William Leavy Part Seven


With Some Notice of Many Prominent Citizens and Its
Institutions of Education and Religion


Continued from the July [1943] Register

Source: Register, Kentucky State Historical Society, Volume 41, Number 137, October 1943, pages 310-346. This is the seventh of eight Register articles containing a transcription of a photocopy of the original William Leavy manuscript located in Special Collections, Transylvania University, Lexington, Fayette, Kentucky. 

NOTE: Page numbers and headings of the manuscript appear in parentheses as in original copy. Pages 1-23 are in Part 1. Pages 24 - 37 are in Part Two., 38 - 62 in Part Three, 63-82 in Part Four, 83-113 in Part Five, 114-123 in Part Six, 124-163 in Part Seven, and 164-208 in Part Eight.

The hon. John Fowler
was an early active and distinguished citizen and a resident of Lexington from his first removal to the State. He was jointly with the hon. Humphrey Marshall the Kentucky Members of the Virginia Convention of 1789 which ratified the present constitution of the United States, and represented for several years this District as a Member of Congress. He served as Postmaster for some years before his death in Lexington in the year ____. It is enough to name George Nicholas, John Breckinridge, and Henry Clay all from Virginia to remind us of the parts they acted in the early history of our State, of their talents and virtues which make us proud of their memory. Mr. Clay's distinguished services for 50 years in the councils of the Nation are a National property.—Col. Nicholas's residence a large brick building built shortly before the commencement of this century occupied the spot where the Sayre Female Institute now stands, and the lots, on the next street back Walnut Street now all built on were his pastures in one of which was a small brick enclosure for the burial ground. Of Col. Nicholas' large family only two survive—Judge Saml. S. Nicholas of Louisville who at an advanced age has been giving re___ly the fruits of his vigorous & mature intellect to the public in a series of Essays on Constitutional Law and Jurisprudence.

Mr. Breckinridge died at his residence of Cabell's Dale in this county in Decr. 1806.

Thomas Lewis a wealthy and respectable citizen from Virginia early settled on his farm within three miles from Lexington on the Town Fork of Elkhorn. He was elected one of the Members of the State Convention of 1792 which formed the first constitution. He left his children independent & highly respectable citizens several of whom were my fellow students in College some of whom yet survive.

Capt. Andrew Gatewood my grandfather removed from Essex county, Virginia to his farm 2 miles from Lexington on the waters of Wolf Run a branch of town fork in the year 1784, adjoining to Col. John Campbell.

Henry Payne father of the late Henry C. Payne and his brother Edward (the father of Danl M. Payne Esquire, decd.) early settlers on their farms in the vicinity on the waters of Town Fork, were among the most wealthy and influential of our early citizens.

Richard Allen senr. father of John Allen decd. John Kay father of Robt. Kay decd. John Higbee of New Jerey who established in the year 1785 the first mill for grinding flour in Kentucky on his farm on South Elkhorn 6 miles from town on the Curd's or Harrodsburgh Road—Geo S. Smith a baptist minister was one of the members of the State Convention of 1792 from Fayette County though residing in a part of the county now called Jessamine—

Revd. Joseph & Lewis Craig eminent Baptist ministers the former the father of our late fellow citizen Elijah W. Craig Richd. Higgins senr. decd. and Price Curd decd. Wm. Gist senr. decd. all resided on the Curd's and Clay's mill roads, were all well known honourable and influential citizens. J. Keen at the Manchester spring farm & his sons John & Sanford Keen, decd.

In other vicinities of our county themselves and their families distinguished and in the highest estimation were Capt. John McDowell decd. Major James McDowell, Col. Roger Quarles decd., Dr. Walker Warfield, Capt. John Richardson and his sons all now decd. Genls. William & Robert S. Russell and their families, Rev. Ambrose Dudley and his sons many of whom in very advanced years are yet alive. Mr. Jos. Rodgers and his sons, at least five of whom are yet alive, have lived considerably beyond the years alloted to human existence in the enjoyment of a large share of mental physical health the fruits of a fine constitution and prudential living.

Saml. Blair
eminent for his virtues & the father of Judge Wm. W. Blair decd., Capt. Wm. Allen, 1 mile near Lexn. Geotown road—John & David Bell—Joshua Brown, John McNair, Walter Carr senr. and his family particularly his son Charles Carr of the neighborhood of Walnut Hill a most active citizen in the greater part of a life which has extended to the remarkable period of nearly a century—John Hart senr. decd. Wm. Todhunter father of Parker E. Todhunter decd. Rev. Robert MarshallJohn M.C. Irwin, Rev. Robert Stuart decd. the hon. Wm. Rodes decd., Edmund & Waller Bullock decd. both distinguished citizens Majr. Wm. Davenport decd. Waller Overton decd., George Hunt from New Jersey who had a large family all of whom are now deceased except one—his sons were men of reading and intelligence, esteemed in their Professions and callings. Saml. R. co-editor with Wm. Worsley in the Lexington Reporter and lived a short time with my father; John W. who never married left his estate to Centre College he was a fellow student and possessed an uncommon share of intelligence and his younger brother Dabney distinguished as a Judge of the Criminal Court of New Orleans. Capt. I. Wallace, Robt. Boggs, Wm. Hayes, senr. decd., Majr. W. Ellis, Richd. Chiles, John Stark, Wm. and Edwd. Darnaby, Capt. Wm. Smith, Col. Calmes, John Parker, Esqr. from Pennsylvania father of John Parker, Jr., esqr., Elijah Cartmell, Lewis Turner, father of Hon. Fielding, L. Turner, decd. Peter Gatewood decd. a man of family died a few years since an esteemed elder in the Presbyterian church. Danl. Bryan of this County & of Jessamine father of Lewis, Jos. & Thos. who survive him and of Saml. & Wm. decd.

Robert Harrison of North Elkhorn decd., Col. R. Innes and his brother _______ Innes, father of John, Capt. John Hurst & his son James—Capt. Benjamin Berry—Newbold Crockett, the Nutters of several families honest men and excellent farmers, and the Cromwells, and the Headleys alike remarkable, Majr. Mathews Flournoy a Politician of talents and note, and other branches of the same family, John H., Wlillm. R., Geo. W., Chas. Cosby, Gabl., Morton Farmers Deputy Sheriffs and men of active business many years. David Bryan, father of Genl. Wm., Abrm. Bowman senr. son of Col. Abraham B. is now over 80 years of age.

These Farmers and Gentlemen though now nearly all removed by death were nearly all personally known to me and are remembered as forming the pillars of society of their day.

Among the early Merchants and citizens of Lexington nearly all of whom were known to me are the following and they are placed in order as near as I am able acording to date—Peter January Senr., Alexr. Parker—See page 8—Genl. James Wilkinson—from Philadelphia John Coburn & Gordon his partner—Robt. Barr, Robert Parker, died about the commencement of the century his 4 sons were my fellow students in College all now decd. Esqr. John Parker Sr. of Parker's mill his brother, Both of Pennsylvania—Majr. Alexander Parker also of Penna. who was in various ways during many years a most valuable and public spirited citizen also his brother James who died early. Majr. Parker's son Maj. Richard B. Parker a fellow student for many years. William Morton a wealthy and highly respected Merchant aided much in building the Episcopal Church, and bequeathed a legacy to the Trustees of the town founding the 1st City Public School. Patrick McCullough a single man from Ireland was one of the first & most successful merchants of Lexington William Leavy, Carlisle, Pa. & Ireland came to Lexington in 1788 as did George Anderson,—Carlisle, Pa. father of Thos. James Geo. W. & John all decd. came also the same year—Robt. Holmes an esteemed citizen father in law of Richd. Chinn Esqr. decd. and about the 1st of the century built the brick dwelling & shop north east corner Broadway & Short St. now standing. Charles Wilkins from Pa. eminently valuable and public spirited citizen for many years our city clerk yet survives at an advanced age. Robert Barr from Philada. mercht. also farmer died about 1800 leaving a large property on round the square in which he carried on his business part of which went to relations in his native country the remainder to Lewis Gar residence 1 mile from town on Limestone road a 2 story brick building

situated a little to the north west of the spacious & elegant edifice erected by his son in law Dr. Elisha Warfield where his esteemed widow lived till her decease—now the property of Mr. Tallbot. George Trotter Senr., from Staunton, Virginia & brother of Col. James and his sons, James, Preston, Franklin & Alex. S.

John Jordan Junr. from Philada. very enterprising but unsuccessful—built Jordan's Row E. side Court house Square one of Mr. Jordan's clerks Curtis Field Esq. lately decd. at an advanced age became a wealthy and very successful merchant in Richmond. John A. Deitz also of Natches m'et afterwards Seitz & Lauman. Majr. James Morrison—who made the large bequest to the endowment of Transylvania University, of $50,000 and a residuary legacy—

Mr. Saml. Downing from Moody & Downing the father of Josiah & Richd. the latter a fellow student of mine yet survives.

James Weir; from Ireland & his nephews Henry & James. Mr. W. left a handsome property after paying large losses by endorsement for Mr. Sanders beside his store he carried on in town a Rope walk & bagging factory and on the south Elkhorn in Woodford county a large cotton factory employing may hands.

Andrew Holmes (Duncan & Holmes) from Carlisle died in the year 1805-6 I remember him as an early friend of my father and as giving to the Lexington Library in its early foundation a copy of the Encyclopedia Brittanica Dobson edition.

Thomas Wallace from Ireland for many years an esteemed citizen & merchant removed to Shelby County and died there at an advanced age.

Joseph Hudson & Jos. H. Hervey from Pena. an esteemed member of the Presbn. ch. residing with his amiable family here for many years.

Thomas January carried on also a number of years a Manufactory of Rope. He was a useful citizen a public spirited and benevolent man.

Thos. Hart Jr. mercht. also Exporter of Produce he was a very active citizen during his short career he died in 1809 & his brothers & after Hart & Bartlet Mr. B. married a daughter of Judge Nicholas removed. to N.O. & died there. Capt. Nathl. G.S. Hart & brother John, in various building occupations.

Mr. Hart was succeeded in business for a few years by his sons Thomas & Robt. who carried on also a Bagging factory corner of Maxwell St. & Broadway.

Abner Le Grand (son in law of Wm. Morton) failed in business—Subsequently an auction & Commission Mercht.

Robert A. Gatewood built his storehouse & dwelling on next lot to my father in 1807 & there carried on his business afterwards Gatewood & Smith—Martin Smith, till a short period before his death which occurred in the year 1823.

John D. Snead a Mercht. of business talents son in law of John Postlethwait & removed to Louisville, where he died after a successful career from Penna. Mercht. & a United States Contractor at different periods.

Abraham L. Barton Elijah W. Craig & afterwards partners for a season Mr. C. carried on business on Main St. for a short period & sold out to Dr. James Maccoun & afterwards James & David Maccoun who transacted a very large wholesale business as well as ret—& carried on during a portion of the time a separate large—Maj. John Tilford—& Tilford & Trotter—Tillford, Scott & Trotter & Tilford & Capt. William Anderson Maj. T. lost largely in a Steam boat property but subsequently recovered and leaving the mercantile business to the Presidency of the Northern Bank which office he filled acceptably to the Stockholders and the public from its formation in 1835 to his death in the year 1851—Anderson & Morrow (Mr. M. from Pittsburgh) & Ellis & Morrow had stores in the same vicinity for several years.

Insert under the Harts Lewis Sanders, successor to McCullough in Merchandise—son in law of Nicholas and of boundless enterprise & speculator established the Fayette Cotton Factory, at Sand 3 miles from town built 3 or 4 large 3 story stores and dwelling on his property between Mill St. & Broadway. 1805—bought farms & built largely at —failed with a crash—The factory by other proprietors in late years especially by Messrs. Edwd. Oldham, Robt. S. Todd, Thos. He____way & by Isaac W. Scott has been since, con____ with a large farm, most successfully on mainly through the skill & management of Mr. E. Oldham. David Dodge from Pena. about 1802 or 3 an extensive manufacturer had his hemp house on High St. & Rope walk the spot occupied by the residence extending back to

Transylvania, and two or three only of his large family survive. Mr. Payne was also a much esteemed citizen and was on several occasions a member of the State Legislature. He was the father of Col. Henry G. Payne, decd. & Edward Payne, brother of Henry, settled in the same neighborhood also a much esteemed citizen, and was one of the delegates elected from Fayette County to the State convention of 1785 which met in Harrodsburgh, to take such preliminary steps as should be thought best for the forming Kentucky into a separate State. In this section of the county were also the elder Mr. Keen, father of Oliver, John, and Sanford, and Mr. Lewis Turner, father of the honr. Judge Fielding L. Turner. Capt. Nathl. Ashby was an early & much esteemed settler. He was the father of Dr. M.Q. Ashby & Mrs. Jas. B. January & Mrs. Levi L. Todd. His land adjoined the Paynes on the Woodford Road; John Steele (of Steele's Run) son in law of Col. Robert Patterson, and long a citizen also of Lexington and then partner in the large hatting business of Patterson Bain. He is lately decd. over 83 years of age, Capt. William Allen a highly esteemed citizen, father-in-law of Mr. Jouett, the Portrait Painter, within 2 miles of Lexington on the Georgetown road, and the head waters of Cane Run—Mr. John Bell, Major James & Col. John McDowell, Col. Roger Quarles and Dr. Walter Warfield—cane run.

On the South west may again be named William Gist, Richard Higgins, Price Curd who was one time the County Surveyor and Robert Kay. These were all heads of families and useful and valuable man.

On North Elkhorn were the brothers Genl. William and Genl. Robert S. Russell, Captn. John Richardson Esqr afterwards a Sheriff of the County. Gwin R. Tompkins who was also Sheriff of the County. Robert C. Harrison, the honl. John Breckinridge, Samuel Merrideth, Cols. John & Robt. Innes, Rev. Ambrose Dudley from Virga. and his large, influential and respectable family the five or six venerable survivors of which average over 80 years of age.—Joseph Rogers Senr. & his large family.—

Capt. John Hurst and his son James, the family of Nutters & of Cromwell. Major Matthew Flournoy, a politician of talents and of note, and other branches of the same family, he was elected a Senator to the State Legislature. Capt. Newbold Crockett, Daniel & William Cooper, Capt. Benjamin Berry, Abm. Bowman senr. eldest son of Col. A.B. who survives at the age of 83 and himself the father of a large family. Daniel Bryan, who also had a paper mill, father of Lewis, Josh., Wm., Thos., and Sam well known and wealthy citizens all men of family. Wm. Morton, whom I knew not, the father of a large family of active business men—as sheriffs, deputy sheriffs, manufacturers, & merchants of John H., William R., Charles, George W., Elijah, and Gabriel Morton, who first resided about 4 miles from town on the southwest on what

was afterwards the farm of David Bryan decd. & now of his son Genl. William Bryan on the East George Hunt, who came from New Jersey. Wm. Downing senr. Richd. Downton, Waller Overton a particular friend of father, from Virginia (father in law of the Hon. Wm. T. Barry), rearing a large family, 12 children, well educated and intelligent with nearly all of whom I was well acquainted, a widowed daughter only survives. Edmund Bullock and his brother Waller B. both of whom represented the County in the State Senate men of talents and influence. Maj. Wm. Davenport—brother in law of E. Bullock.

Walter Carr Esq. from Virginia, one of the first sheriffs of the county and specially his son Charles Carr long a deputy sheriff of the county and for many years one of our most active citizens and business men he yet survives almost a centenarian—William & Hezekiah Ellis, Richard Chiles, the Darnabys, the Barrs, the Bryans, the Allens, the Colemans, the Eastins, the McCans, the Kin____, the Dunlaps, William Hayes, John Stark, James Gibson, Thos. Wallace, Robert B____, Davis Bell, John Hart, Robt. McConathy father of Asa. Wm. Todhunter and his son Parker E. _____ Headley the father of James, Alex., Saml. & John men known among our first farmers.

George & Wm. Logan, David Logan and his son James, Revd Robert Marshall, David Glass, & John M.C. Irwin, James Shelby, & Thomas H. Shelby sons of Isaac Shelby the owner of 3000 acres of land entered by the father in early times an early pioneer and twice Governor of the Commonwealth, Mr. T.H. Shelby yet survives at an advanced age.

Many who survive will remember most of this long list of names very familiar and mostly honoured by their fellow citizens,—more still are familiar with the names of their descendants;—some of whom had adorned and others still adorn the professions they have illustrated by their talents.

Mr. Peter January was one of the first lot holders 1781 came to Lexington from Pennsylvania and on his large lot 2d. Street to 3d. & Main Cross Street to Mill erected as his residence what has often been said to be the first brick building built in Lexington. He engaged in the Mercantile business & probably in 1783 or 1784 established his son Thomas in business is 1787, and subsequently as his partner same year under the firm of Peter January & Son. John Duncan, & Alexander & James Parker opened their store the same year. Hugh McIlvaine commenced his store in 1789 & continued for several years.

Gowdy & Williams in 1790.

Gordon & Coburn (Judge John Coburn) from about 1786 to 1789.

The disturbances in the Mississippi ceased coincident with the earthquake at Caraccas: they continued over what is called the sunk country until March 1812—A dreadful tornado passed over the city of Charleston S.C. on the Septr. fierce and terrible in its effects—Storms and shipwrecks on the Atlantic for the whole coast were unusually destructive. A shock of earthquake felt in Nashville in Octr causing great damage. An almost total eclipse of the sun occurred on 19th September 1811. The greatest shocks of the earthquake which was felt from Maine to Georgia & from the Atlantic to the Mississippi was on 16th and 17th of Decemr 1811.—On 6th and 7th November 1811 occurred the battle of Tippecanoe, and death of Col. Joseph Hamilton Daviess who had been for several years previously a resident of Lexington.—an event deeply deplored by his friends in Ky. A funeral oration before the Grand Lodge of Kentucky Decr 1811 at Frankfort which I have preserved in a small newspaper Scrap Book of the year 1812. (Also an account of the conflagration of the Richmond theatre) was spoken by the honl. Jesse Bledsoe. A latin poem on the occasion written by the R.C. priest Rev. S.T. Badin, addressed to the honr. John Rowan was published in our own papers in Kentucky and in the PortFolio of Philada. for April 1812 page 400 with a translation by Dr. Mitchell of N. York. Another poem the Battle of Tippecanoe in the same work for March 1812 page 298. At least half a dozen poems on his death were published in our Kentucky papers—On 26th December 1811 occurred the fatal and memorable catastrophe of the burning of the Richmond theatre, in which many lives were lost from the flower of its population. The thrilling and heart-rending accounts published excited the profoundest sympathy throughout the United States. A graphic picture of these events from the pen of Dr. Caldwell is published in the PortFolio January 1812 entitled a 'Retrospect of the year 1811'—

The Declaration of War in 1812 seemed to stir every heart in Kentucky. Capt. Nathl G.E. Hart's volunteer Infantry Company formed mainly of citizens of Lexington and Students of the University carried with them the hearts and hopes of very many people here. A number of this company were my fellow students, John M. McCalla, James P. Parker, Jos. Ebenezer Blythe, Isaac L. Baker, Samuel Elder, David McIlvaine, Edward Bayse of a different company and a number of others. McCalla, Baker and Parker were among those who returned. The Battle of Raisin was a fatal one to Capt. Hart and the most of his men. There was a horrible massacre by the Indians which took place on ____ day of December 1812.—Col. George Trotter Jr. went out at the head of a Volunteer regiment, and were distinguished at the battle of the Thames in Canada on March 1813. Capt. Stewart Megowan commanded a Rifle company in this expedition and were well reported of.—To see them that far on their way I accompanied our Kentucky Volunteers to their first encampment at Georgetown. A few of my fellow students I saw with joy after their dangers and eminent perils on their almost miraculous return,—with the others it was a long and last farewell—Leslie Combs had a narrow escape acting as Capt. of Scouts

to Col. Dudley's regiment at the time of his defeat. He ran thro the gauntlet with the indians.

1812-15 Woolen Manufactory. W. Lead Mfg. Co. Years 1814-15.
The years 1810-12 were prosperous to the growth of Lexington. The years 1812-14 were remarkable for the scarcity of goods their high prices and for an inflation on the price of property and especially of land in the vicinity. It was in the year 1812 that James Prentiss came to Lexington and commenced his operations—buying of land & lots of Col. Sanders and Higgins who had recently bought out Col. Robert Patterson, and of three of the McConnells as a site on the town fork of a large woolen manufactory (and a Paper Mill in same building immediately commenced & of laying out lots calling it "Manchester."—The Lexington White Lead Manufacturing Co. was founded by Saml. & George Trotter & others in 1812-13 & 14 near the same time, buying a portion of their lots &c of Prentiss nearly all the remainder of John Cock.—its charter for $50,000 in amt. All these lots are situated in 1814 immediately on the Town Fork of Elkhorn, and within the town limits—the Woolen Manufactory on the lower part, the lead factory on the upper. As a specimen of the prices of Goods in the Stores at this time Delpht ware and China were remarkably high, the commonest white plates were worth three dollars per dozen—my father received a consignment of a few boxes and trunks of Goods from his friend Jacob Reese of Philadelphia which had been brought into port by the accident of war they were invoiced enormously high, but such was the scarcity and demand they sold out rapidly—a portion by wholesales a small invoice to Joseph H. & Littleberry Hawkins, whose store was opposite to ours—but mostly at retail; Mock-madras handkerchiefs a thin cotton article small size were invoiced Philada. price at $5.25 pr. dozen by the hundred dozen, in a regular time 1.20 to 1.50 would be a full price; the coursest description of calico, though of a smooth and stout fabric, was in a like manner invoiced at 70cts pr yard by the case of 100 pieces, six or seven cents would be a full price ordinary times, the handkerchiefs sold at 50 cents at retail the calico at one dollar a yard. This was I think the latter part of 1814 or beginning of 1815. And the same ratio for every description of imported goods. The succeeding year 1815 was a year of very large importations and at high prices it was trying to many importers in Lexington and other western town and sities. The year 1814 was one of great inflation in the price of property, especially in the vicinity of town.

High Prices, Goods & Property, New Stores, Changes
in laying off new streets, and in some instances going a mile and a half from town—the general belief being that the town must speedily grow to a large size. Lots were laid off by Higgins & Sanders on part of their purchase of Col. Robert Patterson, on a street they called Merino Street in the S.W. section which brought most generally from three to four hundred dollars per acre—extending quite to my father's farm (Alexr McConnell's Settlement & pre-emption) the highest price lot at 400$ pr acre consisting of eight or ten acres at least was bought by Richard Higgins (the nearest town) for erecting a residence thereon for his father in law Richard Allen,—the residence is at present occupied by Genl. Huston, and was for some time by John C. Breckinridge—the next lot was bought by Maj. Michl. Fishel at the same price the remaining lots on the same E. side of the Street were bought by John Hull & Jacob Hull extending to the farm of W.L.—at 300$ per acre—the Hulls sold to Dr. L.P. Yandell in 1835 or 1836 and by Yandell to me in 1837 at 100$ pr acre 17 acres at same price. A lot on opposite side also extreme west adjoining me was bought by Boshart at 150$ pr acre by me of him in at near 100$—pr acre And in the Eastern Section.

Lots were laid off by the proprietors near and north of Fowler's Garden, on the Winchester Road and brought similar prices—nearly all these lots in both instances were bought by individual Purchasers, and the cash on short payment notes paid off their purchases in full. Manufacturers were in a flourishing condition, and many good business houses and residences were put up.—There was however in some instances an unwholesome or mushroom growth. Men were tempted to engage in business with slender capital and false and chimereal hopes, and were compelled to give up, or give place to others. Farmers and Mechanics essayed to become Merchants, but had to speedily quit the ranks. I remember Noble & Bywaters, Parker & Graves, and Robb & Vigus, the former a Bricklayer, the latter a saddle-tree maker—the first removed to Missouri, to resume his trade, the last ran away to Ohio with his neighbors wife—the last I have heard of him: and some good men of business were compelled to decline it, and give up, who had been many years engaged in it, and with high esteem,—James & David Maccoun who done the largest business in Lexington wholesale & Retail except alone Saml. & George Trotter with these I suppose beside large importations at an unfavorable time it was partly owing to extensive credits and to building.

(132) Rise of the Book Business
Perhaps nothing could illustrate more the rise and progress of Lexington and its vicinity in its society and wealth than the rise of the Book Business here. The sale of books in Lexington for over the first twenty years of its history was entirely confined to the small and inconsiderable supply brought out by the merchants, and that proportioned to the absolute demand, My father imported a few law books for the lawyers. Some religious books such as the religious interest seemed to demand and some school and miscellaneous books from the year 1792 to 1795 and partially to the year 1800.

The stores of the Merchants in Lexington during these twenty years or more consisted of a General Assortment of Goods; each store having Dry Goods, Hardware, Queens ware and Groceries, including Salt and Iron and often Madeira Wine and French Brandy, and Whiskey by the barrel, never at retail.

My father informed me that a countryman of his, and his brother Catholic, a man who proved himself possessed of superior sagacity and business talents John Mullanphy Esqr. since a Millionaire in St. Louis, came to Lexington in 1793 or 1795 with his first adventure a moderate sized trunk or box of Books, remained here but a little while, and went to Bardstown but afterwards to St. Louis; his first speculation

of any considerable amount was in Cotton at Natchez about the year 1807, it cost him about seven cents pr. pound he shipped it to England, and realizing three or four times its cost, and began to Speculate on the Lots and property of St. Louis, which he kept up, realizing wonderful advances in his outlays, and in this issue a splendid estate. This reminds me of the more fami—liar instance of James Lackington only more remarkable than him. Lackington's first essay was as the keeper of a Book-stall of second hand books on the streets of London, becoming the principal and founder of the celebrated establishment of "Lackington Allen & Co. Temple of the Muses, Firsbury Square the most magnificent Bookstore in the City of London, or perhaps in the world.—In the year 1795 partly by consignment on commission from his friend Mathew Carey of Philadelphia my father's stock of books in his store was considerably increased, but only for a short time: he

allowed nothing to interfere with his regular business. Up to this time Books were only kept in the Stores. The first Bookstore established in Lexington was by Joseph Charless, who kept his store in the year 1806 in one of my father's stores the one next to the corner of Mill; they were largely made up of new and popular publications for children and youth. But Mr. Charless speedily removed to St. Louis where he very rapidly amassed a fortune—A small stock of Books was kept in the Office of Ky. Gazette at first by Danl. Bradford and afterwards by his brother Fielding from 1807 to 1815-16—The next bookstore opened in Lexington was by Johnston & Warner of Philadelphia, a large publishing house, forming a branch of their house in the year 1807 kept by Mr. Thos. Nikervis from Richmond, Va. this store continued to about the year 1812 or 14 James & David Maccoun opened a large Bookstore in a Store adjoining or near their Dry Goods Store on Main Street in the year 1809 or 10 and in 1817 under the firm of Maccoun Tilford & Co., and at one time for a year or two Rob. C.S. Maccoun & co. their nephew, Wm. W. Worsley proprietor of the Reporter opened a very handsome Bookstore corner of Jordan's Row and Main street in 1809 or 10—and subsequently in the Reporter office & with Phelps. These last two establishments contained in 1825 an excellent Bookbindery many handsome London editions of popular authors. (I have a copy of Goldsmith's Poetical works 16mo. Lond. 1805 bought by my cousin Levi J. Gist at Maccoun's presented to me in 1810 which cost him three dollars; to show the sale of fine editions in Lexington I paid Essex & Son in 1814 or 15 12$ for a copy of Goldsmith's works in 6 volumes 24mo. Lond 1809 given my son Wm. while at Centre college.)—

William Essex took Robt. Adrain nephew of the Professor & Mathematician of New York, who had had some previous knowledge of the business, into partnership. Essex & Adrain, in the year 1811 or 12 or 13, they had the same stand which had been occupied by Mr. Worsely and done a large business. Essex bought out Adrain & established his son William in the business, as his partner, and sent him to New York, where he suffered a severe attack of Sickness, they opened a splendid Store 1813-14 in the then old brick house S.W. corner Main & Upper Streets having a handsome case of gift books & fine editions in the front room as you enter...the back room containing pictures and fine engravings and Musical instruments.—Within a few years many private libraries were supplied from these several stores:—Subscriptions were taken in Lexington for Rees's Cyclopedia, and for the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, edited by Dr. Brewster. I subscribed and took the latter, with Mr. Worsely Judge Owsley was the only other there were many subscribers in Lex- to this work at that time Rev. James K. Burch also had a copy of Brewsters.

Lexington and vicinity had become a reading population—Up to July 1 1829 I numbered among my acquaintances, citizens of Lexington, at least twenty persons as Subscribers and owners of Rees's Cyclopedia besides those with Dobson's.—

William Essex a native of England came to Lexington about the commencement of this century or a little before it and established a book bindery, the first one of probably of any size established in the states; his principal business was the supply of Blank Books for Merchants account books and offices of the state and county Courts Clerk. He engrossed the greater part of this department of the business which included ruling and faintlining which in those days were only done by hand—No paper had been ruled then by machinery. He had a monopoly of this description of Blank Books and found it very profitable, Old books were rebound and every branch of the business well attended. He had several journeymen, his business increased, was very large and lucrative, and in the course of a number of years he had amassed an amount sufficient easily to embark in the Bookselling business. His large Bindery was for a number of years carried on in the house that had been the tavern of Robert Megowan & his dwelling connected with it. When he established his Bookstore in the second place with his son Wm. as partner Wm. Essex & Son he opened this store (on S.W. corner of Upper and Main) and his dwelling removed to a part of the same building. Was well acquainted with the business Adrian & Essex & lasting for several years on S. side Main St. between Upper & Limestone Street. Essex rode a fine horse, on which he rode to Harrodsburg Springs to breakfast. His son Wm. Essex Jr. after witnessing for a season the triumph of a flourishing business, had a relapse of the sickness which had contained him while in the City of New York on the business of the store—and died after a short illness. The father concluded hastily to wind up his business. The son was much esteemed and regretted by his friends his disease first and last was believed to be owing to his incessant occupation in ruling at the table, occasioning him to bend over at his work, this occupation engaged him constantly for years, thus laying the foundation or seeds of his suffering illness. Having many Books to be bound from time to time I was familiar at the Bindery, with all its occupants with Robt. Anderson, Edward Duble, C. Coghlan and Benjamin Keiser.—Our community was awfully shocked when in 1815 or 1816 the old man ran away from Lexington with a woman who had been living with him for some length of time in his house, as an assistant of Mrs. Essex, or housekeeper, a Miss McDaniel. He had prepared for this event by Cashing nearly all his property before he decamped. Creditors in New York sent out their Notes & accounts for collection: one for a considerable amount was received by Mr. Saml. Trotter just after he left, he dispatched the most active and energetic agent he could procure for this task to follow Essex & overhaul him

and try to collect the amount—that was Mr. Barnabas Worland, a devoted catholic, one of the most diligent, true-hearted, and vigilant men anywhere who succeeded at least to a great extent in the object of his trip overhauling Essex after a ride of several hundred miles. Essex settled with his new wife, and soon a new family, in the western part of New York or Canada, having placed the settlement of his business far as practical with Theodore F. Talbott Esq., Attorney at law—The wife left soon died of a broken heart. A residence of fifteen or twenty years and an extensive business in all that time had made him well known in Lexington, and his absconding under the circumstances was an astounding event to our population. I suppose at the time of his leaving he was worth not less than twenty thousand dollars—I have learned that he asserted that he was never married to the first Mrs. Essex, beside the son Wm. the mother of 3 or 4 grown children who years before had removed elsewhere.

Mr. Abraham T. Skillman embarked in the Book business I think as early as 1830 and after some years took his son John in as a partner. His stock at first was small consisting of Religious and School books, but soon had a full store and profitable business. He sold out to Mr. Charles Marshall, from Philadelphia, who was well acquainted with the business about the year 1840. Mr. Marshall had an active and profitable trade for a few years and sold out his store to the revd. John H. Brown in the year 1846-47, and Mr. Brown in 1849-50 to David C. Goodloe. This sale was attended with an angry pamphlet controversy between the parties and settlement by legal arbitration. The trial, published by the latter, of Mr. Brown before his presbytery the charges being preferred against him by Mr. Goodloe moved his Store to a handsome store of G.W. Norton Main Street below upper and sold his stock to Mr. ___________ whom he had taken in as a partner and quit the business in the year ______. These gentlemen all made money but Mr. G. under some disadvantages.

Chas. Bodley 3d son of Genl. Thomas Bodley carried on the book business from about the year ____ to the year 18__ with diligence and activity and had profitable returns and removd. to City of New York in other business and afterwards to St. Louis—Lexington has had two bookstores from that period to the present. This branch of business has taken up more room and been brought down to a later period than I contemplated.—I am clearly of opinion that better stocks of Books were kept in the bookstores of Lexington and more in amount sold by them between the years 1808 and 1816 than there ever has been since in the same time—notwithstanding the great increase of wealth and population of late years.

I will endeavour to give from recollection a picture of Lexington as in the year 1804. It is vividly the most of it painted on my mind—the houses and dwellers in them but mainly our substantial early population.—My father's lot 66 feet fronting on Main street corner of Mill running to Water Street had his two story log framed house, as his store, where he carried on his business from 1788 immediately at the corner, and in the rear and adjoining to it on Mill Street a two story framed dwelling house, where he resided—the lot extended to Water Street, the rest of it a fine garden interspersed with choice fruit trees except a log stable on the Western corner, a brick spring house & upper room for smoke house, and an old cabin used as a negro house these were on the Western side of the lot No building on the E. side of the lot. He had erected in 1803 adjoining to his store an excellent 2 story dwelling and Store for rent and a two story back building for kitchen. Waller Warfield and family were the first occupants of the residence next the corner on the Western front of the Main street lot he had a small frame tenement which he rented out. replaced by a good 2 story brick which was erected in 1808. Adjoining my father's lot in front westward was an old red frame building, then occupied and owned by Cornelius Coyle, as his residence and taylor's shop, it had been built and occupied by Stephen Collins as one of the first settlers as a tavern and boarding house—It was built on by R.A. Gatewood 1807-8 his 3 story store & dwelling open lot adjoining on the West was the public spring, then much used, and near it the Engine house, for the engine of the Union Fire Company, and next to it the Kentucky Gazette Office, and adjoining and part of the same building all of brick and two stories high the residence of John Bradford Esqr. built many years before.

Next an old building used as a lawyer's office, & after as a doctor's shop, after that for some years as the post office. The next building was an old stone tavern & dwelling house of Henry Marshall, all other buildings frame to Main Cross Street the two near the corner occupied by William Clark and by Lowry & Clark as Hatters' Shops and manufactory. Isaac Reed, soon after lived on this block, and had his shoe shop connected with his residence a few years after built a handsome 3 story store and dwelling on the same spot.

On the opposite side of Main Street N W corner of Mill an old white frame house E.W. Craig's store occupied some years after by Joseph H. & Littleberry Hawkins. (The building had been erected first as a tavern by Nicholas Lewis) W. two frame houses, a Millinery Store and residence of Mr. and Mrs. Danl. White from England and next by Mrs. Plimpton afterwards Mrs. C.W. Cloud then a store kept by James Campbell an Irishman and others next a small 2 story brick house the Store of Mr. James Weir, the next Lewis Sanders store, where he subsequently in 1805 built his 3 story house and dwelling and subsequently adjoining it a building of the same size near it a plain two story brick owned and occupied by the widow and daughter of James Parker decd. one of the first or early merchants and brother of Alexander. Next one of Masterson's old log frame buildings as a residence and doctor's shop of Dr. Michael Shaugh a Dutch Doctor of no very high repute—next Sadler's shop of John Bryan Senr. in Masterson's other house, next a large log frame Shop Michal Fishel & Fishel & Gallatin as a tin and Copper manufactory doing a large business then Leaving Young's Shoe shop—then John M Boggs store and residence and next to it was the Corner Main Cross Street the dwelling House and a fine pump & excellent well of water opposite his house calld. "Boggs' Pump", Hatter's Shop of Patterson Bain, his first buildings not yet pulled down for rebuilding his new houses built 1807.

Below Main Cross Street on N. side,—the old corner I do not distinctly recollect then a vacant space and two or three doors from it down Main Street a large frame house painted red with a high porch or step before entering it was at this time the hatter's shop and residence of George Adams Junr. the same building had probably been in early times Bray's tavern.—one or two old frame houses below, then an open yard and moderate sized 2 story brick dwelling and shop of Dr. Richard W. Downing, one of our earliest physicians then an old log dwelling house corner of Spring Street,—the spring coming from underneath the house which gave the name of the street,

There were no buildings except the NW corner of Spring & Main a brick dwelling of Leaving Young, from there to the edge of town all were of frame & log, including the Log 2 story Catholic Chapel corner of Alley this east side of the Baptist grave yard. The old frame Meeting House of the Baptist church in it occupied nearby the Scite of the old graveyard, was yet standing and a Schoolmaster, by the name of Marin had a school—the present one of brick—in it at this time for both sexes. The Graveyard was then the principal one of the town & much used. A tavern or boarding house next to it also Stable & lumberyard soon after. And so on the S.W. side Main street below Main Cross Street—the corner house was

a brick Engleheart Yeiser's tavern & currier shop all on the same block were W. Heydell's manufacture & store of Leather breeches & other to the corner frame houses, mostly dwelling houses. crossing Spring street a goodsized two story (brick) house, the residence of Capt. A. McGregor—Mr. McDaniel another—others not recollected. was the dwelling of Capt. Wm. West, entrance on Spring Street, 2 frame buildings the residence of Andrew Holmes, were on the corner and this side of Lower Street, on the other side was a two story brick building (now the property of the Geohagan family) owned and erected by Wm. Morton Esq. for the residence of Mr. Teague, his tanner at that time the tan yard being in the same lot, the rest of the buildings were frame except one on the Corner of Locust street

A Stone 2 story house was erected by John Robert Shaw a little east of the crossing of the Rail Road. He made the publication of his "Life" containing remarkable instances of his being blown up many times in the digging of wells in Lexington, and other Providential deliverances in his life. Here him and his family resided.

A large frame house this side & corner of Cock's street was occupied by Allen Davis, with a large garden on Main street attached to it. It was in after years occupied by George Hay as a residence an Eastern man Before Davis it had been occupied by an early citizen named Anthony Bliss. A very reputable gentleman an early resident, Mr. P.D. Robert a Frenchman occupied on the N.E. side of the street a little further west than where the central railroad crosses, a very neat cottage Residence, and handsome garden, the house situated where the Green house attached to the Lexington Cemetery now stands. Mr. Robert was the father of a respectable citizen Peter J. Robert tobacconist and Clerk of Ky. Insce. Co. for many years, also of Henry Robert, confectioner who married a daughter of Mr. Mentelle, and of James, a Silversmith. Coming back to Mill Street and Main, N.E. side Main—4 stores to cheapside the two corner ones of stone, the other two of brick were occupied the first Corner Mill by John A. Seitz the second by John Jordan Jr. the third by Saml. & George Trotter, the 4th corner of Cheapside by Geo Anderson for his residence and Store. These 4 lots were built on by lease of ground rent from Trustees of the Presbyterian Church 1792 Between Main & Short Street on Mill Street were two or three brick houses on the West side, all the rest frame; in one of the brick houses was the residence and Silversmith's & Watch makers shop of Mr. A. Dumisnil (who came to Lexington about this time or soon after) who had a handsome and amiable family; a corner grocery store was kept in another by Stephen Young, and a larger one by David Williamson.

In a good brick 2 story house of his own building on S. side of Main str. near Locust street resided William Palmatier, a very industrious and energetic builder of stone foundations & quarrier of rock. He bought my father's old log framed store & dwelling and made tenant houses on some remote lots of them. on the upper corner a small store and next to it a confectionary by Henry Terasse, a Dancing master, afterwards confectionary kept by Mathn. Giron for a number of years.

On the E. side of Mill street, the old frame Presbyterian Meeting House, situated about one hundred feet from Main Street, was yet standing—An alley of ten feet running to Cheapside separated the meeting house from the 4 ground rent stores, on main street leased from the Presbyterian Church,—the upper corner of this square was a small frame house occupied by Mr. Asa Blanchard as Mr. Blanchard's residence on Mill street between Church and Second Westside afterwards the residence of Dr. James Bush.—a Silversmith and Watchmaker's shop.—A grocery and small retail store in 2 brick houses (on the same street) Henry Kelley a worthy Irishman came to Lexington about this time or a little after it had a tobacconists shop on Cheapside, and his daughters, amiable young ladies had a bonnet or Milliner's Shop on Main Street, below Mill East Side had his residence in one of the frame houses S. Side of Main Street below Main Cross.—My. father bought a small bill of exchange from Mr. Kelly on Ireland to send to a relative, which was duly honored, one of his daughters the younger one married an agreeable and worthy Irish citizen Mr. Thomas Kane, a taylor, who in a few years removed to Louisville, another to Mr. Blackall Stephens, a soldier,—Mrs. Kelly was first cousin to Oliver Goldsmith, the poet and historian and a very pleasant lady.

Mr. Heydall maker of buckskin breeches & Gloves below Main cross Street and the family of Capt. McGregor one & McDaniels another of the frame houses same block, no others remembered. The old Stone Court House was yet standing in which I remember to have heard some interesting trials—the new one erected of brick by Stephens & Winslow in the year 1805 is yet standing—and the eye was offended with the sight of a pair of frame Stocks in the Court House yard & even after its removal the only one then and for years. The Market House, which continued to be used for a number of years, occupied a considerable part of the space between the court house square and Cheapside running the length of the square to Short Street with inside and outside pavements,—a street pavement round it. It was commonly well supplied with vegetables and meats, and in the season, a magnificent supply of water-melons.

The Lexington Library a brick building had recently been erected on the N.W. corner of Public Square, opposite McCalla's Drug Store.

Beginning at Mill & Main Street (running south)—S. Trotter had not yet built his retail store on the corner Main & Mill the lot etc. of which he had bought of Geo. Anderson in the year 1802 nor his brick dwelling adjoining nor the Warehouses extending to the corner of Water Street,—crossing Water Street a brick stable and cow house of my father on his lot in Water Street, extending to High on the Water street corner no other building on the lot on the opposite lot Water street to High to my father's Main street lot (was) the Garden of Mr. Edward West; his dwelling and Shop on High Street some distance from the corner. At this time Mill Street was not extended beyond High, the lots were all fenced post and rail, no building of course on it to the town limits. It was opened and lots on it and Masterson Street laid out by Thomas Bodley in the year 1805 the lots were all fenced to this time.—Lawson McCullough's and Nathan Burrowes' residence on N. side of High St. between Mill & Upper and one or two other frame houses:—On the S/Side same street—Dodge's Rope Walk adjoining S. Trotter's lot replaced by a brick dwelling first occupied by Dr. Wm. H. Richardson, then by the daughters of Wm. Frazer decd. & lately by F. Montmullin, Junr. bot. in 1805, corner Mill & High—the Dutch burying ground, near and adjoining, then one or two old frame houses to the corner of Upper—Upper St.

Between High and Maxwell are remembered two or three moderate sized brick houses on W. side also Elisha Allen's residence and taylor shop. Robt. Grinstead and Barker's residence that of Hawkins & family Stone Mason. Stilfield's family and their relations the Cooks, frame houses; and only two or three frame houses on the opposite side, one of them owned and occupied by Michal Clark, a decent coloured man, only one or two other houses remembered on this street to the steam mill situated corner of Limestone Str. on Maxwell's Spring branch, afterwards converted into the City Work & Poorhouse corner Bolivar Street. An old City Graveyard situated on Bolivar Street near the Workhouse given by Mr. Maxwell used many years of early and respectable Citizens town and country. the Barrs, Parkers, and others, but not well kept, except always well enclosed. John Maxwell's residence a comfortable

frame house was situated in his lot or farm with orchards and garden not a hundred yards East from Limestone Street and near the same distance from his fine family spring running into a rock bason and spring house—here I have often walked before breakfast to wash my face and quaff the fine water as it flowed. One ro two frame houses and cabins were all the houses between his residence and High Street.

High Street from Upper to Limestone had three or four houses built on them by their owners very early settlers—the lots extending to Water Street one of them was the residence of Robert Campbell from Pennsylvania the father of Dr. Arthur Campbell who married Miss Kitty West, and of James Campbell who married Miss Fraser.—Below High Street, and near the corner of Limestone east side of it, was the residence (a frame log one) of John Carty, a revolutionary soldier and early settler, who carried on his business on the same lot for many years the ground being well adapted to his work. On High Street there were only six or eight houses some of them of brick between Limestone Street and the town limits, one of these a good sized two story brick was the residence for a good many years of an early and well known citizen Mr. Asa Farrow brother of Mrs. Thomas T. Skillman these houses were all on the N. side of the street—there was only one on the S. side one or two small buildings of brick, one of these built by Nathaniel Gist who had a brick yard on the lot. He built his nephew Levi I. Gist's house S.E. corner Mill & Maxwell sold by him to John Peck Esqr. (Mr. Marable's).

On Main Street S & G Trotter's corner a 2 story brick and next George Tegarden's Store-house and dwelling combined was the second house from Mill Street east, adjoining him was the store also of brick occupied by Hart & Bartlet afterwards by Hart & Barton, and 1810-11 by Capt. Nat G. Hart, the next three buildings were of log and framed, the first one by Robert Barr, with his Store, subsequently by his sons Thomas & Robt. Barr, the next by Willm. Macbean & by Macbean & Poyzer afterwards by Jeremiah Neave, an English Quaker from Philada. Mr. Neave was a warm democratic politician and wrote for the Papers

in 1808 & 10 on Next house also log frame occupied by Robert Miller an Irishman a large fine looking man much esteemed who with his brother William kept store there for some years. He was a sufferer by endorsement and loans to Aaron Burr and Harman Blennerhasset in the year 1805,—they removed in a few years. George Trotter Senr. kept his store and lived with his large family in a large three story building erected in 1798 by I think Montgomery Bell—the Store at present occupied in part the same by Mr. Adams one of 3 new buildings in place of 2, built by G.W. Sutton, next to Mr. Trotter's was on old frame 2 story store owned & occupied by John Cross a small retailer—father of Dr. J.C. Cross the next one also an old frame originally built and used as his store in early times by Robert Parker was the handsome hat store of the Misses Shaw. The next buildings were occupied by Maccoun & Tilford and by Tandy & Castleman.—And nearly opposite the Court House stood John MCNair's tavern, sign of the Buffaloe, on old stone or log house; then Thomas Wallace, Joseph Hudson, and Joseph H. Hervey, Alexander Parker, and Charles Wilkins. I do not remember positively at this time the occupation of the old corner S.W. of Main & Upper replaced of late years by George W. Norton's handsome block—It was like the last 3 or 4 houses named, old brick buildings built at least 10 years before.

Upper Street to Water, 2 or 3 houses of brick nearest to Water on E. side and one on the West side corner of Water Street. S.E. corner Main & Upper, Robt. Fraser, a good W. frame building Watchmaker's & Silversmith's shop, and next to it another occupied by his brother Alexr. Fraxer and family, in the same business,—his dwelling in the same house.—Eastward same side Wm. Morton's Store in a 2 story brick then 3 or 4 other old two story brick houses; one the residence of Major John Boyd, brother-in-law of John Jordan Jr. whose daughter Sidney was married to Thos. Anderson—where the Post Office was kept several years;—then several houses of log and frame the one of which the old tavern stand of Robt. Megowan's (Now replaced by) Thomas Bradley's hardware store a 3 story brick building is erected on one of them.

Benjamin Stout's residence and Sadler's Shop a brick building of two stories, then in another such building the residence of Abm. S. Drake and his Taylor's Shop which was at first on the opposite side of the street, then an old brick building on the corner of Limestone street. Crossing Limestone Street we reach the Tavern of Capt. John Postlethwaite, S.E. corner Main & Limestone long considered the best tavern in Kentucky. From the Public Square on the North Side corner of Upper Street, John Jordan Jr's residence and buildings—Jordan's row soon started & built opposite E side of the Court House, on Main Street beyond Jordan's house and lot was the Kentucky Insurance Company Bank a handsome building of brick erected in 1803 corner of an Alley; next house Wm. Huston's Sadler's Shop and residence. J.H. Stewart's (from Philadelphia) Kentucky Herald Printing Office, which has been printed since about 1793, and residence next and old brick house from there to corner of Limestone Street, one of three, the rest 2 stories. N.E. corner of Limestone & Main 2 houses Residence and Shop of Thomas Whitney, one of the earliest Cabinet Makers—near Whitney and nearly opposite to the tavern of John Postlethwaite were several houses occupants not remembered, then the residence of Andrew F. Price 2 story & John Lockwood and his Brush store, and of Mrs. Lockwood's Female Academy. An excellent couple, many years resident in Lexington, and she an elderly and esteemed member of McChord's or 2d Presbn. Church. The Post Office soon removed to a one story frame in this block by Capt. J. Fowler. Capt. Fowler resided in a large two story building and Genl. Robert Todd & family in another. We come to a neat one story brick set back in a yard, the first residence in Lexington of John L. Martin and family; he was at this time an officer in the Kentucky Insurance Bank. His brother Saml. D. Martin boarded with him going to College. Capt. Thos. Nelson N.E. corner Main & Walnut, Thos. T. Skillman's next beyond Wm. Hanson & David Sutton near him & next Rev. Adam Rankin's residence and then Scarece &c to J.L.M.

John Fisher the bricklayer I think had built and was living in the neat residence so long occupied by Farmer Dewees and lady—his brother Maddox Fisher also a bricklayer and partner lived in a large two story brick house on Short street continued, not far from Walnut on north side Maddox Fisher was an influential & valuable member of the Methodist Church & removed to Springfield, Ohio. The Fishers were highly esteemed citizens. Samuel Redd occupied his residence near to the farm & residence of Robt. Megowan decd. and he carried on his Carriage Manufactory corner Dewees & Main street first in the firm of Wyatt & Redd (Major Wyatt a worthy citizen from Virginia, and next with Womack & Redd—then alone—a very highly esteemed citizen for many years. He was the father of Thomas S. Redd, Walter Redd, and Samuel who removed to Texas.

I have already spoken of Mr. Megowan and his family.

Here we come to the country.

South Side Main Street, Near to Postlethwaite's; corner of an Alley, was the residence and Cabinet shop of Robert Wilson, an Englishman. He had the largest and best Shop of the kind that has been established in Lexington across the Alley was an old frame or plaistered house belonging to Mrs. Mary O. Russell which I think she lived in with James Russell Esqr. her first husband the same lot with more grounds form the lot of the residence of Leslie Combs Esqr. The next house I recollect was also an old frame set back a little from the street. It was used as a boarding house I think after, by Mrs. Saml. Price, next brick building some years after was used by Wm. H. Rainey when in business as his residence the next one front and rear was a good sized plain 2 story building used as the last residence of Genl. John M. McCalla before he left Lexington, corner of Ayres' Alley. Across the Alley an old red frame 2 story house the residence and Silversmith's Shop of Samuel Ayres, one of early and much esteemed citizens, a Member of the Baptist Church. He carried on his S.S. Shop for many years. Several ordinary brick and frame houses (a small brick one of these was the residence in 1833 of that valuable and energetic man and Methodist Barnet Rucker.) occupied the space between there and the large lot owned by Alexr. Parker Eqsr. and subsequently built on near High Street, occupied first by himself afterwards by Wm. Richardson Esqr. son-in-law of Richd. Higgins senr. & subsequently by Elijah W. Craig afterwards by Tipton, now by Thos. H. Wallace, beyond Parker's lot a large vacant lot of James Parker decd. sold by Alexr. Parker and that of his son-in-law Spotswood and since F. Montmullin's Lumber Yard, above that a few doors a 2 story frame on a large lot owned by the family of Edgar—then Rose street & no building beyond. On Rose Street to High only one or two houses one of them a brick the residence and Pump factory of Mr. Warner west side corner of High Street—and none on this street beyond. On High street beyond Rose S.W. side the residence of the hon John Pope & after of the Hon. Wm. T. Barry afterwards of Wm. R. Morton & of Capt. Henry Johnson, now J. Woolfolk Esqr. On the N. side of

High about a square from Rose the brick 2 story house a plain building with porch the residence of Archd. Campbell well known as a public crier of Sales about the court house square, scarcely less famous in this respect than old Mr. Downton whose voice was so loud that his whisper was heard across the court house square this was the last building to the town limits.

This year the first Episcopal Church was built, near the site of the present one corner of Market & Church. And W.M. Mccallas residence corner of Market Street & Short was a moderate size old 2 story frame resupplied about 1807 or 8 with a large 2 story brick his Apothecary Store on Short Street, entrance to the private residence on Market Street, his lot extended to Church Street and no other building on it except small servant's house.—Peter Paul & afterwards P. Paul & Son, had their Stone cutter's yard, and small residence, in from the street, a door or two above the Episl. church, next vacant lots and at S.E. corner of 2d & Market was the old good sized 2 story brick house yet standing, the residence then of Dr. Frederick Ridgely subsequently in 1807 or 8 that of John D. Clifford from Philada. & his family including mother and 2 sisters, all Episcopn. after Dr. C. Caldwell & family including his son Leaming & wife, the beautiful Miss Mary Clifford, after them of Mrs. M.T. Scott & others. In 1804 Market Street not extended above 2d. on opposite side of Market Street same square Mr. Luther Stephens's family residence, where his children were born, about the spot at present the parsonage of 1st Presbn. chr. On S.W. corner Market & 2d. Street, the residence & other buildings of John W. Hunt Esqr. before he bought the property a few years after upon which he built his more commodious residence the same site of the large residence lately Mrs. A.K. Woolley's now Mrs. Jeffry.—at present occupied by his daughter Mrs. Calvin Morgan)

Water Street S.E. from mill, a large double stone house a lot or two from Mill, the residence Cotton Spinning and blue dyeing establishment of an early settler Mr. Wm. Tod, the building yet standing, whose large family was all reared and educated here. Next to him Nathan Burrowes carried on his Mustard factory and next to it a moderate size brick 2 story building residence of James Devers a married man and used in 1811-12 by his brother Forbus Devers, Natives of Ireland, and another George Beck, Esqr. residence & male school 2 or 3 log and frame buildings to Upper Street, across that Street same side 2 or 3 Dwellings,

& 1 Livery stable of frame, and an ordinary brick grocery on the corner of Limestone Street, on that street nearly opposite the S.W. corner, James Kelly's Blacksmith Shop, & Rolly Blue col'd man's blacksmith shop, afterwards Burn's on the same site or next door. On West side of Limestone between Water & High a livery stable kept by Nathan Kizer W. Va. man? and after by Dennis Seal, a breaker of horses, well known for years, then by Hannibal Straws, man of colour, whose residence between there and High Street a worthy man and a victim of the Cholera. A brick building S.W. corner of High St. & Limestone residence and Boarding house of Joseph Ficklin afterwards of Danl. Bradford, no house South then on this street recollected whatever. On Short Street opposite N.E. side Court House next to McCalla's shop John D. Dillon's Boot & Shoe Shop next the residence of Thos. Tibbatts, and family and his Bakery the Kentucky Hotel recently erected by Cuthbert Banks 2 3 story houses connected and also kept by Robert Bradley, afterwards by William Satterwhite, and a short time by Wm. T. Banton, two three story houses now occupied as Banks, and on N.W. corner Short and Upper the Residence from about 1802 or 3 of Col. James Morrison recently erected by himself (late the property of Miss Sidney S. Edmiston his Niece) across Upper street about 3 white frame houses the first owned by John Taylor M.C. one of them resided in a short time by Saml. Trotter another occupied by Thomas Dye Owings as his Castings and Iron Store kept for him by William Macbean, then a livery stable, and residence of brick in after years of Parker Craig, and next the Jail of Lexington and Fayette County kept at this time by Mr. Sharpe in conjunction with a tavern—or by Nathaniel Prentiss who had two or three smart sons Nat & Edwd & William they removed and were well established in Washington City and New York since and at present by Thos. B. Megowan. On the S. Side Upper Street from the Court House square there was a moderate size 2 story building residence & Shop of Jonathan Pew who had an amiable family, on corner of Limestone Street—one of whose daughters married Mr. Chamberlain, and another Thos. B. Megowan. No other house to the square—Jordan's row unbuilt.

Limestone Street from Main N. 3 or 4 old brick and frame houses only recollected to Upper Street on the W. side, one of these a large frame house of S. & G.

Trotter's a few years after this rented to Edward B. Hannegan for his English School & Academy a very flourishing one he cultivated their powers of declaiming and speaking. He subsequently kept a grocery store on the same street before leaving Lexington. His son Edward B. a promising youth while here became a Congressman of some note in Indiana: there were also 4 or 6 brick houses of moderate size on the E. side of the street—

Near this time, several years after I think, a large Livery and Sale Stable was kept by Josiah & Richd. W. Downing who exported their horses in large droves to South Carolina for a market—a dreadful fire consumed a large Stable & many of their horses. It was situated at and near to where Beard's now Davis's well known stable stands.

Adjoining the Jail on W. side Limestone Street two or three buildings extending to Church Street was the residence of Jerry Murphy and his family a pretty large family, but I think none of them at present alive. Robert T. Russell & family next door above Church street, Stone cutter; his son John an esteemed carpenter, a blacksmith Shop opposite to him kept by John R. Shaw Junr. afterwards by Thomas Bradley who was eminently successful in business, since a hardware Merchant & Banker—Above him on E. side Lumber yard of John Anderson, corner Barr Street 2 or 3 brick houses on same side and the residence of frame of Simon Hickey & family corner of the Alley separating from Col. Nicholas's lot. Mr. Hickey's family were very highly esteemed.

Col. Geo. Nicholas residence built by him about 1795 to 1796 in the large lot which fronts second Street—His family yet resided in this property 1805 or 6 after various occupations is now the Sayre Female Institute the large old building taken down & new one erected for this object. There is none of Col. Nicholas's family or descendants now living in Lexington. The youngest daughter Hetty wife of Richd. Hawes Esqr. of Paris was the last member of the family alive and lately decd. There are a number of plain old two story brick buildings on West side this street the residences of some respectable and early citizens and mechanics. Among those whose names are worthy to be recorded all of whom I have a personal recollection of are—John & Jacob Springle worthy men one if not both of whom were citizens of a German family of bricklayers from the first settlements of first years of the town, also John & William Bobb, also Bricklayers, and am of opinion that they were related to Springles all four of whom were in the employ of my father 1801 1803 in the first two buildings erected by him one a stable and Cow house in the lot on Water street, & the

first store and dwelling house he built on Main Street. Wilson and Anderson Carpenters whom I remember my father esteemed them both as honest and worthy citizens and mechanics, and employed them often—Wilson's family removed from Lexington. Anderson's son John after his father's death carried on the trade awhile successfully, but quit it and had a lumber yard and loaned out his money, and at his death has left a respectable fortune to his children one of whom is now a Bank director and owner of valuable real estate. Stephen Chipley a highly respectable and worthy citizen father of Dr. Wm. S. Chipley resided on this street for a number of years he was a member of the City Council and Mayor of the City. John Downing in a brick house in a lot north of 3d street—Edward or Abram Howe, wagon makers, also of German extraction, him and his family were well esteemed, John Eades a worthy blacksmith was much employed here from about 1803 and after—Robert Wingate and R. Scroggin blacksmiths to 1810. The large Bagging Manufactory of J.W. Hunt & J. Brand lodging many blacks near 3d street on Upper. Mr. Gibney father of D. Gibney an esteemed Irish citizen a plaisterer—resident of Constitution Street. Wm. Dunn also an Irish man and plaisterer, plain and ornamental, upper part of Main Street. John Wirt, Silversmith & Engraver with A. Blanchard, and City Collector, Mr. Blanchard's residence Poplar row Mill Street—Mr. Wirt's on Constitution Street—Thomas and Barbabas Worland, worthy and respectable citizens, always in active and useful occupation; residences Constitution Street and near it. Willm. Wiseman, a successful Rope and Bagging manufacturer on this street. John Smith, from Yorkshire England, a worthy citizen with small family a very successful Manufacturer of Rope and Bagging, having a handsome property at his death built back from this street and beyond Fourth—Thomas Hart Jr. owned & occupied the property of Col. Nicholas after his death in addition to his Mercantile & farming operations had a rope walk adjoining this lot about 1806—and cultivated a farm about 4 miles from town now occupied by W. Todd. John Brand Esqr. soon erected his residence at present that of his son George W. Brand and continued to carry on his Hemp Manufacturing operations eventually so successful—An old two story brick building on north east corner of Third & Limestone Street was the residence of George Adams Jr. an old acquaintance of my fathers and one of the earliest hatters of Lexington of a German family and pronunciation whom I remember well, his sons George, John & Willm followed the same business. Our esteemed fellow citizen George Norton married one of his daughters. Wm. Morton Esqr. built his residence nearly opposite to Mr. Brand's a little further, so well known, in the year 1803 (at present the residence of Henry T. Duncan Jr.) still successfully carrying on his Store and tannery. Jos. Cabell Breckinridge Esq. built his residence immediately opposite Mr. Brand's not earlier than 1807 or 8. My father's old friend Wm. Macbean for his second residence with his family lived on the W. side of this

street in a brick building a little off the Street, a brick house a door or two to the south of Second Street. In passing down this street since my removal to my residence in the country in 1840 or 1841 I was first struck with the mournful thought that I was walking among the tombs—the houses no longer occupied by friends and acquaintances and citizens with whom I had been familiar for a lifetime.

My friend Thomas Anderson owned and resided in an old frame house of some size on the E. side the street bought I think by the Catholic Church site of their Female Academy or church—

On W. side of the street above, Church Street for some years resided brother A.T. Skillman and family , and a few doors N. of him same side Revd. Stephen Chipley, to whom I made a memorable visit in the Season of the Cholera.

On Walnut Street E. side a plain old two story brick building near the corner of Short Street—continued, stood the first Masonic Lodge of Lexington built in early times no houses then about it, had a very plain mournful & solitary look—being a few doors north from the old Presbyterian or Associate Reformed Church of the venerable Adam Rankin, who only preached occasionally at this time—The Church brick building of good size had never been finished, ultimately abandoned, and after many years taken down by the City of Lexington, and replaced by City School No. 1 built on the bequest of a fund for its foundation by Wm. Morton Esqr.—

The Lodge has been taken down and replaced by the Society by a fine edifice of more commodious arrangements by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in the year 1841, which cost the sum of $25,000.

On Main Cross Street, beginning at corner of Main, the corner, Mr. Engleheart Yeiser's leather store. S.W. two or three doors from him, Hugh Crawford a Scotchman a Blue dyer, was a pleasant citizen and considerable addition to the Musical talent of the place, in Social practising, as was Mr. John Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Mentelle, and John Hart, with one or two others, They had a Musical Society which met occasionally very much to the entertainment of all who attended—I occasionally by invitation had the pleasure of witnessing them in some central room; these I remember with much pleasure, to have heard violin, bass viol, flute, clarinet and French Horn, which was used by Mr. Mentelle. A few years after Mr. Isaac Thom an agreeable & valuable citizen was added to their amateur list. In these early musical parties George A. Webber took part with his Dulcimer the only one in town; Amateur or professional visitors occasionally were with them swelling the amount of harmony. When present I enjoyed these evenings very much. One or two other houses on same square on this street. A house or two connected with Wm. Clarke's hatter's shop: on the opposite side of the street, is all recollected on this block, S.E. Corner Main Cross and Water street was the residence bakery &c. of an early resident a German very much esteemed by all who knew him George Adam Webber with a very small family. On the same side corner of High Street another very early resident Melchoir Myer also a German he sold candles and meat as early as 1790 to 1793, and I think it probable was one of the early butchers. On opposite side of street nearly opposite Mr. Webber was the baker's shop of John J. Shedil, also a German of a pretty large family. Above him on the side of the hill was the Sadlery & bridle & leather store and manufactory of a Prussian by the name of Francis Kirckle, who married one of the daughters of Mr. Meyer, next to him on N.W. corner High Street and Main Cross was the cotton spinning and blue dying establishment of a very worthy citizen Mr. John Caldwell & excellent lady & their residence on High Street adjoining, where he had his Cotton factory, a zealous and the only Universalist I knew in Lexington, whose eldest son Andrew a very ingenuous man, about my own age, at inventing and improving Machinery of all such establishments as they held. On S.E. corner of High Street and Main Cross or adjoining it was the coloring and dying house and residence of Mr. George Brown & family and near him of Mr. Boshart & family, esteemed citizens. John Kiser's tavern on the opposite corner an old 2 story log house, was standing but discontinued as a tavern. No other dwelling on Main Cross street to the subburbs, on the W. side. One the residence of Lewis Pigg, Carpenter, on the E. side.

An old two story brick house on the same side near corner of Maxwell street commodious for a negro quarter and bagging factory of Thos. & Robert Barr, or of Robert alone, was erected and in operation about this time opposite to it

stood in or at the edge of a shallow pond a large walnut tree nearer the W. side of the Street. The lots of the Maxwell property from Maxwell Street South and from Main Cross Street East, and other streets of the burying ground were not laid out I think till about 1811 & then sold by Messrs Stephens & Winslow for Maxwell. A small 2 story frame of Dr. Ridgeley's Main Cross Street S.W. rented out and situated on his farm on W. side of the hill going out of town, and a one or two story frame near a square further on the E. side was the residence of an Englishman, Dr. Champney, who had a remarkably fine grey stud horse called Forester—his son Thos. Champney was one of the few school fellows I had in Transylvania University who commenced the latin grammar with me in 1803—Benijah Bosworth a very ingenuous Millwright and early citizen, occupied the same place after Dr. Champney left which was very soon. This finishes Main Cross Street South—Main Cross Street N. of Main—2d house from corner W. side the bakery and residence of Mr. I. Smedley, near him the residence of Hiram Shaw father of Nat & Hiram hatter partner with the older Mr. Lowry, whose residence was near or adjoining, Lowry & Shaw the style of the firm—then the residence of John or Jack Lowry, Junr. the partner & brother-in-law of Wm. Clark, whose Hat store & factory was on Main street S. at and near the S.E. corner of Main, 2 houses, Clark occupying one of them the Shop one Mrs. Rebecca Green Mantua Maker sister of John Lowry, occupied the S.W. corner of Short Street and Main Cross.—Occupant of the N.W. corner not remembered. William Ashton an esteemed citizen from Philadelphia, an enterprising Carriage Maker, 2d door n.w. side of the street His Carriage factory adjoining his family residence Jacob & Wm. Ashton were his sons. Matthias Shryock and Michal Gough Shryock & Gough—2 very worthy citizens Carpenters and partners had the next two houses, one of them set a little off from the street. Mr. Shryock is the father of the accomplished Architect, Cinnncinnatus Shryock and present Councilman from his ward, and Mr. Gough of Mr. Percival Gough. A Mr. Tilton, relative of R. Barr, an esteemed citizen with a most amiable wife lived adjoining James Conover, a Saddler, on E. side above Short Street.

Jona Stout an enterprising Coach Maker resided in one of the houses a few doors above Church Street on E. side Main Cross and his large shop in the rear and adjoining his Dwelling. I think Mr. Stout removed to Limestone Street not far from the spot occupied by the Catholic Church. I remember calling there to see a worthy young man by name of Andrew Anderson in his employ who was very sick Mr. Ashton in the height of his business took as partners Beach & Neil a painter and Smith they carried on the business very largely Ashton Beach & Neil, the Carriage business in Lexington from about 1808 to 1820 was a very large one.

One door S. of the 1st Presby. Church was a plain 2 story building on a large lot, South west corner Main Cross and Second Street—the lot running back to the alley or street, the back part of which was appropriated for the carriages and horses of members from the Country, in which sheds for horses were arranged, was built in the year 1806. This building was built from funds arising from Sale and ground rent lease &c of their West portion of the public square. Their first Church or Meeting House of frame situated on their property on Mill Street near Main was sold and discontinued after 1805.

Soon after its erection in 1806 or 1807 I remember hearing a remarkable sermon. I was sitting in the gallery on the northern side, from a learned Minister by the name of Wilson I think from Bedford, Pena. who was on a return from the South where he had been for his health. He took for his text the first few verses of the book of Genesis, which he read to us also in the original Hebrew, descanting on its sublimity as far superior to our English version. Either in his sermon or his prayer he laid very special stress upon the wickedness, crime, and especially the lewdness and debauchery of this wicked little village. He was very fervent to God for his mercy

upon this wicked little village. He seemed to open up to the view an amount of corruption and abomination in the place I who had been born and raised up here had never dreamed of before—None of our own preachers had ever indicated to us half as much. I thought it must be carricature, which he had from some enemy of Lexington. since that I have seen the distorted picture of Ashe, the English traveler (which will be found on page 6) who professed to have seen Lexington in the year 1806, this corroberation looks like there must have been some foundation for this dark and unpalatable picture. S.E. corner of 2d Main Cross St. was a small brick 2 story house used as a dwelling and grocery. Tho. January's Second Rope Walk, erected near this time extended from near 2d to near 3d Street—Not a single house remembered on Main Cross Street in 1804 beyond Second Street with the exception of a small non descript brick house in a large out lot of George Anderson, not far from 5th Street W. side, off from the street, but long since taken down his sons called it the summer house.—In the year 1804 the Methodists had no other Meeting House than one of frame; their first brick one was built in an out-lot, corner S.W. of Short Street continued & Dewees street in the year 1806 or 7. Occupied many years after and to this day as an African church; their next house of worship was the brick one erected on Church Street N.W. side in the year 1822, between Market and Limestone street and continued there many years. High Street West of Mill, Edward West & family resided on the 1st lot a frame with brick addition by his daughter Kitty & his Shop a small brick building, the residence of Rev. Jame Welsh in next frame house, who kept a small school there in 1802, the next on the same or N. side the street the residence of John Jones, an Englishman a cotton spinner and blue dyer a man of intelligence and worth whose factory a stone building, was on the lower part of the lot fronting Water Street then Melchior Myer's large frame house on N.E. corner High & Main Cross St. The daughters Kate and Christina made Pies and Cakes and sold them on some public occasions. They were both married to respectable mechanics, only one or two houses on S. side the street between Mill & Main Cross St. High Street contd. Mr. Caldwell's residence & factory has been mentioned

two or three houses beside those were on the same side one from about the year 1806 occupied by John Wigglesworth a respectable Englishman with an amiable wife and daughters then young when he first came to the place about the year 1806 he opened a small store for a short period on Main Street a few doors above Mr. Frazer's corner. A small building near the corner of next street set a little in was the first residence I recollect of W. Macbean and his family.

High Street beyond Spring a few doors resided Boshart and family and next lot John Hull who built about this time or Soon after his large brick dwelling (afterwards Dr. Lloyd Warfield's) Miss Betsey Keiser on next lot, and the next but one a neat two story residence of Jacob Hull corner of Locust Street afterwards owned and extended much by Joseph Putnam, a highly respectable citizen for a number of years.

Crossing Locust Street was the residence of Joseph Hostetter, a German Butcher, whose Shop was in the lower part of his lot on water Street. Across the street at his corner to High Street continued was the residence of James Kerns, a good two story brick, who had been for some years a Rope & Bagging Manufacturer. High St. from Main Cross South side—one or two houses occupants nor recollected then crossing Spring Street on S.W. corner, the residence of John Lowman & family for a number of years the foreman of Thomas January in his rope & bagging Manufactory, near on the same side was built some years after this, the next residence some distance from the street of brick of Chas. Humphreys Esqr. where he resided, and his amiable family until his death—afterward occupied by Mr. Purnell Bishop who kept a store of plated sadlery &c . on Main Street, North side, between Mill and Broadway, a much esteemed and valuable citizen. No other house on S. side High Street West till you come to the old large 2 story stone residence of Col. Robert Patterson a commanding situation, with a spacious yard in front and on each side, whose farm commenced on High Street. His peach orchard in 1802 or 1803 east of his residence occupied what was afterwards several lots, when sold out to purchasers for building. It was in 1804 he rented out his premises and removed to Dayton Ohio and the same year he entertains an encampment of Indians whom I saw their way to Washington City.

On Short Street N.W. corner of Mill was a large lot with white frame house on the corner and small brick office or tenement on same, the property of Saml. & George Trotter, and for several years the residence of George Trotter, Jr.—Adjoining house and Lot on Short Street a good two story brick residence and paint and drug Store of an early citizen, Mr. Francis Downing, brother of Saml. and of Dr. R.W. Downing, whose narrow escape from the Indians when residing at the Fort ______ in Bath County is recorded in the Western Review of W.G. Hunt for the year 1819 or 20—Mr. Downing took in early as a partner Thos. Grant Downing & Grant, Drug & Paint Store. The next house a white frame the residence of Mrs. Wilson, widow of Nathaniel Wilson and sister of Major Abm. Parker—Subsequently owned by Oliver Keen Esqr. together with a large livery stable which he established—Residents of the next house or two not recollected, then two brick houses including the N.W. corner of Main Cross corner one the residence and Chair manufactory & turning shop of Robert Holmes one of our earliest citizens. One of his daughters married our much esteemed citizen Richd. H. Chinn Esqr. Attorney at Law, who emigrated to Lex. from Carlisle same yr. with my f. On the opposite side the occupants of one or two houses not remembered, beside a large blacksmith shop, kept subsequently by Josiah Ennis, one lot from the corner of Main Cross St.—Short Street West continued, first house was that of the widow of Robert Parker decd. her house a moderate size brick of two stories on a large lot occupied the same spot as that of J.B. Wilgus's elegant residence. King, the father of Robt., the carpenter who for several years with his wife Keeper and Matron of the Lunatic Asylum, resided in a house on the opposite side of the street near to Spring Street, and crossing that street West were two or three log houses or cabins of disreputable people.

Jefferson Street not laid out or built at this time. One brick house on corner of Georgetown Street was the residence of Laban Headington & family Class leader &c of the Methodist church, a much esteemed citizen and carpenter for many years. His son a young man of talents became Judge Headington of Cincinnati. On Georgetown Street not far from Second west side was the residence of the family of Capt. May, whose son William near my own age was a worthy and amiable young man, afterwards removed to Illinois. The daughters were all respectable and married well—the eldest to Gwin R. Tompkins Esqr. for several years County sheriff, they had an interesting family of children; the next one to David Sutton who became a wealthy citizen; the third Kitty to Mr. Lawson who also a successful carpenter and afterwards Manufacturer in Hemp & the fourth Harriet to Thomas L. Roberts, one of whose daughters married Mr. J.

Chamberlain a Hardware Merchant of Louisville. Other residents of Short Street west not recollected. Short Street east of Mill N.W. Corner neatly built & resided in 1803 by Hon. John Pope, afterwards for some years the residence of Mrs. O.M. Russell, next building erected at same time Dr. James Fishback. Fishback's house was afterwards for a number of years the home and residence of Dr. Joseph Boswell and family. The first house beyond was a 2 story building, residence and Shoe Store and Grocery of William Ross, two of whose sons went to college—the next an old white frame on N.W. corner Market & short used about this time as the Tavern & residence of John Keiser the second—father of Col. John (now in part of the site &c. of Northern Bank of Ky.)—remainder of Short street page 146. On Short Street continued beyond Limestone Street—One or two smith shops and Carriage Manufactories, and several stables, no residence till you cross Walnut street, the next lot to the Lodge a lot residence after years a small brick house of William C. Bell, son-in-law of Capt. Walter Carr and Clerk for Saml. & Geo. Trotter, next a residence of Thos. W. Hawkins afterwards of James Prentiss and near to John Bruce's Bagging Manufacturer & partner of Ben Gratz Esqr. their factory on Downs Street—also of Maddox Fisher, Bricklayer and lastly of Thomas C. Waters & family. On opposite side of street only one or two small log buildings of black people, and on S.W. corner of Short St. continued and Downs St. was Methodist brick church, afterwards the African. Mill street above Short, one house on West side & two on east side before coming to First or Church Street, and between that and Second Street Col. Thomas Hart's residence, the first house then (now the second) the second a residence erected by him for the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Clay, and one at Upper, S.W. corner of Mill & 2d. St. for his son Thomas Hart Junr. where he first resided: Second Street opposite to Mr. Hart Mill Street no farther opened yet, was the Hemp house and Rope Walk of Thomas January, and his residence back and west in the same lot the same that had been that of his father Peter January Senr. The whole block or square to the alley between Mill Street and Main Cross, —subsequently 2 or 3 other houses have been built by others and in 1804 to 1808 or 9 a log frame house situated between Mr. Clays & Thos. Hart, Jr. in which a white smith by the name of Wilkinson, English or Irish, resided. At whose sale of Books the Lexington Library bought the London Monthly or Critical Review for a number of years, and I bought Wanostrocht's Grammar and other French books—he was an ingenious and intelligent man. Between Col. Hart's & Mr. Clays not long after was the residence of Asa Blanchard an esteemed & valuable citizen: afterwards of Dr. Bush. Mr. Clay's residence afterwards of James B. January and subsequently for many years of Dr. Benjamin W. Dudley, lately of J.J. Hunter, now 1874 of Col. Wm. C.P. Breckinridge.

Opposite to lower part of Col. Hart's lot on Mill Street Eastern side corner of

Church St. was the residence first of John P. Wagnon, a racer of horses from So. Carola.: 2d of John D. Young Clerk of Fayette County Court whose wife was daughter of Saml. Blair Esqr., she dying of consumption left no family; and next of William T. Barry, Esqr.. (whose wife was the eldest daughter of Waller Overton) (his law office on the same lot on Church street) afterwards the shop of Dr. Benj. W. Dudley; now a larger building renewed, residence of Ephriam D. Sayre. Some vacant lots then above, then a 2 story brick residence for some years of Danl. Bradford Esqr, next above the residence of Rev. John Ward—of Mr. Willm. T. Smith, and at the corner first Mrs. Col. Hart & daughter Mrs. Price, second Thomas Grant and his family, and lately of G.W. Sutton and family. Immediately above the lot of E.D. Sayre, of late lots were purchased by the First Presbyterian Church on which is built their elegant new Church—securing at the same time on the other or Market Street end of the lot a parsonage house for their preacher.

Corner of Church Street and Main Cross was the last residence of Rev. Mr. Chipley, and subsequently of his son Dr. W.S. Chipley, the spot is now occupied by the new and elegant Methodist Church called the Centennary Methodist Church. No other buildings on this street except stables till you pass Market Street, in the year 1804 except that of the Episcopal Church N.W. corner of Upper & Church St. was the tavern and residence of John McKracken, & opposite corner N/E corner Church & Upper a house occupied by Thomas Rankin, taylor, whose wife was a sister of Mrs. A.T. Skillman, and daughter of Major Robb. Several doors farther on same side of Church Street was the Methodist brick Church built by their Society in the year 1822. A Mrs. ________ whose family I have some recollection of, the daughter a member of our S. School and Church died of consumption, occupied a frame house on S. side of the street near Limestone St. were several houses for some years of a very bad reputation on this street, giving the street a bad name. On the East Bar Street was laid out and handsomely built on long after this period.

The Race course lot at this time and for years after was included between Short Street and Third Street and from Jefferson to the Georgetown Road.

There was not at this time a house on Jefferson Street and none between that street and the Georgetown Road on Second Street, or on Third. Nor was the foundation stone of that splendid State Institution the Eastern Lunatic Asylum yet laid as the Fayette Co. Lunatic Asylum, for the first movements of our Citizens were not yet made in it till the year 1816. At the edge of town on Georgetown Road opposite lot of Lunatic Asylum was the residence of an early and esteemed citizen Martin Hoagland in a moderate size two old story brick building, he had a small farm of a few acres. His son Solomon was a fellow student of Mine in Transylvania.

Salaries of Clerks in Stores in early times, 1793 to 1800.—

The following is a copy of the agreement of Patrick McAffry with W. Leavy as his clerk written by himself in the first Day Book for that year.

This day I agreed with Mr. William Leavy for four pounds monthly, and he is to find me boarding and washing and Merchandize for my own wearing at first cost.

Lexington January 3d 1793 Patk. McAffry

Mr. McAffry was a valuable assistant and clerk for two years or more.

Agreement of Joseph Oliver brother in law of Geo. Anderson, of John Boggs & Alexr. Fraser.

This day agreed with William Leavy for Seventy-five pounds per year, and he is find me decent lodging, washing and whatever goods I want under that amount I am to have them at difference of currency.

Aug, 15th 1795 Jo Oliver

Entd. by him in blank leaf of Day Book

Jo Oliver was considered the best Salesman, Storekeeper and Clerk in Lexington in his day—he was with W. Leavy several years, afterwards with James Weir. Elijah W. Craig's Agreement Dec. 1798 entered on page 82 40. pr. year. Elijah though writing a good hand had no previous knowledge of the business.


Note on item on salaries &c 82 & 158 p. The Difference of currency which means 25 per cent advance on first cost; Goods were always bought in Philadelphia, where the dollar is seven shillings and six pence,—here in Kentucky and Virginia are but six shillings to the Dollar.

On this subject the currency in marking our goods it was a very convenient way of calculating. The difference of currency and the addition of carriage was the usual wholesale terms of selling goods in Lexington for many years. It was thought reasonable and low. It was the rate sold by my father to a number of excellent wholesale customers when I first entered my father's store as an assistant and clerk when I left college in October 1811 and for many years after. I think these rates continued at least to the period when I became partner with my father, 1817, and for long after that time. It has been comparatively of late years only that the rates of selling Goods by Wholesale has been reduced down to ten and twelve and a half per cent advance on first cost, and carriage.

Wm. Leavy's business from 1789 to 1794 entire, including purchase of lot in margin

Witnesses to 1st Note Maxwell Bines, Saml. Postlethwait, to the others Patt McAffry Saml. Postlethwait Jr.

I have seen the original bonds of Wm. Leavy and George Tegarden to John Duncan cancelled and paid off a bundle tied up by W.L. given on the January 1st 1792,, from which will appear the following sums paid for the Stock of Goods bought of him— Cr. Jan. 1792 121.16 6

  due The Bonds call for
  20 Oct. '92 885. 4. 0
  20 Oct. '92 338. 3. 0
It may be some further sum was paid 20 Oct. '92 338. 3. 0
at the advance payment of 1st Jan 1792 for Apl. '93 338. 3. 0
W.L.'s advance payment probably   1899. 13. 0
more than advance   338 . 3. 0
    2238. 1. 0
the amount of his adventures of Goods 1788 sold by Thos. Bodley and the addition of at least three years salary his services as Agent or $7426.83 of John Duncan    

Although the partnership of Tegarden & Leavy by their books continued two years to 1794 yet I am not sure, profitable s the business must have been but that Tegarden's name in the Signature to the Bonds & interest was only nominal—being as a Security. He was a partner at the same time with Patrick McCullough.

W. Leavy bought and paid in 1793 $1,000 to Col. Greenup for the house & lot where he had been doing business from 1789 & built on and improved.

I have been asked if Mr. Keen O'Hara father of Theodore, had taught here and if I knew him/ I knew Mr. O'Hara personally and esteemed him but think he never taught in Lexington. He taught in Frankfort with high reputation, was highly esteemed as a Member of the Catholic Church and as a Citizen.

John, James and Lawrence Daly, brothers, had excellent schools in Lexington and Fayette County one of them at the Church S. Elkhorn near Higbee's. They taught the common English branches and the Mathematics. They were Catholics, during a College vacation I went the space of a month or two to fill up the time & make myself better acquainted in Arithmetic &c to a school taught in 1808 by John Daly in the old Catholic Chapel on Main Street.—Mr. Ebenezer Sharpe, afterwards Profr. of Languages Transa. University taught a Latin and Grammar School in his Academy kept 1801—4 in Rankin's or Associate Reformed Church in Walnut Street.

Mr. Edward B. Hannegan, father of the Congressman from Inda. of the same name, taught an excellent Academy boys from about the year 1807 to 1812 in a building of Saml. & Geo. Trotter's of frame on Limestone Street a few doors above Main. Among other points his pupils were well instructed in elocution and delivery. I think he edited the American Orator published in Lexington 1807. He afterwards opened a Grocery Store and kept it for a year or two.

James Logue came to Lexington from Letter Kenney Ireland tin the year 1813, and opened an Academy for both sexes. He resided with my father a short time after his arrival. He was much esteemed, and had considerable success as a teacher. He pursued this occupation in Lexington for a number of years, and so successfully as to relinquish it for several years before his trip to Ireland & Europe and subsequent removal to Ohio, where a sister and her family resided, and in the mean time to be able to own several houses and lots; in one of which he resided—the remainder bringing him rent. Mr. Logue was elected Librarian of the Lexington Library and to the great satisfaction of the Directors and Shareholders until he desired in the year ____ to make a visit to England & Ireland when the Directors presented him with a handsome walking cane, as a testimonial of their appreciation of his services; on his return he was again

their choice for the same office, although he had filled the office satisfactorily for the space of twenty-five years.

During a part of Mr. Logue's employment as a teacher he taught an Academy for Females alone. My sisters and the daughters of Mr. Coyle were among the scholars. He was elected Mayor of the City of Lexington in the year 1846 and filled the station to satisfaction.—

Mr. John Fry an esteemed Classical And English Teacher from Danville, kept a school also for a few years on Market Street with great approbation by his patrons 1812-15. My brother Lawrence was one of his pupils.

Dr. Joseph Buchanan kept a select school for a few boys on the Pestalozzian plan in the year ____ George N. Sanders (son of Lewis) was one of his pupils—This school taught afterwards by Mr. Leonard.

John P. Aldridge an Eastern Man who married the daughter of one of my friends Mrs. Elizabeth B. Dickinson opened a school on Upper Street south of High several doors; about the year 1816. He pursued the Lancasterian or Monitorial System, and carried it on with considerable spirit for a year or two, but removed to Shelby or Jefferson County. Mrs. A's property was in Jefferson. He left without discharging his debts.

The Rev. Benjamin Orr Peers (son of Valentine Peers senr. of Paris and Maysville an excellent Virginia gentleman) who distinguished himself by his enthusiasm on the subject of Education and by his zeal to improve the systems in use, established an Academy for Boys where he also boarded them 2 miles S.W. of Lexington on the farm of Mr. J. Lamme. He aimed to combine the best points of Neef's system with plans of his own devising and I think gave great satisfaction to his patrons, and afterwards at his own residence in Lexington the large building which had been built and occupied by Thomas January. He called his Academy the "Eclectic Institute," and he gained considerable reputation whilst it continued.—Mr. Peers was a college Graduate of Transylvania of excellent standing a laborious student, a strong original thinker, and a writer of considerable power and estimation. He enjoyed very largely my personal esteem. I stood up with him at his marriage to Miss Bell, in Lexington about the year 1827. He died in Louisville in 1842.

In the year 1832 he was invited to the Presidency of Transylvania. He was inaugurated President at the Inauguration of the new Morrison College November 1833. He continued President about two years. An older brother of Mr. Peers, Valentine Peers, kept store for us several years, a very amiable young man. Female Academies were at different periods well patronized in Lexington:—The first of any eclat or distinction was kept by Mrs. Mary Beck from England and from Philadelphia, her commencement in Lexington was in the year 1800 to 1804 and she continued her school for young Ladies with considerable reputation for some years. Miss Mary Parker (Mrs. Crittenden) Anne Warfield (Mrs. Blair) Emily Austin (sister of Stephen F.) were among her pupils. Her husband George Beck

Esqr. an Artist of high standing as a Landscape Painter, and as a Poet, taught a select Academy of boys a Mathematical School in the year 1811-12 not long before his decease. My brother Lawrence was one of his pupils. A life of Mr. Beck, quite interesting, was published in the Port Folio written by a Baltimore friend in the year 1813. A number of Mr. Beck's Landscapes were painted for citizens of Lexington. I have two small ones bought at public sale.—

Mrs. A.P. Levell also from England (the wife of Mr. Levell), a fine painter of scenes for the theatre) taught for several years 1815-1818 a good Academy for young ladies. She was a woman of masculine intellect, and highly esteemed as a teacher. Mr. Levitt had his room for painting in Rankin's Meeting House. Col. Josiah Dunham, A.M. from Windsow, Cont. with his estimable lady and several teachers came to Lexington and opened his female Academy in the year 1818 in the spacious house and rooms lately occupied in part by Mr. Aldridge. He soon had a very large and flourishing school. Him and his lady were esteemed members of our Society. He boarded a number of pupils from various parts of the State, and some from South Carolina & Georgia. He was a fine Instructor, and Manager of his Academy, and I think well deserved the high reputation and character as a Teacher which he enjoyed. His school was discontinued in the year 182__. Very many of the first young ladies, ornaments of Society in Lexington and elsewhere were educated by Col. Dunham.—

Notwithstanding the presence of good Schools here some parents sent their daughters East to complete their educations. Mr. George Trotter Senr. sent his daughters to the excellent Moravian School at Bethelehem, Pennsylvania. John W. Hunt Esqr. sent his two oldest daughters to the Misses Mallon, at their highly esteemed academy on 4th Street, Philadelphia; and my father subsequently sent his second daughter Amanda for one session to the same young ladies in 1818-19. Dr. Jos. Scott sent his daughter (after Mrs. McFarland) to Madame Be's Sviyou to accomplish her in the French language.

Rev. James Blythe taught a select Academy of young ladies in Lexington, the branches of Grammar, Geography, Chemistry and Natural Philosophy &c., from about the year 1806 to 1815 principally in a school room on Main Cross street next door to the 1st Presbyterian church, in certain hours not employed by his college recitations. My aunt Mrs. Nancy Bowman, and Mrs. Tilford, were his pupils, as also my wife and her sister, Mrs. Holland & the Miss Ridgelys.

Note on side of page 162—

I copied from Mr. Beck's M.S. volume of his poetry a beautiful piece on "Autumn."—Several others of his poems are published in the Western Review, Lexn. 1819-20, and in the Port Folio 1812.

Teachers of Music of various merit and accomplishments especially for vocal music and the Forte piano, and of various nations, were early located here from the first of the century.

Mr. Henry Pies (French), Mr. Goodman of Frankfort, Mr. Green an Englishman, Mr. Cipriani an Italian who had the unbounded egotism and vanity of his own superiority in his powers and skill (Which were certainly very extraordinary) "as to say there was but one Jesus Christ and there was but one Cypriani," Mr. P.D. Marians, an Italian exile of talents and accomplishments, and Mr. Jucho, a German of superior talents and accomplishments, who married here the elder daughter of Rev. Van Doren, the esteemed principal of a respectable female academy, but lately established, whose second daughter was married to the Revd. Robt. Davidson pastor 2d. Presbn. church, and whose two sons, J.L. and Rev. L.H. Van Doren were esteemed. teachers of Academies a short time in Lexington. Other professors of Music were here from time to time these I think in their day were the most eminent.

To the well trod stage anon,
If Johnson's learned sock be on,
Or Sweetest Shakespeare, fancy's child,
Warble his native wood notes wild.


I remember well to have witnessed with singular and novel satisfaction a Theatrical amateur representation in an old house on N. side Water Street near to Limestone St. in the year 1804 or 5, the Poor Gentleman was the play, and the King and Miller of Mansfield the after piece, Students of Law, clerks of the Court or their Deputies were among the Actors. Some of these I remember were Col. Thos. L. Butler then a Deputy clerk, the hon. Joseph H. Hawkins and his brother Littleberry, these two filled the parts for females—Butler was the Miller of Mansfield whom I remember perfectly well as he stood up and sung in a very pleasant and acceptable manner the Song of the Miller,—the Hawkins have been dead many years Butler is yet (1874) in the enjoyment of health at the advanced age of eighty-seven. The Amateur theatricals were continued afterwards occasionally in other buildings.

As well as I can recollect it was about the year 1815 that a regular Theatre was erected and established in Lexington. It was begun and carried on with great spirit and success, the scite was on N.W. Spring Street between Water and High Street.

(To be continued).

Transcribed March 2002 by pb

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