From the Chute Family worksheet, courtesy of grandson A. Lionel Chute: " I might mention that after his graduation from Oberlin, Charles had no idea of what he wanted to do in life - he got out to California on the strength of knowing cousins on his mother's side - worked at carpentering (he was handy with his hands) - got a job with a gang of mostly orientals who were building the Santa Fe R.R. in those days (1904) - saw life in all sorts of conditions & came back looking very rough - but wanting to give his life in helping the unfortunate ones of the earth. So he took courses in N.Y School of Philanthropy, got into the field of child labor & then probation - "a man for others"....He met his wife who was also a social worker who came to N.Y. from Minneapolis. " " ...born Aug. 4, 1882 in Saugus, Mass. As a boy he lived in Northboro & Ware Mass. He attended Oberlin College in Ohio graduating in 1904. He was in the business world about 8 years before deciding in 1912 he wanted to give his life in welfare work. He attended the School of Philanthropy in N.Y. City for 2 years. On graduating he went at once to work for better child labor laws. He became Sec'y of Pennsylvania Child Labor Association. He then became deeply interested in probation and became head of Probation work in the State of New York. During this period he lived in Albany, N.Y. He married Audrey Smith, also a dedicated social worker. He constantly waged a campaign for Federal Probation. Finally in 1925 the National Probation Association was formed and for the rest of his life he worked hard for this cause. He published a book, "Crime, Courts and Probation" in collaboration with Marjorie (Smith) Bell. He died in September, 1953 and was buried in the Chute Lot in Newburyport's Oakwood Cemetary." - from the diaries of Gladys Chute Mears.Obituary:
Charles Lionel Chute, a founder and executive director of the National Probation and Parole Association from 1921 to 1948 and its vice president since 1948, died Friday evening in a taxicab at the Avenue of the Americas and Fiftieth Street after a heart attack. His age was 71.
Mr. Chute, who resided in Mountain Lakes, N.J., was born in Saugus, Mass., the son of the Rev. Edward Lane Chute and Julia Cleaveland Chute. He was graduated from Oberlin College in 1904 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, received a Master's degree from Columbia University in 1910 and also was graduated that year from the New York School of Social Work.
He began his social work career as an investigator for the National Child Labor Committee in 1910. Two years later he was made secretary of the Pennsylvania Child Labor Association and in 1913 became the first secretary of the New York State Probation Commission, a post he held for seven years. In that capacity he organized and developed probation services in the state and contributed to the establishment of professional standards in the field.Sought Federal Action
In 1915, Mr. Chute was chosen secretary-treasurer of the National Probation Association, and in 1921 organized the association as an incorporated service agency. As director, he developed the agency's scope of activities and promoted the establishment of probation systems.
He was a leader in the movement for probation in the Federal courts, a ten-year effort that was culminated in the passage of the Federal Probation Act of 1925. In 1947 the American Parole Association was absorbed by the National Probation Association and the organization became the National Probation and Parole Association.
Through the association, Mr. Chute collaborated with the United States Children's Bureau in the promulgation of juvenile court standards and the drafting of juvenile court law. After giving up his post of executive director of the association in 1948, he devoted much of his time to the Interprofessional Commission on Marriage and Divorce Laws.
Mr. Chute wrote and lectured widely on all phases of juvenile delinquency and adult crime control. At his death he was completing a book on the history of probation in this country. Last year he was honored by correctional leaders at a national conference in Chicago for his contributions to the advancement of probation, parole and the social treatment of crime generally.
He leaves his wife, Mrs. Audrey Smith Chute; a son, Alfred Lionel Chute, and a daughter, Mrs. Stefan J. Pastva of Oak Park, Ill.
"Born in Cincinnati, O., Nov. 24, 1814; married Abba J. Fairchild, Sept 9, 1841, and lived in Indiana. Mrs. Chute died Dec, 1844; he married 2nd. Rachel, widow of Charles Fairchild, June 7, 1846, and died at Thorn Town, Ind., 1886; she died at Evansville, 1852."
Source: Chute, William Edward. A Genealogy and History of the Chute Family in America: With Some Account of the Family in Great Britain and Ireland, with an Account of Forty Allied Families Gathered from the Most Authentic Sources. Salem, Massachusetts, 1894. Page 142.
"Richard Chute, born in Cincinnati, 0hio, Sept. 23, 1820; received a good education, and was a merchant clerk 1832 to 1840 at Fort Wayne, Ind.; he then went into the fur trade till 1854, when he moved to St. Anthony, Minn., which was united to Minneapolis in 1872, and since that has been engaged in real estate business, also a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church; was regent of the University of Minnesota five years; partner in the great water power there, and has given much time to railroads in the state. He married Mary Eliza Young of Indiana, Feb. 28, 1850, and died in Chicago, Aug. 1, 1898, of heart disease."
Source: Chute, William Edward. A Genealogy and History of the Chute Family in America: With Some Account of the Family in Great Britain and Ireland, with an Account of Forty Allied Families Gathered from the Most Authentic Sources. Salem, Massachusetts, 1894. Page 142.
"RICHARD CHUTE. Graven deeply and with clear distinction on the history of the State of Minnesota are the name and works of Richard Chute, who was a pioneer of pioneers and who died in Chicago, August 1, 1893. He stood as an honored member of a striking group of men whose influence in the civic and material development of Minnesota was most potent and benignant. His fair fame rests on the firm basis of work accomplished and honors worthily won, and in studying his clear-cut, sane, distinct character, interpretation follows fact in a straight line of derivation. His character was the positive expression of a strong and loyal nature, and the laurels of large achievement were his, as well as the honors of a worthy ancestry.
Mr. Chute first came to what is now the State of Minnesota over sixty years ago, several years prior to the organization of the territory of Minnesota, and his initial activities in the Northwest were in connection with the fur trade. With the passing years his activities touched virtually all phases of enterprise and industry through which was evolved this great commonwealth, and Minnesota shall ever owe to him a debt of gratitude for the practical and important work which he accomplished in its beha1f, the while his strong and noble personality should cause his name and memory to be revered in the city and state that represented his home during the greater part of his active and useful career. He maintained his home in Minneapolis from 1854 until his death.
Richard Chute claimed the old Buckeye state as the place of his nativity, and he was a representative of one of its sterling pioneer families. The genealogy in the agnatic line is traced back to Alexander Chute, who was a resident of Taunton, England, in 1268, and who was a scion of one of the fine old families of Norman blood who accompanied William the Conquerer to England. The original representatives of the name in America came to New England long prior to the war of the Revolution. A number of maternal ancestors of Mr. Chute were patriot soldiers of the continental line in that struggle, among the number having been Capt. Roger Clapp, known in history as the commander of the "Castle," now known as Fort Independence, in Boston Harbor.
Mr. Chute was born in the City of Cincinnati, Ohio, September 23, 1820, the "Queen City" having been at that time little more than a village. He was a son of Rev. James and Martha (Hewes) Chute, who were folk of superior intellectual attainments, and who removed from the East to Cincinnati, Ohio, in the early pioneer days, the father becoming a teacher in a private school in that city and later a clergyman of the Presbyterian Church, as a pioneer representative of which in Ohio he labored many years with consecrated zeal and devotion. From Cincinnati he removed with his family to Columbus, the capital of Ohio, where he remained until 1831, when he established his home in Fort Wayne, Indiana. His death occurred there in 1835, and his devoted wife passed away two years previously.
The early education of Mr. Chute was received under the able and effective direction and preceptorship of his parents, and as a lad of twelve years he found employment in the store conducted by S. and H. Hanna & Co. at Fort Wayne. He was but fifteen years old at the time of his father's death, and as he was the eldest of the children, he assumed heavy responsibilities, with unselfish devotion caring for the younger children. He was in the employ of various firms in Fort Wayne, and in 1841, about the time of attaining his majority, he there accepted a position as clerk for W. G. and G. W. Ewing, who were extensive fur dealers. In 1844 this firm decided to establish a trading post at Good Roads Village, eight miles above Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and Mr. Chute was sent out to assume charge of this preliminary work. Incidentally he visited the Falls of St. Anthony and came to a full appreciation of the splendid advantages which were here offered for the development of a large city of much industrial and commercial importance. He continued to be actively identified with the fur trade for a number of years, having become a partner of the Ewings in 1845 and later becoming a member of the firm of P. Choteau, Jr. & Co. In 1854 he established his home at St. Anthony, the virtual nucleus of the City of Minneapolis. Here he became largely interested in real estate, and soon acquired part ownership in the land controlling the water power on the east side of the river, a property then owned by Franklin Steele and other representative pioneers. Two years later the St. Anthony Falls Water Power Company was incorporated, and Mr. Chute became its agent, a position which he retained until 1868, when he became president of the company. He continued as executive head of the corporation until its property was sold to James J. Hill, the great railroad builder of the Northwest. This company developed the power at the falls and thus gave impetus to the upbuilding of the great flour-milling industry that has given the Minnesota metropolis world-wide fame.
In 1865 Mr. Chute established the real estate firm known as Chute Brothers, in which was included his brother Samuel H. Chute. This firm long conducted most extensive operations and was influential in the development and up building of Minneapolis. Richard Chute likewise became actively identified, at various times, with important industrial and commercial enterprises that proved specially successful. His public service in the interest of the city and state were extensive and varied. In association with R. P. Upton and Edward Murphy he supervised the expenditure of the public funds raised for the purpose of clearing the channel of the Mississippi River between Minneapolis and Fort Snelling and making the stream available for steamboat traffic between these points. In the autumn of the same year he was appointed by Gov. Henry M. Rice, a delegate from Minnesota Territory to aid in securing at the national capital the congressional enactment of the railroad land-grant bill, and with his coadjutor, H. T. Welles, succeded in bringing about this important desideratum, the eventual result of which was the construction of 1,400 miles of railroad in Minnesota. He was made a charter director of several of the railroad companies, and was especially prominent and influential in the affairs of the Great Northern Railway Company. He was one of the organizers of the Minneapolis Board of Trade, of which he served as a director for many years and of which he was president two years.
In 1862 Governor Ramsey appointed Mr. Chute special quartermaster for a detachment of troops at Fort Ripley, and later he was made assistant quartermaster of the state, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. From 1863 until the close of the Civil War he was United States provost marshal for Hennepin County, Minnesota, and aside from his local activities he did all in his power to support the Union arms in the great conflict that perpetuated the integrity of the nation.
Few have exercised greater or more loyal influence than did Richard Chute in connection with the work that has been done to preserve St. Anthony Falls - first through his association with the St. Anthony Falls Water Power Company and later, after three failures to obtain for the purpose the passage of a land-grant bill, he finally succeeded in securing from Congress an appropriation of $50,000 for the making of permanent improvements that should conserve the local water power at the falls. This sum, together with subsequent congressional appropriations and municipal subscriptions, made possible the construction of the present concrete dyke and permanent apron.
While he was identified with the fur-trading business with the Indians, Mr. Chute became well acquainted with and won the confidence of various Indian tribes of the Northwest, and thus he was enabled to wield much influence in effecting treaties with the Indians. He was present at the signing of the treaties at Agency City, in 1842, with the Sac and Fox Indians; in 1846 he was in Washington when the Winnebagoes sold the "neutral ground;" and he was present at Mendota and Traverse des Sioux when were concluded the Sioux treaties that opened Minnesota to settlement. [See notes on this transaction.]
A man of broad intellectual ken, well fortified convictions, mature judgment and impregnable integrity, Mr. Chute gave himself with characteristic vigor and ability to fostering those undertakings that tended to conserve the progress and prosperity of the city and state of his adoption. He served several years as a member of the board of regents of the University of Minnesota, and he was one of the organizers of the republican party in Minnesota, having had about twenty associates in this work and having ever afterward continued a stalwart advocate of the party's principles and policies.
Mr. Chute continued in active business until 1882, when impaired health caused his retirement. There - after he passed much of his time in the southern states until his death, which occurred on the 1st of August, 1893, the mortal remains of this honored pioneer finding a resting place in beautiful Lakewood Cemetery, a history of which is given on other pages of this publication.
In 1850 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Chute to Miss Mary Eliza Young, who, at the venerable age of eighty-three years, still resides in Minneapolis, a city that is endeared to her by the gracious memories and associations of many years. She is one of the revered pioneer women of the Minnesota metropolis, and it is pleasing to note that she retains her mental and physical powers to a wonderful degree, and is alert and active for one upon whose head rests the crown of the octogenarian. Mr. and Mrs. Chute became the parents of five children, of whom three are living: Charles R, engaged in business in New York City; William Y., in the real estate business in Minneapolis; and Grace F., the widow of Gen. Joshua W. Jacobs U. S. A., who died in California in 1905.
Source: Minnesota History and Biography, 1915. Castle, Henry A. Minnesota: Its Story and Biography. Vols. I-III. Chicago and New York: Lewis Publishing, 1915.
Richard Chute, when but twelve years of age, had entered the employ of S. & H. Hanna, who were traders with the Indians, dealing in furs, and for a number of years Richard Chute continued in active connection with the fur trade and became prominently associated with the affairs of the middle west territory and its various Indian tribes. In 1844 he was sent to build a post on the Minnesota river, at Good Roads, a village situated about eight miles above Fort Snelling, and it was at that time that he visited St. Anthony Falls, in the history of the development and conservation of which he later played such a prominent part. He readily recognized the opportunities and possibilities of this section and predicted the founding and growth of a city on the present site of Minneapolis. The following year, however, he returned to Fort Wayne and became a partner in the firm of Ewing, Chute & Company, fur dealers, while later his connection with the fur trade was through his partnership in the firm of P. Chateau, Jr., & Company.
While thus promoting his business interests Mr. Chute was also studying the conditions of the west and was a witness of many of the historic treaties formulated between the government and the native tribes, including the treaty made at Orange City, Iowa, in 1842, with the tribes of the Sac and Fox; the treaty entered upon in Washington in 1846 when the Winnebagos sold the "neutral ground" of Iowa; and in 1851 he was also present at Traverse des Sioux and Mendota when the Sioux Indians concluded their treaties whereby the lands of Minnesota were opened to settlement. It was Mr. Chute who inaugurated the system of individual ownership with a dissolution of tribal relations among the Indians, with the result that the Ottawas and Chippewas of Michigan exchanged tribal lands west of the Mississippi for lands in severalty in Michigan, thus becoming citizens of that commonwealth.
With a remembrance of his favorable impression concerning St. Anthony Falls and this section of the country on the upper Mississippi, Mr. Chute returned in 1854 and engaged in the real estate business. He formed a partnership with John S. Prince and the firm purchased an interest in the property which controlled the water power, so that through the succeeding quarter of a century, covering the most active period of his career, Mr. Chute was closely identified with the development of these enterprises which constituted the nucleus of a great city. The company with which he operated was formed in 1856 under the name of the St. Anthony Falls Water Power Company and Mr. Chute became agent and manager, continuing in that capacity until 1868, when he was elected to the presidency and so remained until the property was sold to James J. Hill and others in 1880. During this time Mr. Chute superintended the building of a dam and the erection of many mills, factories and sawmills. In 1856 the citizens of Minneapolis raised seven million, six hundred thousand dollars, which was entrusted to Richard Chute, R. P. Upton and Edward Murphy to be used in clearing the channel to Fort Snelling, and following the accomplishment of this task fifty-two steamboats arrived at the falls the following year as the result of the opening of navigation. It was also in 1856 that Mr. Chute formed a partnership with his brother, Dr. Samuel Chute, which business relation was severed only by death. In November, 1856, Richard Chute went to Washington at the request of Henry M. Rice, the delegate to congress from Minnesota, to give his assistance in securing a railroad land grant and with the cooperation of H. T. Welles a sufficient grant was obtained on the last day of the session to enable a company to construct fourteen miles of railroad in the territory of Minnesota. Mr. Chute became a charter director in several of the railroad companies that were organized and was especially identified with the promotion of what was known as the Great Northern road. At the time when the water power of the city was threatened by the receding of the falls he gave valuable service in securing their preservation. After large sums of money had been expended it became necessary to ask government assistance and Mr. Chute was sent to Washington for that purpose. After several years of effort he obtained an appropriation in 1870 and the services of a government engineer, thus insuring the permanent conservation of the great water power.
Mr. Chute has left many other memorials of his public service and devotion to the general welfare. There is perhaps no one among the pioneers of the city who contributed more largely to the permanent development and upbuilding of Minneapolis. He it was who introduced the system of boulevarding the streets and the plan for numerical streets and residences, while he added much to the beauty of Minneapolis in the planting of three thousand shade trees along its thoroughfares in 1858. In 1862 Governor Ramsey appointed Mr. Chute special quartermaster of the troops sent to Fort Ripley and later he became assistant quartermaster of the state with the rank of lieutenant colonel. From 1863 until the close of the war he served as United States provost marshal for Hennepin county. With the educational interests of Minnesota he was also identified, being made a regent of the State University in 1876 and serving as treasurer of that institution for several years, or until he resigned in 1882. The early political endorsement of Mr. Chute was given to the whig party and he became one of the twenty organizers of the republican party in Minneapolis in 1855 at a meeting which was held in the Methodist church and over which Governor William R. Marshall presided. In the work of the church Mr. Chute also bore his full share and was one of the six charter members of the Andrew Presbyterian church, in which he served for many years as an elder. He possessed keen mentality, undaunted energy and enthusiasm and his marked devotion to the general good made him a most influential factor in public affairs. It is said that "he possessed a commanding presence and was an attractive and distinguished figure among the men of his time."
It was in 1850 that Richard Chute was united in marriage to Miss May Eliza Young and they became parents of five children: Charles Richard, Minnie Olive, Mary Welcome, William Young and Grace Fairchild. The eldest son was for many years associated with the Chute Brothers Company but since 1894 has resided in New York City. William Y. Chute was born in Minneapolis, September 13, 1863, and was educated in the State University and in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Boston. He is now prominently connected with the real estate interests of the city and has served as president of the Minneapolis Real Estate Board. He belongs to the Minneapolis Club and has been president of the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, while his religious faith is that of the Christian Science church. In 1906 he married Edith Mary Pickburn of London, England, and they have three children: Mary Grace, Marchette Gaylord and Beatrice. Under present-day conditions the son is carrying on the splendid work instituted by the father and the name of Chute continues a most honored one in connection with the history of Minneapolis.Source: History of Minneapolis, Gateway to the Northwest; Chicago-Minneapolis, The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co, 1923; Edited by: Rev. Marion Daniel Shutter, D.D., LL.D.; Volume I - Shutter (Historical); Volume II - Biographical; Volume III - Biographical. Vol III, pg 225-229.
The biographical sketches written in 1923 would have taken a 1923's view of American history, and no doubt would be written differently today. A second look at these particular episodes in treaty signing takes nothing away from Richard Chute himself - who, after all, could hardly have written his own biographical sketches posthumously - but would paint a more even-handed picture of the events of that time period. There are four treaties mentioned between the several biographical sketches:Agency City, October 11, 1842
Agency City is in Iowa and not in Minnesota; this would have been the Black Hawk Purchase of October 11, 1842. It is not known whether he was a participant in the treaty signing or merely served as a witness: the two biographical sktches conflict on this point. However, Richard's experience in trading would not so much have earned him the "confidence" of the Northwestern tribes of the area as much as it enabled him to communicate with them - no doubt he could speak and understand enough of the language to make himself understood, which is why he would have been useful to the U.S. government during these treaty signing events. But in either case, he would have served as a representative of U.S. business and military interests in the agreements, and would not have had any representative role with the Sauk and Fox. His activities as "charter director in several of the railroad companies that were organized and was especially identified with the promotion of what was known as the Great Northern road" meant that his interest would have been in the aquisition of land. That translators were part of the treaty-signing was reported in The Making of Iowa
"The Indians talked, and the governor talked. The words of each speaker were translated that all might understand." The Making of Iowa, Henry Sabin and Edwin L. Sabin, 1900, Fourth edition, Chapter Five
This may have been Richard Chute's role in the Black Hawk Treaty of 1842, although he was not formally
recognized as such in the document itself; he did not sign it, even as a witness.
In 1846 he was in Washington when the Winnebagoes sold the "neutral ground" and he was present at Mendota and Traverse des Sioux when were concluded the Sioux treaties that opened Minnesota to settlement. [See notes on this transaction.]
In this negotiation, he would have encountered Keokuk, of the Sauk Nation, for whom the city of Keokuk, Iowa is named. The famous Black Hawk (portrait, above left, 1833, named Ma-ca-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, and who died four years earlier in 1838), also of the Sauk (or Sac) - for whom the treaty is named (also from whom both the World War II 86th Blackhawk Infantry Division and the Black Hawk helicopter got their names) - had been Keokuk's nemesis within the Sauk Nation leading up to this treaty and was one of the few survivors of the government massacre of the Sauk at Bad Axe, Wisconsin in August of 1832. Keokuk had supported the Americans in the War of 1812; Black Hawk had fought with the British.
For further information on the Black Hawk War and the timeline leading up to this purchase, see:Black Hawk War: History.
This treaty, 9 Stat. 878, made with the Winnebago, does contain Richard Chute's signature, as a witness. At the moment, little more is known about this treaty, or what led to it, beyond a need for their land, which had pushed them from the Green Bay area of Wisconsin when tribes to their east were pushed into their homeland by encroaching settlers. There is some belief that they descend from the mound-builders of the region, or "descendents of the earlier Mississippian, Hopewell, and Adena cultures".
Many refused to leave the area and today there are two separate bands: those known by their original name, the Ho-Chunk Nation and those known by the name they were later given, the Winnebago.For further information on the tribe and the transcription of the Treaty itself, with Richard Chute's signature as a witness:
The treaties at Mendota and Traverse des Sioux were both also signed by Richard Chute as a witness with two bands of the Santee Sioux Nation. Four bands comprised the Santee division of the Sioux Nation: the Mdewkantons, Wahpeton, Sissetons and the Wahpekutes. The Mendota treaty was signed with the Mdewkanton and Wahpekute. One hopes he was not responsible for writing it (and it is extremely unlikely that he did, thankfully), as these treaties are even today considered two of the ugliest and least honorable ones ever enacted by the U.S. Government: these are two agreements in which the Sioux were promised payment for millions of acres of land, and after signing, watched as the Government handed over their promised payments to settlers and traders (not to mention a huge payment to the lawyer, Alexander Faribault, who wrote it), telling the Sioux it was in payment for for "Sioux debt" for unspecified, unrecorded and most likely unincurred "prior goods and services." Now trapped on unfarmable reservations, held at gunpoint by the military, this is the incident in which a government agent, advised that many Sioux were starving to death, remarked coldly, "Let them eat grass". The callousness and heartlessness of these two treaties is even today remembered by many people as two of the more insidious acts by the U.S. government against the Sioux Nation as a people. Again, this would have had little to do with the men like Richard Chute who merely witnesssed the signing of the treaties, and it is unknown how he felt about the dishonorable and appalling motives behind it, which only became apparent after it was signed. This was but one of the many issues that led to to Great Sioux Uprising, ten years later.
For further information:Homepage of the Santee Sioux Nation: http://www.santeedakota.org/.
Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Mendota, in the Territory of Minnesota, on the fifth day of August, eighteen hundred and fifty-one, between the United States of America, by Luke Lea, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and Alexander Ramsey, governor and ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs in said Territory, commissioners duly appointed for that purpose, and the Med-ay-wa-kan-toan and Wah-pay-koo-tay bands of Dakota and Sioux Indians.
"Among the well known residents of Fort Wayne (Indiana) betweem 1812 and 1838 ... were F.D. Lasselle, who became a merchant on the south side of Columbia street, and subsequently sold out to the Miami Indians, the store being then managed by Chapine (Richard Chute) ..."
Source: Valley of the Upper Maumee River, with Historical Account of Allen County and the City of Fort Wayne, Indiana. The story of its progress from Savagery to Civilization., Volume I. Publishers: Brand and Fuller, Madison, Wisconsin, 1889, Page 186.
"Marchette Chute was born in Hazelwood, Wayzata, Minnesota. The Chute family came to America from England not long after the first Pilgrim Fathers landed on Plymouth Rock. Her grandfather helped to found the village of St. Anthony (now Minneapolis) some hundred years ago and both he and her father were influential figures in the growth of the city. Miss Chute attended the Minneapolis School of Art and graduatred from the University of Minnesota, a member of Phi Beta Kappa. One of three well-known writing sisters, Marchette Chute is author of the highly praised Geoffrey Chaucer of England (1946), and of The Search for God (1941). Her book on Chaucer was chosen by members of the American Library Association as one of the "Fifty Outstanding Books of 1946". She is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, whose early members included David Garrick and Dr. Samuel Johnson."
Comments on Geoffrey Chaucer of England
"Here, for the firs time, is a really adequate treatment of Chaucer's lfe in its content - political, social, personal ... A most pleasant and readable companion to Chaucer's own text ... really solid scholarship underlying it." - Henry Noble MacCracken, Saturday Review of Literature
"Miss Chute has written the life of a fourteenth century writer with as much verve and pace as if she had known Chaucer personally. It is a living, breathing evocation of a past age ... She has a sly humor and style that would have delighted Chaucer himself." - William McFee
"A highly readable book ... She tells the story of the poet's life with scrupulous regard for the documents." - Robert Dudley French, The New York Times Book ReviewSource: Flyleaf, "Shakespeare of London", Book of the Month edition, biographer unknown.
"Marchette Chute died in Montclair, NJ May 6, 1994. She was born in Wayzata, MN in 1909 and graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1930. Her "Shakespeare of London"
and "Geoffrey Chaucer of England", were written from contemporary sources, giving them an informal accuracy rather than deep scholarship. Her other literary biographies
include "Ben Jonson of Westminster", and "Two Gentlemen: The Lives of George Herbert and Robert Herrick." She also wrote
"The First Liberty: A History of the Right to Vote in America", 1619-1850 and two volumes of verse for children.
Book Keeper's note: Marchette Chute was a member of a family of writers. She and her sister B.J. (who died in 1987) were LS subscribers and were featured in LS when it was a two-pager in 1962. Librarian/subscriber Sandra Gaffett, of Block Island, R.I., in completing her files of back issues, discovered the Chutes and was interested enough to follow through on this later information. We knew that Marchette had been in bad health, but had missed the news of her death."
Source: A biographical sketch which appeared in the April 1997 issue of "Library Science". The sketch had been cut from the periodical before being mailed to George M. Chute, Jr.; further publication details and page number details were missing. Sender is also unknown.
"Marchette Chute was born at "Hazelwood," Wayzata, Minnesota, in 1909. She was graduated from the University of Minnesota, a member of Phi Beta Kappa; two years later, in 1932, her first book was published. Since then she has written eleven others, among them Geoffrey Chaucer of England (1946), Shakespeare of London (1950) and Ben Jonson of Westminster (1953), three studies whose brilliant style and scholarship have placed Miss Chute among today's most eminent American authorities on English literary history. Her Introduction to Shakespeare (1951), a study of Shakespeare's world and his theater, was written for young people. She was awarded the Author Meets the Critics prize for the best non-fiction of 1950, and in 1954 won both the Secondary Education Board Book Award and the Poetry Society of America Chap-Book Award. About her book Stories from Shakespeare Miss Chute says, "I wrote it to share as far as possible the joy I have had in Shakespeare's plays .... I hope I have made a small but clear path of entrance to the most varied and glorious world ever created by one man."
Source: Young Readers of America, advertising brochure for Stories from Shakespeare, a branch of Book-of-the- Month Club, Inc., 345 Hudson Street, New York 14, N.Y. Undated.
"Amidst the plethora of insipid, saccharine or just-plain-dull children's poems, it was refreshing to come across one as unexpectedly and delightfully subversive as 'Fairies'.
Of course, there are a lot of brilliant poems out there too, but too many writers seem to take writing for children as a license to churn out the most awful dreck. Sturgeon's law apart, I can't help but feel that some writers take distinct advantage of the fact that their target audience and their target *market* are entirely separate.
Today's piece is a clear dig at the preachy variety of poem - starting off with a solemn moral injunction, throwing in a few cliches about fairies, and then delivering the unrepentant punchline. Took me totally by surprise - I laughed out loud."Source:
Jackie's note: Someone might want to advise Rice University that this "UK author" was in fact born in Wayzata, Minnesota, lived in New York City and died in New Jersey - although her mother was British. This is not the first incidence of Marchette being dubbed a "UK author", so, with apologies to Marchette, I'd like to ever so slightly rewrite the ending to her poem, "My Family":MY FAMILY by Marchette Chute/Additional Lines by Jacqueline Chute
At the time they were recorded, this couple had one daughter.
Source: Chute, William Edward. A Genealogy and History of the Chute Family in America: With Some Account of the Family in Great Britain and Ireland, with an Account of Forty Allied Families Gathered from the Most Authentic Sources. Salem, Massachusetts, 1894
Obituary, James Richard Chute
Funeral services for James Richard Chute, 2222 Nicollet avenue, who died Tuesday, will be held tomorrow at the residence of his sister, Mrs. M.H. Mann, 2804 Garfield avenue. Burial will be in Lakewood cemetery.
Mr. Chute was born 53 years ago, at Lafayette, Ind. coming to Minneapolis at the age of 19. After serving for seven years as bookkeeper for Winston Brothers, contractors, he took a similar position with the Cedar Lake Ice company. He was promoted to the treasureship of the company 23 years ago, a position he held at the time of his death. He was a member of the Interlachen, Minneapolis Athletic and Elks' clubs and attended Westminster Presbyterian church. A wife and daughter, three brothers, and one sister survive. The brothers are David M. Chute, president of the company, and R.M. Chute of Minneapolis, and S. Chute of St. Cloud, Minn.
Minneapolis Morning Tribune; 29 Mar 1917
Notes on Samuel Hewes Chute and Helen Edith Amelia Day Chute:
"Samuel Hews, born at Columbus, Ohio, Dec. 6, 1830; attended medical college at Cincinnati, and graduated 1852; then from Fort Wayne, Ind., he went to Portland, Ore., and in 1853, to Eureka, Cal.; came back to St. Anthony, Minn., 1857 ; married Helen Edith Amelia Day, May 5, 1858, and has resided there since, an M.D., and partner with his brother, Richard, in business."
Source: Chute, William Edward. A Genealogy and History of the Chute Family in America: With Some Account of the Family in Great Britain and Ireland, with an Account of Forty Allied Families Gathered from the Most Authentic Sources. Salem, Massachusetts, 1894. Page 143.
SAMUEL HEWES CHUTE, M. D. The many years spent by the late Doctor Chute in Minneapolis, from 1857 until his death on October 12, 1913 were accompanied by the practical service to his fellowmen and the community such as is only possible to one who has positive character, courage of thought and action, and the real welfare of others at heart. Anyone who has followed the growth of the vi1lage at St. Anthonv to the City of Minneapolis knows in how many different ways the work and influence of Doctor Chute were identified with that growth, and often so intimately as to make him chiefly responsible for reforms and undertakings that mean much to the modern city.
Samuel Hewes Chute was born in Columbus, Ohio, December 6, 1830, and was already a man of wide experience when he arrived at St. Anthony on May 1, 1857. He was a minister's son. His parents were Rev. James and Martha Hewes (C1app) Chute. Soon after his birth they moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, where his early youth was spent. His education, begun in the Fort Wayne schools, was continued as a student in that noted old Indiana college, Wabash, at Crawfordsville. His medical studies were pursued under Drs. C. E. Sturgis and J. H. Thompson at Fort Wayne, beginning in November, 1849, followed soon afterward by his matriculation at the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati, which gave him the degree of M. D. in February, 1851. Hardly was the ink on the parchment dry when he found opportunity for professional experience in a novel and adventurous way. He accepted the nominal post of physician and surgeon to a party of friends who had organized an expedition bound for far-off Oregon. The Oregon trail had all the spice of adventure and hardship such as are now associated with journeys to the few unexplored regions of the earth. In later years the sight of a luxurious overland express, passing through Minneapolis, would recall to the doctor's mind the scenes of that long and often perilous struggle over the wilderness of plains and mountains, suggesting the remarkable contrasts wrought by a few decades in the great West. Reaching Portland, Doctor Chute spent the winter of 1852 in that city employed at his profession, and in the spring of 1853 rode horseback to California. Six months as a miner, and he then exchanged pick and shovel for the implements of his profession. For four years he had charge of the hospital at Yreka besides his general practice, and was the only graduate physician in that locality. His return to the "States" was made by sea from San Francisco to Panama and thence to New York, where he arrived in 1857.
Without delay Doctor Chute set out from New York for the frontier village of St. Anthony in Minnesota Territory. A steamboat carried him from Prairie du Chien to St. Paul. At St. Anthony he became associated with his brother Richard, another pioneer whose sketch is found on other pages, and they entered the real estate business. The firm name of Chute Brothers was assumed in 1865, and after the death of Richard Chute in 1893 the business was incorporated as the Chute Brothers Company, of which Doctor Chute was president until his death.
From 1857 the name of Doctor Chute appears all through the records of the development of Minneapolis. His business interests were extensive. At one time he and his brother owned the St. Anthony Falls Power Company. In 1869 occurred the disaster, the caving in of a tunnel under the falls, which threatened to ruin the power plant. The doctor and his brother labored to repair the damage through their individual resources and were afterwards influential at Washington in obtaining an appropriation for the reconstruction of a dam on a larger scale. During the course of these early improvements, Doctor Chute as executive officer of the board of construction, was in charge, with J. H. Stevens as engineer, and continued that responsibility until relieved by Colonel Farquhar, sent out by the Government to take charge of the permanent construction. He was agent of the St. Anthony Falls Power Company from 1868 to 1880, at which time the property was sold to James J. Hill and associates. He had also been one of the directors of the company.
In the days when the log cut concentrated at Minneapolis aggregated hundreds of millions of feet annually, Doctor Chute was associated with the Mississippi and Rum River Boom Company, first as its vice president and director and from 1879 to 1886 as president. However, his most important interests were in real estate, and numerous subdivisions and additions have been platted and developed by the company of which he was the head.
In political affiliation Doctor Chute was a republican. But his chief concern was the betterment of the city, and during his long residence held many municipal offices, both elective and appointive. In early St. Anthony he was superintendent of the poor, in 1858, and city treasurer, and later a member of the council. His services were especially noteworthy in connection with the founding of a real public school system. From 1861 to 1864 he was a member and for the greater part of the time president of the board of education. He was again a member of the board in 1878, when the separate educational boards of the east and west divisions were consolidated. From March 1883 to April 1885, he was a member of the park commission. In all his public positions he displayed the same ability and earnestness which characterized him in his private business. His church was the Presbyterian.
One year after his arrival in St. Anthony, Doctor Chute was married, May 5, 1858, to Miss Helen E. A. Day. Six children were born, four daughters and two sons. The sons, Louis P. and Fred B., are both lawyers and carry on the Chute Realty Company. The surviving daughters are Mary J., Elizabeth and Agnes. Their mother is now seventy-nine years of age and living in Minneapolis.Source: History of Minneapolis, Gateway to the Northwest; Chicago-Minneapolis, The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co, 1923; Edited by: Rev. Marion Daniel Shutter, D.D., LL.D.; Volume I - Shutter (Historical); Volume II - Biographical; Volume III - Biographical. Vol III, pg 1322-1323.
With the whole country available to him for choice of a place of residence and field of operation, and having seen much of it and had practical experience in several other localities, the late Dr. Samuel H. Chute, as a young man of twenty-seven, with all the aspirations of life strong and energetic within him, selected St. Anthony, now Minneapolis, as his permanent home, and cast his lot with the then straggling and uncanny but very promising municipal bantam which had but recently been spoken into being at one of the most picturesque spots on the banks of the great "Father of Waters." He passed all his 'Subsequent years here and devoted his energies vigorously and wisely to building up the city in its industrial, commercial, educational, social and moral elements of power, until his death Oct. 12, 1913. He had retired from business, resting securely on the universal esteem of the residents of his home city, who admired his elevated manhood, were grateful for his contributions to the progress of the community, and cordially revered him as a patriarch among them.
Dr. Chute was born in Columbus, Ohio, on December 6, 1830, the son of Rev. James and Martha Hewes (Clapp) Chute. The father taught a private school ill in Cincinnati for a number of years, then entered the ministry of the Presbyterian church, and in 1831, when his son, the doctor, was one year old, moved his family to Fort Wayne, Indiana, Where he died in 1835, two years after the death of the mother. Their death left their orphaned children largely to the care of Richard Chute, their oldest son, then only fifteen years old, but already some three years advanced in his business career.
Samuel H. Chute passed his boyhood and youth in Fort Wayne, Indiana, and there began his academic education, which he completed at Wabash College in Crawfordsville in the same state. In November, 1849, he began the study of medicine under the direction of Doctors C. E. Sturgis and J. H. Thompson of Fort Wayne, soon afterward matriculating at the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati, from which he was graduated in February, 1851, with the degree of M. D. Within one month after his graduation the young doctor became physician to a party of his friends who crossed the plains on horseback to Oregon, consuming seven months in the trip.
On his arrival in Oregon Dr. Chute took up his residence in Portland, where he practiced his profession until the spring of 1853. He then again mounted his saddle and journeyed to Yreka, California. There he mined for gold for six months, then resumed his profession, and Was given charge of the hospital as the only physician in the locality with a diploma, He continued practicing at Yreka four years, and in 1857 returned to the "States" by way of San Francisco, Panama and New York. From his far distant and far different home on the Pacific slope the East had grown in attractiveness for him, and at length he yielded to the longing to be in it again.
But he soon realized that the glamour of the old regions had faded for him, and also that the spirit of daring and adventure was still wide-awake and insistent within him. Accordingly, he determined to make another jaunt into the Wilds, and in 1857 came through Lake Pepin, in this state, the ice leaving the lake May 1st and proceeded on up the river to St. Anthony, where he again began the practice of his profession. He came up the river by steamboat from Prairie du Chien to Lake Pepin, and traveled by carriage from St. Paul to St. Anthony. The little settlement needed him in his professional capacity, and he cheerfully,. yielded to its requirements in this respect. The first house he lived in was one built by John North in 18.9, one of the earliest in the village. The next year he bought this house and the whole block it stood on.
This purchase started the doctor in the real estate business, and Soon afterward he joined his brother Richard in it as a member of the original firm of Chute Brothers. When Richard Chute died in 1893 the business was incorporated as the Chute Bros. Company, and of this the doctor was president as long as he continued his activity in business operations. The original firm was agent for the St. Anthony Falls Water company from 1868 to 1880, when the property was sold to James J. Hill of St. Paul and some other persons. Dr. Chute was a director of the Water company before the agency began, and he continued to act as its agent for one year after the sale of the property.
When the great improvements were made for the preservation of the Falls of St. Anthony, Dr. Chute, as executive officer of the board of construction, was in charge of the work and J. H. Stevens was the engineer. Dr. Chute continued in this relation to the enterprise and the operations of the improving forces until Colonel Farquhar was sent out by the federal government to superintend the building of the dyke along the river bank and other permanent improvements required to save and utilize the full force of the Falls for industrial purposes. At one time the stock of the Water company was all owned by the Chute Brothers.
Dr. Chute was also connected for many years with the Rum River Boom company, first as one of its directors and its vice president, and from 1879 to 1886 as its president. His principal activity was, however, in the real estate business, and numerous additions to the city have been planned and developed by the company of which he was the head.
In this branch of his business the doctor was one of the most astute and far-seeing real estate men in the city. His judgment of the value and possibilities of property was always good, and he at all times knew where to employ his energies in the trade to make them most effective for the city's welfare as well as his own advantage.
During his long residence in the city Dr. Chute held and filled with ability many municipal offices, both elective and appointive. As early as 1858 he was supervisor of the poor, and since then he served several times as a member of the city council. For some years he was city treasurer of St. Anthony, and was then one of the most energetic and judicious among the founders of the public school system. From 1861 to 1864 he was a member of the board of education and during the greater part of the time its president. He was again on the board in 1878, and then the separate educational boards of the east and west divisions of the city Were united, as the two cities of St. Anthony and Minneapolis were in, 1872; and from March, 1883, to April, 1885, he was a member of the park commission.
On May 5, 1858, Dr. Chute was united in marriage with Miss Helen E. A. Day, who was born on September 15, 1835, at Mount Pleasant in the province of Ontario, Canada, the daughter of Henry Holbrook and Rachel (Dodge) Day. Her parents died when she was four years old, and she was reared by her uncle, George E. H. Day. Her education was obtained in private schools in Painesville, Ohio, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin. She arrived in St. Anthony in July, 1855, by carriage from St. Paul, having come up the river from Galena, Illinois, by steamboat. Six children were born of this union, five of whom are living: Mary Jeanette, Agnes, Elizabeth, Louis Prince and Frederick Butterfield. A sketch of the lives of Louis P. and Frederick B. will be found elsewhere in this volume. The first born child of the household, Charlotte Rachel, has been dead for a number of years. The father was a member of the Presbyterian church and the mother is a Catholic. The lineage of the Chute family is ancient and honorable. On his• father's side of the house the doctor could trace it back to Alexander Chute, a resident of Taunton, England, in 1268, whose ancestors were among the followers of William the Conqueror, who subdued England at the battle of Hastings in 1066. On the mother's side the forbears were Revolutionary soldiers and men of prominence in New England in Colonial days (one of them being Captain Roger Clapp, who in 1664 commanded the "Castle," now Fort Independence, in Boston harbor). Dr. Chute lived up to the high examples bequeathed by his forefathers, and gave luster to the family name in the pursuits of peaceful and productive industry, as many of them did where "Red Battle stamped his foot and nations felt the shock."
Source: Compendium of History and Biography of Minneapolis and Hennepin County, Minnesota, Maj H.R. Holcombe, Historical Editor, William H. Bingham, General Editor. Publisher: Henry Taylor & Co., Chicago, 1914, Pages 221-222.
Philip Conrad Chute passed along an announcement card sent to him by Alice Church, to George M. Chute, Jr., in 1958. The Lila referred to in the story is Mary Lila Chute of Pasadena, the daughter of James Thurston Chute.
If there is someone in the Chute Family who can place a woman's hairstyle in a particular time frame, they might want to take a look at this card - an announcement card (3"x5" in size), for the "Screenland Beauty Shop", Hollywood Boulevard. (What is a "Marcel Waver", and when was "bobbing" all the rage?) In any event, on the reverse of this card, the following story is written with a fountain pen, although I'm not sure who wrote it:
"Samuel Hews, who married Helen E.A. Day. Contested for her love with another young man. The 2 men went to California in 1849 - to the gold fields & talked about the girl they had left behind & made a compact that when they returned that whichever one won the girl, the other should give them 6 gold spoons as a wedding gift. Mr. Chute won the girl & the other one sent the solid gold spoons & Lila Chute has seen them and heard the story."On the very bottom of this card, in different handwriting, and in ballpoint pen, is written: "I know (or knew) Lila Chute well. - Alice" ... I believe the "Alice" is Alice Church, related to the Naples, Maine Church family - so if Mary Lila didn't write on the card, and Alice didn't write the story - who did? And do the Seegers have anything to do with the story? Or did someone just jot the story down on a handy advertisement while having their hair "bobbed"?
Death Notice, Samuel Hews Chute
CHUTE - Dr. Samuel Hewes, died Sunday morning, Oct. 12th at St. Mary's Hill Sanitarium, Milwaukee. Funeral notice later.
Dr. Chute leaves surviving, his wife, Helen R. A. (Day) Chute; three daughters, Mary J. Agnes and Bonnie, and two sons, Louis P. and Fred B.
He was born in Columbus, Ohio Dec. 6, 1830, and has lived in Minneapolis since May 1, 1857.
The favor of no flowers is requested.
Source: The Minneapolis Morning Tribune, Pub. Date 1913-10-13, page 9.
"Born in Cumberland, Me., Mar. 21, 1815; married Christiana, daughter of Freeman and Lydia Ellis, Sept. 5, 1843, Carthage, Me., she died April, 1846, aged twenty; he married 2nd, Violette H., daughter of John and Huldah (Reed) Gray, son of Eliphalet and Mary (Coolidge) Gray (of Sutton, Mass., who went to Jay, Franklin Co., Me.), Oct. 29, 1846, and has followed mercantile business more or less through life. He moved from Carthage, Me. to Rockland, Plymouth Co. Mass. 1872, and there is doing well as a grocer."
Source: Chute, William Edward. A Genealogy and History of the Chute Family in America: With Some Account of the Family in Great Britain and Ireland, with an Account of Forty Allied Families Gathered from the Most Authentic Sources. Salem, Massachusetts, 1894. Pages 143-144.
"Born in Carthage, Me., July 3, 1849; married Beulah W., daughter of Abel and Mary P. (Weston) Arnold, son of Gaylon and Sally Arnold, of Duxbury; Mar. 25, 1875; and is a merchant in Rockland, Mass."
Source: Chute, William Edward. A Genealogy and History of the Chute Family in America: With Some Account of the Family in Great Britain and Ireland, with an Account of Forty Allied Families Gathered from the Most Authentic Sources. Salem, Massachusetts, 1894. Page 181.