Descendants of Michael Simon
1. Michael Simon, son of Michael Simon (1778--1848) and Elizabeth Fink (1778-1815) 1, b. 3 Dec 1812 1 Hattenheim, Duchy of Nassau (now in Hesse State - spelt Hessen in German), Germany, bapt. 31 Dec 1812 St Vincenz Catholic Chapel, Hattenheim 1 ; d. 2 Oct 1894 (#6825) Dungay Creek, via Kempsey, NSW, Australia ; m. 8 May 1842 1 Hattenheim, Margaretha Gross, b. 20 Dec 2013 1 Heidesheim, Hesse-Darmstadt (now Rheinland-Palatinate state - spelt Rheinland-Pfalz in German), Germany ; bapt. 20 Dec 1813 2 Catholic Church, Heidesheim; d. 3 Sep 1884 (#10473) Dungay Creek, Macleay River, NSW, Australia, daughter of Valentin Gros (1782-185) and Anna Maria Zimmer (1778-1847) and granddaughter of Stephani Zimmer and Margaretha Keller 1.
Michael & Margaretha Simon 3
Grave in Catholic section West Kempsey cemetery
The SIMON surname comes from the Hebrew personal name of Shim‘on and is thought to derive from the verb sham‘a meaning ‘to hearken’. In many versions of the old testament it is rendered as Simeon. In the Greek New Testament it appears as Simon. Both Simon and Simeon were in use as personal names in Western Europe from the Middle Ages onward. In Christendom Simon was always the more popular, at least in part because of its associations with the apostle Simon Peter, the brother of Andrew 4.
The GROSS surname is a variant of Groß and is also found rendered as Gros and Groos. It comes from the Middle High German "groz" meaning "tall or big".
Research of the LDS Church microfilms of the Hattenheim Catholic Parish registers and the International Genealogical Index (IGI), detailed in the above mentioned 2011 published book, established for hundreds of years before Michael Simon's birth persons with the Simon surname were living in the village of Hattenheim beside the Rhine river where Michael's father Michael Sr. was born in 1778 and was baptised on 14 June 1778 at St Vincenz - the eldest child of George Simon (1746-1806) and Anna Elizabeth Eckard who married in 1777 at St. Vincenz in Hattenheim where all seven of their children were also baptised. Michael's mother Elizabeth Fink was born in Feb 1878 and died two years after Michael was born on 21 Jan 1815 aged 36 years. She was the daughter of Christopher Fink and Anna Margaretha Clee who were respectively born in 1748 and 1743 in Kiedrick a few kilometers north east of Hattenheim and married there in 1866. 1.
St Vincenz Catholic Church in Hattenheim - built 1739-1740
St Vincent was the patron saint of vinedressers
When Michael's wife Margaretha GROSS was baptised in 1813 her father's name was recorded in the church register as Valentini GROS. The immigration record listed the names of her parents as Valetin and Anna M GROSS both deceased and her birthplace as Heidesheim, Hesse (i.e. Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany. Heidesheim was also inscribed as her birthplace on the above pictured West Kempsey cemetery headstone. The village of Heidesheim is situated on southern (left side) of the Rhine river opposite Hattenheim about 4 km distant. When Margaretha's sister Anna Maria arrived in Sydney three years earlier in 1852 the immigration record also had her birth place as Heidesheim and also stated her mother was deceased. The record had her mother's full maiden as Anna Maria ZIMMER and stated her father Valentin GROSS was still alive and living in Heidesheim 2. According to the IGI when they married in 1810 in Hackenheim, Rheinhessen, Hessen, his name was recorded as Valentinus GROOS (Latin spelling) with parents Martini GROOS and Magdalena ROHR, and the parents of his spouse Anna Maria ZIMMER were Stephani ZIMMER and Margaretha KELLER 2.
Margaretha's mother Anna Maria died in Heidesheim on 25 Jan 1847 aged 66 years (based on her 1880 IGI baptism date) and her father at Hattenheim 6 Feb 1855 aged 73 only three months before the family departed for Australia 1. As he died in Hattenheim it suggests that sometime after Margaretha's sister Anna Maria left for Australia in December 1851 he had likely moved from Heidesheim to Hattenheim to live with Michael and Margaretha.
As depicted in the below ancestry chart the research also determined the respective parents of Christopher Fink and Anna Margaretha Clee, maternal great-grandparents of the Australian family progenitor Michael Simon, were Gerald Fink and Maria Dorn and Johann Adam Clee and Elizabeth Braunen 5.
The once Duchy of Nassau
The Duchy of Nassau, where Michael Simon was born and resided until he emigrated to Australia in 1855, passed into history as a separate state in 1866 when annexed by Prussia after being on the losing Austrian side in a war between Prussia and Austria and other members of the Austrian dominated German Federation. It then became a part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. After WW II Hesse-Nassau province became part of the federal state of Hessen, spelt "Hesse" in English. In 2014 it had a population of just over six million with Wiesbaden as the capital and Frankfurt au Main the largest city.
Resulting from Napoleon Bonaparte's victory in 1805 over Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved and in 1806 the Confederation of the Rhine came into being with Napoleon as its "protector". The Confederation included two Countships Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg. Under pressure from Napoleon their ruling dukes agreed to merge them in August 1806 to form the Duchy of Nassau under their joint rule. The elder of the two dukes died in January 1816 and was succeded as joint ruler by his eldest son Adolphe. After the elder duke's joint ruling cousin who had no male heir died two months later Adolphe became the sole ruler until dispossessed when the Duchy was annexed by Prussia in 1866.
During the Napoleonic Wars the Duchy was on the French side but after the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813 changed sides in 1814 to join the allies in fighting against the French Emperor. Along with England, Prussia, Austria, Russia and the Netherlands it was part of the Seventh Coalition that on 18 June 1815 defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo after which he abdicated and went into permanent exile on the island of St. Helena. The Duchy then had a population of 275,000 and contributed 5,610 troops to the Duke of Wellington's army and the adjoining Principality of Orange Nassau 1742 6. Together their three regiments represented more than 10% of Wellington's army of 68,000 at Waterloo.
That year the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation, an association of Central European states to serve as successor to the 1806 abolished Holy Roman Empire, and approved the incorporation of Orange Nassau into the Duchy of Nassau. At the time of the 1815 merger with Orange Nassau the Duchy covered 1900 square miles in area (about one-fifth the size of Wales) extending to the northwest from the merger of the Rhine and Main rivers and on the north bordering Orange Nassau. Following the incorporation of Orange Nassau the Duchy achieved its final form in 1816 and became a mid-sized German state with Wiesbaden as its' capital. This artificial creation by historical circumstance unified within its borders one of the most heterogeneous populations to be found in the German Confederation comprised of two dozen former secular and ecclesiastical states of differing religious confessions, traditions, and political systems. By 1819 only 7 percent of the population were living in towns of over 2,000 inhabitants and Wiesbaden the capital and largest city had only slightly over 5,000 inhabitants. With the notable exception of the Rheingau region and flatlands near Frankfurt au Main the terrain of the Duchy was mainly mountainous and agricultural conditions in those regions comparatively poor 51. Thus when seasons were adverse, or in years the potatoe blight manifested itself, or severe frosts were experienced at the wrong time decimating a crop or substantially reduced yield, the inhabitants of the mountainous regions dependant on the affected crop were more subject to famine than those living in the more fertile regions who had a greater variety of agricultural produce available to them.
After Waterloo the Duchy next figured in the history of European wars in respect of its participation in the coalition that fought the Russian Empire in the 1854 to 1856 Crimean War where the last major military event was the capture of city of Sevastopol in September 1855 after a year-long siege. In accounts of that war, in which Austria remained neutral, the coalition is usually referred to as having comprised the British Empire, French Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia and Duchy of Nassau who in all committed just under 1 million troops 7. Four years after the Simons' left for Australia in 1855 the Duchy was on the losing side as an ally of Austria in the 1859 war against the French and Piermont in Northern Italy 8.
It was reported in 1859 by the United States Consul for the Duchy that at the 1834 census the population of the Duchy numbered 370,374 and in 1855 when the Simons' emigrated that year's census gave the number of inhabitants as 428,237 compared to 429,060 in 1852 9. After the 1815 merger with Orange Nassau this was the only recorded downturn in population and appears in part explained by the greater part of the emigration during the years 1849-1868 from the Duchy of Nassau to Australia as having been in 1854 and 1855 10. The US Consul's report had the 1858 census as finding the inhabitants of the Duchy occupied about 70,000 dwellings in 31 cities, 36 towns, and 817 villages and there were 238 farms, 1054 mills, 54 forges and iron works. It stated the then population of the capital Wiesbaden was 15,529 with the next largest being Limburg with 3721. The report gave the numbers of the two major confessions as Lutherism (Evangelical Protestants) 223,738 and Roman Catholics 197,635. Wine was stated to be one of the principal items of export with an annual production of approximately 2.448 million gallons (11.1 million litres) 9.
Emigration to Australia
Michael and Margaretha Simon and their five surviving children arrived from Hamburg in Germany at Sydney in New South Wales in Australia on 18th Sept. 1855 on the Wilhelmsburg 11 as bounty immigrants in a group of twenty-five married couples of whom only four were unaccompanied by children. Also arriving at Sydney on the ship with the bounty group were slightly over one hundred other German immigrants who did not emigrate under the same bounty scheme and for whom as the shipping agents list has not survived there is no written arrival record. Almost all the male family heads in the bounty group were listed as from the Duchy of Nassau with their birth places mostly villages in the Rheingau such as Ostrich, Hallgarten, Erbach, Eltville, Winkel and Budenheim located within a few kilometers of Hattenheim where Michael and seven of the family heads were born and resided before departure. In the bounty group 39 adults and children were from Hattenheim. Their family surnames were:- Ettingshausen, Harbig, Klaus, Korn, Simon, Stassen, Weber and Wolf. Only the Klaus family of eight exceeded in number the Simon family's seven. The recorded occupations of the eight family heads from Hattenheim were all in the wine industry - three were listed as coopers (barrel makers) and the rest as vinedressers. Apart from tourism and as place for retirement away from the city bustle, Hattenheim remained in 2009 essentially as it was then, a small traditional German wine town located about 50 kilometers south west of Frankfurt on the north bank of the Rhine river with a population approximating 2300 compared with 1000 given in a 1852 published travel book that gave the then population of nearly Eltville (also the name of the district in which Hattenheim was located) as 2000 12.
The Wilhelmsburg left Germany from the port of Hamburg on 10 May 1855 with 478 emigrants accommodated in steerage class. It was usual in the 1850s for a voyage from Hamburg to Sydney to take about four months. After rounding the Cape of Good Hope and, riding the Roaring Forties trade winds down to Australia and around Tasmania, the ship arrived on 26 Aug 1855 after a 107 day passage at Hobart where more than half the emigrants disembarked. At that time Tasmania had in place an immigration scheme under which the government paid all except £5 of the fare resulting in 858 German immigrants arriving there that calendar year of which about a quarter came on the Wilhelmsburg. Whilst the ship was in Hobart there were conflicting rumors in respect state of health of the immigrants and their manner of care during the voyage and the immigration agent did not permit the transfer of the sick to the hospital until after they had been seen by the agent's nominated doctor on the day following arrival 13. Thirteen days later on 8 September the ship departed on the final leg to Sydney with all 39 adults and children from Hattenheim still aboard where it arrived on the 18th. In respect of deaths during the voyage one newspaper gave the number as seven men and eight children and reported on the approach to Hobart the ship met with violent gales causing the loss of a new suit of sails. Another stated on the final leg from Hobart to Sydney there was one death.
Seventeen years before the eight families from Hattenheim arrived on the Wilhelmsburg the first organised group of immigrants from the European continent to an Australian colony were six vinedressers from the Hattenheim area who arrived in Sydney from England on 23 Apr 1838 on the Kinnear. Three were from Hattenheim and the other three from the nearby villages of Erbach and Mittelheim. To address the unavailability from England of skilled vine-dressers the Macarthur brothers of Camden had sought and received permission to source them from the continent and Major Edward Macarthur personally signed the six up at Hattenheim on 9 Oct 1837 to a written five-year contact to work on improving the "Camden Park" vineyards first planted in 1820 with vines brought from France in 1817 by their late father John Macarthur. The upshot was that in 1841 awards were won for Macarthur wines and brandy exhibited in London 14. By 1849 the "Camden Park" vineyards covered 10 hectares and were producing annually over 72,000 liters of red and white table wines and brandies and vine cuttings were being distributed throughout the colony and the Barossa Valley. Thus these six vinedressers from Hattenheim and nearby villages, termed the "Original Six" by their descendants, played a historic role in the birth of the Australian wine industry. In respect of the Macarthur's of Camden, two vinedresser couples from Budenheim located about 8 km east of Hattenheim who arrived with the Simon family in Sydney in the bounty group were listed to be indentured to the Macarthur brothers at Camden evidencing their continued interest in sourcing vinedessers from this particular wine producing district of Germany.
In respect of the history of wine grape growing in the Rheingau a 1841 published encyclopedia described Rhenish wines as the finest in Germany, with the Rhine river vines first planted in the third century under the emperor Probus, and according to a still existing tradition the first in the Rheingau being transplanted there from Orleans by Charlemayne. The said to be about five leagues long (28 kilometers) Rheingau wine growing district, (gau is a German word signifying district), was described as being "the true country of the Rhenish wines" that produced some Germany's choicest among which the best were those of Assmannshausen, Rüdesheim, Rottländer, Hinterhäusser, Geissenheim, with Johannisberg the best of all that in ordinary seasons on the spot for a bottle of the first quality cost from four to five florins (a florin or gulden in 1841 was equal to 1s. 8d. in English currency) and Hattenheim (called Markebrunner) 52.
When the Wilhelmsburg left Hamburg the passenger departure list gave Michael's age as 42, Margaretha's as 41, Jacob's as 10, and Joseph's as 4 - all a year less than given in the Australian immigration record upon arrival in Sydney 15. The immigration record stated Michael, Margaretha, and son Jacob could read and write which was to be expected as compulsory school attendance was introduced in the Duchy of Nassau in 1817 16. Upon arrival Michael at 43 and Margaretha at 42 were not the oldest couple on board the Wilhelmsburg. Under the foreign workers bounty immigration scheme 50 years was the eligibility age limit for payment of the bounty to employers. Two family heads were aged 49 and two 47, and the oldest wives were 47, 48 and 49. The oldest couple were vinedresser and shoemaker Valentin Kemp(e)nich and wife Maria, both aged 49 years who were accompanied by six children. They were from Hallgarten located about 2.5 km NW of Hattenheim and upon arrival Valentin and another aboard were indentured to employment with Henry Flett at Taree on the Manning River. The bounty group also included Eltville born Anton Gersback and wife Margaretta who later settled on a small farm (portion 10 parish of Yarravel) at Macleay River he named "Aldavilla" giving rise to the naming of the up-river from Kempsey locality of Aldavilla - Alda Villa being the original Roman (Latin) name for Eltville.
purported brought to Australia in 1855 by Margaretha -
flat stones from Rhine River each 12 to 13cm diameter 17
Sister already in AustraliaMichael and Margaretha's Sydney immigration arrival record stated Margaretta (sic), whose name was spelt "Margaretha" in the church register when baptised and same in the Hamburg passenger departure lists and on the West Kempsey cemetery headstone and death registrations of her Australian born sons William and Michael Jr., had - "a sister Mrs. Anton Senz living at Parramatta". She was eight years younger Anna Maria who when aged thirty with husband Anton M. Senz departed Hamburg on 8 Dec 1851 as bounty emigrants on the San Francisco and arrived in Sydney on 31 Mar 1852. Anton was indentured to Rev. Dr. Thomas Hassall of "Denbigh" Camden. Their immigration record listed the names of Anton's parents as Conrad and Elizabeth and that Anton was a vinedresser born in the village of Eltville. Likewise to Margaretha Anna Maria's surname was spelt in the record as Gross and her birhplace as Heidesheim. It was not uncommon for German immigrants after arrival in Australia to anglicise their given names. Anton changed his to Andrew and Anna Maria to Mary Ann and they had one child named Mary Ann (1853-1913) born in Sydney who in 1872 married St Ives orchardist Edwin Smith (c.1847-1915) at St Leonards and seemingly had at least twelve children born between 1873 and 1899 18.
In Feb 1854 when daughter Mary Ann was baptised they were residing at Kissing Point located about 10 kilometres up the Lane Cove River from Lane Cove. Anton died in 1863 and his death was registered under his adopted given name of Andrew with parent names recorded as Conrad and Elizabeth. In the year following his death his widow Mary Ann married James Rideal (sic). He may have been the James Riddel who was listed in the 1849-50 electoral roll as residing in Castlereagh Street in Sydney and in the 1851-52 roll in Elizabeth Street. He would have been the James Rideal listed in the 1872 Greville's P. O. Directory as a farmer at Rosedale, Lane Cove and the James Issac Rideal whose death at Lane Cove is indexed as 1874 with neither age or parent names given in the registration and for whom there is no indexed probate or administration grant. Mary Ann's 1883 (reg. #4844) death at age 63 with no parent names given by the informant was registered at St Leonards under the surname spelling of Riddel as having occurred at Gordon. Anna Maria (Mary Ann) and second husband James are buried in South Chatswood Cemetery where their memorial has been transcribed as reading: - "Riddel, James, d. 21 Apr 1874, age 61 yrs, Riddel, Mary Ann, d. 6 May 1883, age 63 yrs, Mother of Mary Ann Smith" 19.
Six months after Anton and Anna Maria Senz arrived Anton's then twenty-five year old brother Moritz arrived at Sydney on 25 Oct 1852 from Hamburg on the Peter Godffroy. Likewise to Anton the names of his parents were recorded in the immigration records as Conrad and Elizabeth and that he was a vinedresser born in the village of Eltville. Coincidentally with Anton's wife, his wife was also an Anna Maria aged 30 at arrival with a father named Valentine but with the difference that her mother was an Elizabeth. Their first indexed child birth was Joseph born in 1853. His baptism was recorded under the phonetic surname variant of SENS, as were some later official birth registrations of other children where the mother's name was recorded as Mary and Mary A., evidencing that like Margaretha's sister Moritz's wife Anna Maria also changed her given names from Anna Maria to Mary Ann although her will was probated under the given names of Anna Maria. When Moritz was naturalized in Feb 1873 it was recorded under the phonetic variants of "Morits Sens" and he was residing at Dundee about 27 kms north of Glen Innes 20. The couple subsequently settled in Glen Innes where Moritz was a boot maker and they lived out their lives. According to the NSW Probate Index Anna Maria died on 24 June 1896 at an indicated age of 74 years and Moritz in 1910 aged 82.
Why emigrate?Those intending to emigrate from the Duchy of Nassau were legally required to advertise in the local newspaper Herzoglich Nassauisches allgemeines Intelligenzblatt their intent so that creditors could pursue claims before the emigrant left. With married couples the person advertising was usually the male bread-winner. Research of the advertisements established in the Duchy of Nassau between 1806 and 1866 of a total 10,928 12.9% (1416) advertised an intent to go to Australia 21. Between the years 1849 and 1866 of those who advertised 73% were in the years 1854 and 1855 and of those over four fifths came from the three Rheingau (pronounced Rine-gow) wine-growing districts of Wiesbaden, Eltville and Rudesheim 22. In the Duchy as whole there were more Protestants than Catholics, 52% compared to 46%, and the ruling family of Duke Adolph of Nassau was Protestant. It is said of those who emigrated to Australia 4 out of 5 were Catholics 9, 23. As the majority who emigrated to Australia were from the Rheingau it suggests the villages in that region had a much higher Catholic population than elsewhere in the Duchy.
Why the Simon family left such a comparatively culturally advanced and well-ordered area for the then colony of NSW can only be speculated. Good reports of conditions in the colony from former residents of Hattenheim and nearby villages who emigrated earlier and, in particular presumably from Margaretha's sister Anna Maria Senz who arrived in Sydney in March 1852 and according to the Simons' immigration arrival record was at Parramatta when last heard from before Michael and Margaretha departed Germany, would likely have been influential in their decision. That both Michael and Margaretha's parents were deceased would have made the decision to forever abandon their culture and lifelong people associations easier.
In respect of the similar sized Rheingau village of Frauenstein situated about 11 kilometers from Hattenheim, based on letters and diaries written by some from the village who emigrated and others who did not and on other writings, the author of a 2009 published book short titled The Frauenstein Letters contended that an migration fever would have struck that village and stimulated those with an migration-prone personality to make the momentous decision. That thirty-nine from the village of Hattenheim were aboard the Wilhelmsburg suggests likewise was the case there. The author concluded those who emigrated from the Rheingau to Australia and their relatives who remained behind were evidently not paupers so that poverty was not likely a factor of significance in the decision to emigrate. In respect of adjacent to the Rhine river villages such as Hattenheim the humidity from the river provided excellent growing conditions and as a whole the Duchy of Nassua was a comparatively wealthy region of Germany with a surplus of food and agricultural produce in good seasons that included grain, flax, hemp, fruit and wine. It also had a wealth of mineral deposits that included silver, lead, copper, iron, coal, slate and shale and as 42% of the Duchy was heavily timbered from the time of early trade on the Rhine timber had been a saleable commodity 23.
Unquestionably the major inducement would have been the availability of the indentured labour bounty scheme under which married couples through an agent in Germany could emigrate to New South Wales with their passage paid for by the colonial government and an intended employer in the colony. A general labour shortage was being experienced in Australia in April 1847 when an immigration regulation, that with changes continued to operate to 1856, was introduced allowing for payment of a bounty to employers of specified categories of foreign immigrants. The regulation was specifically directed at bringing from the continent of Europe workers for employment by settlers in areas of agriculture and related production such the growing of wine grapes, production of the raw material for silk, and production of edible oil, where those with the necessary skills were not available from England. The 1851-52 gold discoveries in NSW and Victoria and, the consequent abandonment by many of their employment to seek their fortune on the goldfields, only exacerbated the existing general shortage of rural labourers.
As an experienced wine grape grower (vinedresser) Michael Simon fell into the category of those to whom the bounty scheme applied. From 1847 free passage was made available through immigration agents to those qualifying and able to obtain authority to leave Germany in consideration of which by pre-arrangement upon arrival their labour was contracted to a particular employer. Upon the engagement of the immigrant in the colony the employer thereby gained an entitlement to a government paid bounty of £36 per couple and £18 for each of their children aged over 14 years. Those for whom the government bounty was payable were contracted (indentured) to work for the employer for two years under pre-agreed conditions such as remuneration, housing, and the supply of rations. By October 1853 the immigration scheme had been had been extended to also provide a bounty of £9 payable for each male and female child aged from 1 to 14 years. The employer was obliged to pay the government £13 towards the cost of the passage for those aged 14 and over for whom a bounty was payable with the immigrant then required to repay the employer that amount out of the renumeration receiveable over the indenture period. Thus in the perception of emigrants with families and no English the scheme removed significant risk factors. As evidenced by the presence aboard the Wilhelmsburg as bounty immigrants of eight families from Hattenheim and, most of the other seventeen from the surrounding towns and villages, at the time there clearly was an enticing recruiting campaign in the Rheingau area by a NSW/German immigration agent. Upon arrival the Sydney newspapers reported almost all those who came on the Wilhelmsburg were brought out by Kirchner & Co. so presumably that company was the agent who recruited the eight families from Hattenheim 24. Company principal Frankfurt born Wilhelm "William" Kirchner was appointed NSW agent for German immigration in 1848 and spent from 1854 to 1858 in Germany personally directing emigrant recruitment campaigns. To assist in the recruitment he published a book in 1848 titled in its 1850 second edition Australia and its Advantages for Emigrants (English translation). It contained ecstatic accounts from earlier migrants of the conditions they had experienced.
Writers on the subject of the reasons for the emigration from the Rheingau region during the years from 1852 to 1855 when the main emigration occurred suggest political instability was not likely a significant factor. In the years after the Napoleonic period ended in 1815 the major political event in the Duchy suggesting any significant instability was during the revolution that swept through Europe in 1848 resulting in the rulers of some states in the German Confederation abdicating. When news of the Paris rising in February 1848 reached other cities in Europe it inspired copy-cat rebellions. In March the Duchy was the first German state to be swept by revolution. Thirty-thousand peasants marched on the seat of the Duchy at Wiesbaden thirty miles (48 Kilometers) west of Frankfurt. For sometime peasants had been upset about others elsewhere being freed from serfdom but not them and they forced the ruling head of the Duchy Duke Adolf to abolish serfdom.
It has been said, citing as the source for the reasoning correspondence with a University of NSW academic, that because it was a "fact that there was no compulsory military service in the Duchy of Nassau during the 1850s" it can be established one of the reasons for the Simon family's decision to emigrate in 1855 could - not have been to avoid future compulsory military service by the young sons 25. However the quoted assertion that there was no compulsory service in the Duchy in the 1850s so by implication to avoid such could not have been a factor in the decision to emigrate, does not accord with contemporary records that establish beyond question when the Simons' emigrated in 1855 and, in the preceding years and later years, there was a military service obligation in the Duchy. The author of the afore mentioned 2009 published book on the subject of emigration from the Duchy of Nassau to Australia in the 1850s, and particularly from the village of Frauenstein located about 11 kilometers by road from Hattenheim where the Simons' lived that had a similar population of 974 at the 1852 census, wrote that for those who lived there conscription was an accepted fact of life and the rules requiring military service varied at different times. Regulations were devised in February 1816 permitting men to emigrate provided they were older than 23 years and had completed their military service obligation, and by October 1816 if a son had been granted permission to emigrate that permission abolished the military service obligation for all other sons living with their parents. The local newspaper Herzoglich Nassauisches allgemeines Intelligenzblatt published lists of people who had evaded conscription. A list for May to October 1852 listed 130 men who had emigrated without completing their military service. The book's author suggested as this number for the whole of the Duchy was low it indicated most who had emigrated had prior to completed their military service.
One of the letters published in the book, written in 1856 by a sister living in the village of Frauenstein from which between 1852 and 1854 a total of 142 emigrated to Australia, to a married sister in NSW who with her husband departed that village for NSW in November 1854, mentioned her boyfriend was "conscripted" shortly after the married sister left in 1854, and that one of their brothers an 18 year-old shoemaker who emigrated in October that year on the Caesar had by emigrating avoided military service with the upshot that recently another brother had been called up and at the 29 Nov 1856 date of the letter was serving in the army. The letter stated the army commander had told the family if they had prevented the other brother from emigrating the brother who remained in Fraudenstein would not have had to undertake military service. The letter also mentioned on 24 Nov 1856 friends of the brother who emigrated were quote - "drawn in the ballot and must go into the army" 26. A surviving file for Eltville (the name of the district covering Hattenheim and same name village located 4 klms east of Hattenheim) for the month of September 1852 had that of 72 emigrating 65% had stated on their form they had completed their military service, in respect of which the author commented the percentage actually would have been higher as some of the 72 would not have been called up 27.
Many years before he emigrated Michael Simon likely had completed his own military service obligation. However whilst eldest son Jacob was still a decade away from being eligible to be drafted, having three young sons the possibility of one being drafted and what that might lead to if the army was involved in hostilities and the reserves were called up for active service, cannot be excluded as one of several considerations in the decision to emigrate.
Employment after arrivalMichael Simon's immigration arrival record had his occupation as a "vinedresser" and the Hamburg departure lists as a "weinbauer" (a wine grape grower). Whether he was a wine grape grower on land he owned or a tenant farmer is not known. Many who emigrated to Australia from the Rheingau in the period the main emigration occurred owned land and sold it before emigrating 29. His children's baptism records indicate by February 1847 when the fourth born child Catherine was baptised his occupational status had changed from farm labourer to farmer. The records for the first three children had it as tagelöner (a farm day labourer) and the other three as a hofmann (a farmer who cultivates land). As Michael's father died in April 1848 aged 69 as an only son by the time of Catherine's 1847 baptism it is possible Michael was working land his father owned and after his death maybe he owned or part owned ? 30.
The Sydney, New South Wales, immigration arrival record had Alexander Berry of Shoalhaven as his intended employer in the colony. Before they left Germany, through an immigration agent, presumably Kirchner & Co., Michael's labour would have been contracted (indentured) to Berry for a period of 2 years after arrival. Based on the conditions applicable to another from the same area of the Rheingau, who was indentured to Berry and in the mid-1850s and worked on his Coolangatta estate at Shoalhaven, in addition to shelter the agreement would have required the employer to pay an annual wage of £20 and supply a weekly ration consisting of 10 lb meat, 10 lb flour, 2 lb sugar, ¼ lb tea or ½ coffee. However advice is that the records of the Alexander Berry Coolangatta estate at Shoalhaven held by the Mitchell Library in Sydney do not record as employees either Michael or Frederick Korn, also from Hattenheim who with his wife and two children aged under 10 years arrived on the Wilhelmsburg with the Simons' and was also listed as to be employed by Berry 31.
In respect of the Simon family a notation in the immigration record read - This family is ineligible in the sum of the number of young children. The infant 12 months sick sometimes 31. It meant the Simons' intended employer Alexander Berry was not eligible to receive the bounties payable by the government in respect of their importation and employment because the number of their young children (i.e. those aged less than 14 years) exceeded the number approved by the governmment when Berry had applied to the Colonial Secretary in 1854 or early 1855 and was granted permission to import a family with a specific maximum number children aged less than 14 years pursuant to the then in force foreign immigration regulation of 17 October 1853.
When first introduced in 1847 the foreign workers immigration bounty regulation placed no limitation on the number of children allowed per couple for employer bounty eligibility. There was no bounty payable in respect of children aged less than 14 years and the reference in the regulation to a requirement that immigrants be "in good bodily heath" was clearly only in respect of those for whom a bounty was payable. It was clearly directed at requiring accuracy only in the documentation of immigrants for whom a bounty was payable and made no reference to children aged less than 14. The 17 October 1853 foreign immigration regulation in force in 1855 when the approval for the Simon family immigration was obtained still had no restriction on the number of children and similar wording to the 1847 regulation requiring a settler desiring to avail himself of the government bounties to before arranging to import persons first submit an application for approval to the Colonial Secretary that included a list specifying quote - "the number, condition, and calling of the persons" proposed to be brought out by the applicant.
The relevant difference between the 1847 and 1853 regulations is that in 1847 no bounty was payable for children aged under 14 years but under the October 1853 regulation a bounty of £9 (half the 14 years + rate) was payable for all children aged under 14 years. It seems in order to restrict the government's expenditure on the bounty scheme as much as possible, if the number of children arriving in a family exceeded the maximum number pre-approved, the clause in the 1853 reg stating - "the whole of the conditions thereby imposed will be strictly construed" was invoked thus explaining the Simons' ineligibility on the ground of an excessive number of children. One can understand the governmemnt's position - if say a settler applied and received approval to import a couple with a maximum of three children aged under 14 years and, the couple turned up with five under that age, why should the government pay £18 for the additional two whose importation it had not approved and it may not have been policy to approve? If it paid the bounty for the three it had approved then which three of the five would be indented to the employer for 2 years after arrival? The fault obviously lay with the Kirchner's agent in Germany who signed up the Simons' as indented to Berry in that the agent failed to ensure the number of their young children was in accord with the actual approval obtained by Berry. The Simons' were not the only family listed in the Wilhelmsburg immigration records with such a notation. George Reitz from Budenheim was one of two listed to be employed by J & W Macarthur at Camden. Likewise to the Simons' he had 5 children of whom 4 were under 10 years of age and his notation similarly read: - This family is ineligible in the sum of the number of small children. Employer Berry's application may be held in the Colonial Secretary's In-Letters for 1854 or early 1855. Whilst application was to Colonial Secretary it was the Government Immigration Agent who made the recommendation to the CS to approve an employer's application. No doubt whatever the reason upon arrival Michael Simon did not get the expected employment one can appreciate the bewilderment and disappointment he and Margaretha must have felt in that circumstance let alone having to additionally cope with the difficulties imposed by the language barrier.
Following the decision by the immigration office that the contracted employer Alexander Berry was not eligible for receipt of bounties it is possible his North Shore office deemed the Simon family unacceptable for the contracted employment on similar grounds - presumably because the 5 children exceeded the number for whom Berry had contracted to provide rations and accommodation as specified in the contract when it was entered into in Germany - i.e. the agreement was deemed by Berry to be void and accordingly he avoided the obligation to personally employ Michael.
An alternative to declaring the agreement void and, assuming Shoalhaven and not Berry's North Shore estate was where the intended employment was to be located, what is a possible explanation for the non-employment of the two at Shoalhaven? Perhaps with the bounty ineligibity he decided to sell (assign) the Simon's indenture contract to another party. The evidence is Berry's Coolangatta estate experienced a drastic loss of farm labourers to the goldfields in the immediate years following the 1851 strikes in NSW and Victoria and such caused him to alter his employment policy from the direct employment of farm workers to leasing of farms and the changed policy was the reason for a jump in the population of his Shoalhaven estate from 367 in 1850 to 1470 in 1856 32. It may be that in Sept. 1855 when Michael arrived there was no two-room cottage available in proximity to house the family as all had been leased out with the farms. So no accommodation meant no ability to employ Michael and Korn. Whatever the reason for Berry apparently not employing Michael such is fully consistent with the family folklore that he did not find the employment he came for. That the folklore in this regard is confirmed by the records raises the question of what other elements of the folklore might also be correct? 42
Fact and FolkloreAs there is only family folklore and speculation nothing is known for certain of the identity of Michael Simon's after arrival employer or even how the family came to be at the locality of Dondingalong when in April 1857 it was recorded as the birth place of the first Australian born child Michael Jr. After arrival Michael Sr. could have found an employer through one of the Sydney employment agencies. Authorised German immigration agent and merchant Kirchner & Co was at 1, Wynard-street in Sydney and in the same street, with an office and warehouse, was merchant Augustus Dreutler who advertised in The Sydney Morning Herald of 5 Nov 1855 that during an upcoming stay in Europe, in conjunction with authorised immigration agents, he was willing to attend to the selection of labourers of a description most wanted in the colonies. Only two weeks after the "Wilhelmsburg" arrived, in the same newspaper on 2 Oct. 1855, Dreutler advertised he was seeking an employer for a vinedresser as follows:- "GERMAN Gardener and wine-dresser is desirous to meet with a situation. Mr. A. Dreutler, Wynyard-street, will give further information." Was Dreutler seeking an employer for Michael Simon or Frederick Korn or both?
One family story is that after Michael failed to get the employment he came for the family traveled via the Great North Road to Newcastle and then on to Gloucester, Nowendoc, Walcha, Yarrowitch and from there to Rolland's Plains and across the range to Macleay River via Mt. Kipparra. This story traces to a granddaughter born after her grandparents were deceased 42. The problem with there having been an after arrival epic overland bullock drawn dray journey to the Macleay Valley, though the untamed Australian bush ever vigilant for an attack by rouge natives and unwelcome attention from bushrangers, and along what beyond Maitland would have been very rough and unformed roads that were no more than tracks, is that such seems more romantic than realistic.
The family came from a small ordered town of antiquity located beside the river Rhine where the surrounding land had been cleared and under the cultivation for wine grape vines for centuries. Whilst Michael's financial status is unknown, after arrival their only possessions would have consisted of the restricted amount of luggage they would have brought with them in steerage, so one asks why would they need a dray cart and bullocks to haul it to transport their possessions anywhere in the colony? Likely their only English would have been words learnt on the ship during the 107 day passage from Hamburg. Eldest son Jacob was only eleven when they arrived in Sydney and, even if Michael likely had prior military service so some firearms experience and the money to purchase tents, a dray, a firearm and livestock etc. he would not have had any animal husbandry or bullock driving skill and experience. Also the purported final stage to the Macleay from Rolland's Plains via Mt. Kipparra would not have been possible then except on foot or horseback as there was no dray cart trafficable road over the range from the Wilson River to Macleay River until at the earliest 1859-1860 - just a mailman's track for travel on horseback over the Marlo Merrican range and then down to Dungay Creek. The route further west from the north bank of the Wilson River from what today is Upper Rollands Plains to Mt. Kipparra went by way of Geary's Flat and followed the bank of Kullatine Brook to Mt Kipparra. It was traveled by the very early Macleay settlers with their livestock - not with vehicles such as drays. Except for the route on foot via the ocean beaches taken by the aboriginals the only other route from Port Macquarie to the Macleay River was partly by boat up the Hastings River to its junction with the Maria River and thence up the Maria to Mariaville (aka Boat Harbour) and from there via an early road of about 7 miles in length to East Kempsey. A compiler researched history of roads from Sydney and Maitland to the Wilson and Macleay rivers appears on the linked web page.
Apparently the source from which the story of an epic bullock dray journey from Sydney was handed down in the Michael Jr. line believed incorrectly that despite the cemetery headstone stating Margaretha was born in Heidesheim, Germany the Simon family would have had origins in France because the name "Margaretha" had sounded to her as being French (7% of all females on the Wilhelmsburg were actually named Margaretha!). Thus one has to wonder if the story of an after arrival bullock drawn dray trek from Sydney to Kempsey was not just a case, based on stories of how other relatives or early settlers such as how Catherine's husband Walter Grace reached Macleay River, of a knowledge vacuum being filled by an assumption! Perhaps by about the mid-1860s, after tenant farming for several years at "Clarefield" and having acquired livestock, farm implements and equipment, furniture etc. and, after a dray trafficable road over the Marlo Merrican range to Dungay Creek came into existence, it was just the final short stage to settle permanently at Macleay River that was actually accomplished by horse or bullock drawn dray and the original journey north from Sydney to Kempsey (or Port Macquarie) was actually made via the ocean in a coaster as such would logically be the expected mode of transport for a family newly arrived in the colony without significant encumbrances and little if no command of English?
Another handed down family story is that Michael's initial mid-north coast employer was Major Archibald Clunes Innes (1800-1857) of Port Macquarie who at one time was one of the leading pastoralists in the colony 33. Major Innes did have two Port Macquarie vineyards and distilleries and employed vinedressers. He brought out six vinedressers from Germany in 1852 under the 1847 bounty regulations indentured to him to work in his vineyards for which in May 1852 he received the government bounty of £216. The six would have arrived in Sydney on 31 Mar 1852 on the San Francisco on which Margaretha's sister Anna Marrie Senz and her husband also arrived. By the time Michael arrived in Sept. 1855 some of the six, after over a year previously having completed the two year term of indentured employment with the Major may have moved elsewhere. So it is possible the Major employed Michael for a period as a vinedresser. It is understood his son-in-law to be Patrick Mackay, who was then resident in Port Macquarie at Lake Road, did employ William Rosenbaum and his wife Marie Louise who arrived in Sydney with the Simons'. They are recorded as being at Port Macquarie six weeks after the ship arrived in Sydney implying they would have journeyed there by coaster 34.
During the major's absences in Newcastle Patrick Mackay likely had overall management of his Port Macquarie district affairs. Annabella Boswell's Journal mentioned in 1847 Patrick had charge of the keys to the Lake Innes homestead cellars when Mrs. Innes was absent and in 1859 in Port Macquarie he married the eldest Innes daughter Eliza. If Michael was employed by Innes the most likely places of employment would have been at the Major's 2560 acre homestead Lake Innes grant where from 1844 he established a 30-acre vineyard (by 1852 reduced in area to two vineyards of 9 and 5 acres), licensed distilling facilities to produce brandy to fortify his wines, a winery and wine cellars, or at his 1947 purchased or leased from William Stokes 10-acre "Clifton" vineyard situated about 1½ miles from the town of Port Macquarie. Michael could also have been employed at the Major's 22-roomed Lake Innes homestead where there was an extensive garden and dedicated accommodation for a gardener. However it is also possible, as is so often the case with handed down family history, that a garbling occurred in the handed down history in son Joseph's line by way of a mixing up of Michael Sr. with the father of Joseph's wife Arthur Bannerman. From a diary record it is known upon arrival in Sydney from Scotland on the Lady McNaughton on 28 Jan 1839 Arthur Bannerman was engaged by Major Innes and the presumption is he remained working for Innes on his Port Macquarie district farming and grazing properties until not long before he became the licensee of the "Bush Inn" at East Kempsey in Apr. 1853. At the link is a compiler researched article on aspects of the 1850s history of Major Archibald Innes with reasons why the story he was Michael's initial mid-north coast employer may have been factual.
Still another possibility is a variation in the family folklore that has it only Michael came north for employment and the rest of family remained in Parramatta residing with Margaretha's sister Anna Maria (Mary Ann) Senz and her husband Anton (Andrew) who the Simon family immigration arrival record listed as her Parramatta residing relative. It would certainly have been easier for Michael to find employment unencumbered by a wife and five young children of whom according to the immigration record the one year old was "sometimes sick". The 18 month time elapse from arrival to the birth of son William also suggests there may have been an initial period of separation. So the story they remained behind at Parramatta and only later joined Michael at Macleay River has some attraction. However a family researcher has advised upon arrival in 1853 Anton and Anna Senz were indentured to employment with the Rev. Thomas Hassall whose church parish and home property "Denbigh" was at Camden. The likely house in Parramatta where Anton and Anna were employed was an old one built originally by the Rev. Thomas Hassall's father Rowland that was located in George Street opposite "Harrisford" the initial site of 'The Kings School' when it began in Feb. 1832 and at which the Rev. Hassall's son James was a first term boarder. This house did have an orchard to which the school boys sometimes helped themselves. For the Rev. Hassall to have been able in 1853 to qualify for the bounty for employing vinedresser Anton Senz the orchard likely was in part a vineyard. However the same researcher has advised the Rev. Hassall's employment records held by the Mitchell Library in the relevant time frame do not disclose that anyone else resided at Parramatta with the Senz's. However it may be such only implies Margaretha and the children did not actually reside in the same cottage or quarters in the grounds as the Senz's but nearby in the town. Given the usual assumption and garbling found in handed down family stories it is possible Margaretha and the children remained in Parramatta for a period 24.
Most Favoured ScenarioIn addition to the above family folklore versions of Michael's after arrival employment history there is a scenario postulated by long-time Simon family researcher Dick Adams that has attraction. It is based on the recorded birth places in April 1857 and August 1859 of Australian born children William and Michael Jr. as respectively at Dondingalong and Rollands Plains, The latter is more exactly identified in Michael Jr's obituary as having been on the "Clarefield" farm in what was then the locality of Owen's Plains - today (2010) known as Upper Rollands Plains. At the time of the births farms at both places were owned by Horatio Tozer, a merchant, coastal shipping operator, landowner, and a store owner at Port Macquarie, and from at least the first quarter of 1857 also a store owner at East Kempsey. It is said the records show when the Simons' arrived in 1855 Tozer owned portion 11 of 302 acres in the Parish of Wittitrin, in the County of Vernon and from 1861 onwards in the County of Dudley, bearing his name on the surviving Parish maps. It was originally the homestead section of Magnus McLeod's licensed and later leased 2,560 acre squatting run named "Dondingalong" from which the locality took its name. McLeod, who was one of the first Macleay River settlers, sold the run to John Ainsworth lessee of the adjoining "Adelaide Plains" run that extended on the south to the County of Macquarie boundary on the dividing range. Ainsworth then sold the lease of the run to Tozer who subsequently purchased portion 11 from the crown. Presumably like other absentee owned farms in nearby Yarravel and Kalateenee parishes, Tozer's portion 11 was informally sub-divided into smaller areas or farmlets he either leased out to others on straight or clearing leases or perhaps farmed himself in charge of a Superintendent with employed farm workers. Thus the first April 1857 born Australian child William was born either on this Tozer owned portion or elsewhere on his Dondingalong run.
In respect of next and last born child Michael Jr's August 1859 birth place Horatio Tozer apparently then owned or leased the original 1920 acre "Clarefield" farm at what is today Upper Rollands Plains. In May 1852, some three years before the 1855 Simon family arrival in Sydney, when reporting on a flood in the district a Sydney newspaper stated - "A family on Mr Tozer's farm, at Clarefield, finding the waters rising rapidly, made for his house, at eleven o'clock at night, and at three nothing was to be seen but one wide expanse of waters over nearly all this fine estate" 35.
According to the Shipping Intelligence section of The Sydney Morning Herald in Sep. 1855 Tozer had the old 1831 Clarencetown built light draft steamer "William IV" operating on the Port Macquarie to Sydney route. However an 11 Oct 1855 advertisement in the same newspaper advised it had been taken off the run and replaced with his schooner "William". The postulated scenario is at that time, through one of the employment agencies in Sydney or in some other way, Michael found employment with Tozer and the family made the journey to Port Macquarie or Kempsey on the steamer "William IV" or his schooner "William" from where they located initially to Tozer's farm at Dondinalong where Michael was a tenant farmer or an employee for a period that covered the April 1857 birth of William, and from where by the time of Michael Jr's August 1859 birth at the also Tozer owned "Clarefield" at Owen's Plains he had relocated to either still work for Tozer or where he was leasing a farmlet from him.
In regard to the latter possibility that at the 1920 acre "Clarefield" farm he was not actually employed by Tozer but leased a farmlet there from him, in 1849 when still under the ownership of Amelia née Hayley widow of the original grantee William Skottowe Parker and, leased by her brother Frederick Hayley, a Sydney newspaper reporting on an action brought by her brother against the local Police Magistrate stated the property then had "several small tenants". Such is thought likely to have still been the case under the Horation Tozer ownership 25.
ConclusionThat Horatio Tozer had owned or leased both the "Dondinalong" and "Clarefield" properties at the relevant times does not in itself preclude an initial period of employment with Major Innes. Because there is no documentation the facts re the family's early years in Australia will never be known for certain. It is possible all the handed down stories contain within them an element of fact slightly altered during passage from generation to generation. The exact year of the first arrival of the Simon family at Macleay River, or their final settlement there sometime after Michael Jr's birth at Upper Rolland's Plains, is not known. Michael Jr's obituary stated only that the family resided at "Clarefield" for a number of years. Thus all that can be said is the final settlement at the Macleay was apparently between 1860 and April 1868 when daughter Catherine married Walter Grace at East Kempsey. The advice is there is no record of Michael Sr. selecting or owning land at Macleay River during his lifetime and the evidence is he was always a tenant farmer 20.
The 1872 Greville's Post Office Directory listed Michael as a farmer at Dondingalong. Of the three sons who arrived from Germany with their parents in 1855 the NSW to 1903 and subsequent Commonwealth indexes disclose only Jacob was naturalised. The presence of the names of the other two born in Germany sons on Commonwealth electoral rolls implies a naturalisation unless as seems probable the citizenship requirement for enrollment was not strictly enforced. Arguably the still standing as initially erected memorial in West Kempsey Cemetery, proclaiming Margaretha's birth place as Heidesheim in Germany, is the finest in that section of the cemetery and as such bears mute testimony to the love of the children for their parents.
In addition to twin daughters born in Hattenheim in 1843, of whom one was stillborn and unnamed and the other lived only five days and was baptised Anna Maria, Michael and Margaretha had the below listed seven children and thirty-five grandchildren.
Children of Michael Simon and Margaretha Gross were:
1. Jacob Philip Simon, b. 26 Dec 1843 36 Hattenheim, Duchy of Nassau (now in Hessen state), Germany; d. 25 Dec 1924 37 (#20134) Kempsey, NSW, Australia, buried in old Catholic Section, Frederickton Cemetery, NSW; m. 1870 (#2534) Macleay River, NSW, Margaret "Tottie" Fogarty, b. 4 Apr 1845, baptised 15 May 1845 Port Macquarie, NSW; d. 10 Jul 1938 4 (#18726) Gladstone, NSW, buried Frederickton Cemetery, daughter of Patrick Fogarty and Mary Ann McCarthy.
Unlike his brothers, who at departure each had two given names recorded in the Hamburg passenger lists, Jacob was listed with only one perhaps indicating his second name of "Philip" was not a baptised name but adopted after arrival in Australia.
2. Catherine Simon, born 5 Feb 1847 1, Hattenheim, Duchy of Nassau (now in Hessen state), Germany; bapt. "Catharina" 5 Feb 1847 at R. C. Church, Hattenheim 1; died 13 May 1933 (#5954) Graces Road, Bowraville, NSW; buried C of E section Bowraville Cemetery. She married 6 Apr 1868 (#2497) in C of E East Kempsey, NSW, Walter Grace, born 1 Nov 1840 at Boscombe, Wiltshire, England; bapt. 16 Nov 1840 Boscombe; died 21 June 1898 (#4848), Bowraville, NSW, Australia, eldest son of James Bannister Grace (1812-1913) and Mary Ann Alexander "Ann" (1823-1906).
Grave in Bowraville Cemetery & with 1868 born first child Albert 21.
a family occasion - likely late 1920s to early 1930s
Sitting: Catherine (center) & brother-in-law Frank Grace (left) 39.
3. Thomas Francis Simon, b. 2 Jan 1849 1, Hattenheim, Duchy of Nassau (now in Hessen state), Germany; d. Aug. 1912 (#10961) Kempsey; m. 1892 (#4389) Kempsey, NSW, Lucy Smith. Lucy re-married Edward Quirk at Kempsey in 1913 (#11927) - perhaps the Lucy M Quirk who died 1919 (#16829) reg. Burwood, NSW, a daughter of Thomas and Ellen Quirk.
West Kempsey Catholic Cemetery
He was baptised "Danian Franz" at St Vincenz in Hattenheim on 7 Jan 1849 (sup>1. In the Hamburg departure passenger the given names he later used of Thomas Francis appeared as "Domian Franz". Upon arrival in Sydney in 1855 the immigration record listed him just as Franz. Thus he subsequently anglicised Franz to Francis and adopted Thomas, which were the names given for him in his mother's 1884 death registration for which his older brother Jacob was informant. In both his 1892 marriage and 1912 death registrations he was listed just as Thomas.
4. Joseph Simon, b. 4 Jun 1851 1 in Hattenheim, Duchy of Nassau (post WW II in Hessen state), Germany; d. 27 Aug 1926 4 (#15428) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; m. 1883 (#5441) Kempsey, NSW, Annie Bannerman, b. 1857 (#7774) at Macleay River, NSW; d. 1937 (#11448) Kempsey, NSW, daughter of Arthur Bannerman (1813-1889) and Anne O'Meara née McGiff (1814-1915).
The Hamburg departure passenger listed Joseph's given names as "Georg Joseph" which were the names under which he was baptised. Upon arrival in the colony the immigration record had just Joseph. Unexplained is why when his mother died in 1884 as informant for her death registration his brother Jacob gave Joseph's given names as "George Issac". He was listed in the 1915 Cowper Commonwealth electoral roll at Dondingalong with the occupation of farmer and, as citizenship was a requirement for voting, such suggests he had been naturalised. However neither his name or that of elder brother Thomas Francis appear in either the to 1903 NSW, or post federation Commonwealth naturalisation indexes so presumably when first enroled the requirement for non British born to have been naturalised was not strictly enforced.
5. Margaretha Simon "Margaret", b. 1 Nov 1853 1 Hattenheim, Duchy of Nassau (after WW II in Hessen state), Germany; d. 1934 (#4270) Kempsey. She was listed as an infant in the Hamburg passenger departure list under the same single given name of Margaretha as her mother and as aged one upon arrival in Sydney on 18 Sep 1855. She had one child and did not marry.
Child of Margaretha (Margaret) Simon was:6. William Simon, b. 5 Apr. 1857 (#7776) Dondingalong, NSW, Australia 1; d. 1937 (#25733) Kempsey; m. 1886 (#5824) Kempsey, Honora Daniher, d. 1943 (#19355), daughter of Denis Daniher and Catherine.
William's birth was registered at Macleay River under the phonetic surname variant of Siemon 20. His name appeared on Kalateenee parish maps as the selector in 1874 of portion 42 of 61 acres at Dondinalong located just east of where Dungay Creek joins the south side of the Macleay River near Belgrave Falls. However it is understood his dairy farm was on portion 20 located about half a kilometer away in Kullatine parish on the western side of Dungay Creek adjoining portion 13 that was owned by his bother Michael 42.
7. Michael Devon Simon, b. 1 Aug. 1859 (#11678), Rollands Plains, NSW, Australia 1; d. Oct 1950 (#28120) Kempsey; m. 1892 (#4388) Kempsey, Annie McCarthy, d. 19 Nov 1938 4 (#24365) West Kempsey, daughter of John McCarthy and Mary Holden.
West Kempsey Catholic Cemetery
His 1959 birth registration at Port Macquarie was recorded under the name Michael Semon 20. Consecutive registration numbers indicate his marriage was a double ceremony with the other party being brother Thomas Francis to Lucy Smith. In the 1909 and 1913 Commonwealth electoral rolls for Cowper he and Annie were listed at Dungay Creek, Sherwood and Michael's occupation was given as farmer. In the 1915 roll his address given as Dungay Creek, Dondingalong, would have been the same place. In the 1925 roll Michael was at Wide Street in West Kempsey with his occupation given as retired farmer, and in the 1935 roll he resided in River Street in West Kempsey at what would have been #166 where he remained until his death.
8. Catherine M Simon, b. 1870 (#11973) Macleay River, NSW (parents indexed as James (sic) & Margaret); d. 1928 (#15136) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1910 (#4004) Sydney, NSW, Alfred Palmer.
Children of Catherine M Simon and Alfred Palmer were:
9. Mary McLeay Simon, b. 1872 (#12007) Macleay River, NSW; d. 1938 (#7155) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1899 (#5991) Kempsey, Thomas Rowe d. 1946 Kempsey aged 75 years.
Children of Mary McLeay Simon and Thomas Rowe were:10. Violet M Simon, b. 1875 (#13497) Macleay River, NSW; d. 1920 (#19840) Kempsey; m. 1898 (#5726) Kempsey, William Henry Rowe, d. 1946 aged 72 years.
Children of Violet M Simon and William H Rowe were:11. Ernest G J Simon, b. 1877 (#14113) Macleay River, NSW; d. 1878 (#6861) Macleay River, NSW.
12. William Glendenning Simon, b. 1878 (#15284) Macleay River, NSW; d. 1956 (#23463) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1905 (#9984) Moss Vale, NSW, Rebecca Rowe, d. 1970 (#41961) Kempsey, NSW, daughter of Thomas Edward Rowe and Bridget.
He was listed in the 1915 to 1938 electoral rolls for Cowper as a labourer residing Gladstone, NSW. A booklet published ca. 1999 titled Glad it's the Rowes details the genealogy of the Rowe family of Macleay River. It is not catalogued as held by the Kempsey Library so may be hard to locate. The Port Macaquarie library has a library compilation that covers the genealogy of some Macleay River lines titled: Rowe Family collection of Family Information 14.
Children of William Glendenning Simon and Rebecca Rowe were:13. Horace Hastings Simon, b. 1880 (#17168) Macleay River, NSW; d. 17 May 1912 4 (#4363) Darlinghurst. He was listed in the 1909 and 1913 electoral roll as a farmer at Gladstone, NSW. He did not marry.
14. Albert Edward A Simon, b. 1883 (#22050) West Kempsey, NSW; d. 1953 (#19124) Kempsey; m. 1911 (#5831) Kempsey, Mary Catherine Riordan.. d. 1970 (#37005) Kempsey, NSW, daughter of Michael and Catherine Riordan. In the 1936 and 1838 electoral rolls for Cowper he was listed as farmer at Gladstone, NSW.
Children of Albert Edward A Simon and Mary C Riordan were:
15. Albert Ernest Grace, b. 1868 (#11231) reg. Macleay River, NSW; d. 24 Aug 1931 43, 44 (#11506) Bowraville, NSW; buried Bowraville C of E Cemetery; m. 1896 (#4874) reg. Bellingen, NSW, Louisa Jane Churchill, b. 1876 Armidale, NSW; d. 2 Sep 1904 43, 44 (#8680) Bowraville, NSW; buried Bowraville Cemetery, NSW, daughter of Charles Churchill (1841-1900) and Matilda Argent (1853-1924). By occupation he was a farmer.
16. Margaret Ann Grace, b. 12 Jan 1870 (#11770) at Kallateenee, Macleay River; d. 23 Jan 1954 45 (#7048) Bellingen, NSW, buried Bellingen Cemetery. She married 22 Apr 1896 (#2791) at Bowraville, NSW, Augustus Mead Raymond, born Feb. 1857 (#7760) at Pola Creek, Macleay River, NSW, Australia; d. 7 Mar 1942 3 (#4425), Bellingen, buried Bellingen Cemetery. Margaret Ann's newspaper obituary.
Children of Augustus Mead Raymond and Margaret Ann Grace were - photo:
17. Catherine Mary Grace "Kate", b. 1872 (#11795) reg. Macleay River, NSW; d. 1952 (#29709) reg. Bellingen; m. 1895 (#5494) reg. Kempsey, Henry James Alexander Hulbert. b. 1874 Macleay River, NSW; d. 14 Oct 1941 43, 44 (#25184) reg. Bowraville, NSW, Australia; buried with husband in Presbyterian Section Bowraville Cemetery (sec. B graves 32, 33), NSW, by occupation he a was a farmer and son of James Richmond Hulbert and Ellen Grace who are balso buried in Bowraville Cemetery. Catherine Mary and Henry James were first cousins.
Children of Catherine Mary Grace and Henry James Alexander Hulbert were:
18. Walter Jacob Grace, b. 1874 (#13049) reg. Macleay River, NSW; d. 15 Jun 1922 43, 44 (#6073) Bowraville, NSW; buried Bowraville Cemetery, NSW. By occupation he was a farmer.
19. Mary Jane Elizabeth Grace, b. 6 Aug 1876 43, 44 (#13911) reg. Nambucca River, NSW, Australia; d. 17 Nov 1959 3 (#30578) reg. Bellingen, NSW; buried Anglican Section, Bellingen Cemetery, NSW; m. 1898 (#665), Ernest Henry Hayes Moody, b. 9 Jun 1862 15, 16 reg. Chippendale, NSW; d. 15 Nov 1942 3 (#25062) reg. Bellingen; buried Anglican Section, Bellingen Cemetery, son of Phillip Jasper Moody and Rebecca Bowden. For details of this family see the 2004 published Mitchell Library held book titled: Moody family ... : settlers in the Bellinger River Valley, N.S.W. 1877.
Children of Mary Jane Elizabeth Grace and Ernest Henry Hayes Moody were:
20. Susan Augusta Grace, b. 1878 (#15341) reg. Nambucca River, NSW; d. 28 Sep 1948 (#22935) 3 Bellingen, NSW; buried C of E Section Bellingen Cemetery; m. 1904 (#3422) reg. Bellingen, Richard Edward Jordan, b. 1875 NSW, Australia; d. 22 Jan 1948 3 (no indexed death rego) Bellingen, NSW; buried Methodist section Bellingen Cemetery.
Children of Susan Augusta Grace and Richard Edward Jordan were:21. Ethel Robina Grace, b. 1882 (#20515) reg. Nambucca River, NSW; d. 28 Dec 1976 43, 44 NSW; buried Macksville, NSW.
Children of Ethel Robina Grace were:
22. Annie Alexandra Grace, b. 1884 (#23846) reg. Nambucca River, NSW; d. 1 Jul 1952 43, 44 reg. Bellingen, NSW, buried Bowraville Cemetery, NSW.
23. Effie Maude Grace, b. 1887 (#26153) reg. Nambucca River, NSW; d. 1963 reg. Bellingen, NSW; m. 1937 (#9386) reg. Bowraville, Allan Foy, b. 1869 Macleay River, NSW; d. 1 Apr 1955 43, 44 NSW, Australia; buried Methodist Cemetery, West Kempsey, NSW.24. Thomas Herbert Grace, b. 1889 (#25624) reg. Bowraville, NSW; d. 7 Feb 1956 43, 44 Gladstone, NSW; buried C of E Section, East Kempsey Cemetery; m. 1927 (#9818) reg. Bowraville, Evelyn May Halverson, b. 1904 Tingha, NSW, Australia; d. 6 Oct 1989 15, 16 NSW, Australia, buried East Kempsey Cemetery, daughter of Albert Henry Halverson and Evelyn Mary (...). By occupation he was a farmer.
Children of Thomas Herbert Grace and Evelyn May Halverson were:25. George Edward Grace, b. 1893 (#20772) reg. Nambucca River; d. 26 Apr 1935 43, 44 NSW, Australia; buried Bowraville Cemetery, NSW.
26. Joseph Henry Simon, b. 1883 (#22016) West Kempsey, NSW; d. 1967 (#33682) Kempsey, NSW;
27. Adelaide Irene Simon, no NSW indexed birth registration; d. 1949 (#15996); m. 1907 (#7856) Kempsey, Samuel J Rowe.
Children of Adelaide Irene Simon and Samuel J Rowe were:28. Arthur Michael Simon, b. 1886 (#25281) Kempsey, NSW; no NSW indexed marriage to 1958 or death to 1978, and no QLD marriage to 1839 or death to 1964.
29. William Henry Simon "Billy", b. 20 July 1888 (#26598) Dungay Creek via Kempsey, NSW; d. 18 Feb 1915, Giza, Egypt, buried protestant section of the British Cemetery, Giza.
1915 Dondingalong obelisk unveiling
Over 500 from the Macleay River district enlisted for service during the first World War of whom 83 did not return. Billy Simon was the first from the Macleay to die on active service. He enlisted in Sydney on 3 Sep 1914 and was posted to the 3rd Battalion and arrived in Egypt three months later. However before seeing action with his battalion, that participated two months later in the Gallipolli landing, he died in training camp at Mena near Giza from pleuro-pneumonia. His memorial is located in the protestant section of the British cemetery at Giza in a portion maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. The Sydney Mail of 11 Aug 1915 published a photograph of the cross near Giza that once marked his grave captioned “A lonely grave in the desert” and on 3 Nov 1915 the above pictured still standing monument was unveiled in the grounds of the 1892 built, initially Wesleyan, from 1902 Methodist, and from 1977 Uniting Church at Dondingalong that by 2006 was no longer in use for church services 46.
30. Angus Christopher Simon, b. 1891 (#17838) Kempsey, NSW; d. 1966 (#27298) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1919 (#8897) Kempsey, NSW, Ruby Hazel Wallis. In the 1938 electoral roll for Cowper they were listed as residing in Stuart St., Kempsey and in the 1968 roll Ruby Hazel was residing at 13 Elrington Avenue.
31. female Simon, b. 1895 (#13628) Kempsey, NSW; d. 1895 (#5045) Kempsey. NSW, Australia;
32. Ruben Leslie Simon, 1895 (#5045) Kempsey. d. 1974 (#58090) - no place of his death registration is indexed.
33. Mary Simon, b. 1878 (#15106) Macleay River, NSW; d. 1946 (#18241) Euroka via Kempsey, NSW; m. 1900 (#1418) Kempsey, NSW, Michael Houlihan.
34. Mary Josephine Simon, b. 1889 (#25308) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; d. 1976 (#62691) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1912 (#10107) Kempsey, NSW, Joseph Robert Clarke (his name is indexed in the NSW marriage indexes as Robert J Clarke), b. 1876 Macleay River; d. 1961 (#24917) Kempsey, son of Michael and Mary Ann Clarke.
West Kempsey Catholic Cemetery
In the 1915 Cowper electoral roll Joseph was listed as a farmer at Sherwood. A son Joseph Paul Clarke died 12 Nov 1955 (#32270) reg. Kempsey, aged 31 years, and a likely daughter Selesia Clarke died Kempsey 1921 (#3316). Another possible son John P Clarke died 1927 (#8902) reg. at Annandale .
Children of Mary Josephine Simon and Joseph Robert Clarke:
35. Catherine Margaret Simon, b. 1891 (#17721) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; d. 1 july 1970 (#36983) Kempsey - mother's name is indexed as Hannah; m. 1912 (#6152) Kempsey, NSW, Leslie Desmond Clarke, b. 1890 (#17578) Kempsey; d. 22 June 1946 (#7359) Sydney, son of Michael and Mary Ann Clarke.
West Kempsey Catholic Cemetery
Children of Catherine "Kathleen" M Simon and Leslie D Clarke were:
37. Agnes W Simon, b. 1894 (#17424) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; m. 1925 (#12497) Kempsey, NSW, Thomas O Foster. Perhaps the Agnes Foster who died 1953 (#3761) Boolaroo, NSW.
38. Violet E Simon, b. 1897 (#22632) Kempsey, NSW, Australia;
39. Michael Joseph Simon, b. 13 Oct 1892 at Dondingalong 42 (#18363) reg. Kempsey, NSW; d. 25 Oct 1974 42 (#58072) NSW, Australia; m. 16 Oct 1929 42at Bellbrook, NSW (#17348 reg. Kempsey, NSW, Alice Caroline McMaugh, b. 30 Apr 1901 42 (#13577 - birth reg. as Arlie C McMaugh) ); d. 18 Jul 2000 42 Kempsey, NSW, daughter of Andrew William McMaugh and Mary Anne McAntee née McGeary 42.
Children of Michael Joseph Simon and Alice Caroline McMaugh were: 4240. Beatrice Mary Simon "Beatie", b. 19 Jun 1894 42 (#17426) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; d. 2 Jun 1982 42 Kempsey, NSW. It is said she was to be buried alongside her parents in a reserved plot but due to a cemetery mix the plot was already filled and she is buried nearby. She resided with father Michael at 166 River St. until his death and thereafter until her own in 1982 42.
West Kempsey Catholic Cemetery
41. John Raymond Simon, b. 1896 (#13342) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; d. ca. 1982 42 Lidcombe, NSW. He married 1949 (#1949-9542) in Canterbury, NSW, Dorothy "Dolly" Anne Irene Lyon née Hand, widow of Albert E. Lyon 42. In the 1938 electoral roll for Cowper John Raymond Simon was residing in River St, West Kemspey with the occupation of carpenter. After his marriage he lived in western Sydney. There were two issue from the first marriage and none from the second 42.
42. Mary Margaret Simon "Molly", b. 1898 (#22194) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; d. 19 Jul 1935 3 Dorrigio, NSW, buried Bellingen Cemetery, NSW; m. 1921 (#7234) Kempsey, NSW, Phillip James Moody, b. 11 Jan 1899 3 (#1477) Bellingen, NSW; d. 21 Sep 1944 3 Bellingen, NSW, buried Bellingen Anglican Cemetery, NSW, son of Ernest Henry Hayes Moody (1862-1942) and Mary Jane Elizabeth Grace (1876-1959). There were two issue from the marriage. Husband Phillip James re-married 1938 in Bellingen, NSW, Edna Alexandria Russell b. 1904 (#21697) reg. Drummoyne, NSW; d. 1997 Southport, QLD, daughter of Arthur R Russell and Alice K Rowsell. There were two issue of the marriage.
43. Horace D Palmer, b. 1912 (#38167) Sydney, NSW;
44. Mary E Rowe b. 1901 (#4218) Kempsey, NSW;
45. Margaret V Rowe b. 1903 (#30915) Kempsey, NSW;
46. Margaret J Rowe b. 1910 (#15861) Kempsey, NSW. Possibly the Margaret J Rowe who married 1935 (# 2772) Kempsey, William M Burton.
47. Henry Simon Rowe, b. 1903 (#30926) Kempsey, NSW; died 1978 (#106349). A Henry S Rowe is indexed as marrying 1929 (#17769) reg. Bellingen, NSW, Thelma R Lamrock. Whether this was a first marriage is not clear as he married at a place and date unknown Florence Eden Booth. In the 1977 Cowper electoral roll they were listed as residing at 7, Bayview Street, South West Rocks. He was not listed the Lyne or Cowper electorates in the 1958 electoral rolls.
48. Philomena M Rowe, b. 1905 (#34194) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1927 (#7207) Kempsey, Cecil G Lawrence.
49. Patrick William Rowe, b. 1907 (#14294) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1947 (#21485) Kempsey, Veronica Margaret Reed. Issue: one child Patrick became a Catholic priest 48.
50. Emily C Rowe, b. 1909 (#4636) Kempsey, NSW. She joined a Catholic order and was known as Sister Damian 48.
51. Thomas E Rowe, b. 1910 (#27570) Kempsey, NSW. Possibly the Thomas E Rowe who married 1935 (#15844) reg. Kempsey, Kathleen E Piggott.
52. Mary V Rowe, b. 1912 (#5356) Kempsey, NSW. She joined a Catholic order and was known as Sister Aiden 48.
53. Agnes H Rowe, b. 1913 (#38500) Kempsey, NSW. Possibly the Agnes Hildergarde Rowe who married 1938 (#14858) Kempsey, Cecil Joseph Bonner.
54. Dorothy May Simon "Dolly", b. 1906 (#11468) Bowral, NSW; m. 1932 (#16064) Kempsey, Roy Patterson.
55. Violet Alma Simon "Bub", b. 1910 (#4213) Bowraville, NSW. She was listed in the 1968 Commonwealth electoral roll for Cowper under the Smithtown subdivision with the occupation of nurse residing South West Rocks.
56. Mary Patricia Simon, b. 27 Mar 1912 49 (#17530) Kempsey, NSW; d. Apr. 1998 49; m. 21 Nov 1942 Hamilton, NSW, Eric Edward Fogarty, d. 5 Jun 1984 49; NSW. Issue: four children - all still living in 2009.
57. Veronica M Simon, b. 1 May 1913 14; (#38449) Kempsey, NSW; deceased after 1993 49; m. 1939 (#12087) Nulkaba, NSW, reg. Cessnock, NSW, Lester John Kennewell. Issue: three children of whom in 2009 one was deceased 49.
58. Margaret Shelia Simon, b. 23 Aug 1914 49 (#37809) Kempsey, NSW; d. 1993 49; m. 1941 (#21164) Kempsey, Matthew John Eakin "Jack" deceased. Issue: five children - all still living in 2009 49.
59. John Horace Simon, aka Jack or Charlie, b. 14 Jun 1916 49 (#16127) Kempsey, NSW; d. 11 May 1980 49; m. 1946 (#12314) Smithtown, NSW, Madge Kemp. He was listed as a farmer at Gladstone in the 1938 electoral roll. Issue: five children - all still living in 2009 49.
60. Thomas Gladstone Simon, b. 12 Jan 1920 49 Kempsey, NSW; d. abt. 2000; m. 1949 (#27742) Smithtown, NSW, Dorothy May Dodds. Issue: two children - both still living in 2009 Kempsey, NSW 49.
61. Edith Grace, b. 1897 (#20055) Bowraville, NSW; m. 1927 (#14158) Bowraville, NSW, Arthur Eden Cook, b. 10 Dec 1897 43, 44 Bowraville, NSW; d. 17 Nov 1959 43, 44 in NSW, Australia, buried Presbyterian Section, Coffs Harbour Cemetery, Coffs Harbour, NSW, son of William Cook and Elizabeth Mackay. Issue: 2 sons & 1 daughters.
62. Effie Grace, b. 1899 (#1693) Bowraville, NSW; m. 1917 (#7850) Bellingen, NSW, Victor P Goodwin, b. 1897 Bowraville, NSW. Issue: Martha (1917-1917) & Vera May (1918-2007).
63. Ivy Grace, b. 1900 (#29878) Bowraville, NSW; m. 1928 (#5941) Bowraville, NSW, Eric Harold Hilton Raymond, b. 1903 (#10541) Bowraville, NSW; d. 16 Oct 1967 15, 16 Bowraville, NSW, buried Bowraville Cemetery, son of Samuel John Raymond and Mary Jane Alexandria Mackay. Issue: 4 daughters.
64. Agnes Grace, b. 1902 (#1553) Bowraville, NSW; d. 29 Oct 1938 43, 44 Dorrigo, NSW, buried C of E Section, Bowraville Cemetery; m. 1926 (#3865) Bowraville, NSW, George Edmund Halverson, d. 5 Dec 1950 43, 44 Kempsey, NSW, buried C of E Cemetery Frederickton, NSW, son of Albert Henry Halverson and Evelyn May. Issue: 2 sons & 3 daughters.
65. Walter Albert Ernest Grace, b. 2 Sep 1904 43, 44 (#20415) Bowraville, NSW; d. 26 Jul 1951 43, 44 Bowraville, NSW, buried Bowraville Cemetery; m. 1934 (#15684) Bowraville, NSW, Effie May Ennis, b. 24 Jan 1908 43, 44 Kempsey, NSW; d. 20 Jan 1987 43, 44 NSW, Australia, buried Bowraville Cemetery, daughter of William Henry Ennis and Ada May Fisher. Issue: son Bruce W Grace (1943-1977), 7 other sons & 1 daughter.
66. Gladys Augusta Raymond, b. 25 Mar 1897 (#10685) Gladstone, NSW, Australia, bapt. C of E Bellingen; d. 12 Jul 1978 Bellingen, NSW, buried 14 Jul 1978 Bellingen Cemetery.
67. Augustus Walter Charles Raymond, b. 6 Nov 1899 (#28644) Bellingen, NSW; d. 25 Nov 1982 Bellingen, NSW, buried 27 Nov 1982 Bellingen Cemetery; m. 1936 (#14865) Smithtown, NSW, Alice May Saul "Dollie", b. 1905 Kempsey, NSW; d. 24 May 1999 Bellingen, NSW, buried Bellingen Cemetery, daughter of John Edward Saul and Alice Jane Rowe. Issue: daughter Elizabeth & son Augustus John.
68. Catherine Jane Raymond, b. 13 Oct 1902 (no reg. indexed) Bellingen NSW, Australia, bapt. C of E Bellingen; d. 23 Jan 1994 Bellingen, NSW, buried Bellingen Cemetery.
69. Lilian Raymond, b. 16 Jul 1905 (#21031), Bellingen, NSW; bapt. C of E Bellingen; d. 18 Jan 1989, Bellingen, NSW, aged 83 years; buried 20 Jan 1989 Bellingen Cemetery.
70. Harry Mead Raymond, b. 23 Mar 1908 (#11993), Bellingen, NSW, Australia; d. 12 May 1966 Kempsey, NSW, buried East Kempsey Cemetery; m. 18 Feb 1939 (#4752), St. Margaret's C of E Church, Bellingen, Lily Daphne Gordon "Daph", b. 18 Jan 1911 at Bellingen, NSW; d. 20 Sep 1999 Bellingen, buried East Kempsey Cem., daughter of Wilfred Ernest Augustus Gordon (son of Meldrum Henry Gordon - first white settler at the Upper Bellinger River Valley Gordonville locality) and Ada Harvie (dau. of Walter Harvie - first white settler at Coffs Harbour). H. M. Raymond newspaper obituary. Issue: son John Gordon & daughter Judith Margaret.
71. Martha J Hulbert, b. 1896 (#11297) Bowraville, NSW. Listed here only because birth is NSW BDM indexed. Considered unlikely she existed as has same birth registration number as Violet Martha suggesting they were not twins (if they had been they would have had consecutive numbered registrations) but the same person with a double registration under different given names resulting from the registration informant changing their mind about the given names and a failure to strike out the first entry. Such appears confirmed by there being no NSW death registration to 1978 or marriage to 1958.
72. Violet Martha Hulbert, b. 1896 (#11297) Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 18 Nov 1976 43, 44 (#108121), Sawtell, NSW, Australia, buried C of E Section Bellingen Cemetery, Bellingen, NSW; m. 1918 (#585) Sydney, NSW, Charles Goding, b. 1892 Maclean, NSW; d. 29 Nov 1968 43, 44 Sawtell, NSW, buried Bellingen Cemetery, son of John A Goding and Alice Ashburn. Issue: sons Reginald Charles (1921-1931) & Eric N (1923-1929), both buried Bellingen Cemetery.
73. Catherine M Hulbert, b. 1898 (#1719) Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 1898 Bowraville, NSW.
74. Ethel M Hulbert, b. 1901 (#1702) Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 1901 Bowraville, NSW.
75. Henry J Hulbert, b. 1908 (#15064) Kempsey, NSW, Australia; d. 1908 Kempsey, NSW.
76. Phillip James Moody, b. 11 Jan 1899 43, 44 (#1477) Bellingen, NSW, Australia; d. 21 Sep 1944 3 Bellingen, NSW; m. (1) 1921 (#7234) in Kempsey, NSW, Mary Margaret Simon, b. 1898 Kempsey, NSW; d. 19 Jul 1935 3 Dorrigo, NSW, buried Bellingen Cemetery, daughter of Michael Simon and Annie McCarthy. Issue: son Keith Irvine (1922-1990) and daughter Margaret J. d. 1935 Bellingen NSW; m. (2) 1938 (#20395) Bellingen, NSW, Edna Alexandra G Russell nee Saul, b. 1908 Kempsey, NSW; d. 1997 Southport, QLD. Issue: 1 son & 1 daughters.
77. Ethel Grace Moody, b. 15 Jun 1900 43, 44 (#20080) Bellingen, NSW; d. 5 Aug 2001 43, 44 Concord, NSW, buried Rookwood Crematorium, NSW, Australia; m. 25 Sep 1923 43, 44 (#10629) St. Margaret's C of E Bellingen, NSW, Frederick Manning Whatson, b. 29 Dec 1898 43, 44 Bellingen, NSW; d. 20 Nov 1980 50 Sydney, NSW, buried Rookwood Crematorium, NSW, son of Frederick Thomas Whatson and Amy Florence Jay. Issue: sons Kenneth & Reginald, daughters Jean & Marion.
78. Thomas Irvine Moody, b. 15 Feb 1903 43, 44 (#1493) Bellingen, NSW; d. 15 Jan 1921 43, 44North Beach, NSW, Australia.
79. Hubert Raymond Moody, b. 1906 (#1423) Bellingen, NSW; d. 9 Apr 1955 3 Bellingen, NSW, buried Anglican section, Bellingen Cemetery; m. (1) 10 Nov 1926 43, 44 (#18472) in St. Margaret's C of E Bellingen, Sylvia May Everson, b. 5 Aug 1904 43, 44 Nowra, NSW, Australia; d. 15 Nov 2001 43, 44, NSW. buried Bellingen, NSW (DIV), daughter of Henry Charles Everson and Ethel Jane Blow. Issue: sons (3).
He m. (2) 1941 (#2679) Bellingen, NSW, Kate Margaret Brown, b. 1909 Bellingen, NSW; d. 25 Nov 2000 43, 44 Bellingen, NSW, buried Anglican Section, Bellingen Cemetery.
80. Ernest Henry Hayes Moody "Mick", b. 17 May 1909 43, 44 (#22789) Bellingen, NSW; d. 18 Sep 1988 50 Sydney, NSW, buried Anglican Garden Lawn Cemetery, Rookwood, NSW; m. 23 Mar 1937 43, 44 (#3953) Bellingen, NSW, Alma Chandler, b. Dalby, QLD., Australia; d. 27 Dec 1997 50, Sydney, NSW, Australia, buried Rookwood Cemetery, NSW. Issue: 3 daughters - Marjorie, Jan & Nancy.
81. Ethel Catherine Alice Jordan, b. 1905 (#1527) reg. Bellingen, NSW; d. 14 May 1962 43, 44 Sydney, NSW, Australia, buried in C of E section Bellingen Cemetery.
82. Roy Reginald Jordan, b. 1906 (#11295) Bellingen, NSW; d. 19 Nov 1998 45 Bellingen, NSW, buried Uniting Section, Bellingen Cemetery; m. 7 Mar 1928 43, 44 (#3638) Thora, NSW, Esther Calvin Rose, b. 1907 Bellingen, NSW; d. 18 Jan 1978 3, buried Methodist Section, Bellingen Cemetery. Issue: 1 daughter.
83. Lillian Grace Jordan, b. 7 Mar 1910 43, 44 (#12487) Bellingen, NSW; d. 11 Oct 1999 3 Bellingen, NSW, buried Methodist Section Bellingen Cemetery; m. 7 Sep 1935 43, 44 (#12627) in Anglican Church, Bellingen, NSW, Clive Pollock Holmes Lowry, b. 3 Jun 1907 43, 44 Inverell, NSW, Australia; d. 23 Aug 1985 45 Bellingen, NSW, buried Methodist Lawn Section Bellingen Cemetery. Issue: 1 son & 2 daughters.
84. Arthur Richard Jordan, b. 1914 (#38279) Bellingen, NSW; d. 12 Jun 1991 43, 44 reg. Bellingen, Australia, buried Lawn Cemetery, Richmond, NSW, Australia; m. 1939 (#17674) Lismore, NSW, Eilleen Joyce Mackie, b. ca. 1914 Lismore, NSW, d. 20 Sep 2000 43, 44 Kurmond, NSW, daughter of William H Mackie and Maggie B Gibson. Issue: 1 daughter.
85. Rene Mary Jordan, b. 1917 (#5793) Bellingen, NSW, d. 16 Nov 1936 45, Bellingen, NSW, buried C of E Section Bellingen Cemetery.
86. Bennett Ivan Grace, b. 11 Jan 1911 43, 44 (#1970) Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 31 Aug 1988 43, 44 Nambucca Heads, NSW, buried Nambucca Heads, NSW; m. 1932 (#9947) Bowraville, NSW, Phyllis Elizabeth Wilson, b. 1911 Stockton, NSW; d. 17 Jun 1975 43, 44, Nambucca Heads, NSW, buried Nambucca Heads Cemetery, NSW. Issue: 1 daughter.
87. Ronald George Grace. m. 1954 (#18107) Kempsey, NSW, Ruth Lorraine Macphail.
88. Edna Grace.
89. Thomas Grace. m. issue - daughter (1) & son (1).
90. Patricia Grace, m.
91. Ednur E Rowe, (spelt as registered - likely Edna) b. 1908 (#15006) Kempsey, NSW. Possibly the Edna E. M. Rowe who married 1930 (#13213) Albury, Harry Weissel.
92. William J Rowe, b. 1910 (#27559) Kempsey, NSW. Possibly the William J Rowe who married 1931 (#5806) Kempsey, Minnie E Trees.
93. Samuel A Rowe, b. 1913 (#25701) Kempsey, NSW. Possibly the Arthur Samuel Rowe who married 1939 (#3424) Dubbo, NSW, Mona Blackett.
94. Eric Raymond Rowe, "Cricket", b. 1917 (#11456) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1942 (#9274) Kempsey, NSW, Margaret Harriett Potter. A possible earlier marriage may have been as indexed Eric R Rowe to Jean Mackerras 1934 (#18102) reg. at Kempsey (note Jean Mackerras was not the Jean Hannah Rowe - an unmarried person who died in 1936 (#3502) reg. Cootamundra, NSW).
95. Edna Eileen Rowe, m. Cecil Rupert Cox. Issue: one daughter Shirley.
96. Francis Owen Houlihan, b. 1900 (#22936) Kempsey, NSW; d 1978 (#100636) - no registration place given. No NSW marriage indexed to 1958.
97. Thomas M Houlihan, b. 1903 (#3879) Kempsey, NSW. No NSW marriage indexed to 1958.
98. John Grace Houlihan, b. 1905 (#24102) Kempsey, NSW. d. 1967 (#37211) Kempsey, NSW; m. 1939 (#11902) Kempsey, Mary Clare Crotty.
99. James J Houlihan, b. 1907 (#36297) Kempsey, NSW. No NSW marriage indexed to 1958.
100. Desmond J Houlihan, b. 1918 (#13825) Kempsey, NSW; d. 1936 (#15311) Petersham, NSW.
101 Mary Clarke, b. 1913 (#25744) Kempsey, NSW; d. 1913 (#9597) Kempsey, NSW.
102. Mary M Clarke, b. 1915 (#16626 Kempsey, NSW;
103. Joseph Clarke, b. 1917 (#46812) Kempsey, NSW. Seemingly he was the Joseph Clarke (parents Joseph And Mary) who died 1917 (#10863) Kempsey.
104. Dominic Clarke, b. 1918 (#39898) Kempsey, NSW;
105. Mary C Clarke, b. 1912 (#44126) reg. Kempsey, NSW. Possibly the Mary C Clarke who married 1935 (#15835) Kempsey, Bertram G Woodlands.
106. Gabriel Ronald Clarke, b. 1915 (#13001) reg. Kempsey, NSW; d. 1958 (#23043) Kempsey; m. 1938 (#7283) Kempsey, Mary Josephine Cavanagh.
107. Joseph V Clarke, b. 1917 (#21485) reg. Kempsey, NSW. A slight possibility he may be the Victor Joseph Clarke who married 1941 (#16804) Bega, NSW, Margaret Newlyn.
108. Thomas Ronald Simon "Ron", m. 1954 (#16494) reg. Marrickville, NSW, Lillian Mary Turley, b. 24 Sep 1932 42; d. 10 Dec 1985 42. Issue: Michael Patrick m. Rose Grecht, John Francis, David & Patricia. 42
109. Patricia Mary Simon, m. Desmond Oswald, b. 22 Jul 1927 42; d. 1 Aug 1996 42. Issue: Peter Desmond, Catherine Mary, Robert James, Leisa Margaret, Maree Elizabeth.
b>110. Mary Veronica Simon, m. 1960, William John Walker. Issue: Anthony John Walker, Christopher Gerard Walker m. Tanya Eve Loosemore, Gregory Michael Walker m. (1) Sue Eichorn m. (2) Anna Zannatta, Michelle Therese Walker m. John Anthony Taubman.
111. Joan Frances Simon, Simon b. 16 Apr 1944 42; d. 20 Apr 1944 42. She lived a few days in hospital and is buried in her mother's grave in West Kempsey Cemetery.
112. Keith Irvine Moody, b. 13 Oct 1922 Kempsey, NSW; d. Sydney ca. 1990 47. No indexed NSW marriage to 1958. He served in the Australian Army during WW II from enlistment in Jan 1943 until discharge in Dec 1945.
113. Margaret J Moody, d. 1935 (#13322) Bellingen, NSW §
1 Dick Adams, Simons on the Macleay : pioneer Settlers on the Macleay and Nambucca Rivers of New south Wales 1855 to 1950 (2011). This book has a detailed family history with photographs on the lines through several generations and precise birth, death and marriage dates obtained from the official registrations at considerable cost to the author and is recommended to those seeking greater knowledge of the family or a particular line. Michael Simon and Margaretha Gross birth and marriage p. 20-21, deaths p. 64-65, Michael & Margaretha's children birth dates p. 21- 23, Michael & Margaretha's parent and grandparent details p. 3 and 9, g Christopher Fink birth p.5, Anna Margaretha CLEE birth & marriage p.5.
This article on Simon family of the Macleay River genealogy was researched, compiled, and posted in 2009 on the internet without prior knowledge that the author of the above book Dick Adams had been researching the family for many years and intended in 2011 to publish the cited book on the family history and genealogy. In 2009 the birth and marriage dates were derived from immigration data as neither Michael Simon's baptism record or the marriage record of his parents had been extracted to the IGI from the LDS church microfilms or had the baptism of his 1778 born father Michael. From August 2014 the exact event dates and month within the year have been incorporated taken from the Dick Adams book.
Michael's 1855 NSW immigration record had both himself and the five children as born in Hattenheim and the Hamburg passenger departure list also had it as the family's place of residence prior to departure. The reason the children's baptisms do not appear in the IGI (as at 2009) is that at the time the Hattenheim church registers had not been extracted to it. However the LDS church have seven microfilms available through it's Family History Centers of the surviving Hattenheim church registers that include some indexes. There are filmed indexes for births from 1818 to 1861 (Geburtsindex 1818-1861) Geburten & Heiraten 1818-1874 - Film #1270176 Items 2-7) and for deaths to 1687- 1818 (Tauf-, Heirats-, Totenindex 1687-1818 - Film #1270267) but there are no indexes for post 1818 deaths and none at all for marriages, so for the latter categories films of the actual registers are required and searching them would pose difficulty with entries being possibly overlooked as they are in German and Latin and old German script is difficult to read. In 2009 none of the seven microfilms were available through LDS family history centers in Europe necessitating those in Europe access records through govt. archives or the Diocesan Archive in Limburg but all films were available through Australian FHC's .
The informants for both Michael and Margaretha's official NSW death registrations did not provide any parent names declaring them as unknown. Contrary to Michael's 1855 first person immigration record, that stated his birth place was Hattenheim in the Duchy of Nassau (now in Hessen state) and Margareth's as close by to it Heidesheim, at time of this compilation in 2009 several persons were noted listed at the Ancestry.com pay web site as seeking information on the line of Michael Simon who died in Kempsey who incorrectly and had posted his birth place as "Nassau, Deggendorf, Bayern". Of three towns in Germany named "Nassau", each is located in a different state of which none are in Hessen, apparently someone just selected the smallest of them and incorrectly declared that as his birthplace and others who posted just adopted it as a fact! Also three of the four Ancestry posters had his death date at Kempsey as 2 Oct 1884 in contradiction of the NSW Death Index that has it indexed as 1894.
2 The LDS Church International Genealogical Index (IGI) has an extraction of Margaretha's baptism as:- "20 Dec 1813 in Katholische Kirche (the Catholic Church) Heidesheim, Hessen". Note whilst the IGI entry has the parish as Hackenheim the relevant source microfilm has the source as "Item 2 Kirchenbuch, 1679-1876 Katholische Kirche Heidesheim (Kr. Bingen)" indicating an error and place of the christening should have read Heidesheim.
The name of Margaretha's father, whose christening has not been identified in the IGI, is given as Valentini Gros and her mother as Anna Maria Zimmer. The IGI has Anna Maria Zimmer's baptism as 22 Oct 1780 in the Catholic Church, Gross-Winternheim, Rheinhessen, Hessen and that two older brothers were baptised in the same church. It has brother Bartholomaeus Zimmer baptised there abt. 31 May 1774 and as marrying in the same church on 27 Feb 1797 Maria Catharina SINGER. The other brother Joannes was baptised there abt. 3 Feb 1778. The IGI has the Anna Maria Zimmer marriage to Valentini Gros as 14 Oct 1810 in the Catholic Church, Hackenheim, Rheinhessen, Hessen. Anna Maria Zimmer's parents (i.e. Margaretha's grandparents) were Stephani Zimmer and Margarethae Keller. Note the spellings of given names and surnames varied in the extractions to the IGI - when Margaretha's mother married Valentini Gros in 1810 his name was spelt more distinctly Latin as Valentinus Groos. Facilitating the positive identification of Margaretha's lineage in the IGI was the recording of her mother's maiden surname as Zimmer in her sister Anna Maria Senz's 31 Mar 1852 San Francisco Sydney arrival immigration record (AONSW reel #2463).
3 Originals held by Macleay River Historical Society Inc., South Kempsey, NSW.
4 As per an article at Ancestry.com
5 German ancestry of the parents of Michael Simon (1812-1894) researched in the LDS microfilms by Simon family researcher Dick Adams and provided courtesy of same. William and Michael Simon birth dates and Macleay River land selection and ownership also researched and provided courtesy of same.
6 The Waterloo Archive Volume II : German Sources, edited by Gareth Glover (2010), p.232 footnote 318 - quoting the precise number from Wacker as - 1st Light Regiment 2900, 2nd Light 2710, and Orange Nassau 1742 - total 7352 men.
7 Ian Bickerton, The Illusion of Victory : The True Costs of War (Melbourne University Press, 2011) p.77.
8 Reynolds, op. cit., p. 137 (text of letter #6 dated 3 Sept. 1859 written from Frauenstein, situated in the Duchy about 11 kilometers by road north east of Hattenheim). It referred to the 1859 war in which the Austrians with whom the Duchy was allied fought against France and Piedmont in Northern Italy - quote "all the soldiers were called in ... (Ed. i.e. those who had previously been drafted and undergone military training and service and were in the reserves/militia so liable for call-up to serve wherever required). The Austrians and the French had great battles ... the plaque came back so they had to stop the war... nobody can say with certainty it will remain quiet. There is a report it may start again next spring. May the good lord protect us from that. We do not need to fear anymore for our Johann (Ed. the writer's brother who was conscripted in 1856 in place of his brother Peter Joseph who when aged 18 emigrated to NSW in 1854 thus avoiding military service) because after the war he was sent home unfit".
In respect of that 1859 Italy war Jacksons Oxford Journal of 7 April 1855, under a heading "European Preparations For War", reported - "A military convention between the Netherlands and the Duchy of Nassau has just been concluded, and reported to the Germanie Diet. In the event of war the Federal contingents of Dutch Limburg and Nassau will be united under one command, excercised for alternate years by such of the contracting parties." The Welington Indepandant, New Zealand, of 18 Apil 1859, under the heading "European Intelligence to the 18th April", reported - "Austria is pouring more troops into Italy, an immense amount of war material has been sent from Vienna. Of course all these movements denote that neither Austria or Sarindia look for anything else but war. The Duke of Nassau has proclaimed his sympathy with Austria and offers of defending her to the last man." In the book "Italy and the War of 1859", by Julie De Maegueeittes (Evans, Philadelphia 1859) at p.237 was written - "The Austrian army has received as a volunteer Prince Nicholas de Nassua, a half-brother of the reigning Duke. In taking leave of the Diet of Nassau, of which his brother had made him President, he said he was proud of being the first German Prince, who from his independant position is enabled to fight in the ranks of the defenders of his country against oppressors and invaders."
9 Report for the year ended 30 September 1859 by Samuel Ricker, the US Consul for the Duchy of Nassau, to the US State Department re the population and commerce of the Duchy etc. (Despaches from the United States of America Consulate at the Duchy of Nassau to the Department of State for the period 1854 to 1869 - cited as NARA - 1 roll microfilm "T.473, Despatches from the Consuls at Nassau, Germany, 1854-1869". Page 4 had the numbers at 1 Oct 1859, presumably taken from from the 1855 or 1858 census, of Protestants as 223,738, Catholic as 197,653 and Others as 7426 for a total of 428,817.
10 Katherine M Reynolds, The Frauenstein letters : aspects of nineteenth century emigration from the Duchy of Nassau to Australia (Peter Lang, Bern ; New York, 2009), p.33.
11 In respect of the vessel's name the original Hamburg departure passenger list had it as "Wilhelmsburg" as did all Australian newspaper reports of its arrival such as in The Hobarton Mercury, The Age and The Sydney Morning Herald. Only the AONSW films of the immigration records and indexes to the AONSW reels refer to it as the "Wilhelmsberg" with an "e" instead of a "u". First commissioned 27 Apr 1853 and, measuring 144 feet in keel length and 39 foot width with a tonnage under 1000 tons, it was in 1855 on its second voyage from Hamburg to Australia. In Dec 1863 only a week into a voyage to Moreton Bay in Queensland it was wrecked off Terschelling Island with heavy loss of life. Of the 261 drowned 247 were emigrants. There is no known surviving painting or photograph of this vessel.
12 John Murray, Murray's Handbook for Belgium and the Rhine, 1852
13 The Colonial Times (of Hobart) on 5 sep 1855 reported there had been conflicting rumors in respect of the "Wilhelmsburg" immigrants state of health and manner of care during the voyage to Hobart. However the newspaper stated inquiry by it of the cabin passengers and bounty immigrants contradicted the lack of care claims and the vessel was "very clean" and in a superior condition compared to many previous arrivals. However in respect of sickness upon arrival the immigration agent had refused to allow the immediate transfer to the hospital of the sick and insisted that first there must be a repoprt by the agents nominated doctor Dr. Bedford with the consequence that they were not removed from the ship until the following morning.
14 The German Australia web page subtitled "German Settlement in New South Wales in the 19th Century". The surnames of the original six vinedressers who arrived in Sydney on 23 Apr 1838 on the barque Kinnear were - Flick, Gerhard, Wenz (from Hattenheim), Justus, Seckold (Erbach), and Stein (Mittelheim). Note their arrival in Sydney on 23 Feb 1838 pre-dated the arrival at Port Adelaide on 16 Nov 1838 of a group of Prussian immigrants who noted in a publication on Australian history are incorrectly credited with having been the first organised group of non-British immigrants to settle in an Australian colony (see:- Chronicle of Australia, 2000, Penquin Books Australia, p. 259).
15 Eric and Rosemary Kopitthe (compilers), Emigrants from Hamburg to Australia : 1855, Qld. Family History Soc. Inc., 1991.
16 Egerton Ryerson, A Special Report on the systems and state of popular education on the continent of Europe ... (1868 Ontario, Canada) quote - "Duchy of Nassau - Instruction since 1817 is obligatory, under pain of a fine ; but instruction is free, or gratuitous, except for furnishing the school ; and it is stated there is not a single individual entirely illiterate in the Duchy".
17 Photograph of the Rhine River stones, handed down in the line of Michael Simon Jr. through his 1894 born daughter Beatrice and provided courtesy of Chris Walker.
18 There is no immigration record under the name Andrew Senz and no NSW BDM indexed Anton and Anna Maria children births and only one Andrew and Mary Senz birth -- Mary Ann born 5 Nov 1853 and baptised 26 Feb 1854 at St. James Catholic Church in the Parish of Cumberland (ref. V1853-931-71 - AONSW reel #5026). The church baptism register gave the parents names as Andrew Senz and Mary CROWS and their abode as Kissing Point - located about 10 kilometres up the Lane Cove river from Lane Cove. The rendition of the mother's maiden surname as Crows was no doubt a phonetic rendition of Gross, that when spoken quickly with a German accent would have sounded like Crows to the officiating priest who made the entry in the parish register.
Anton (Andrew) Senz, with his parent names recorded as Conrad and Elizabeth, died in Sydney in 1863 (reg. #1863-74) and in the year following his death his widow Mary Ann married James Rideal (sic) in Sydney (reg. #1864-336). The rendition of his surname as Rideal, likely phonetic, occurs only in the NSW BDM indexes for the marriage and his 1874 death and there is no post 1864 indexed death or a Mary Rideal remarriage indexed in NSW. A possible James Rideal son born before his 1864 marriage to Mary Ann may be the John W Ridal (sic) who died at Parramatta in 1907 (#10585) who married Harriett Brown in 1899? From commencement in 1858 the Sydney Sands Directories have no listing of the Rideal surname.
The 1872 marriage of Andrew and Mary Ann's daughter Mary Ann to Edwin Smith at St Leonards is NSW BDM indexed under the surname of SANS. Early 20th century commonwealth electoral rolls listed Edwin Smith and several of his sons as orchardists at Cowan Road, St Ives. They were likely apple orchardists as in the early years the St Ives area, that until the 1880s was named Rosedale, was known for its apple orchards. Presumably the land on which their orchard was located became part of the Pymble Golf Course that was officially opened in February 1926 and 1928 became a full 18 hole-course (the area on which the course is located was originally known as "Brown's Orchard" and as late as 1943 Lands Dept. aerial photographs show orchards adjoining the northern boundary) or the William Cowan Oval also in that street. Mary Ann died early in 1913 (reg. #1398) with her father's name incorrectly given by the informant for the registration as John and her husband Edwin two years later in 1915 at age 67. Following both deaths family return thanks notices in the 8 Mar 1913 and 13 Mar 1915 issues of The Sydney Morning Herald mention the Parramatta Hospital for Insane implying Mary Ann likely preceding her death suffered from an early onset of dementia.
The BDM indexes list eleven children, plus one implied as a child of hers by a 1878 death registration, who were born between 1873 and 1899 and registered at St Leonards (there may have been others who were not registered such as a second William) viz:- Charlotte b. 1873 ; Edwin Andrew b. 1874, d. 1942, m. 1903 Elizabeth Victoria Robinson ; William H b. ?, d. 1878 ; Mary Ann Helena b. 1879; d. 1915 ; Henry James b. 1880 (probably known just as James) ; Lavina b. 1884 ; Samuel M b. 1886, d. 1891 ; Walter Oswald b. 1888, d. 1961, m. 1912 Emily Harvey Veith ; Emily E b. 1890 ; Alfred J. b. 1893 ; Frederick b. 1895, d. 1958 ; Francis b. 1899, d. 1977. (Note: unexplained is a second William evidenced by his presence at the Cowan Road, St Ives household in Commonwealth Electoral Rolls for the division of Parramatta, sub division of Gordon, with the occupation of orchardist - both Mary Ann's 1913 and Edwin's 1915 death registrations should name their then surviving children and give their ages.
19 23 Jul 2012 email advice from Fred Musial - a gg grandson of Andrew & Mary Ann's daughter Mary Ann (1853-1913) of the burial respectively in 1883 of Mary Ann and in 1874 of her second husband James Riddel in the small South Chatswood Methodist (now Uniting Church) Cemetery, now under the control of the Lane Cove Council and located at the corner of Pacific Highway and Mowbray Road in Chatswood South, NSW - being one of the only two remaining 19th century churchyard cemeteries on Sydney’s North Shore. The URL in 2012 for its memorial transcriptions was:
20 NSW Colonial Secretary : Register of Certificates of Naturalization 1835-1903, reg. 3, page No. 133.
21 Reynolds (2009), op. cit., p.13 quoting Wolf-Heino Struck, Die Auswanderungen aus dem Herzogtum Nassau 1806 - 1866 (Wiesbaden, 1966), p. 132-202. Note the 1416 who advertised were units - such as a single person or a married man with a family hence the total number of persons was much larger when families of the married men are included and may have been say 4 or 5 thousand.
22 Reynolds (2009) opt. cit. p. 34 - quoting Wolf-Heino Struck, Die Auswanderungen aus dem Herzogtum Nassau 1806 - 1866 (Wiesbaden, 1966) p.131.
23 Reynolds (2009), op. cit., migration fever p.18-19, p.69 ; not paupers p.35 ; Rheingau a comparatively wealthy region p.52 ; Catholics emigrating to Australia outnumbered Protestant by a factor of 4 : 1, p. 48.
24 The Maitland Mercury of 22 Sep 1855 reported (the article in 2012 was online at: http://newspapers.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/706446) - "The Wilhelmsburg is originally from Hamburg, but called at Hobart Town, for the purpose of landing a portion of her emigrants. She has brought to this port 222 steerage passengers, nearly the whole of whom have come out under the auspices of Messrs. Kirchner and Co. One death occurred during the passage from Hobart Town to this port. The ship is at present free from sickness of any kind". For an overview of the major role of Kirchner & Co. in German emigration to Australia in the 19th century see online at Google Books pages 366-367 in the 2001 edition of the first published in 1988 book titled - The Australian People : an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins, compiled by James Jupp. In the alternative if the linked URL has changed the most relevant page 366 can be reached in Google using a search string such as - Wilhelm Kirchner Hesse enterprise 1814.
25 Dick Adam, Simons on the Macleay : Pioneer Settlers on the Macleay and Nambucca Rivers ..., (2011) p. 25 citing University of NSW Associate Professor of German Studies Jürgen Tampke.
26 Reynolds (2009), op. cit., p.9 & 35,1852 population p.62, p.49-50, p.124 (re conscription - text of letter 2).
An example of a notice in respect of those who evaded military service in another duchy (the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg), no doubt similar to ones that appeared in the the Duchy of Nassau newspaper, appeared in an Oldenburg newspaper dated 17 July 1847 that has been translated as follows: - "Official Notice is Hereby Given - Official Proclamation - Military Board - The recalcitrant servicemen who are liable for military service are required to show up at the draft board. (there followed a list of 71 names). According to a drafting law passed on July 19, 1837, they must appear before 1 April 1848 in front of the draft board or be punished. Oldenburg, 1847, July 1. Grandduke of Oldenburg Military Board, Jansen Behrmann. Signed - The Grand Duchy of Oldenburg" (transcript as posted to Rootsweb-Ancestry Hesse mail list by Ronald J Repking, Flossmoor, Illinoi).
27 In addition to the published letters the following references establish there was a military service obligation in the Duchy of Nassau in the 1850s:-
Reynolds, op. cit., p. 50 - a file for the month of September 1854, held by the Hessian State Archives at Wiesbaden, reference "Eltville migration file" Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Wiesbaden [HStAW] Abt 223/1446, 1854 of details supplied by persons from the Eltville district (the 4 kilometres distant town and district that covered Hattenheim village) who applied to the authorities for permission to emigrate, recorded that 65 per cent (47 men out of 72) stated on the forms they had completed their military service at the time of completing the application to emigrate. The author concluded the indication for this group was that emigration would not have been a way of avoiding military service and that the percentage of those who had completed was likely higher than 65 as some who did not comment as to whether they had completed their military service may not by then have been called up.
Colburn's United Service Directory and Naval Military Journal, (1862) part III, p. 391-393 - in respect of the strength of military establishments in various German states and "the conscription" the article stated such involved quote - "periods of service varying from five to seven years, in general six years, with periods of training of two to three years for the cavalry and artillery, and eighteen months to two years for the infantry." The article gave as an example the service required in Wurtemberg state as being quote - "the foot soldier spends the first year of his time of service under training, the second partly so, and is called out for thirty days' training in the third, forth, and sometimes fifth years. In Bravaria, Hesse, Nassau, Baden, &c., very nearly the same system is pursued ; the recruits are drilled in winter, and just as many as are required for guard mounting and the ordinary garrison duties remain during the summer under arms, the remainder being sent on furlough for the winter as soon as a new batch of recruits is levied. It is in fact incorrect to apply the name of standing army to these troops ; they are virtually nothing more than militia with permanent staffs, and if the system of substitution were not permitted it would be wholly impossible even to keep up these. ... As might be expected, the performance of military duty is looked on as an intolerable burden that every one tries to get rid of as soon as possible.
NOTE: the system of substitution in general was that service obligations could be discharged by having another serve in the person's place. In general in the German states for example a wealthy young man could pay someone who didn't mind undertaking military service to serve in his stead. Every year, or whenever it was considered necessary to replenish the army, the ruler asked for recruitment. Every jurisdiction like towns, villages were assessed to supply a certain number of recruits according to size of population and the young people of a certain age in that area were called for muster, which was called "Losung", and a ballot was held to determine those to be drafted.
Whilst by the 1850s conscription in the Duchy was apparently just accepted as a fact of life in earlier times, such during the Napoleonic Wars, it was resisted. An article in The Literary Panorama of 25 Dec 1811 read: - "Horrors of the Conscription : Self-mutilation to avoid serving - An article from the banks of the Maine, states, that some hundreds of young people in the duchy of Nassau and the departments of the Elbe, who were registered for conscription, had mutilated themselves, to avoid serving. Many of the offenders had been apprehended."
28 The Hamburg departure lists gave the German word for the occupation of vinedresser as "weinbauer" meaning a wine grape grower. John Murray, Murray's Handbook for Belgium and the Rhine published in 1852 op. cit. described the occupation thus -
"The life of the Rhineland vinedresser indeed presents a rare example of industry and perseverance. Though by no means rich, they are generally the proprietors of the vineyards which they cultivate ; and though their appearance does not altogether verify that which painters draw and poets describe, they at least exhibit an aspect of cheerfulness and intelligence. Independently of the hardness of the labour of cultivating the vine, which is not confined to any one season, but must be carried on perseveringly throughout the whole year, and is most severe during the heat of summer, the vine is a delicate plant, frost, rain, or hail may in a few hours annihilate the produce upon which the cultivator depends solely for subsistence. One or two successive seasons of failure will ruin even an opulent family ; but when the vintage is good, few of the small proprietors are rich enough to be able to wait until they can obtain a favourable market, but must part with the wine soon after it is made to the rich speculators, who buy up the whole produce of a district, and take the chance of its turning out good or bad."
29 Reynolds (2009), op. cit. p.65-69.
30 Adams, op. cit., p.p. 21-23. Ed. note : It would be necessary to consult The Hattenheim Stockbuck at Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Wiesbaden [HstAW] in Weisbaden to ascertain if Michael Simon owned land and how much etc.
31 Wording of the notation advised by Dick Adams who also researched the records of the Alexander Berry "Coolangatta" estate at Shoalhaven held by Manuscripts at the Mitchell Library. The records researched are most likely found in the following series - ML MSS. 315/74 (a circa 1856 list of German immigrants indented to Alexander Berry at his Shoalhaven "Coolangatta" estate), ML MSS. 315/56-61 (the 1853-1870 indexed ledgers recording provisions and equipment supplied and wages paid to persons employed at the Shoalhaven property), ML MSS. 315/62-65 (the day books compiled at Shoalhaven recording wages paid from May 1852 to Mar. 1858, and ML MSS. 315/72 (July 1848 - Aug. 1870 Agreements with employees, mainly hired for Shoalhaven, re their work, period of engagement, wages and provision entitlements, cash advances. Compiled at Sydney). The relevant catalogue listing in 2010 was at: - http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2007/D00007/berry1.pdf .
32 In the Mitchell Library summary re the "Coolangatta" property will be noted:- "The supply of labour was always an issue. Some of the arrangements with Shoalhaven employees were recorded by W. G. Mathews, Berry's North Shore overseer and clerk. From 1852 Chinese and German labourers were signed up for fixed periods. Faced with the loss of half the employees to the gold fields, Alexander declared they must lease as much land as possible or perish. The population figures for his estate reveal the change of policy. In 1850 the estate population numbered 367, in 1856 it was 1470 and in 1859, 1700."
33 June 2010 - advised by Simon family researcher Dick Adams - (1) there was a Simon family story that Michael Simon Sr. had been employed by Major Archibald Innes after arrival in the colony. (2) there was a handed down family story that after arrival Margaretha and the children resided initially with the Senzs' at Parramatta whilst Michael was employed elsewhere, and (3) his research of the Rev. Thomas Hassell employment records at the Mitchell Library had not disclosed that anyone else resided with the Senzs' after the family's arrival in Sydney in September 1855.
34 Whilhelm (William) Rosenbaum from Salzhemmendorf, Province of Hanover, Germany (now Nieldersachsen state), wife Louise (Marie Louisa), daughter Caroline, and two other couples from Salzhemmendorf are listed in the Hamburg passenger departure lists as on board the Wilhelmsburg when it departed Hamburg on 10 May 1855. For the death 6 weeks after arrival in Sydney on 4 Nov 1855 of their 3 months old born on the voyage son William at Port Macquarie see the St. Thomas C of E, Port Macquarie burial register V1855-1566-43A. Also an Oct. 2010 email to the compiler from Phyllis Wooderson advising the Port Macquarie Historical Society has a record that Patrick Mackay, who from 1859 became the son-in-law of Major Archibald Innes and with his brother was an early Upper Hastings river settler at a property they named "Bighouse", was then of Lake Road in Port Macquarie and he had employed William Rosenbaum.
For the 1847 lease advertisement see - The Sydney Gazette of 19 May 1842 & The Sydney Morning Herald of 23 Aug 1847 p. 2 for the HAYLEY V GRAY case report in which it was stated - "there were several small tenants on parts of "Clarefield".
Information on the sale of "Clarefield" may perhaps be found in Passing of a Century by Louisa Parker held by the Mitchell Library (unsighted by the compiler).
35 For flood report see The Sydney Morning Herald of 4 May 1852, p. 2. For the 1847 lease advertisement see - The Sydney Gazette of 19 May 1842 & The Sydney Morning Herald of 23 Aug 1847 p. 2 for the HAYLEY V GRAY case report in which it was stated - "there were several small tenants on parts of "Clarefield". Information on the sale of "Clarefield" may perhaps be found in "Passing of a Century" by Louisa Parker held by the Mitchell Library (unsighted by the compiler).
36 His obituary in The Macleay Argus stated he would have turned 80 on Boxing Day 26 Dec 1924 i.e born 26 Dec 1844. However his 29 Dec 1843 baptism record had his date of birth a year earlier on 26 Dec 1843 (Adams, op. cit. p. 77). However the age of 55 given in his 27 Jul 1899 dated naturalization certificate did calculate to a pre 27 Jul 1844 birth.
37 NSW Probate Index and The Macleay Argus obituary.
38 Photo courtesy of Nancy Taylor.
39 Original held by the Bowraville Folk Museum - edited version published courtesy of same.
40 Kirsty Dunn email 23 Sep 2009 - advising in addition to Margaret there were four other Patrick and Mary Ann Fogarty children - viz. Anne (c1837-1913) married Thomas Hickson, Catherine "Kate" (1842- ) married George Benson, Ellen (1846- ) married, and Mary (1849-1928) married Thomas Julian; and the 1852 Mary Ann Fogarty inquest is recorded as #6350 index of the Register of Coroner's Inquests - AONSW reel #2921
41 The Macleay Cronicle 1 Sep 1926. Mr. Joseph Simon - Saturday last, at his Dondingalong residence, passed away after many months' painful illness. The deceased gentleman, aged 75 years, had lived at Dondingalong for nearly seventy years. He was well respected by all who knew him and his quietly genial nature had gained him a wide circle of friends. He is survived by his wife (formerely Miss Bannerman) and four sons, Messrs. Joseph, Angus, Raymond and Arthur. One son (William) died while on active service with the A.I.F. Messrs. Michael and William Simon. of West Kempsey, are brothers; and Mrs. Grace (Nambucca) and Miss Margaret Simon (Sherwood) are sisters. Two brothers the late Messrs. Thomas and Jacob Simon, predeceased him. The funeral, under conduct of Messrs. Jos. T. Walker took place to West Kempsey Cemetery on Sunday, the Rev. Father Bradley officiating at the service in the Church and at the graveside, where a very large gathering assembled to pay their last tribute to the sturdy old pioneer passed on.
42 Advised in June and August 2010 by Chris Walker, who also advised folklore in the Micheal Simon Jr. line, handed down from his 1894 born daughter Beatrice, was that Michael Sr. did not find the job he came for and after arrival the family made an overland journey from Sydney via Newcastle etc. and via Mt. Kipparra to the Macleay where Michael purchased farm land. As will be noted in the text neither the overland journey to the Macleay after arrival or land purchase there are considered factual.
43 Compiler's web page. titled Descendants of James Bannister Grace.
44 Heather J. Owen's web page titled: Descendants of James Banister Grace.
45 Bellingen Shire Council web site - a .pdf file dated 8 Mar 2008.
46 From an article by Dick Adams titled: "Billy, our first great war victim" - published in The Macleay Argus of 11 Nov 2008.
47 Gordon Bruce Moody, Moody family ... : settlers in the Bellinger River Valley, N.S.W. 1877 chapter 14, p.p. 111-115 - has several photos.
48 Smithtown Catholic Centenary Book, p.100 - a list of "Parishioners To Enter Religion".
49 Advised by John Simon - Oct. 2009.
50 Rookwood Cemetary Headstone Transcriptions CD-ROM.
51 Ann Goldberg, Sex, Religion, and the Making of Modern Madness : the Eberbach Asylum and German Society 1815-1847, (1999), p. 29.
52 The Popular Encyclopedia, Vol 5, (Blackie & Sons, Glasgow, 1841) p. 858.