, has within its boundaries an eminence which is called Colon Mountain, not remarkable for its elevation, though it is the highest point in the township, 120 feet above


the general level. It is supposed to have been made by the mound builders.

"Roswell Schellhouse came from Ohio in 1829 to Nottawa Prairie and located on what was afterward included in Colon township. He built a log house of two rooms, which he kept as a hotel for some years. His location was on Section Six.

"Loransi Schellhouse, a brother of Roswell, came into the township in 1830, as did George F. and Martin G., two other brothers, and bought land on sections three and six, Loransi buying the mill site on Swan Creek where the present flouring mill is now situated in the village. These persons above named were the first settlers in the territory included in the present bounds on Colon.

"Charles Palmer came in from Ohio in 1831 and bought 300 acres east of the creek.

"The civil organization of the township occurred in 1836 at which time Colon was limited to its present area and is known on the government surveys as Township six, south of range nine west. The village was projected 1832.

"The first marriages in the township were those of Jonothan Engle Jr. and Delia Brooks in 1832; Reuben Trease and Sally Rumsey, August 13, 1834.

"Among the early settlers, Comfort and Job Tyler came in 1832. Alvin Hoyt and Hopper in 1832 and also Abel Belote. The Shellhouse and Dr. Mitchell were natives of Vermont. The Tylers, Farrands, Henry K. (1836) with Phineas and their father (1838). Dr. A. J. Kline (1831). The Bowers, Adams, William and father, John, William H. Castle (1835), Charles L. Miller (1841) and Dr. McMillen (1834) were New Yorkers. Stebbins, Brooks, Noyes (1831) and Chaffee (1835) were from Ohio. The Scholfields and Louis A. Leland (1833) from Massachusetts. Eberhards, Wagners, Dr. Voorheis (1836), John H. Bowman (1839), from Pennsylvania. Danburys, Tellers, Van Vorsts, Mohawk Valley. Levi Matthews (1832) Connecticut. David King and family were English. The Clipfells (1839) from Alsace and the Borns and Engles from near French border.

"The first death was the first white child born therein, a son of Roswell Schellhouse, in the summer of 1830. First adult Mrs. Schellhouse, 1832. First burial in Colon cemetery was Emily Noyes, aged 8 years, 1832, the year the cemetery was first laid off.

"The first schoolhouse was built in 1833 on the Brooks farm, and Martin G. Shellhouse was the first teacher there in -- 1833-34.

"The first merchant in the township was Louis A. Leland, who settled in 1836 on section ten (the old Noyes homestead)



to which Samuel Noyes and his family of daughters came from Ohio in 1821. Louis A. Leland married Mary Ann Noyes. Mr. Leland first carried his stock of goods in a wagon, traveling from Bronson to Centerville, and permanently located in Colon in 1836, retailed his goods from his house.

"Charles L. Miller was the first merchant to open a stock of goods for retailing in the village. Mr. Miller was elected Judge of Probate in 1856 and was secretary of the commission on commerce of the United States from 1861 until his death.

"E. Hill and Sons commenced in the mercantile trade in the village in 1851 and until 1868 were leading merchants, doing a heavy trade. The Exchange Bank of E. Hill and Sons was organized in 1878.

"Dr. Isaac Sides opened the first drug store in 1859. Dr. Isaac Voorheis was the first physician, locating in the village in 1836. Another early doctor was Dr. James Fisher, of New York, who located there in 1832 on the prairie near the trader Hatch's place. A son of Dr. Fisher, born in Colon, distinguished himself in the United States navy, Dr. McMillan practiced for a time after he came into the township in 1834.

"The Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in Colon township in the year 1844 by the formation of a class of 16 members by Ryan Williams and Aaron Bradley (who moved into the township the previous year), with Ryan Williams as class leader. Ryan Williams, Mrs. Ryan Williams, Aaron Bradley, Samuel Sheik, Mrs. Barber Mills, Mrs. James Palmer, Mr. Washburn. The board of trustees for the society was elected August 18, 1856 with Phineas Farrand, William H. Harper, William F. Bowman, Solomon R. Salisbury, Ellis Hughes, Gilbert Liddle and Moses Blanchard as members of such board. John W. Lovett has long been an active worker as Sunday School Superintendent.

"This society was formed in 1840 by Rev. Daniel Crow in School District No. 5. First members being John Yeatter, Michael Yeatter, Peter Miller, Adam Decker, John Fogleman, John D. Everhard, Elias Ware, John A. Ultz, Daniel Rich, Peter Wagner. John D. Everhard was from Pennsylvania. A brick edifice costing $3000 was erected in 1844.

"Colon Baptist Society was first organized in Leonidas (as found by records kept in an unbound book) in 1837 by Elders Brown of Centerville, Taylor from Prairie Ronde and G. B. Day of Sturgis. First members of organization were: E. G. Terry, Daniel Franklin, Orrin Legg, Sarah Legg, Mary Vaughn, Experience Watkins, Enoch S. Bersline, Benjamin Blossom, Joseph Gilbert, Constant Vaughn, Armilla Terry, Justus W. Denton, Eli Denton, Lurelia Denton, Clarissa S.


Denton, Mary Reynolds, Sally Reynolds, Anna Gilbert, Clarissa Blossom.

"An edifice was built in 1845, the society being incorporated January 20th of that year. The first trustees were Orrin W. Legg, Loransi Schellhouse and Seth Goodwin, John Gray, Benjamin Blossom, William Grover and Mr. Rowe.

In the Christian Herald of 1886, Rev. L. H. Trowbridge wrote: "Southern Michigan never knew livelier times than during the first decade of its settlement. Sherman township comprised a tract of 3,000 acres and, although the land office was at Monroe and the early settlers had to make the distance on horseback, it was counted no hardship, for all were in the freshness of youth -- strong, hopeful, happy.

"Holidays were not numerous but were great occasions when they did occur, winding up usually with a barbecue. In 1828, the year following Mr. Thurston's settlement on the prairie, a bear was killed in the locality and the novel announcement followed of a "Bruin Barbecue". Among those present on this occasion was Governor Cass with his staff on their way to Niles to settle with the Indians for the purchase of their lands. In the governor's train were eight ponies, four laden with silver, the purchase price, and four with 200 pounds each of ginghams was given shelter but his "staff" camped out of doors.

"The influx of immigration increased until 1836 when settlers came by tens and hundreds. In the spring of this year Abel Crossman and Gersham B. Day of Kempville, Niagara county, N. Y. entered land in Nottawa. They were the leaders of the second colony that settled in Sherman, made up of Wear Drake, wife and son Addison, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Chase, Abel Crossman and family, James M. Tefft, M. D., John Harris, Nathaniel Cutter and Thomas Davis.

"Up to this date every man knew his neighbor and neighbors were not limited by township or county lines. Some of the familiar names were: Thomas Cade, settled in Sherman, 1830; David Petty, David and Charles Knox, 1831; John S. Barry, White Pigeon, 1831; Dr. Elliott, 1832; Caleb Arnold and his father's family in Constantine, 1832; Norman Roys of Florence, 1832.

"John Landrick, in 1833, was the genial, jolly stage driver between Detroit and Chicago and for more than half a century was one of the wealthy men of the prairie. For first class accommodations by coach, passengers paid seven cents a mile with the privilege of a rail to pry the stage coach out of


the mud. General Brown of Tecumseh and DeGarmo Jones of Detroit owned the line, increasing facilities by 'extras' year by year until the coach run daily, reluctantly giving place to the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroad in 1851.

Second class transportation in these earlier days was slow and no springs. One of the original contracts reads:

"The undersigned agrees to transport in lumber wagon without springs, ten persons for $40 from Detroit to Constantine." At this date Constantine was the Chicago of Southern Michigan, being the head of navigation.

"While passengers travel was brisk by stage, freighting was lively by the lakes and the St. Joseph river. In fact, the first bridge at Constantine was a swing bridge. Lima, Indiana and all surrounding towns received their freight at this point via lake and river. The river arks which were 40 by 60 feet were covered with two inch white oak plank and calked with tow and slippery elm bark. They required great skill in handling . The famous old arking captains and their hair breadth adventures were subjects of many an evening's entertainment. Keel boats made their appearance in 1835. One of the musical names of these vessels was the "Kitty Kiddungo."


In the saga of St. Joseph county pioneers, the coming of John Sturgis and George Thurston is a most dramatic episode. John and Ardillacy Sturgis first came to Michigan Territory in 1818. In 1827 Mr. Sturgis came northwest from his Ohio home, accompanied by George Thurston, a boy of nineteen years. They brought with them oxen, a plow, seed and provisions. They made their way through forests by the Indian trails until they came to land belonging to General Cass (now Sturgis Prairie) and there they broke the first prairie land which is now within St. Joseph county. George Thurston turned the first furrow. We are told they garnered twenty five tons of hay that first season. Then came a prairie fire that swept it all in flames. Discouraged, they returned to their Ohio homes, but being men of energy and of faith in the beautiful prairie lands of Michigan, returned the next season, accompanied by the Sturgis family, and began again. Of Thurston, it is written that in five years after coming to St. Joseph county, he assisted in raising eighty-six houses. Among them the first house in Kalamazoo county, that of Judge Harrison, the first settler of that county. It is recorded that "the neighborhood" went over to where the house was to be raised one day, did the work and returned the next day. Thurston's


father served in the War of 1812 and his grandfather fought in the American Revolution.

Much has been written of the Sturgis family, especially of John Sturgis, for whom General Cass named the prairie. He first located in what is now Fawn River, two years later moved to Nottawa and entered 240 acres of government land. He was a most important personage in his day, and eventually became the owner of 1400 acres of land. He was the father of ten children: William, Jane, Catherine, John, George, Amos, David, Hannah, Sarah and Henrietta, many of whose descendants still reside within the county.

In a biographical sketch recorded by W. P. Champion, we read:

"John Sturgis was born in Philadelphia in 1787, the son of Captain Amos Sturgis who served in the American Revolution. He fought at Germantown and in several other engagements of the Revolution. In 1818, John Sturgis settled near the head of Lake Erie and in 1828 came to St. Joseph county with his family. His household goods, equally divided, were drawn by six yoke of oxen. The two loaded wagons traveled for a period of twenty-one days, a distance of 130 miles over the almost impassable prairie trails, sometimes covering only a mile in a day.

"Assisted by George Thurston, he built his log cabin, the first house ever erected in Sturgis township. In the autumn of the year 1828, General Cass, then governor, on his return from Niles with about ten persons in his company, all mounted on pack horses, encamped on the east end of the prairie near the cabin of settler Sturgis. The latter supplied the General's company with water from a spring which he drew to them with his oxen. Later, the water supply proved inadequate for Sturgis needs. He moved to Nottawa, preceding Peter and J. J. Godfroy by two years on the site where the Godfroys erected their trading post. Part of this land Mr. Sturgis sold to Adam Wakeman and he returned to the "Sturgis" prairie.

"During the territorial times, Mr. Sturgis was commissioned one of the Associate Judges of St. Joseph county and in 1836 was elected to fill a second term as a representative of the Democratic party. He was one of those who were chosen to frame the State Constitution of Michigan, but being too sick to attend, another went in his place.

"The Indians of Nottawasippi at first resented his coming, but he succeeded in assuring them of his friendship and won from them the highest expression of praise. 'They lived as neighbors in mutual trust-worthiness."

Sturgis township claims many of the prominent early settlers, other than those whose names have been given.



Among the first to establish homes in windowless log cabins on the Sturgis prairie were George Buck, Hiram Jacobs, John S. Newhall, Oliver Raymond, J. G. Wait, Major Isaac J. Ullman, Luther Douglas, Rev. J. E. Parker, who accompanied his father John Parker, Ephraim Bears, Jacob Pearsoll, Nathaniel Rathbun, Aaron Gilham, the Osborns, Philip Aurner, Michael Welliver, the Mumfords, De Garmo Jones, John B. Clark, Truman Bears, Jacob Hopkins, David Petty, David Knox, all of whom came in the early thirties.

The first frame tavern was built by Oliver Raymond in 1831. Preceding this, the log house owned by Clarke was the only tavern on Sturgis prairie. It was afterwards conducted by Allman. Like all the taverns of the times, it was the meeting place of all kinds of political and civic bodies. A story is told of Major Isaac J. Ullman, a very staunch Democrat, a well known political character of the county, who was called to preside at a Democratic convention at the tavern. Someone began reading a denunciatory set of resolutions concerning some Democratic action. Hardly had the preamble been finished when the irate presiding officer tapped for order, indignantly exclaiming: "I taught wen I accepted dis chair dis was a Temoratic convendshun, but I pelief it ish notings but twiggery, and shtay I vill not " ---- And stay he did not Major Ullman was a representative in the State Legislature, 1835 -- 1836.

Oliver Raymond was the first postmaster of Sturgis and like the other postmasters of St. Joseph county, kept the mail of the entire settlement in a candle-box.

Before the coming of the mills the settlers had many home made ways of making meal. The wife of Judge Sturgis told of preparing corn meal by rubbing the ears of corn on the bottom of a perforated tin pan, the meal was then moistened with water and baked on a board before the fire in the enormous fireplace.

The "pioneer mill" consisted of a hole in a block of wood or stump of a tree. It reduced the grain to meal by means of a pestle attached to a spring-pole.

Araba Heald in 1828 put up a "pepper mill" near the east end of White Pigeon prairie. With its double cranks, two persons would grind about a bushel of grain in an hour. Samuel Pratt, we are told, went to Cutler's to board in 1829 and a part of his board bill was paid by grinding half a bushel of shelled corn in Heald's mill every other day.

In 1828, Judge Luther Newton built a saw mill on Fawn River, then called Crooked Creek, and thereafter followed a long list of mill wrights who added so greatly to the prosperity of the county.



The St. Joseph river furnished power and transportation. In 1845 Governor Berry built a warehouse on piles over the river so that flat boats, steamers and arks could unload directly within the building without extra hauling. The warehouse, after the railroad came, was moved to the river bank and became a part of the store of Barry and Eacker, still later a part of the Hotel Harvey at Constantine.

Many stories of early Sturgis concern the Fourth of July celebrations: In 1835, with Elias B. Smith as orator of the day, the patriotic crowd drank the toast -- "Sturgis Prairie -- May her farmers grow wealthy by industry and her pure air preserve the red cheeks of her fair daughters."

In 1839, there seems to have been a most impressive program with the Hon. J. G. Wait as presiding officer and Hon. John S. Chipman an eloquent speaker. It was whispered that the "Hon. Black Chip", as he was called, became more brilliant with each successive toast and neither wit not drink were stinted. In 1852 Sturgis again celebrated and this time had General Isaac D. Toll as marshal of the day, and Hon. William L. Stoughton as orator. Tommy Jones, a noted fiddler, enlivened the program first with fiddle and then with drum. "Several soldiers of 1812 were present and two Revolutionary soldiers -- Araunah Hibbard of Sturgis and the Rev. Edward Evans of Constantine.




In this centennial year, 1930, Three Rivers is especially interested in the platting of two of the villages of 1830, Moab and St. Joseph, which are now within the city limits.

The first settlement in Moab (now third ward, Three Rivers) was made in 1829 by the Richerts. The village was platted July 28, 1830, by Christopher Shinnaman, with Neal McGaffy, justice of the peace, and J. W. Anderson, register of deeds. The village was to have included 138 acres. It was deeded to Shinnaman, May 21, 1830, by Abraham and Molly Richert, of Wayne County, Ohio. Its description, S1/2 of N. W. 1/4 of S. 19, T. 6 S, R. 11, locates it in the Swartz addition.

This modern land of Moab which lies south of the intersection of Constantine street with Broadway, was marked with a boulder and bronze tablet by the Abiel Fellows Chapter, Daughters American Revolution, in 1927.

The quaint old deed transferring the property to Christopher Shinnaman by the Richerts indirectly foreshadows something of the independent spirit of the women of Three Rivers, for "the said Molly Richert" adds a corollary to the deed in which she affirms: "I signed it myself, he didn't make me."

The platting of the village of St. Joseph (now second ward) occurred July 30, 1830. It was platted by George Buck and Jacob McInterfer. The village lots were to be 60 by 140 feet; the streets were Main and Madison, Water, Washington and Market and two streets were named respectively for the wives of the platters, Catherine and Martha. The proprietors made a gift of eight lots to be used for public purposes and they prayed the government to send a court house to glorify the village of St. Joseph. (Enemies claimed it was a Dutch gift with too high a price. Be this as it may, the prayer was not granted by the government.)

Concerning George Buck, the platter, his great grandson, Willard L. Huss has written: "In the spring of 1830, George Buck, his wife Martha and family of seven children, settled on the southern bank of the St. Joseph river, on the present site of the warehouse of the Fairbanks, Morse plant on Fourth Street. They had come from Newgarden, Columbiana county, Ohio, in wagons drawn by oxen, to Mottville. Then, because interested in developing the water power available in the St. Joseph, moved to the present site of Three Rivers.

"George Buck was born in 1792 in Pennsylvania one of six sons of Henry Buck, a soldier in the American Revolution, who had immigrated from England with his Irish wife to New York and moved later to Pennsylvania.



"George Buck was a soldier in the war of 1812, fighting in the battle of Chippewa, July 5, 1814, and the battle of Lundy's Lane, July 25, 1814. My grandfather, Lewis Buck, told a coincidence of his father's service in the war of 1812. After the battle of Lundy's Lane, George Buck rescued an American soldier who was floating in a stream. The soldier had a sabre wound across his forehead but was still alive. Years later a traveller with a deeply scarred face came to Buck's tavern and proved to be the man whom Mr. Buck had rescued.

"George Buck married Martha Irey, who was born near Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in 1798. She was a first cousin of John Brown, the famous Abolitionist.

"Martha Irey Buck was the granddaughter of Colonel Philip Irey, a colonel in the Hessian troops who fought for King George III of England in the American Revolution. Great grandmother Buck remembered as a young girl her grandfather taking his colonel's uniform from a great chest to show her. After the American Revolution Colonel Irey remained in America. They settled in West Virginia. For his services in the English army he received a grant from the English crown, but never claimed it.

"As a boy of ten years, with his older brother Lewis Buck, he helped to drive the cattle and sheep on the long trail to Michigan.

"George Buck built a two room log house on the present site of Fairbanks, Morse plant at Fourth street for his family and a log tavern, called Buck's Tavern by some -- others called it The Half Way House. It was the only hostelry between White Pigeon and Prairie Ronde. The first Lockport township convention met at Buck's tavern and great grandmother Buck, with the aid of a 17 year old boy, prepared and served dinner for the 73 guests."

In his reminiscences of the old tavern days, Mr. George W. Buck wrote: "There were three camps of Indians near Three Rivers. They would gather, dance all night and in the day time go about their business. We never locked our doors, the latchstring was always out. The Indians would come in, stir up the fire, smoke and when they wished to sleep would roll up in their blankets, say: "White people to bed" and when I awoke in the morning the Indians would be nowhere in sight. They would exchange venison, maple sugar or berries for anything we raised and were especially pleased to receive warm bread."

From the paper by Willard Huss, the story of the pioneer George Buck is continued: "The Indians before entering the tavern would sneak up to the watch dogs which were tied


outside and bind their mouths tight to save themselves from being bitten. Whenever the Indians came with firearms or other weapons, George Buck would put their guns away for the safety of all concerned. One time when George Buck was away, five Indians entered the tavern and compelled Martha Buck to dance for them to a tune with the words: " Yea, Yea, Yea, Wauee." Martha and her young children were very much frightened, the latter running off to hide, but Martha showed her fortitude and courage by acting as if she were enjoying herself.

"Buck's tavern, like all of the early taverns, sold liquors as well as food and lodging. All food which had to be purchased, as well as the liquor, was brought from Detroit - the long trip there and back required several weeks.

"Buck's ferry, owned by George Buck and sons, was operated from what is now Fourth Street to the third ward side. Fifty cents for a team and large double wagon, twenty-five cents for single rigs and ten cents for foot passengers. The ferry boat was fifty feet long and twenty wide and was towed across by rope and tackle. It was anchored at what is now the end of Buck street near Sheffield shops and connected with the west bank with a road that followed the old Pottawatomie trail, coming out back of the Three Rivers House."

Mr. Buck purchased 800 acres from the government and eventually owned about 1000 acres. On that which is now second ward be, with Jacob McInterfer, platted the village of St. Joseph. "He was one of the principals in the Lockport Canal Construction company which built a dam across the St. Joseph and dug the canals to develop water power. The company failed in the panic of 1837. George Buck salvaged the saw mill he had built on the present site of the wood shop of the Fairbanks, Morse plant. He was appointed the first postmaster of "Bucks" and elected the first Justice of the Peace."

Mr. Buck was interested in the Lockport bank. During the wild financial flurry of 1837, the banks were designated as of two kinds: "wild cat" and "red dog." If the notes were printed directly for a certain destination, having the name and place of the bank in the same colored ink, while the rest of the note was engraved, then the bank was a "wild cat"; but if the notes were left blank, to be filled in, where ever they might be cashed, with a stamp inked in red, then it was denominated a "red dog". Two of the latter banks were established in St. Joseph county - one at White Pigeon, which collapsed under state inspection; and the other bank in Lockport. A


"wild cat" bank was established, also, at Centerville with Columbia Lancaster as president in 1838.

The Farmer and Mercantile bank of Centerville was a "red dog". T. W. Langley published a warning against selling their notes at a discount and this bank went the way of the rest.

Mr. Buck was noted for a canny business instinct. A story is told of Mr. Buck by B. M. King, concerning an experience in the Lockport bank." Mr. Buck was notified that the bank examiners were on their way to the village. He went to Kalamazoo to borrow gold and silver deposits to be ready for them. He went with a one horse wagon and on returning with the kegs of deposits lost his way and had to remain in the forest over night. He slept in his wagon with the gold for a pillow but reached the bank ahead of the examiners." The Three Rivers bank passed the examination and the next day Mr. Buck returned the borrowed gold to Kalamazoo.

"George and Martha Buck were both Quakers and used the old form of Thee and Thou in their speech. George was a weaver by trade and could weave beautiful birds eye and figured linen of all kinds. They grew, prepared, spun and wove their own flax. Likewise, they spun, wove and made all their own woolen clothes. The women doing the spinning and George the weaving.

"Martha Irey Buck was well educated, very capable and industrious. Her grandchildren said she knew every tree, flower and herb that grew in the fields.

George and Martha had 13 children: Philip, Rachel, Lewis, Elizabeth, Martha, Hannah, George, Mary, Susan, Robert, Thomas and Charles. All reached mature years. Many of their descendents are residents of Three Rivers. They include the Mead, Huss, Robinson, Buck, Burman and other families.

"In later years Mr. Buck built a tavern of sawed lumber. It contained the first open stairway in Three Rivers. The tavern stood on what is now the corner of Fourth and Pleasant streets. Years later, after it long had stood unoccupied, it burned by 'chance' on the occasion of a Fireman's Tournment which was held in Three Rivers to demonstrate a new steam fire engine, that the village contemplated buying. The engine availed little for the old tavern burned to the ground.

"George Buck died in 1854 at the age of 64 years and his wife, Martha, in 1873, at the age of 75".

Concerning the second member in the company of platters of the village of St. Joseph, Jacob McInterfer, his daughter, the late Mrs. Sophia Salsig, is entitled to tell the first settler's story -- a story of the exodus


to Michigan, by Three Rivers' first family. It was written in 1900 by Mr. M. H. Bumphrey for the "Homecoming". Mrs. Salsig said: "Our family --mother, father and twelve children and three young men whom father brought along to help, came in 1828. Nine other families started with us but stopped along the line. We were three weeks coming from Wooster, Ohio. They had to chop and build corduroy roads through the black swamp. We were the first settlers in Three Rivers and there were no roads and no houses between here and White Pigeon. The Indian trail from Elkhart to Nottawasippi ran close by our house. Father built a block house and from it we could see Indians at almost any time as they passed along the trail. They were friendly because they had a good chief - Sagamon. He died in 1831. There were no mills, we had to go to Monroe for our supplies. I remember at one time we ran out of flour and bread, so we hollowed out a stump, pounded corn, sieved it and made corn bread. Mother baked her bread in a stick oven. When we arrived at the mouth of the Rocky, we stopped on what is now Constantine Street. Father drove under a big oak tree and said: 'Here is our house. It's a green house'. It is now the Felix Guettoff property.

"Father bought a birch canoe of the Indians and took mother across where the Portage empties into the St. Joseph. Father said: "What shall we call this place?" and mother replied: "I have heard nothing but three rivers ever since you entered the land. Call it Three Rivers." Later, with all the dignity of pioneer ceremony, the name was officially bestowed on the land between the rivers. The ceremony took place on top of the high sand bluff which eventually became block on South Main Street.

Mr. McInterfer brought everything necessary to stock the new home, including sheep and cows. We are told that on the road the cows were milked, the milk put in the churn and strapped on the wagon. At night the milk was often found to be already churned. Mrs. Salsig remembered the old French trading post kept by Cassoway and Lewis Gibson, which stood in the immediate vicinity of LaSalle Park, Third ward.

Three Rivers, A Centenarian

The land between the Rocky, Portage and St. Joseph Rivers was granted by the United States Government to the Honorable John H. Bowman, May 26, 1832.

"Be it remembered, that on this 28th day of November, 1836, personally appeared before me, as Justice of the Peace the subscriber, John H. Bowman, personally known to me,


proprietor of the property designated in the written plat, who acknowledges that he made the map or plat. That he hereby gives the land therein specified for public use and property of St. Joseph county, and desires to have the same recorded for the use therein specified.

Attested -- I. W. Coffenberry, Reg. of Deeds.

Cyrus Judson, Justice of Peace"

That which is now first ward was not platted as Three Rivers until 1836, but there was a small settlement here earlier. The rivalry of the two settlements, St. Joseph and Three Rivers, the one south of the St. Joseph river and the other north of the river, involved the platters and settlers in many a lively skirmish. In one instance it involved them in a lawsuit for trespass. It's funny old records are still on file at Centerville, but results of the lawsuit were not humorous for they remained as a root of bitterness long after the cause was forgotten by the followers of Buck, mine host of the Half-Way House, platter of St. Joseph, and John H. Bowman, the first State representative from the county and platter of the rival town.

The Hon. John H. Bowman is locally revered as the platter of the village on the north shore of the St. Joseph river which he called Three Rivers, November 28, 1836. In his own generation, he was noted as a Whig and Methodist. He was born in 1796 at Mt. Bethel, Northampton county, Pennsylvania. In 1817 he married Sophia Freese, who died in 1823. Their children were Wm. F., Jesse, Martha (married Brown) and Sally.

In 1826 he married Ann Millard, who died in 1838. Their children were John Q. , Andrew H. Sarah Ann, and Amelia (Mrs. Hill of Colon).

In 1832 Mr. Bowman received a land grant in St. Joheph county and in 1834 built the "first house of any pretensions" in Three Rivers. In 1833 he built the first grist mill and in 1836 platted Three Rivers, and purchased the Beadle mill, which was built in 1833; and in 1837 began the manufacture of flour under the firm name of Smith and Bowman. In 1838 he began building a flouring mill at Colon and the next year saw it in operation.

He was a major in the Pennsylvania State Militia. In 1837 was elected to Michigan State Legislature on the Whig ticket.

In 1844, Mr. Bowman married Mary Ann Raymond of Three Rivers and had one son, John Raymond Bowman. In 1845 Mr. Bowman sold his interest in Three Rivers and moved to Colon. He died while traveling in the south and is buried in the south.



During the years one part of the old plat, block 31, has been continuously in the minds of the people. It was used by Mr. Bowman for a cemetery and permission given for other families to use it for burial purposes.

The authentic history of the old Bowman cemetery, now the John H. Bowman Memorial Park, begins with May 26, 1832 when the United States government granted to John H. Bowman an estate, part of which, on November 28, 1836, he platted as Three Rivers. Of this plat, Block 31 was bounded by Seventh, Eighth and Main streets. Its earliest deed transfers it to David Comstock of New York City in 1836, and in 1837 Comstock redeeded to Mr. Bowman. That it was used as a cemetery as early as 1839 is proven by the descriptions of adjacent property, which refers to it as a grave yard. Old residents claim there remain at least one hundred who were buried in the cemetery, but there is a record of only the following : Mrs. Christian Bowman Winn, a daughter of a soldier of the American Revolution, for whom the D.A.R. placed a grass marker; Lewellyn and Luella Cowling, children of John Cowling; Charles Cross, son of Charles and Sarah Cross, who died about 1854 and is buried on the west side; some of the Fausts and the Grahams; Martha Jessup; Mrs. Martha Wetherbee King, born in 1807 and died in 1846; Polly Moore; T. H. Oliver, soldier of 1812; Mrs. Pauline Pulver, died about 1855; Wm. Riegel, buried near the north-east line; Peter Wildenson, buried in northeast corner. The Riverside Cemetery Associaton have on record the names of those who were removed from the Bowman cemetery to Riverside in the early sixties.

The Abiel Fellows Chapter, Daughter of the American Revolution, placed a sun dial in the cemetery in honor of "A civic benefactor, John H. Bowman, and the pioneer dead who for years have rested in the old burying ground 'unwept, unhonored and unsung'." The sun dial was presented by the Chapter Regent, Dr. Blanche M. Haines, and accepted for the city by Mayor Cole, May 15, 1915.

A letter from Dr. J. J. Brown, grandson and one of the John H. Bowman heirs, assured the D.A.R. that as long as the property technically remained a cemetery it was the property of the City of Three Rivers; should it be vacated by act if legislature, it would revert to the Bowman heirs. In the name of the Bowman heirs, Dr. Brown endorsed the action of the city in making use of the cemetery as a memorial park and asked that in return that the city erect a suitable monument to John H. Bowman.

In her address during the ceremonies of the day of dedication, the chapter historian pleaded that a suitable marker be


erected in honor of the life of John H. Bowman, and said in part: "To be surrounded by the memorials of men who 'gladly live', 'who lay them down with a will', is to have continuously present a reminder of the unbroken life of the race, its unity, its far reaching brotherhood.

"It is a school boy's right to read the story of a nation's history --its courage in war, its activities in peace; They should be brought to his consciousness by memorials that stand for all that is fine and is truly great. It is his right to learn the sequence, the relationship of the present and the past, to have as a spur to good deeds and self respect that which comes to an individual who consciously bears a good name, who knows the part the people of his community have played in the development of the nation.

"It is every child's right to have such patriotic training that as an American citizen he will give - gladly give - respect when and where respect is due".

Three Rivers School Library

To Three Rivers the old "minute" book of the first public school is a precious legacy. In 1882 it was in the possession of the Prutzman family. It is hoped that eventually it may be returned to the public archives. The following discription and excerpts were published by G. A. B. Cooke in the Tribune of June, 1882:

"The book consists of sixteen sheets of heavy ruled foolscap, stitched with strong twine and only seven pages utilized." The first entry reads:

Record of School district No. 1, in Buck's township, St. Joseph County, State of Michigan. Said school district No. 1 includes sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and so much of 10, 17 and 18 as lies north of St. Joseph river and east of Rocky river and bounded west by Portage river.

The first meeting of the Board of Education was held July 1, 1837, of which the following proceedings are recorded:

At the organization of school district No. 1 Present: Burrows Moore, Philip Hoffman, John Smith, Stephen Moore, Abram Bokoyan, Abram Prutzman, Thomas Millard, Joseph Millard and Joseph Sterling - Philip Hoffman chosen moderator. He took his seat and chose Joseph Sterling director and Thomas Millard assessor. Motion was made by John Smith to raise $100.00 to build a school house and it carried unanimously.

On July 15th, the board resolved: "To purchase a site for the schoolhouse on the northwest corner of John Bowman's lot adjoining the "cemetery", also that the school be 24X30 and at a height of 10 feet. Said house to be completed the


1st day of December 1837." At this meeting occurs a new name on the minutes that of C. Erway.

A "yearly meeting" was inaugurated on October 21, 1837 at which "John Bowman was elected moderator; Joseph Sterling director and Thomas Millard assessor. They were voted one dollar per day for time spent in pursuing their duries. They further voted that "if any one could be found at a resonable price to work, that the studding in the school building should be laid in mortar".

A list of the children between the ages of five and seventeen who would attend the school is given as: Pauline, Zeraiah, Leonard and Almire Osgood; William and Sterling Bristol; John W. George; Christian P. and Susan Hoffman; Roxy Jane, Emmet and Samanthy Erway; George and Levi Bristol; Noe and Hiram Everts; Susannah, Richard, Charity and Benjamin Wetherby; Oliver, Joseph, James and Sarah Wetherby; Juliann, Jefferson, Horace, Amanda, Elizabeth and Geroge Salsig; Daniel P., and John C. Anderson; Ambrose, Edward and Robert Moore, Philip Smith; Ginnett Parker; Amanda Detterick; Amelia and Joseph Bowman; forty six in all.

In October of 1838, it was "voted to have four months school by a qualified teacher and to raise $50 in addition to its apportionment for the school teacher's support."

New names for the second year were: Orval and Allmon Fellows; Timothy Wilson; Mariah Snow; Eliza Ann, Hiram, Chancy and Benjamin Farley; Josiah Farley; Arastice and Suffrona Strong; Sarah Glass.

It was not until 1840 that the school board voted to move the school to block four, lot one on East street. In the same year the question was reconsidered and the schoolhouse was "set" in the public square.

Another record in the minute book is most interesting in the eyes of library folk: "At a town meeting October 1, 1837, with H. Bristol assessor, it was voted that five dollars be raised to purchase books for a library, and that the district school board be authorized to select and purchase said books. That the said district raise a sum sufficient to purchase a suitable case. That said library he kept in the school house and that John H. Bowman be librarian.

In 1839 with Dr. E. A. Egery as moderator, Emmor Millard, director and A. C. Prutzman assessor, another $5.00 was voted for books, with A. C. Prutzman, librarian, he having the privilege of keeping the "Library" at his home. On turning to the itemized financial statement, we find "said suitable library case" listed at six dollars.



At list of books in the old minute book may be the text books recommended for study by the school board, but it is also doubtless, the list purchased for the first library and so carefully preserved in "said suitable case": Webster's dictionary, Cobb's dictionary, Walker's dictionary, Kirkham's grammar, Murry's grammar, Cobb's spelling book, Parley's georgraphy, Onlies georgraphy, Dabold's arithmetic, Pike's arithmetic, Bennett's arithmetic, Colburn's arithmetic. The National reader, The English reader, Young's reader.

Though there is space for the names of only a few of the earliest pioneers, at least those should be recorded of the little coterie who organized the First Presbyterian Church and gave a cultural impetus to the Three Rivers settlement: Hon. E. S. Moore, the Prutzmans, the Kelseys, the Millards, the Rev. Ogden and their associates to whom special tribute is paid in a later chapter.


To genealogists, at least, the most important event of the "fifties" is the census record taken in 1850.

Heads of Families, Lockport Township,
St. Joseph Co., Michigan
Census of 1850---Vol. 9

                       Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

 1      Chas. Boyer/36/Penn./777


 2      Calvin H. Starr/38/New York

         Harriet/28/New York

 3      Harry Cady/40/New York


 4      Ebenezer White/34/Penn.


 5      Samuel Cronmiller/36/Penn.

 6      George Stone/44/ England

         Mary Jane/37/New York

         Pliney S. Bradbury/23/Ohio

 7      Robert Alexander/43/Ireland

         Christiana/44/New York

         Jennett Stuart/73/Scotland

 8      Silas D. Ricardson/33/New Hampshire

         Lura M./25/Vermon

 9      Lucy Dexter/59/Conn./778



                        Name/Age/Place of Birth/ Page

10   Samuel W. Platt/40/Ohio/778                        


11   Elias W. Talbott/29/Mass.

       Amanda/19/New York

       John H. Clewes/23/Virginia

       Andrew Deveran/26/ Ireland

12   Lenuel S. Hart/32/New York

       Elizabeth Hart/27/New York

       Levi Culver/33/Conn.

13   Henry W. Thompson/45/Penn.

       Mahala F./36/New York

14   Marmaduke Southwick/50/Mass.

15   Othmie Tripp/47/Maine

       Anna E./41/ New Brunswick

       Jesse Kemp/26/New York

       L. Jane/22/New Brunswick

16   Ezekiiae B. Turner/25/Vermont

       Helen E./20/New York

17   Charles Dodge/50/New York

       Nancy/51/New York

       Cornelia Vantafflin/21/New York

18   Alexander Stewart/37/New York

       Maria/30/New York

       David Knapp/20/New York

19   Chas. P. Jacobs/54/Michigan

       Eliza P./44/New York

20   Richmond E. Case/22/New York

       Laura A./24/New York

       Maria Hewings/60/New Hampshire

21   Jane Reed/36/Ohio

22   Washington Weld/35/New Jersey

       Maria/34/New York

23   James M. Gilkinson/62/New York


24   Myers Vincent/45/Virginia

       Margaret/36/New York

25   Joseph Gray/25/New York


26  Timothy E. Fletcher/43/ Vermont




                       Name/ Age/ Place of Birth/ Page

27    William H. Veeder/47/New York

        Catherine/45/New York

28    Thomas R. Shaffer/35/New York


29   George E. Guersney/30/England

       Angeline/28/New York

30   J. Eastman Johnson/44/New York

       Charity/39/New Hampshire

31   William Dermott/47/Conn.

        Sarah/46/New York

        Robert Parker/23/New York

        Eli Hale/26/Michigan

32    Henry Garns/35/New York


33    Jefferson Hill/45/(unknown)

34    Luther Ellis/43/New York

        Mary Anne/27/Vermont

35    Daniel Carr/42/ New York

36    Samuel Hale/31/New York             

        Laura/30/New York

37    Edmund C. White/38/New York

        Alvina/40/New York

38    Harriet Gepler(Kepler?)/29/Conn.

39    Abram Amuson/31/New York


40    Peter Ruttedge/40/Penn.


41    John Smith/26/Ireland

        Sally/27/New York/781

42    Albion B. Smith/19/New York

43    John McKie/58/New York/782

        Jane/56/New York

44    William Granger/43/New York


45     William Duncan/52/England


46     Peter Pugh/40/England




47     Sarah Westcott/40/England

48     Solomon Cummings/64/England


49     George Hardy/40/New York


50     Harrison Benson/26/Vermont

         Rachael/26/New York/783

         David Thimmel/29/New York

51     John F. Arney/34/New York

52     Benjamin Noe/60/Vermont

         Elizabeth/35/New Jersey

53     John Arney/64/Ohio


54     Jacob Feegles/23/New Hampshire


55     Elias Sands/38/Ohio

         Mercy/26/New York

56     Samuel Buck/45/Penn.

         Sarah J./29/Ohio

57     Alson Richards/50/Conn.


58     George Buck/58/Penn./783


59     Varney Jones/28/Ohio/784

         Charlotte/18/New York

60     Miles Jones/35/New York

         Jannette/27/New York

61     John C. Jackson/39/England

         Alta/35/New York

62     Charles B. Fitch/66/Conn.


63     Samuel A. Fitch/39/Ohio


64     Thomas H. Fitch/45/Conn.


65     William Donance/23/New York

         William Blue/22/Ohio

         John Berry/19/Ohio

         Richard Wetherbee/21/Ohio

         Woodward Niles/19/New York



                      Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

66    Elijah Williamson/35/Penn.

        Mahala/35/New York

67    Jacob Williamson/40/Penn.

        Loisa/35/New York

68    James Crawford/26/Ohio

69    Frederick Daniels/29/New York

        Caroline/22/New York

        William Pearson/22/Indiana

        William Anton/24/New York

70    Joy H. Chapin/40/New York


        Wm. W. Jones/24/New York

        Joseph C. Johnson/19/New York

71    James B. Little/28/New York

        Eunice C./19/Ohio

72    Sanford Freeland/26/New York

        Susan/20/New Jersey

73    John K. Wooley/38/New Jersey/785

        Fanny M./33/New Jersey/785

74    Robert Drake/31/Penn.

        Elizabeth/27/New Jersey

75     Cornelius Ennis/52/New Jersey/786

        Ann/52/New Jersey

76    Josiah Woolf/31/Penn.

        Mary Ann/29/New York

77    Christopher Austin/38/New York

        Sophrona/35/New York

78    Daniel H. Johnson/39/Maine

        Magdola/33/New York

79    Dwight Stebbins/34/New York

        Rosina/35/New York

80    Daniel F. Wolf/28/Penn.

        Minerva/19/New York

81    John Wolf/56/Penn.


82    George Tanney/37/New York

        Catherine/34/New York

         Horace Knapp/23/Vermont

83     Lewis Miller/46/Vermont/787



                       Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

83     Mary Ann/34/Penn.

         Cuyler Stebbins/28/New York

         Benjamin F. Stokes/24/Penn.

84     William Fulkerson/27/Ohio


85     Lewis White/49/New York


86     David H. Anton/32/New York

         Maria E./21/New York

87     James Crague/54/Ireland


88     George Spencer/44/New York/787

         Atalanta/42/New York

89    John Baum/39/Penn./788

        Lydia Jane/28/New York

90    William Rider/46/New York

         Rachael/44/New York

91     George Spencer/28/New York

         Keziah/23/New York

        Sally Sands/52/Vermont

92    Levi G. Smith/39/New York

        Hearty/35/New York

93    Jermiah H. Gardiner/32/New York

        Ann/26/New York

94    William Armitage/59/England


95    Charles H. Thomes/45/Switzerland

        Charlotte Adolphine/31/Switzerland

        Frederick Thiebaud/17/Switzerland

96    James F. Thomes/38/Switzerland/789

        Eleanor/25/New York

97    Lewis F. Thomes/44/Switzerland


        Charles F. Thomes/69/Switzerland


98    William Hutchinson/45/Penn.

99    Henry Caul/40/Penn.


100  Thomas B. Millard/38/Penn.



                         Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

100    Mary Loisa/29/Penn.

101    Erastus Thompson/29/New York

          Susan/20/New York

102    Solomon Cummings/28/New York/790

          Nancy/25/New York

103    Daniel Stewart/39/New York

          Mary/37/New York

104    Samuel Westcott/68/New York/790

          Sally/58/New York

105    William H. McClerg/30/Penn.


106    Daniel Francisco/32/New York

          Deborah Anne/21/New York

107    John Clubine/54/New York


108    Barber Gray/38/New York

          Sarah/31/New York

109    Joseph B. Millard/35/Penn./791


110    Henry Hicks/25/New York

          Jennett/19/New York

111    Jefferson Salsig/25/Penn.

          Ruth Ann/21/New York

112    William McKey/48/Penn.


113     Orin Hicks/33/New York

           Sophia/35/New York

114     Bruden Hicks/62/Rhode Island

           Betsey/45/New York

115     Silas Spaulding/57/Vermont


116     Jacob Myers/48/Penn./792

           Anna Maria/17/Penn.

           Susan Millard/30/Penn.

117      Elisha Millard/35/Penn.

            Julia Ann/30/Penn.

118      Myron Luce/29/New York

             Nancy/23/New York

119       Edward S. Moore/45/New Jersey/792



                         Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

119      Mary P./45/Penn.

            Marie Kepler/

120      James Clubine/31/Penn.


121      Isaac Miller/41/Penn.


122      Sterling F. Harding/30/Penn./793

            Abigail/22/New York

123      Leonard V. Rich/30/New York


124      James E. Kelsey/34/New York

            Maria Louisa/27/Conn.

125      Stephen Kelsey/27/New York

            Maria P./25/Penn.

126      Robert Crosette/26/New York

            Clara A./24/Penn.

127      Joseph Hiles/36/Penn.


128      Edward Egrey/40/Vermont

            Amelia/24/New York

            Orange Haywood/66/Vermont

129      Lewis Quaco/36/Penn.

            Mary A./34/Penn.

130      David S. Hale/32/New York

            Mary Ann/25/Penn.

131      Jacob Rumsey/24/New York

            Sarah Ann/25/New York

132      Lewis Salsig/28/Penn.


133      Stephen Hile/33/Penn./794


134      Reuben Fairman/56/Mass.

            Phebe Ann/41/New York

135      James S. Richards/27/Penn./794


136      Philip Lantz/40/Penn.


137      Thomas Twedia/31/Ireland

             Sarah Jane/30/New York



                                 Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

138     Peter Shrom/35/Penn.


139     Henry L. Spencer/32/New York

           Rebecca/32/New York

140     Henry Blaumen/40/Penn.


141     Hugh Morton/26/Scotland


142     William Brokaw/26/Penn.


143     John Young/40/Penn./795

           Harriet/33/New York

           John Holton/25/New York

144     Henry Jewell/31/New York


145     Samuel Graham/36/Penn.


146     Thomas T. Laird/50/Penn.

            Ann C./46/New York

            Alex McNair/30/New York

            Elizabeth McNair/76/New York

            John Houts/19/New York

147      W. D. Pettit/36/New York

             C. M./33/New York

148       Stephen P. Choate/42/Vermont

             Susan Ann/23/New York

149       Samuel M. Bear/32/New York/795

              Eleanora/25/New York

150        Francis Rumsey/25/New York/796

              Julia Ann/23/Penn.

              Luther Flood/21/Canada

151        Albert H. Irway/37/New York

              Abigail Jane/32/Penn.

152        George Troy/25/Penn.


153        George W. Milton/25/New York

               Elizabeth/ 21/New York

               Bowman Hoffman/19/Penn.

               Sylvester Troy/21/Penn.



                     Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

154        John H. Bowman/54/Penn.

              Amelia R./18/Penn.

155        George Gillispie/28/Penn.


156        John B. Ogden/28/New Jersey

              Charity G./27/New Jersey

157        Isaiah Reed/54/New Jersey

              Sarah E./52/Penn.

              William Vemhom/25/New York

               E. B. Hale/26/New York

               Joseph E. Bowman/16/Penn.

158        Charles A. Klady/25/New York

              Mary/20/New York

159        Armitage G. Moore/23/Penn./797

              Amanda F./24/Penn.

160        Abram C. Prutzman/36/Penn.

              Mary L./33/Penn.

161        Sarah Hamilton/33/Ohio

162        John W. Fry/45/New York

              Margaret/37/New York

163        Philip H. Hoffman/50/Penn.


164        Philip Jones/50/New York

              Almira B./47/New York

165        E. Wellington/26/New York

              Maria/24/New York

166        George H. Irway/31/New York/798

              Mariett/17/New York

167        Hiram Gaskins/26/Penn.


              John Gaskins/70/Penn.

168        William H. Smith/36/Penn.

               Margaret Ann/17/New York

169         Daniel Arney/30/Penn.

               Beulah/23/New York

170         Asaph Spencer/61/Conn.


171         Herman H. Cole/31/New York

               Emeline/30/New York


                          ST. JOSEPH IN HOMESPUN                                                              


                       Name/Age/ Place of Birth/Page

172       Ezra Cole/50/New York

             Elizabeth/50/New York

173       Norman A. Cole/29/New York

             Jane/28/New York

174       Peter H. Culver/39/New York

             Margaret/27/New York

175       Samuel Conn/40/New York

             Orsafilla/35/New York

176        Z. B. Ruggles/31/Penn.


177        Warren Collins/43/New York/798

              Lucy L./35/New York

              Moses Clarke/35/New York/799

178        Oliver Bates/23/New York

              Lorna/24/New York

179        Maliel Dinger/27/Penn.


180        Joseph Sterling/46/New York


181        Nelson Creveling/33/Penn.


182        Henry Snyder/44/Penn.


183        John McMurtrie/20/Penn.

184        Roswell Wing/35/New York


185        Lewis McMurtrie/27/Penn./800


186        Bathrick Stower/41/New York

              Marcia K./42/New York

187        Charles McNair/42/Penn.

188        Abner Fordham/43/Vermont


189        John B. Devine/28/Penn.


190        Benjamin Ogden/52/New Jersey

              Emily/50/New Jersey

191        Gilbert D. Taylor/51/New Jersey




                       Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

191       Lydia/49/New Jersey

            Elisha Canfield/23/New Jersey

192      Joseph Stout/35/Penn.


193      Samuel Willard/ 65/Penn./801

            Frances/53/New Hampshire

194      Samuel Weaver/33/Penn.


195      William H. Mather/28/Conn.

             Clarrissa/26/New York

             Betsy Mather/50/New York

196       Alfred B. Moore/29/Penn.


197       Samuel Barnhart/38/New Jersey


198       Amos King/31/Canada


199       John M. Leland/43/Penn.


200       John M. Dougherty/23/New York


201       Joseph Woolf/22/Penn.

             Laura/18/New York

202       Jonas Fisher/45/Penn./802


203       Leonard Fisher/42/Penn.


             Valentine Sugar/25/Penn.

204       Jacob T. Cline/54/New Jersey

             Elizabeth/51/New Jersey

205       George Evart/50/Penn.


206       Samuel Fisher/40/Penn.

207       Polly Budman/50/Penn./802

208       Andrew Good/52/Penn.


209       George Leland/81/Penn./803


             Hannah Gifford/41/Penn.

                            ST. JOSEPH IN HOMESPUN                                                             

                         Name/Age/Place of Birth/Page

210       Daniel Antis/56/Penn.


211       Miles Randall/35/Vermont

             Harriet A./24/New York

212       Thomas Youngs/38/New York


213       Somner Rawson/26/New York

             Marilla/18/New York

214       Norman Rawson/56/New York

             Elizabeth/56/New York

215       Isaac Major/55/New York

             Sarah/50/New York

216       William Gilchrist/57/New York/804

             Mary/41/New York

217       William Major/54/New York

             Margaret S./47/New York

218       Eleanor Pugh/35/New York

The foregoing is copied from a certified copy made by Lolita Connely for the Three Rivers Public Library in 1929.

The names of children, born before 1850, belongs to these families may be obtained from the Three Rivers Library, or by writing to the Census Bureau, Washington. In writing for the information state volume and page.

In every instance, the "age" given in the census of 1850 should be checked by other records before accepting it as authentic.