Fort Lawrence, Fort Perry, Fort Hawkins, Fort Wilkinson (Indian Wars - Georgia
Sunday, 01-Nov-2015 15:09:58 MST GAGenWeb Page
Forts Along the Federal Road
The location of the Forts along the Federal Road played a significant role in the location of communities we know today.
Passports through Indian Territory
Significance in Creek Indian Wars
Fort Wilkinson - Milledgeville
Fort Hawkins - Macon
Fort Lawrence - west side Flint River (Taylor County) across from Francisville on east side of Flint
Fort Perry - (Marion County)
Fort Mitchell - Columbus
Fort Wilkinson - Milledgeville
When the Federal Road reached Fort Wilkinson on the Oconee River, near Milledgeville, the capital of Georgia, it essentially followed the post rider's trail. If your ancestors moved westward, they are sure to have traveled on this road
The Oconee River was an important boundary line for the growing territory.     More on Fort Wilkinson
June 1802 Treaty of Ft. Wilkinson on Oconee River
- Nov 14, 1805 Treaty of Washington guaranteed a postal road through the Indian territory even stating that the Creek Chiefs would have boats kept at the rivers for conveyance of men and horses; accommodations for travelers; all rates to be established by Indian Agent (Col Hawkins at that time). The U.S. paid the Creek Nation $12,000 annually for 8 years; $11,000 for the next 10 years.
Halsted was appointed United States Agent of Indian Affairs and Factor at Ft. Wilkinson,
Milledgeville (then the capital) Georgia in 1800 by H. Dearborn, (Secretary of War) the
appointment to continue at the pleasure of the President, salary $1,000 per annum. About
1806 Jonathan was transferred to Fort Benjamin Hawkins (present day Macon), Georgia
as Indian Agent and Factor. Records of the Office of Indian Affairs, U. S. Department
of the Interior, show that Jonathan Halsted served in this capacity until his death in 1814.
- Original Baldwin County
Earlier forts in this area were: Rock Landing (1789 -1793)
Fort Fidius (1793 - 1797)
Fort Wilkinson (1797 - ? 1850), Milledgeville.
- Quote from Benjamin Hawkins mentions Fort Fidius.
Fort Hawkins - Macon
Photo by Joe Halstead
Fort Hawkins was established in 1806 to protect the border of the existing United States (the Ocmulgee River) from not only the Native Americans, but the Spanish, French and British troops. Until it was "decommissioned" in 1828, much American history passed its way.
This Fort was named for Benjamin Hawkins, who was appointed by Washington as Federal Indian Agent. You'll want to visit these sites to learn more about its history and the life of Benjamin Hawkins.
Diane Wilcox's page includes excerpts from her book, "Fort Hawkins and Frontier Georgia".
1822 Map of Jones County showing Fort Hawkins.(Carl Vinson Institute of Government, The University of Georgia.)
Fort Hawkins and Frontier
Georgia 2nd Edition by Dianne Dent Wilcox
Review of book and its five major parts: Fort Hawkins' Annotated Chronology; People at Fort Hawkins; People
mentioned in the Writings of Benjamin Hawkins; Forts, House and Place Names; and Fort Hawkins Bibliography. The
index covers only the chronology section, since the remaining sections are arranged alphabetically.
Fort Hawkins Frontier Fort Ocmulgee National Monument Georgia by F. Ross Holland, Jr.
Tracy Brooking-Master's thesis on Hawkins at Valdosta State
Letters of Benjamin Hawkins,
1796-1806 ( Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. IX, Savannah: Georgia Historical Society, 1916), pp. 58-59.
Fort Lawrence - Flint River
Fort Lawrence (Laurence) (1810's?), on the west side of the Flint River across from Francisville, near Roberta was a temporary post. Located between Roberta and Reynolds in present day Taylor County.
Many times the town grew up on the opposite bank from the Fort.
Francisville was founded in 1825 by Francis Bacon who had married Jeffersonia, the youngest daughter of Benjamin Hawkins. It was a thriving town located on the river, until railroads came into existence in 1850s.
Fort Perry was built in Marion County by
General John Floyd, on the old Alabama Road. It
was named in honor of the hero of the Lake Erie
Battle in 1812.
Fort Mitchell (Alabama) begins its role when Pres. Jackson in 1829 stations troops
for the protection of frontier settlers.     Fort Mitchell Index
Yes, my gggg gf was Jonathan Halstead, who was Indian agent and Factor at
Fort Benjamin Hawkins. He came to GA from NJ in 1802 to be Factor at Fort
Wilkinson near Milledgeville. Then there was the need to move the factory
further west to facilitate Indian trade in 1806 when Fort Hawkins was built.
Actually, Jonathan died in 1816 before the "Indian Wars" began, but he had a
dozen or so children to seed Halsteads in the South.
"Factor" was the title of the manager, or person in charge of the Factory, a
sort of general store/trading post, and both Forts Wilkinson and Hawkins
procured supplies for the State and for Federal troops as well.
Additionally, there was trade with the Indians (Creeks mostly) of the area.
As to how my gggg grandfather got the job, it is my understanding that
Benjamin Hawkins was extremely displeased with his Factor for Fort Wilkinson
and hired Jonathan Halstead to replace him (he was reportedly extending too
much credit to the Indians, selling them too much whiskey, and the books
were increasingly in negative balance). Jonathan came from a prominant NJ
family with ties to the origins of Princeton University and was quite active
in politics, which may be how he got the job - I just don't know for sure.
***Incidentally, Benjamin Hawkins was a grad of Princeton University***
Southerland, Henry DeLeon and Brown, Jerry Elijah. The Federal Road through Georgia, the Creek Nation, and Alabama 1806-1836. The University of Alabama Press. 1989
Passports Through Indian Territory
Prior to early 1800's passports were issued to
travel through Creek territory to places such as New Orleans and Mobile. These may be a valuable source of information.
Passports issued by the Governors of Georgia 1785-1809 by Mary G. Bryan (1959)
Passports issued by the Governors of Georgia 1810-1820 by Mary G. Bryan (1964) both published by the National Genealogical Society.
These 2 are often referred to as the Georgia Passports.
Passports of southeastern pioneers 1770-1823: Indian, Spanish, and other land passports for Tennessee,Kentucky,Georgia,Mississippi,Virginia, North and South Carolina by Dorothy Williams Potter, 1982 Gateway Press.
Information of Passports issued by Governors of Ga. from 1785 to 1820 Index and Introduction. Look-up available.
from the Georgia State Archives
Gaila Merrington contributed this newspaper advertisement:
Georgia Journal - 1809 -1818
[GEORGIA] "Ga Journal" 1809-1818 Post # 57
2 Dec. 1817
To Alabama Movers
In the course of ten days I will start to Ala. Territory with my
family,I request that all persons,wishing to go,will meet me in
Signed Nehemiah Howard..
Rootsweb Message Board regarding Alabama to Texas migrations.
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