Early Schools of Tippecanoe County Indiana
Fairfield township


   
 

Tippecanoe County Area area Genealogy Society members, aka: TIPCOA, published this list of early school houses in Tippecanoe County.  This database is an effort to help others find, share and preserve this early history. This is where our grandparents or great-grandparents attended.  Information came from history books and from past newsletter issues as well as other resources sourced below to publish our newsletters. Many photographs were contributed by our members. We would love your help. You can send us a scanned photograph and the picture information, or a webpage that I can link?  Help us all continue to share this history. Thanks to our members and Susan Clawson, our Newsletter Editor.

E-mail: TIPCOA SCHOOL INFO.  For a digital copy, please add your source and your name as contributor.
Or mail to - P. O. Box 2464, West Lafayette, Indiana 47996

Jackson, Lauramie, Perry, Randolph, Sheffield, Shelby, Tippecanoe, Union, Wabash, Washington, Wayne & Wea.

 

Some thoughts on the names and accomplishments of one-room schools from 1901: Out here in the townships the good people do not read a rhyming dictionary through or absorb the solid contents of Jones’ jawbreakers for the sole purpose of bestowing a name upon the schoolhouse. If the schoolhouse does not take the name of the neighborhood or the man who previously owned the land upon which it is located, some future Milton generally bestows a name to his liking and it sticks like a leech, as nicknames will, and one does not have to take a course in Nesbitt’s French or annex a caudal appendage of capital letters to his name to pronounce it. Some of the characteristic names of schoolhouses are “Frog Pond,” “Pin Hook,” “Grass,” “Pasteboard” and “Little Brown.” They sound queer to one unaccustomed to the freehearted life of the country, but these small stations on the educational rapid transit railway have proven that a name is not a actor in the progress of the world. From the doors of these country schools have issued rulers of the land, congressmen, senators, governors, and still they continue to fill important places in the world’s work. So here’s a health to the good old country schoolhouses, where lickin’ has been eliminated and learnin’ has been multiplied, and a halo of ye good old-fashioned days hovers over the circle of bright-faced girls and boys, who con their lessons and munch their apples at recess time around the cheerful fire of the wood stove. And when your rounded cheeks are glowing with the roseate tints of health after a game of “I spy” or “pull-away,” remember that opportunity is yours and that upon you depends the future of a land that has made your opportunities helpful” (J.P. Casey, “Journal’s Journeying's: Sheffield Township.” Lafayette Journal and Courier 20 Dec1901).


Schools in Fairfield Townships

  Originally published in the TIPCOA Newsletter Winter 2011 issue #3.

The early schools of Fairfield township were subscription schools located in the young town of Lafayette. The first in downtown Lafayette was a log school opened in 1827 by Joseph Tatman.  After a few terms, he was succeeded by John Farmer who later moved the school to the old courthouse.  A second school opened in 1829.  Many more subscription schools followed. (Vertical file, TCHA).
  
After the Indiana Legislature passed a law that allowed for the use of some public funds to support a County Seminary, one opened in Tippecanoe County in December 1842.
The COUNTY SEMINARY, 1842-1855, was a public school that used some public money but also charged tuition.  It stood on South Street Hill. Teacher: Joseph Adams; trustees: R. S. Ford, Joseph S. Hanna, and Jacob Benedict.
  
When Free public schools began, the schools were under the direction of the township trustee.  The new state constitution of 1851 abolished the County seminary system and established the common school fund, speeding the development of township district schools.  Various fees and revenues were deposited in this fund. Surviving reports of school numeration cover years from 1844 to 1855 and show as many as 10 districts in Fairfield Township (TCHA).  Later, local governments were allowed to levy taxes for the schools.  Cities were the first to levy direct taxes to support the schools, and so led the way in school development. Later, townships also were able to support the schools with taxes.
  
The decision about where a child attended school was sometimes dependent on where his father paid taxes. In 1964, Henry Dexter reported that when he was a boy, his father paid both city and County taxes. When the trustee decided the County taxes exceeded the city taxes paid, Henry would be transferred from Linnwood (in the city system) to Crouch (in the township system) or vice versa. When he was 12, he was transferred four times in one year and finally quit school in disgust (“History,” p. 5)

School symbols are showing on the County and township maps. 1878 County map showing townships and some locations. 
The 1878 map shows districts 1-10, outside the Lafayette Corporation limits. These districts were administered by the Fairfield township trustee and advisory board until they were closed or incorporated into the city schools.  1878 Atlas of Tippecanoe county. Farifield Township maps. (Historic Map Works)  Click a few times to blow the map up.  The text "School" appears on the 1866 C.O. Titus map of Tippecanoe County, Indian.   Some symbols show on this snippet of this 1878 Lafayette map.  Look for orange squares, and the 1894 Cory & Sons map.  Look for the matching section number.

 

       Numbered Schools for Fairfield Township:

No.  1.  Sand Ridge, aka, aka,
Ostheimer
Section 9  Sitting on the Longlois Reserve, on N. Ninth St Rd. (old FerryGravel Road), next to Davis Cemetery (“My” School Home”). A one-room brick building was erected in 1860 (“School Home”). Cloak rooms were located on either side of the front door, separated by a short hall. The school was on P. Ostheimer land in 1878. It is identified on the 1908 Tippecanoe County highway map, but was not listed by Horwood in 1921. The school closed in 1928, and in 1929 the building was converted into a home, later occupied by Gertrude Smith Lecklitner, a former pupil (“Sand Ridge”; “School Home”).
No.  2.  Pleasant Spring, aka, Henderson Section 11 on Linnwood and Wildcat Pike in 1878, now SR25 at 300N, on the north side of Wildcat Creek (“No. 2 School”). The school stood on Wm Henderson’s land in 1878. It was still open in 1918 (“My”), and Horwood lists it in 1921 as a one-room brick.
No.  3.  Fleming Section 3 further east on Linnwood and Wildcat Pike (now 300N), at the east
township line. The location was on the land of J. L. Flemming in 1878. It closed in 1901
No.  4.  Ely, aka, Mason Section 14 corner of 400E and 200N, N of Peters Mill Bridge. In 1878 it is shown on
the west side of 400E in sec. 14 on J. E. Mason land. John Ely owned the next farm to the east,which was in sec. 13. The Ely homestead (1877) at 4106 E200N is on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1908, the road had been moved to the east, and the school was in sec. 13. Hooker lists it as still open in 1916. Horwood describes it in 1921 as a one-room brick.
No.  5.  Huffman aka, aka, Potter Section 23 Union Street, past Creasy Lane at a jog in the road. Potter and Huffman families lived nearby. The building burned in 1900, and was not rebuilt. (1866 map)
No.  6.  Claspill, aka, Pickle Factory, aka, Jeptha Crouch Section 22 Union Street, east of SR52/Sagamore Parkway. School No. 6 opened in 1866 as Claspill School on land obtained from Aaron T. Claspill (Webb). In 1886 it was renamed Crouch School for local horse farm owner Jeptha Crouch. The first building was a “one-room white frame house trimmed in green with the window sashes painted black” according to Henry Dexter (qtd. in “History” p. 4). The land was part of the old Star City Brick Company yards, and closer to the railroad tracks than the later brick building. The Heinz Pickle factory was located nearby (where the Brown Rubber Plant was, later Essex Wire, now Copperfield Wire and Coleman Cable), and the children nicknamed the school the Pickle Factory School (“History,” p. 4; “6 Former Pupils”). In 1899 one male teacher taught about 40 pupils in all eight grades.
The two-room, brick school, erected in 1901, was one-half mile east of the old district house. In 1921 it was a one-story brick school with a basement and two rooms (Horwood). In 1951, it was enlarged to hold a gym, kitchen, lunch room, shop, and five classrooms (Arganbright). About 1960, the Fairfield township advisory board debated whether to go ahead with a bond issue for an addition to relieve overcrowding or wait for the pending consolidation with the Lafayette city schools to take place (“Consolidation”). At the time, rural Fairfield township high school students were bused into Lafayette Jefferson High School, and it was suggested that elementary pupils could be bused to nearby Lafayette grade schools as well (“Consolidation”).
The four-room addition was built onto the east side of the school, and Jan. 1, 1963, when the“three-county-unit” County reorganization went into effect, Crouch was incorporated into the Lafayette School system. Elementary children from the Elston and Wea districts who were then part of the Lafayette School Corporation were bused to Crouch (Webb). A few years later the school was closed.
No.  7.  Frog Pond, aka, Brown Section 25 McCarty Lane near intersection with CR500 (now Veterans Memorial Parkway), named for the large pond on the south side of the road; brick, one-room building; still open in 1916; not listed in 1921 by Horwood; later used for farm storage; torn down about 2005. Student: Leoma Gingrich.  1897 card.
No.  8  Junction, aka, Dayton Road Section 34/35 line just west of Maple Point, where the Indianapolis Pike (Old 52, Ross Ade Dr.) meets the Dayton Pike (SR 38). It closed in 1909 (Hooker).
No.  9.  Red Eye, aka, Elston

Section 31 (Rochester Addition, lot 13; 2440 S. Beck Lane). The first house was a one-room box-board school house called “Red-Eye,” probably because it was painted red (Hooker; Woods and Martin, p. 98). In 1876 the teacher was O. D. Kirk and there were 63 students at the school (Hooker, p. 57). It is on the Lafayette map in the 1878 Atlas (p. 11). In 1887 a two-room brick school with a bell tower was erected and the name was changed to Elston, after the town. There were two teachers in 1893-94 (Hooker). The original outhouse, the“necessary,” still stands. On both the boys’ and girls’ sides, there are three seats, one for very small children. An annex that served as a teacher’s residence has been removed. After the school closed, the building served for a time as the Elston Presbyterian Church. Now a private residence, it has been restored by the current owner, Ute White. A lead glass transom has been added over the entrance door. The building was admitted to the Wabash Valley Trust in 1995(White). In 1917, Hooker states that a “fine modern two-roomed house is under construction on a new site [a] half mile east of the old site of No. 9” (p. 57 and p. 120). This may be the building where Lucia Margaret Tyrell taught in 1917-18. She remembered that this was the first year she taughtand the first year the Elston building was open. She taught the primary grades, probably 1-4, in one room. There were about forty children in the class (Hatford). The school was still operating in 1921. It had four classrooms in a one-story brick building with a basement (Horwood). This is probably the building used by Tippecanoe School Corporation as their administration building and demolished in 1989 when the present administration building was erected (“Bye, bye”)
ELSTON HIGH SCHOOL 1893-1900. Max Leiter, principal, taught three years of high school work. High school classes were discontinued after he resigned in 1900 (Hooker; Kriebel et al. p. 76).
No. 10.  Springvale, aka, Mobray Section 15 SE quarter of Longlois Reserve, west of Springvale cemetery. This was on P. L. Mowbray land in 1878. Still open in 1916 per Hooker; listed in 1921 by Horwood as a brick one-room building, and pictured as an example of a rural school that should be upgraded and then consolidated as soon as possible.

1859 School Hand bill Lafayette
1858 Hand bill advertising classes at the Lafayette Central High School, on Brown Street, near
Missouri [now 6th] Street. Donated to TCHA. Used by permission from TCHA Vertical file.

Red Eye schoolElston No 9

Left: Red Eye School, at Elston, in Fairfield Township (Hooker). Right: Elston School No. 9, in Fairfield
Township. Note the horse-drawn school hack. Photo courtesy of Ute White. 

Springvale school
Springvale School in 1921. Photo from Public Health Survey of Lafayette, Indiana,
and Tippecanoe County, Indiana. By Murray P. Horwood (Lafayette, IN:
Tippecanoe Co. TB Assoc., 1921), p. 107. Accessed on Google Books, 3 Aug. 2010

Surnames of students in various Fairfield township schools in 1848 enumerations: Justice,
Baker, Meek, Gorham, Higman, Lucas, Springer, West, Kellenbarger, Wolf, Lathrop, Jennings,
Irvin, Vaughn, Hunt, Allen, Victor, Stiles, Longloy, Smith, Huff, Cowdry, Freel, Warner,
Lemon, Goodwin, Lemon, Marstiller, Carter, Wilson, Laburn, Crist (TCHA). Hooker includes a
list of scholars at Elston in 1876 (p. 57).

 

Schools in Lafayette:

   In 1852, the State legislature passed a law that allowed towns and cities to use public funds for town schools. Lafayette immediately formed the city’s first public school board, which met on October 20, 1852. On Sept. 7, 1853, the city levied a tax of 50 cents per $100 taxable property specifically forthe schools. The next several years saw a statewide struggle between advocates of free public schools, and those who claimed using tax moneys for schools was unconstitutional. As a result the city schools were closed in 1855 for lack of funds and reopened in Feb. 1856. In1858, they closed again and were not reopened until May 1860 (Kriebel).
   The 1852 act also placed under the control of a city board of school trustees, all the township district schools within their limits. The city immediately claimed the funds of Fairfield township districts 7 and 9 (1878 Atlas). I have not determined where these districts were in 1852, since those so labeled in the 1878 Atlas were outside the Lafayette city limits.
   Lots were purchased for the construction of two new schools in Lafayette. By 1854, the city had three schools: the
Southern School, at the northeast corner of Fountain and Fourth streets (1867 City Directory); the Central, at the corner  of Brown and 6th; and the Eastern school, at the northeast corner of 11th and Elizabeth streets (1867 City Directory). Cecil Webb (Historical Growth) speaks of a Western School, location not specified. The 1858-59 City Directory stated that there were 1,716 children in the city entitled to schooling.
   By 1865, with the question of taxes for public schools settled, another school was needed, resulting in the construction of the
Ford School (1878 Atlas, plus picture). Named for R. S. Ford, the school opened in 1869 at the top of the hill at 14th and South. It is listed in the 1869 City Directory as the South St. School. It was a graded school. The first graduating class graduated in 1872. The school had 14 rooms, including a 300-seat lecture room. It boasted collections of fossils, astronomical and electrical apparatus (“Lafayette Public Schools”). Ford was three stories high and held 700 pupils. It was later reduced to an elementary. It closed in 1952 and the building was demolished in 1953 (Wikipedia; “A Day in the Life”; Valley Center Neighborhood Association). Student: Julia Alice Royal, of near Dayton, Indiana. 

Fun fact. 1868  School Statistics,
showing money spent and attendance numbers. (Laf. Daily Courier, Oct. 28)
5748 Males, between six  and twenty one
5448 Females between six and twenty one.

When the Eastern school needed remodeling and repair, this was done and the name changed to the Jenks School. The school was three stories Highland would hold 400 pupils (1878 Atlas plus picture). The site of Oakland School had been used for school purposes since pioneer days (“Principal”). Oakland Hill became part of the city, the school was incorporated into the city as Oakland School. In 1867, the City Directory listed it at Kossuth and the Indianapolis Road (Main Street). In 1873 it was enlarged with the addition of a second story to hold 200pupils (1878 Atlas). The school is marked on the city map in the 1878 Atlas (p. 9 and p. 11) In1895 a new brick and stone building was erected facing Kossuth St. with eight rooms and a circular rotunda (“New Oakland School”). Principal.  Union Street School. Listed in the 1869 City Directory. On Union at the northeast corner of 7th street.

Tippecanoe School was built in the summer of 1874 at the corner of 3rd and Fountain streets (1875 City Directory.) It replaced the old Southern School. Union Street School. Listed in the 1869 City Directory. On Union at the northeast corner of 7th street.

Centennial School was built in the summer of 1876 to replace the old Central school. Centennial (named for the nation’s centennial year [Kriebel]) was two stories high and held 600 pupils (1878 Atlas plus picture).Tippecanoe was two stories high and held 400 pupils (1878 Atlas plus picture).


Centennial School 1878
Centennial School, from the 1878 Atlas

The Lafayette High School department was begun in the year 1864. Prior to that time some high school classes had been offered, but no separate High School Department had been organized. The classes were held in the Central building until 1869, when they were moved to the Ford School. The graduates were prepared to teach or to go on to college (1878 Atlas). In1888 the building known as LAFAYETTE HIGH SCHOOL opened (“A Day in the Life”).  After the Interurban opened in 1903, some students commuted daily from Dayton, Indiana, including Louise Frantz and Wilma (Hill) Baker. It closed in 1912. Vocational classes were held in the building beginning July 1, 1913 (Wikipedia). JEFFERSON HIGH SCHOOL replaced the old Lafayette High School. It opened in 1912 in the block bounded by 9th, 10th, Elizabeth, and Cincinnati. It was a three-story brick building that still stands. The gymnasium was added in 1929. A new building opened in 1970 at 1801 S. 18th St. (Wikipedia).  Linnwood School was organized in the town of the same name in December 1877, at the corner of 14th and Greenbush streets (Kriebel) by Mary Jefferson. The first building contained 2 or 3 rooms. It was later enlarged to hold several hundred children (“Linwood”). It is marked on the city map in the 1878 Atlas (p. 7). The school was near Greenbush cemetery. The area was commonly called Chicken Hill, and the name was also applied to Linnwood School (“History,”p. 5). Principal and teacher: Isaac Wade. The school eventually was made part of the Lafayette public schools when Linnwood was incorporated into Lafayette. The most recent Linnwood school building now houses classes for GLASS.  Lincoln School began in 1866 as a private school in a building on Ferry St. between 8th and 9th Sts, run by the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the former location of St. James Lutheran church and school. In 1868 Indiana law required free education for all students regardless of race.  The AME Church offered their school to the City of Lafayette, and in 1868, it became part of the City schools (Kriebel et al.). Families moved to be near the school. It also offered adult education in the beginning. White teachers were employed at first. It is listed in the1871 City Directory as the African School with Miss E. Collar as teacher. In 1874 it is listed as the Colored School with Mrs. O H. Gadgoombel as teacher.  In 1877 the first African American teacher began work (Kriebel et al. p. 72). In 1885 it was called Lincoln School, and the teacher is Isaac Burdine. In 1886 the first Lincoln  School building was constructed at 14th and Salem.

Parochial Schools here have been and still are a number of church-supported schools in the township, beginning as early as 1852 (Kriebel et al., p. 71)While this is not a complete list, included were: Catholic.

By 1921 it offered both elementary and high school classes. In 1923 the second Lincoln School was built. In 1949 a state law abolished separate schools for blacks (Braun). The Lafayette city map in the 1878 atlas shows Centennial, Ford, Jenks, and Tippecanoe Schools, Oakland, Elston, and the AME church where classes were held, plus Linnwood and the St. Joseph Orphan’s School. In 1888, Lafayette had seven brick schoolhouses, plus one in Linnwood (Biographical Record). By 1897, Lafayette had 8 common schools and one high school. In 1921, Lafayette schools were Centennial, Ford,  Columbian, Tippecanoe, Washington, Elston, Oakland, Linnwood, and Lincoln, plus Jefferson High School and the Vocational school (Horwood).

Other city grade schools have included Earhart, Durgan, Edgelea, Glen Acres, Highland, Longlois, Miami, Miller, Murdock, Vinton, and Wabash. Junior Highs have included Sunnyside and Tecumseh (TCHA Vertical File).

Elementary Schools,  St. Mary (1867 City Directory.; north side of Brown St. between 5th and 6th streets). In the 1871-79 City Directory the address  is given as 224 South St. Starting about 1895 there was a St. Mary’s school for boys only (City Directory). In 1907, it was for still for boys only (City Directory). In 1921 it was a 2-story brick with basement and 2 classrooms (Horwood p. 98). St. Boniface (German Catholic). In the 1867 City Directory, on the west side of 10th between Main and Ferry. In 1871 it had moved to the east side of 10th. In 1907 there are two listings, one for boys (west side of 9th, between North and Ferry), and another for girls (east side of 10th, between Main and Ferry). In 1921 it was a 2-story brick with basement and 3c classrooms  (Horwood p. 98). St. Ann. in the 1871-79 City Directory at the NW corner of Wabash Ave. and Smith St. On Lafayette map in the 1878 Atlas In 1921 it was a 2-story brick with 3 classrooms (Horwood p.98).  St. Lawrence. In the 1907 City Directory, St. Lawrence Parochial School is listed, located at the southeast corner of 19th and Meharry streets. In 1921 it was a 2-story brick with basement and 4 classrooms (Horwood p. 98).

Secondary Schools:
ST. IGNATIUS ACADEMY
for young women 1855-1918 or later. The Catholic church took over when the County Seminary closed. The building was on Seminary Hill, beside St. Mary Cathedral (Kriebel et al. pp. 71 and 75). In the 1867 City Directory, it is located on thesouth side of Columbia, between 11 and 12th, in charge of the Sisters of Providence. In the1869 City Directory, it is listed as St. Ignatius Boarding and Day School. In the 1871-79 City Directory, the address is given as 229 Columbia St. In 1907 it was still for girls only. In 1921 it as a 3-story stone building with a basement and four classrooms. ST. LAWRENCE: From 1923 to 1928 high school classes were taught in two rooms in St. Lawrence school, representing the first coed Catholic high school in Lafayette (Kriebel etal. p. 72). ST. FRANCIS HIGH SCHOOL for girls 1928-55; in a building beside the St. Elizabeth Hospital, later used for nursing classes (Kriebel et al. p. 72). ST. JOSEPH ORPHANAGE (Sec. 32, at Elston), on city map in 1878 Atlas, p. 110. CENTRAL CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL (opened 1957; on S 9th St.). German Reformed. 1873-74 City Directory; 9th St. between Main and Ferry. This is near the location of the German Reformed church and may have been the school connected with that church. Called German and English School, at No. 10 N. 9th in the 1874 City Directory. Back to German Reformed School in 1875 City Directory, 10 N. 9th. Still listed in 1885-86 City Directory. Not listed in 1907 City Directory. or by Horwood in 1921. Lutheran. The 1862-63 City Directory lists a Lutheran school on the north side of Ferry between 8th and 9th. This is the first location of St. James Lutheran Church. In 1866 the school was at 19 S. 7th Street (“Tippecanoe County Schools”). It is listed in the 1869 City Directory as German Lutheran, 7th between Alabama and Oregon. Other entries found are as follows: 1871-79: SW corner 7th and Alabama; 1873-74: SE corner 7th and Alabama; 1874: No. 42 S. 6th; 1875-76: S. 7th Street; 1896-97 and 1907: German English Lutheran School at S. 7th. In 1921 St. James Lutheran was a two-story brick with basement and three classrooms, an auditorium, gym, sewing-room, and kitchen (Horwood, p. 98 and p. 124). Horwood praised the school as the “most  modern and satisfactory school in Tippecanoe County in sanitation and construction” (p. 124). Now located at 615 N. 8th St.  Presbyterian In 1836, the Presbyterians opened a school charging tuition in their building at the corner of th and South (“Tippecanoe County Schools”).



SOURCES USED:

1848 School Enumeration of Children Over Age 5 - Fairfield Township

1866 Colleges and Seminaries advertised on this map.

1878 Atlas. Kingman Bros, 1878.

1908 Tippecanoe County Highway Map. Rand McNally, 1908.

“6 Former Pupils Recall Crouch Days Long Ago.” Newspaper clipping, Tippecanoe Scrapbook, #2, p. 122. TCHA

Arganbright, Frank. “Know Your County Schools: Crouch and Elston Schools Have Long
Service Record in Fairfield Township.” Unidentified publication. 2 June 1951. TCHA Vertical File.

Class photo of the 1883-84 Lafayette High School, courtesy of Mary (Bailey) Pugh.

Biographical Record and Portrait Album. 1888

Braun, Kathryn (4th Grade). “Lincoln School Black education in Tippecanoe County.” Manuscript, 8 Sept 2000. TCPL Vertical file.

“Bye, bye Elston.” Lafayette, Ind. Journal and Courier 4 Nov. 1989. TCHA Vertical File.

Casey, J. P., “Journal’s Journeyings: Sheffield Township.” Lafayette Journal and Courier 20 Dec 1901:

Cheesman, David R. Past and Present Towns, Villages and Cemeteries of Tippecanoe County, Indiana. Privately printed, about 1980.

“Consolidation May Be Brought Up in Crouch School Situation.” Lafayette Leader, Vol. 78, no. 41 (about 1960).

“A Day in the Life of Tippecanoe County.” EPICS-TCHA. <http://tcha.ecn.purdue.edu:8080>. Accessed 30 June 2010.

DeHart, Richard. Past and Present. 2 vols. Indianapolis: Bowen, 1909. Author of chapter on schools is Brainard Hooker.

~ 11 ~“Francis Royal and Isaac Wade.” INTIPPEC-L Archives. 25 May 1999.
           Hatford, Laura. personal interview, 6 Nov 2010.

“History of Jeptha Crouch School.” 1964. in TCHA vertical file.

Hooker, Brainard. The First Century of Public Schools of Tippecanoe County Indiana, (Lafayette IN: Haywood, 1917).

Horwood, Murray P. Public Health Survey of Lafayette, Indiana and Tippecanoe County, Indiana. Lafayette, IN: Tippecanoe Co.
   TB Assoc., 1921. Accessed on Google Books, 3Aug. 2010.

Kriebel, Robert. “1st City School Bell Rang in 1827.” Old Lafayette. Lafayette Journal and Courier, 16 Sept. 1979.

Kriebel, Robert C., Fern Honeywell Martin, Ernest Wilkerson, and Paula Alexander Woods.
Tippecanoe at 2000: A Hoosier County Recalls Its Past. TCHA Millennium Committee. Lafayette, Ind.: Lafayette Printing, 1999–2000.

Lafayette City (and County) Directories. TCHA Research Library.

“Lafayette Public Schools.” Lafayette (Ind.) Daily Courier, 6 July 1872.

“Linwood.” Handwritten manuscript in TCHA vertical file.

“My, How You’ve Changed.” Lafayette, Ind. Journal and Courier 10 Aug. 1963. TCHA Vertical File.

“New Oakland School Building.” Lafayette, Ind. Daily Courier, 29 Jan. 1895.

“No. 2 School.” The Good Old Days. Lafayette, Ind. Journal and Courier, Undated. TCHA Vertical File.

“Principal 45 Years at Same Lafayette School.” TCHA Vertical File.

“The Road Least Taken.” By Paula Woods and Fern Martin. Lafayette [Ind.] Leader, about 1990.

“Sand Ridge School.” The Good Old Days. Lafayette, Ind. Journal and Courier undated. TCHA Vertical File.

“School Home to Oldest Alumna.” Lafayette, Ind. Journal and Courier. 20 July 1967.

“Schools!” Lafayette, Ind. Morning Journal. 12 Oct. 1897, TCHA Vertical File.

Sherry, Pete. “Lafayette Schools.” Manuscript. TCHA Vert. File.

“Tippecanoe County Schools, 1800-1950.” Class project available on Google. Jennifer Bay,
Asst. Prof. Professional Writing, Purdue University. Accessed 26 May 2011.

Valley Center Neighborhood Assoc. <http://www.valleycntr.com>. Accessed 30 June 2010.

“Jefferson High School (Indiana).” Wikipedia. Accessed 30 June 2010.
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jefferson_High_School_%28Indiana%29

Webb, Cecil S. Historical Growth of the Schools of Lafayette, Indiana. Lafayette, IN: Lafayette

School Corporation, 1972. Limited edition. Copy in Purdue library.

White, Ute. Materials about Elston School, Fairfield Township. 2010.

Woods, Paula, and Fern Martin. Traveling through Tippecanoe. 1992.

Frog Pond School original photograph, donated by Bob McDonald 2022.

More Research Links:

Wikipedia of Tippecanoe County Indiana and townships

1850 newspaper article stating Elizabeth Carpenter is the teacher of the Free School. NewspaperArchive.com, Dec.9, 1850, Lafayette Daily Courier,

1866 Map by C.O. Titus of Tippecanoe County, Indian. (Library of Congress)

1878 Atlas of Tippecanoe county. Township maps. Historic Map Works, click on each township.

1878 Map of Lafayette,  phone shot, L.A. Clugh. (Alameda McCollough Research Library)

1888 Cory & Sons Atlas,of Tippecanoe County. Individual township map showing the Numbered schools. Search for the township
  on these digital pages at the Indiana  State Genealogy Library.


1892 Sanborn Map of Lafayette,  I see at lease on school.  Ford,  Library of Congress, they have more

1894 Cory & Sons map of Tippecanoe County.  Phone shot, L.A. Clugh.  Alameda McCollough Research Library
School Enumeration census, original documents held at the TCHA- Alameda McCollough Research Library 

Yearbook collection
held at the TCHA, Alameda McCollough Research Library

Indiana Memory and Indiana Album  One room school in Lafayette. circia 1880.

Ancestry.com Yearbook collections online
,
June 2021

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