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|461||St. Patrick dies, after having achieved his dream of introducing |
both Roman Civilisation, and the Christian Church to Ireland.
|521||Columba or Colum Cille born at Gartan in Tyreconnell.He became a |
priest and became first Abbot of a church at Derry.
|561||Battle of Culdremna.|
|563||Columcille sails to Iona, where he Christianised Scotland and |
much of England.
|597||Columcille dies. his name and reputation was the greatest in the |
Irish Church. He had a great reputation as a missionary.
|800||Ireland attacked by Viking Norsemen, on Lambay Island, off Dublin.|
|908||The Eoganachta were defeated, when they tried to subject Leinster |
to Cashel's rule.Their king, Cormac MacCullenan, was killed.
|914||Vikings established settlements at Waterford.|
|916||Vikings established settlements at Dublin.|
|920||Vikings established settlements at Limerick.|
|940||Brian Boru was born. Son of a leader of one of the royal free tribes of Munster.|
|976||Brian succeeded his brother Mahon, as King of Munster until 1014.|
|999||Brian Boru defeated Vikings.|
|1002||Brian Boru wins recognition as king of all Ireland|
|1014||High King Brian Boru, killed at Battle of Clontarf.|
|1066||Normans defeat Saxons in England|
|1156||Turloch More O'Connor, a king of Connacht, who had become High King |
in 1119, and who was the greatest of Brian Boru's successors - died.
Arrival of Normans at Baginbun, Co. Wexford,
thus started 800 year struggle between English and Irish.
|1170||Arrival of Richard de Clare, known as Strongbow.|
|1171||Strongbow becomes king of Leinster. Arrival of Henry II, end of the Milesian kings;|
thus began the political involvement of England in Ireland's affairs.
|1166-1175||Reign of Rory O'Connor, Last native High King of Ireland|
|1235||Richard de Burgo conquered Connacht.|
|1258||Gallowglasses (mercenary soldiers) come to Ulster from Scotland|
|1264||Walter de Burgo was made Earl of Ulster.|
|1272||The English had now conquered Ulster, east of Lough Neagh, in Meath,|
as well as most of Connacht and of Munster.
|1315||After Battle of Bannockburn, Edward Bruce of Scotland invaded |
Ireland but failed in his attempt to overthrow Norman Rule.
|1318||Edward Bruce killed by the English, near Dundalk, after having failed|
to become the Ard Ri, so long sought after by the Irish.
|1361||An edict bans pure-blooded from becoming mayors, baillifs, |
officers of the king or clerygmen, serving the English.
|1366||Statutes of Kilkenny forbade Irish/English marriages and preventing |
English to use Irish language, custom or laws.
|1394||October. King Richard II, landed at Waterford, and marched up to Dublin.|
|1496||Line of "the Pale" at Clongowes. This was a small enclave around Dublin,|
which became the area of English rule.
|1507||Accession of Henry VIII.|
|1515||Anarchy in Ireland.|
|1529-36||Henry VIII made his great breach with Rome, and set himself up as |
head of the Church in England.
|1541||Henry VIII declares himself king of Ireland.|
|1545-63||The Council of Trent gives Catholics a greater sense of purpose.|
|1547||Henry VIII dies, succeeded by the boy king Edward VI. England and |
Ireland were ruled by the senior nobility of England.
|1553||Mary ascends the Throne.|
|1558||Accession of Elizabeth I.|
|1562||Elizabethan Wars in Ireland.|
|1588||Spanish Armada sent by Philip of Spain, to conquer England.|
|1594||August. Hugh O'Neill defeated a small English force at the Ford of |
Biscuits near Enniskillen.
|1595||Rebellion of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone.|
|1598||O'Neill's great victory at Yellow Ford in Ulster|
|1601||Defeat of O'Neill, O'Donnell and Spaniards by Mountjoy at Battle of Kinsale.|
|1603||Accession of James 1. Surrender of Hugh O'Neill. Enforecement of English |
Law in Ireland.
|1606||Settlement of Scots in Ards Peninsula. |
Land in six counties of Ulster consficated by English.
|1607||Flight of O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone,and O'Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnell. |
"The flight of the Earls" to Spain.
|1608||Plantation of Derry and others confiscated counties planned.|
|1632-38||Compilation of the Annals of the Four Masters|
|1641||Great Catholic-Gaelic rebellion for return of lands, |
later joined by Old English Catholics in Ireland. Under
leadership of Irish chieftain, Rory O'More, conspiracy was
formed to seize Dublin and expel the English. English settlers
were driven out of Ulster. Catholics hold 59% of land in Ireland.
|1642||Confederation of Kilkenny met.|
|1647||Alliance between lords of Pale and native Irishmen came to an end|
|1649||English soldier & statesman, Oliver Cromwell,|
landed at Dublin. His troops killed 2,000 men. A
great part of lands in Munster, Leinster and Ulster
(Drogheda and Wexford) was confiscated and divided
among the English soldiers
|1650||Catholic landowners exiled to Connaught.|
|1656||Over 60,000 Irish Catholics had been sent slaves to Barbados, and |
other islands in the Caribbean.
|1658||The population of Ireland,estimated at 1,500,000, before Cromwell, was|
reduced by two-thirds, to 500,000, at Cromwell's death in 1658.
|1660||Accession of Charles II.|
|1661-68||The Duke of Ormond ruled Ireland as Viceroy.|
|1672||Over 6,000 Irish boys and women sold as slaves since England gained|
control of Jamaica.
|1685||Accession of James II.|
James II deposed in England. Gates of Derry shut in face of James' troops.
Catholics now hold 22% of land in Ireland.
|1689||Siege and relief of Derry.|
James II's Parliment restored all lands confiscated since 1641
|1690||William of Orange (William III) lands at Carrickfergus and defeats James II|
at Battle of the Boyne. 11,000 "WILD GEESE soldiers sail for France.
|1691||Catholic defeat at Aughrim and surrender at Limerick.|
|Exclusion of Catholics from Parliament and all professions.|
|1695||Anti-Catholic Penal Laws Introduced
Catholics hold 14% of land in Ireland.
|1698||William Molyneaux pamphlet against England making laws for Ireland.|
|1714||Catholics hold 7% of land in Ireland.|
|1740||The Forgotten Famine|
|1775||Henry Gratten, becomes leader of "Patriot Party".|
|1775||Daniel O'Connell born at Derrynane,Co.Kerry.Received early schooling from|
Parish Priest, then sent to France to receive further
instruction at St. Omer and Douai.
|1782||Legislative Independence won from Britain by Irish Parliament.|
|1791||Events leading up to the Revolution of 1798|
|1798||Daniel O'Connell takes law degree at Trinity College, and is admitted to the Bar.|
|1800||Act of Union passed (effective 1 January 1801)|
|1803||Robert Emmett's rising, trial and execution.|
|1823||Daniel O'Connell's Catholic Association founded.|
|1828||O'Connell elected for Clare.|
|1829||Catholic emancipation passed.|
Tithe War began.
|1837||Accession of Queen Victoria.|
|1839||January 6.. the Night of the BIG WIND|
|1840||O'Connell's Repeal Association founded.|
|1842||"The Nation" newspaper founded by Thomas Davis.|
|1843||O'Connell's "Monster Meetings" for Repeal of the Union.|
|1845||Blight in the Potato Harvest.|
|1845-49||Beginning of Famine. Charles Tteveleyan, permanent Head of
Sir Robert Peel, Prime Minister, imports Indian Corn.
|1846||April. Treveylan opens depots for sale of Indian corn,|
but closes them later in summer. Repeal of Corn Laws.
|1846||July. Lord John Russell replaces Peel as Prime Minister.|
August: Total failure of potato harvest.
October: First deaths from starvation.
|1847||Fever spreading. Treveleyan winds up Soup Kitchen Act,|
and retires to write history of famine.
|1848-49||Worst years of famine.|
By 1848 through emigration and deaths by famine, Ireland's
population decreased by more than 2 million people (8.5 to 6.5).
|1848||Smith O'Brien (Young Ireland Leader) arrested.|
James Stephens flees to France.
|1856||Stephens returns from France.|
|1858||Stephens founds Irish Republican Brotherhood.|
Fenian Brotherhood founded in America.
|1861||Beginning of American Civil War.|
|1863||"Irish People" newspaper founded.|
|1865||End of American Civil War.
Arrest of editorial board of "Irish People".
James Stephens arrested, and escapes from Richmond Jail.
|1867||February: Abortive raid on Chester Castle.|
March: Fenian rising in Ireland.
December: Clerkenwell explosion.
|1869||Gladstone, Prime Minister, dis-establishes Protestant |
Church in Ireland.
|1870||Gladstone's first Land Act.|
|1875||Charles Stewart Parnell elected MP for Co Meath.|
|1879||Threat of famine. Evictions.Irish National League founded.|
|1881||Gladstone's 2nd Land Act. Parnell imprisoned.|
|1882||Kilmainham "Treaty". Parnell's release. Phoenix Park murder.|
|1886||First home Rule Bill.|
|1891||Parnell loses three by-elections in Ireland. |
Parnell dies in October.
|1893||Second Home Rule Bill. Gaelic League founded.|
|1903||Land Purchase Act (Wyndham Act).|
|1906||Liberals win General Election.|
|1909||Land Purchase Act.|
|1912||Third Home Rule Bill.|
|1914||Outbreak of First World War. IRB decides on Rising.|
|1916||Easter Rising in Dublin. May 3-12 executions.|
|1917||De Valera wins East Clare.|
|1918||November: end of First World War.|
|1919-21||Irish War of Independence against Britain.|
|1920||Burning of Cork by Auxiliaries.|
|1921||December. Anglo Irish Treaty.|
|1922||Civil War starts between Free State army and IRA.|
|1923||End of Civil war.|
|1926||De Valera founds Fianna Fail.|
|1927||General Elections in Ireland. |
De Valera and Fianna Fail enter Dail.
|1932||General Election. Fianna Fail victory.|
|1937||Constitution of "Eire", claims 32 counties.|
|1939||Second World War.|
|1945||End of Second World War.|
|1948||General Election. Fianna Fail defeated.|
|1949||Repeal of External Relations Act. Ireland leaves Commonwealth.|
Republic of Ireland declared (26 counties)
|1951-62||IRA campaign in North.|
|1955||Ireland joins the United Nations.|
|1967||Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association founded.|
|1968||August: First Civil Rights March.|
October: Derry Civil Rights March, banned by William Craig,
Minister of home Affairs, held but broken up by brutality by police.
|1969||January: People's Democracy Belfast to Derry Civil Rights March.|
January 4: Marchers attaacked at Burntollet Bridge.
April: O'Neill resigns. Chichester Clark Prime Minister.
August 14: British troops sent to Derry.
October: Protestant riot in Belfast.
|1970||Dublin Arms Trial.|
|1971||First British soldier killed by IRA in Belfast.
Chichester Clark resigns, Faulkner Prime Minister.
Unionist government of NI introduces internment without
trial for suspected Republicans.
|1972||Irelalnd joins the European Economic Community|
|1972||January 30: Bloody Sunday in Derry. British paratroopers|
shoot 13 civilians during civil-rights march.
March: Stormont suspended.
|1974||Ulster Workers Strike brings down Faulkner and Assembly.
Direct Rule re-imposed.
Loyalits bomb Dublin and Monaghan, killing 30
|1981-82||Ten Republicans die on hunger strike in Maze Prison, NI|
Dying hunger-striker Bobby Sands elected to British Parliament
|1993||Downing Street Declaration; British Government accepts the right|
of the people of Irelalnd to self-determinination.
|1994||IRA declares cease-fire|
|1996||Cease-fire breaks down after Britain's Conservative government|
refuses to allow Sinn Fein to join all-party talks on NI.
|1997||IRA cease-fire resumes; talks begin in Belfast between government|
of Irish Republic, Britain's ne Labor government, and representatives
of all NI's political parties.
|1998||Initial peace-plan accepted by all parties.|
|Prepared by PBN and sitka, © 1998|