DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN SENTRALE FOTOTEGNIESE INRIGTING  VAN DIE SUID

DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN SENTRALE FOTOTEGNIESE INRIGTING

VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE LUGMAG

VANAF 1 APRIL 1921 TOT 1 MAART 1989

 

 


INLEIDING

            Die geskiedenis van SFI sal nooit volledig wees sonder om 'n paar uitstaande karakters uit te lig nie.  Deur die jare het 'n paar lede van die Eenheid dan ook welbekend geword.  Hierdie karakters word uitstekend beskryf in 'n balade wat vroeg in 1962 deur AO1 Hank Venn geskryf is.  Nie alleen word die karakters lewend aan ons voorgehou nie, maar die hooffunksie van SFI word by uitnemendheid beskryf.  Om die balade verder toe te lig word die karakters hieronder identifiseer.  Die balade word gesing op die wysie van "Big Bad John" wat in die vroeŽ 60's baie gewild was.  Die gedeelte waar die beheerstroke tuis vergeet was is waar.  AO1 John Pfuhl het werklik die taak gevlieg sonder 'n kaart of beheerstroke.  Hy het oor 'n uitsonderlike geheue beskik en die feit dat die taak suksesvol afgehandel was, kan toegeskryf word daaraan dat hy dieselfde gebied in die Kalahari vantevore gevlieg het tydens die soektog na die sogenaamde Velore Stad van die Kalahari.

John     -            AO1            John Pfuhl     -            Afgetree as Kolonel.

Venn    -            V/Sers            Hank Venn    -            Afgetree as AO1.

Mexican Pete            -            Sers            Piet Schoeman            -            Afgetree as V/Sers.

Fritz     -            V/Sers            Chris Fritz     -            Afgetree as AO1.

Dick     -            Sers            Dick Botha   -            Tans Kolonel.

Big Black Man            -            Kapt            Blackie Swardt -            Afgetree as Kmdt.

Sputnik -            Naam wat destyds aan wagte gegee was.


THE BALLAD OF CPE

Now this here's the story of a flying crew       
and where they flew to no one knew                            ...... BIG JOHN

They had a new camera out to test      
and flew their aircraft into the West                            ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

When he got back as tired as hell      
He had to know what the test would tell               ...... BIG JOHN

But low and behold their luck was Shag 
for there on the lens was a dirty old Rag                        ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

They stood in silence their faces wan        
for they knew that John was a big bad man                  ...... BIG JOHN

For a moment they thought he'd blow his top      
but he held his temper and covered the flop                  ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

Then there was the day that the film tore           
and the processing crew they shivered and swore   ...... BIG JOHN

For when the aircraft landed with Johns return  
he'd break their hearts and their souls he'd burn            ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

He hit the section just after tea,          
and said to Venn you're the "C.I.D."                                    ...... BIG JOHN

And Venn he knew he had to win      
for to let John down was a mortal sin                                  ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

Now Venn searched the section thru and thru     
and at last he nailed the drying crew                              ...... BIG JOHN

And he reported to his big bad boss    
John just shot them, they were no loss              ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

Now John had been boss for a long time          
and made his section toe the line                               ...... BIG JOHN

But Mexican Pete a bit of a clown  
thought he'd draw John out and gun him down    ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

When the showdown came in the studio  
Mexican Pete was far too slow                             ...... BIG JOHN

John had him beat and on his knees  
and sent back to his switches and keys                       ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

The tale I tell is the real truth    
one evening they landed at Waterkloof                   ...... BIG JOHN

They packed their kit and made for the gate     
But were stopped by a sputnik put here by fate  ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

This sputnik he was as bold as brass   
for he jumped their car saying "Where's your pass"    ...... BIG JOHN

Now John didn't like his swaggering walk    
and told the sputtie "I've no time to talk"                  ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

But if you're over at C.P.E. 
Ask for "Big Bad John" that's what they call me  ...... BIG JOHN

When sputtie heard this he shivered with shame  
and his heart turned cold at that terrible name    ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

Then he rushed to the gate, let them out of there    
and fell on his knees and said a prayer                        ...... BIG JOHN

For he knew that death had passed him by  
for big bad John be a rough tough guy                      ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

There was a day when they reached their zone    
and the land was bare and dry as a bone                ...... BIG JOHN

They lined up a strip but only to find      
that Fritz had left the controls behind                          ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

So Dick said to John "Now what'll we do?"
for without controls he knew they were through ...... BIG JOHN

But John looked out on the starboard side     
and saw a bush and smiled with pride                ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

Without a map or control he flew     
and amazed the pilots by what he knew                       ...... BIG JOHN

He covered the area by memory           
he'd remembered that bush from '43                               ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

If you pass our section any ole night    
you'll find our lights still burning bright                ...... BIG JOHN

Yes the films are in, can upon can      
and were working for John, he's a big bad man            ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

Then for months they toiled and the weather was fine      
and everyone thought it was the end of the line for  .... BIG JOHN

But though he was shot through work and strain         
he boarded his Dak and flew again                            ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John

So John works on and we wonder why    
he spends half his life way up in the sky                      ...... BIG JOHN

For he cannot stop, now you'll understand       
He also has a boss, he's the big BLACK man                  ...... BIG JOHN

CHORUS            Big John, Big Bad John


INHOUDSOPGAWE

                                                                                                                                    Bladsy Nr.
HOOFSTUK 1 ............................ 1921 - 1930                                                                  4     
HOOFSTUK 2 ............................ 1931 - 1940                                                                40   
   
HOOFSTUK 4 ............. 67 AIR SCHOOL  1940 - 1950                                                163     
HOOFSTUK 5 ............................ 1950 - 1959                                                                240 
HOOFSTUK 6 ............................ 1960 - 1969                                                                301 
HOOFSTUK 7 ............................ 1970 - 1979                                                                318 
HOOFSTUK 8 ............................ 1980 - 1989                                                                370 


HOOFSTUK 1

1 APRIL 1921 - 1930

1.         Nadat Generaal Smuts aan Lt Kol Pierre van Ryneveld opdrag gegee het om 'n Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag te stig, was hy gedurende 1919 na Engeland gestuur as Lugskakeloffisier vir die Unie van  Suid-Afrika.

2.         Die Imperiale Regering van die tyd was op die stadium van voornemens om 'n geskenk van oortollige vliegtuie aan al die Kolonies te gee en Pierre van Ryneveld was toe belas met die taak om geskikte vliegtuie uit te soek, te verpak en na die Unie te versend.   Gedurende hierdie tyd het hy ook verskeie RAF vakmanne genader en oorreed om na Suid-Afrika te kom en by die Lugmag aan te sluit.

3.         Aan die toewyding en energie van een van hierdie manne, James Ireland-Low, het Lt Kol van Ryneveld volle krediet gegee dat die Unie van Suid-Afrika die enigste Kolonie was wat uiteindelik sy volle kwota uitrusting van die Imperiale Regering verkry het.   Hierdie Imperiale geskenk, soos dit bekend gestaan het, het bestaan uit 100 vliegtuie kompleet met enjins en spaar enjins, transport voertuie insluitende vragmotors, werkswinkel vragmotors, ligte aflewerings waens, motors, motorfietse en sleepwaens, staal raamwerke vir 20 permanente vlietuigloodse en 30 hout en seil vliegtuigloodse.   Verder het die geskenk bestaan uit Radio en Fotografiese uitrusting genoeg vir 2 Eskaders van 18 vliegtuie elk asook duisende gallonne vliegtuigolie, verf, vernis ens.   Volledige werkswinkel masjinerie om enige vliegtuigenjin te kan herstel was beskou as die grootste en mees waardevolste deel van die geskenk.

4.         Maar wie was James Ireland-Low wat so onvermoeid gewerk het om die ideaal van 'n eie Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag te help verwesenlik?

5.         Hy is op 17 November 1880 in Danedin in die Otago distrik van Nieu-Zeeland gebore.   Nadat hy 'n volle kursus in balon Lugfotografie te Farnborough, Engeland voltooi het, arriveer hy in 1900 in Suid-Afrika as deel van die Nieu-Zeeland mag om aan die Anglo Boereoorlog deel te neem en word daar vermoed dat dit hy was wat die eerste keer in Suid Afrika van lugfotografie gebruik gemaak het om vyandelike stellings (die boere s'n) vanuit 'n lugballon te fotografeer.

6.         Na die Anglo Boereoorlog neem hy deel aan die onderdrukking van die Zoeloe opstand in 1906 en sluit as lugfotograaf aan by die SA Vliegenierskorps en neem deel aan die Duits-Suidwes Afrika veldtog.   Met die uitbreek van die Eerste Wereldoorlog in Augustus 1914 sluit hy by die Royal Flying Corps aan en doen diens in 26 Eskader RAF vanaf 1914 tot 1919.   Behalwe Suidwes-Afrika neem hy deel aan die veldtogte in Oos-Afrika, Engeland Frankryk en Noord-Rusland.

7.         Hy word deur Lt-Kol Pierre van Ryneveld vir die SA Lugmag in Engeland gewerf en sluit op 1 April 1921 aan as No 29 L/Wtgk J. Ireland-Low.   Dieselfde dag word hy bevorder na die rang van Vlugsersant en vertrek ook op 1 April 1921 vanuit Engeland na Kaapstad waar hy op 18 April 1921 arriveer.   Die ontstaan van SFI kan dus teruggevoer word na 1 April 1921.

8.         Tot 17 Januarie 1922 doen hy diens as lugfotograaf by die Lug Direktoraat en rig hy 'n fotografiese afdeling by die algemene Hoof Kwartier in Ďn vertrek onder die trappe in, hy verskuif later na die kelder van wat vandag die Lugmag Offisiersmenasie, Voortrekkerhoogte is.

9.         Op 17 Januarie 1922 word hy verplaas na No 1 Eskader, Zwartkop en doen die fotografiese afdeling ook sy heel eerste operasionele werk deurdat die stakende mynwerkers se loopgrawe met behulp van lugfotografie opgespoor was.  Die LB kamera was gebruik met 18 glas negatiewe.  In 'n nota van Kol P. van Ryneveld aan die Hoof van die Generale Staf gedateer 31 Julie 1922 maak hy melding van 'n groot aantal name van geskikte persone, om die fotografiese afdeling uit te brei, wat by sy kantoor geregistreer is.   In dieselfde jaar neem hy deel aan die optrede teen die opstandige Bondelswartes in Suidwes-Afrika.   Op 28 November 1922 versoek die Hoof Generale staf Brig. Genl A.T. Brink afskrifte van sekere foto's wat tydens die veldtog geneem is vir insluiting in die offisiŽle geskiedenis wat binnekort gepubliseer sou word.   Of hierdie publikasie wel plaasgevind het, is op hierdie oomblik nog onseker.

10.            Interessantheidshalwe word 'n opgawe van produksie van die Fotografiese Laboratorium van 10 Oktober 1922 aangehaal.

a.   Gedurende September 1922 was 170 negatiewe geneem en 310 afdrukke gemaak.

b.            Die mosaÔk van Roberts Hoogte is vanaf 5000 vt geneem en aanmekaar gelas.

c.          Die mosaÔk van Johannesburg is vanaf 6000 vt geneem en gelas.   Die area wat gedek word strek 1 1/4 myl noord van die poskantoor, 1 myl suid, 2 myl oos en 2 myl wes van dieselfde posissie.   Die area sluit Fordsburg, Jeppe, Fort, Observatory en die Noordelike myne in.

11.       Daar word ook verskoning gemaak dat die werk nie voortgesit kan word nie aangesien die Eskader op daardie stadium oor geen diensbare vliegtuie beskik nie.

8-6-1925 DIE KALAHARI EKSPIDISIE

12.            Sekerlik die eerste groot Lug Opmetingstaak wat deur die Fotografiese Afdeling uitgevoer word, was die fotografering en verkenning van die Kalahari.  Hierdie taak word in 'n brief vanaf die Direkteur Besproeing aan die Minister van Verdediging vir die hulp van die Lugmag aangevra.   Die hele doel agter die ekspidisie was om te bepaal in watter mate dit moontlik sou wees om water uit die Okavango morasse na die dorre dele van die Kalahari te versprei en sodoende dele van die woestyn te oorstroom om so hopelik reŽnval in die droŽ streek te verhoog.

13.       Hierdie was 'n idee van 'n sekere Professor Swartz wat in die begin van die 1923 na verwys word as die Swartz skema.   In die brief van die Landmeter Generaal van Zuid West Afrika gedateer 21 Mei 1923 aan die Sekretaris van Verdediging versoek hy dat 'n liggewig draagbare Teodoliet aan Departement geleen word sodat opmeting vir die Unie Regering gedoen kan word van daardie deel van die Swartz skema wat die Ngami- meer die Chobe vallei en die Okavango rivier tot by die Zambesi omsluit.  Gedagtig aan die onbegaanbaarheid van die terrein en die uitgestrektheid daarvan sou dit bykans, vir die tyd altans, onmoontlik gewees het om die opmeting vanaf die grond te doen.  Dat dit geensins 'n maklike taak sou wees nie spreek duidelik uit een van die paragrawe en ek haal aan:   "I might point out that much of the area to be traversed is by no means easy of access, that the difficulties are this year increased through the abnormal rains and that the determination of the numerous waterways would be very difficult to establish except at the expense of much time and labour.   This is precisely where the aeroplane would be of immense advantage, in enabling such difficult country to be inspected in the minimum of time and with most precision".

14.       In sy antwoord op hierdie brief aan die Departement Besproeing wys die Hoof van die Generale Staf Brig Genl Brink daarop dat sy Departement heeltemal bereid is om die nodige ondersteuning te gee op voorwaarde dat Departement Besproeing vir alle ekstra koste verantwoordelik sou wees.

15.       Hy wys ook daarop dat dit nodig sou wees om twee vliegtuie met die nodige personeel en onderdele vir die doel aan te wend en sodra die Departement Besproeing die voorwaarde aanvaar, die nodige instruksies aan die Direkteur Lugdienste uitgereik sou word.

16.       Hierdie voorwaardes word in 'n brief gedateer 25 Junie 1925 deur die Besproeingsdepartement aanvaar en verklaar hulle ook dat hulle bereid is om reis en verblyfkostes, spoorweg kostes en kostes om vliegvelde of landingsplekke voor te berei, te betaal. Daarom dan ook dat die versoek om lugfotografie gedurende Junie 1925 goedgekeur word.  Die totale begroting vir hierdie taak word vasgestel op 'n maksimum van £500 maar word later verhoog na £750.

17.       Die uitvoering van hierdie taak lees amper soos een van die ondekkingsreise van Stanley of Livingstone.  Drie verslae van Kapt. Meredith aan die Direkteur van Lugdienste word hieronder woordeliks aangehaal vir die interessantheid daarvan.


                                                                                                            "DAS. 854/34

                                                                                                KALAHARI RECONNAISSANCE,
                                                                                                c/o N.R.P. LIVINGSTONE,
                                                                                                August 2nd 1925.       
The Director of Air Services,    
            Roberts' Heights,         
                        Pretoria.

Sir,
                                    KALAHARI RECONNAISSANCE.         

I have the honour to report as follows :-         

Friday July 17th.   
D.H.9 142 Captain Meredith and Flight Sergeant Brain.  

D.H.9 144 Lieut. Tasker and Corporal James, left Z.A.S. for Palapye Road en route Livingstone at 07.35 hrs. Landed at Palapye at 10.10 filled both machines from supplies brought to ground by Lieut. Poole of B.P. Police who had made all arrangements in an admirable manner.           

Left Palapye 12.35 arrived Buluwayo 15.20 machines filled up and pegged down for night.  The preparation and marking of the ground and all other arrangements were well carried out by the Crown Engineer.         

Saturday 18th. 
Left Buluwayo 10.05 and landed at Livingstone 12.35, where ground arrangements were very well carried out by the Northern Rhodesian Police and P.W.D.           
Quarters for Officers and men arranged in N.R.P. Messes.           

Sunday 19th.   
Met passenger train cleared all stores etc. which through the courtesy of the N.R.P. were at once conveyed to the aerodrome and stored in tents provided by them.   
Sgt. Major Ireland-Low reported and quarters in N.R.P. Mess were arranged for him.

Monday 20th.  
Cleared petrol & oil supplies were transported to aerodrome by N.R.P.            
Received letter from Dr. du Toit to the effect that work on the ground at Kabulabula (60 miles west of Livingstone on Chobe River) was well advanced.        
At 15.00 hrs.  D.H.9 144 with Lieut. Tasker and Capt. Meredith left for Kabulabula and after examining ground landed at 15.45 hrs.  Went over all the ground and left again at 17.25.  After leaving message with local store-keeper for Dr. du Toit to meet us the following day if possible. Reached Livingstone at 18.10. 


Tuesday 21st.  
Both machines each carrying five cases petrol left Livingstone at 13.30, landed at Kabulabula at 14.25 and dumped petrol.

Met Dr. du Toit and arranged to pick him and Dr. Douglas up at 10.a.m.. Friday 24th for flight over ground under Livingstone.     

The possibility of getting another ground further ahead was discussed and du Toit agreed to move his camp from present position 90 miles west of Livingstone on Chobe River to Katchikau 10 miles further on and slightly south of Chobe and there endeavor to prepare another ground.

Dr. du Toit was unable to give an accurate idea of the ground to be photographed until he had seen it from the air but requested a start being made on the area at Katombora Rapids (35 miles up Zambesi from Livingstone) and the junction of the Chobe and Zambesi Rivers. 

Left Kabulabula at 16.40 landed at Livingstone 17.30. 

Wednesday 22nd.  
D.H.9 144 with Lieut. Tasker and S/M Ireland-Low left at 11.05 to photograph Katombora and junction of rivers.  They landed at Kabulabula at 13.30 and awaited arrival of Capt. Meredith on D.H.9 142, loaded with five cases petrol and three gallons oil.       

D.H.9 142 left Livingstone at 13.40 and landed at Kabulabula at 14.30. 
Dumped petrol and oil and both machines left at 15.30 arriving at Livingstone at 16.20. 

Thursday 23rd.
D.H.9 144 Lieutenant Tasker and C.A.P. Ireland-Low left at 10.45 to photograph Zambesi from junction with Chobe up to Katimo Molilo Rapids about 100 miles from Livingstone.     

Return at 14.25. 

D.H.9 142 loaded with petrol & oil commenced taxying to take off for Kabulabula but tail skid broke in half washing out flight.         

Spare skid fitted and wire despatched for two more.        

Friday 24th.     
Both machines loaded with petrol and oil for transporting to Kabulabula where Dr. du Toit and Mr. Douglas were to be picked up.      

D.H.9 142 Captain Meredith took off at 10.00 but Lieutenant Tasker on D.H.9 144 broke his tail skid while taxying.

Captain Meredith then landed to ascertain cause of delay and his skid also went. 

This put both machines out of action but steps were immediately taken to manufacture locally pending receipt of spares.

The Zambesi Saw Mills very kindly put work in hand on two skids of local wood reinforced with heavy side plates. 

Owing to the absence of any communications, it was quite impossible to advise Dr. du Toit of the position.          

Saturday 25th. 
One skid received from Z.S.M. and it was at once fitted to D.H.9. 144 on which Lieut. Tasker left at 11.45 with petrol & oil and camp kit for Kabulabula where he landed at 12.40. 

On arrival a letter from Dr. du Toit was found saying that he was unable to wait over owing to the absence of camp kit or rations and therefore had returned to his camp at Katchikau where an aerodrome was well in hand.  Further that he had taken on to Katchikau 6 cases of our petrol.  In view of this Lieut. Tasker took off at 13.25 for Katchikau which he reached at 13.55. 

Meantime the second skid was obtained from the Saw Mills and fitted to D.H.9 142 on which Captain Meredith took off at 16.25 for Kabulabula with petrol, oil and camp kit.

As Lieut. Tasker was not on the ground at Kabulabula it was assumed he had gone on to Katchikau but an attempt to teach that place was unsuccessful owing to darkness.         

Landed at Kabula at 18.00 and camped for the night.   

Sunday 26th.   
D.H.9 142 filled with petrol at Kabula and started up for Katchikau but before taking off Lieut. Tasker on D.H.9 144 arrived at 11.45 from Katchikau with Dr. du Toit as passenger.       

They wished to be flown over the area at the junction of the rivers and proceed to Livingstone on business so Kabula was left at 12.05 and Livingstone reached at 12.55. 

Monday 27th.  
At 12.10 both machines with Dr. du Toit and Corporal James as passengers took off for Katchikau landing at 13.15. 

At 16.15 Mr. Douglas was flown over Caprivi North of Katchkau by Captain Meredith on D.H.9 142. Landing at 16.55. 

Went to camp with Dr. du Toit and party.        



Tuesday 28th.  
Both machines with Dr. du Toit and Mr. Douglas as passengers left Katchikau at 09.40 and taking route East of Goha Hill - M'babe Flats - Savuti River - Linyanti (Chobe) River - Zambesi - arrived at Livingstone at 13.05. 

Machine filled up and carrying petrol & oil in addition to passengers took off at 16.00 for Katchikau landing there at 17.15. 

Wednesday 29th.   
Oil of D.H.9 144 changed having done 24 hours.  
Both machines left  Katchikau at 10.40 with Dr. du Toit and Mr. Douglas taking route north of Goha Hill - Savuti River - S.W. Corner Linyanti - N.W. over Makwegani Spill way towards Okavango - N.E. to Linyanti - (Chobe) following this river north for some distance then N.E. to Zambesi at Katimo Molilo Rapids then down Zambesi to Livingstone landing at 14.50. 

Discussion with Dr. and Douglas as a result of their flights elicited the information that much of the country originally required to be photographed could cut out and the areas to be done were defined as follows :-

1.            Zambesi River from Falls to Katimo Molilo Rapids.  Of this stretch from Kazungula (junction of rivers) to Katimo is already done but some gaps have to be filled.

2.         Chobe (Linyanti) River from junction with Zambesi to a point about 20 miles south of the Angola Border of this area work is complete from Kazungula to Kabulabula.

3.         Savuti River and another dry river running north-west from Mababe Flats to S.W. corner of Linyanti River.

4.            Makwegana Spillway from junction with Chobe westwards towards Okavango River about 50 miles.

During the flights Dr. du Toit and Mr. Douglas were able to check up on existing maps and make rough sketches for guidance in future ground operations and as a result of which they expected to make a great saving in ground to be covered etc.

The question of supplies was gone into and Dr. du Toit wired for a further grant for Air Force co-operation.        

Decided to fly du Toit and Douglas back to Katchikau to continue ground work then one machine to carry on photography of the Zambesi while the other transported supplies to Katchikau for operation from that end.          

Before leaving they were shown a rough mosaic of the photos taken on 22nd and 23rd and satisfaction was expressed with the result.         



Thursday 30th.
Changed oil in D.H.9 142.      

Found struts of left V of undercarriages of 142 distorted (bent inwards) and right V showing similar signs.    

As there appeared to be a danger of the struts collapsing the machine was placed "U" pending receipt of a new machine which was wired for. 

D.H.9 144 Lieut. Tasker and Mr Douglas took off at 11.00 for Katchikau and on return at 13.30 machine was filled up and Dr du Toit taken out by Captain Meredith at 14.30 reaching Katchikau at 15.30. 

Owing to extra work on 142 and photo machine working from Livingstone Corporal James was brought back to Livingstone as passenger in 144 reaching aerodrome at 17.30. 

Friday 31st.             Found 2 valve springs was broken on 144.    
Lieutenant Tasker and C.A.P. Ireland-Low left ground on 144 about 14.00 to photograph Zambesi but compelled to land about 14.45 owing to cracked cylinder head.  

Wired for spares but both machines now unserviceable.  

Saturday August 1st.      
Devoted to preparation of replacement work on both machines.        

Sunday 2nd.    
New machine arrived at 14.00 hours and work commenced on fitting.  It is anticipated that 142 will be ready by to-morrow afternoon (3rd) and photography of Zambesi will then be done.   

On completion of this the machine will be used to dump supplies at Katchikau in readiness for photo work in that area.         

By Friday 7th 144 should be ready assuming spares to have been railed on August 1st or 2nd and enough petrol dumped at Katchikau for uninterrupted photo work.    

One machine will then be used for photography from Katchikau while the other will transport supplies from Livingstone as required.          

All personnel will be camped at Katchikau, transport machine utilizing native guard at Livingstone for leading and starting up.       

It is estimated that a further 15 hours flying will cover the photographic work and a similar amount for transporting.           
Assuming a clear run once both machines are again serviceable I anticipate being able to reach Z.A.S. by Saturday 15th or earlier.         

Owing to fairly strong winds causing drift on photos already taken I am now having a turntable made locally. 

This table should permit of the camera being slewed to counteract drift.  If successful this will obviate additional runs.

It was impossible to lay down any definite programme until Dr. du Toit had been consulted and flown over the area and unfortunately since the area to be photographed was decided on slight trouble has been experienced with the machines.        

I would like to mention that the assistance given us by the Northern Rhodesia Police has been invaluable and has saved money.

They have provided fatigue parties and transport for the handling of our stores and placed tents at our disposal both for storage and living purposes.

The P.W.D. have also given much useful assistance while the Administration has loaned me a new Ford car for which provide petrol and oil only.     

This car has been most useful, as the aerodrome is 3 1/2 miles from town, particularly during the last week or ten days when difficulties were experienced with the machines.        

The Zambesi Saw Mills have also been most useful in the matter of tail skids.  

I have the honor to be,     
                        Sir,      
                        Your obedient servant,           
                        (Sgd) C.W. Meredith,        
                        Captain,          
                        O.C Air Force Detachment.


 

DAS. 854/34.

O.C. AIR FORCE DETACHMENT           
C/O N.R.P.           
LIVINGSTONE.           
12/8/25.           
THE DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICES,           
ROBERTS' HEIGHTS.

Sir,
                                                            KALAHARI RECONNAISSANCE.         
                                    I have the honor to report as follows :-         

Monday August 3rd.     
Undercarriage fitted to D.H.9 - 142 engine checked over.  Dismantling and cleaning of engine in D.H.9 - 144 commenced.    

Tuesday August 4 th.     
Captain Meredith left ground with C.A.P. Ireland-Low at 09.40 on 142 to photograph Zambesi from Falls to Kazungula. Landed at 14.00 and area believed to be complete.        

Strong cross wind at 8000 made photography rather lengthy process.          

Front cylinder block of 144 cleaned valves ground, etc. ready for re-assembling.      

Wednesday August 5th.      
Rear block for `44 arrived from Depot and assembling of engine 144 commenced.    

Thursday 6th.  
Captain Meredith on 142 transported petrol to Katchikau.       

Engine 144 completed and tested at 16.10 by Lt. Tasker with Cpl. James. 
All O.K. but for slight carburetor tuning. 

Friday 7th.       
Both machines left Livingstone 10.00 with petrol and oil for Katchikau and returned at 12.40. 

Loaded with tents, petrol and oil left again at 14.35 and returned at 14.20  

Development of photos taken on Tuesday completed.      
Apparently O.K. but not certain yet whether any gaps exists.      



Saturday 8th.   
Both machines with F/S.  Brain and Cpl. James kit and oil left Livingstone at 10.20 for Katchikau landing at Kabulubula at 11.05 to pick up petrol.         

D.H.9 - 142 found to be leaking oil badly and this was traced to a cracked filter chamber.         

Lt. Tasker returned to Livingstone with F/S.  Brain to wire for new part.    
Decided not to continue to Katchikau with only one machine serviceable owing to difficulty of supplies and communications if that machine failed.  

Effort made to seal crack in chamber by running in solder proved useless.

Lt. Meredith and Cpl. James reaching Livingstone at 18.00. 

D.H.9. - 142 pegged down and left under guard at Kabulabula the intention being to fly new part out on arrival from Depot.     

Sunday 9th.     
Effort made in Livingstone to repair oil filter chamber but absence of any facilities such as welding made this difficult.     

Mr. Walters, Loco Engineer of Railways kindly offered to attempt cementing but the job proved a failure.          

Decided to await new part before attempting to fly machine out.    

Monday 10th. 
Lt Tasker and C.A.P. Ireland-Low left at 10.00 on D.H.9 - 144 to pick up gaps in previous work on Zambesi from junction with Chobe to Katimo Molilo Rapids and to photograph Chobe from lake North of Katchikau connecting there with previous work.  Lt. Tasker had trouble with his engine blowing water and heating up and landed at Katchikau at 13.00 hours.    

Took of again at 16.30 and reached Livingstone at 17.45 where on examination No. 2 cylinder was found to be leaking water.  

Certain amount of photography was done but trouble with machine made camera work difficult.           

On this flight the new turntable was used and a report on the result will be furnished later. 

Both machines now unserviceable   


Tuesday 11th.  
Filter and chamber removed from 144 at 06.30 hours, whereupon Capt. Meredith , Lt. Tasker, F/S Brain and Cpl. James left by car for Kabulabula which after a difficult trip including ferrying of the car across the Zambesi, was reached at 15.00 hours.    

Filter of 144 fitted on 142 on which Capt. Meredith and Cpl. James left for Livingstone at 16.55 reaching Livingstone at 17.45. 

Lt. Tasker and F/S Brain left on return journey by car at 16.30 and expected to spend the night at Kasane or Kazungula.      

Owing to spluttering of engine of 142 on return from Kabulabula deemed advisable to check it over before further work attempted.       

Wednesday 12th.   
Engine of 142 being looked over and engine of 144 prepared for replacement of second cylinder block.  

I hope to have D.H.9. - 144 serviceable by Saturday 15th but to be able to carry out a certain amount of work in the meantime on 142 which has been made serviceable by robbing 144.    

Unfortunately the development of the further trouble on the engines will delay till further the completion of photographic work.  

The cracking of the filter chamber on 142 is believed to be due to the fact that the pipe from the base was not a good fit but had to be sprung into place. This combined with the fact that the pipe itself was fouling 3 ply ribs put a strain on the thin aluminium chamber resulting in a fracture.           

I mention this because it is I believe, rather an unusual failure. 

                                                            I have the honor to be,           
                                                            Sir,                                          
                                                            Your obedient servant,           

                                                                                    (Sgd)  C.W. Meredith.        
                                                                                    Captain.          
                                                                                    O.C. Air Force Detachment.


                                                                                                                        DAS. 854/34.           
                                                                        OFFICE OF THE AIR FORCE DETACHMENT,     
                                                                                    KALAHARI EXPEDITION.           
                                                                                                9/9/25.
THE DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICES,    
            ROBERTS' HEIGHTS,      
                        THROUGH O.C. ZWARTKOP AIR STATION.     
Sir,      

                                                KALAHARI RECONNAISSANCE.         
                        I have the honor to report as follows  :-        
Wednesday August 12th.                                                                
Lieutenant Tasker and Flt. Sgt. Brain reported back from Kabulabula having spent the night at Kasane.           

Thursday 13th.
The work of looking over the petrol system of 142 was completed yesterday but attempts at photography were again held up owing to the discovery of a crack in the rear strut of the left hand undercarriage "V" of 142.  This is the new machine fitted on Sunday and Monday

August 2nd and 3rd.     

The strut was removed and it came away in two pieces.  By robbing the old undercarriage the machine was again made serviceable.  The front block of the engine 144 was removed in readiness for the new one.    

Friday 14th.     
New front block arrived and fitted immediately to 144.  Oil filter removed from 142 and replaced on 144 and machine completed by sundown.         

Owing to extreme tail heaviness, rigging adjustments commenced on 142.    

Machine useless for photographic work in present state.   

Saturday 15th. 
Lieut. Tasker and Cpl. James left ground at 10.30 on 142 to test engine and landed at 10.45 reporting "satisfactory".  Rigging adjustments completed on 142 but a test by Captain Meredith at 12.20 found machine still tail heavy, right wing low and engine again spluttering.       

Sunday 16th.   
No work, this being the first free day since arrival. 



Monday 17th.  
At 10.25 Lieut. Tasker and C.A.P. Ireland-Low left on 144 to photograph Chobe from Kasane to small lake approximately N.E. of Katchikau where machine landed at 14.35.  Petrol system and carburetors of 142 dismantled and examined owing to spluttering on 15th, but nothing which would account for this behavior was found.  Rigging again adjusted. 

Tuesday 18th.  
Captain Meredith and Cpl James left Livingstone on 142 at 09.40 with supplies etc. and landed Katchikau at 10.40. 

Machine left in last ballast at 11.05 and landed Livingstone 12.30.   After picking up Flt/Sgt Brain and supplies left again 14.10 and arrived Katchikau 15.10. 

Lieut. Tasker and C.A.P. Ireland-Low left Katchikau at 10.30 to photograph Chobe River on S.W. corner of swamp area up to and including Makwegana Spillway.  Landed at 14.35. 

Friday 21st.     
Lieut. Tasker and C.A.P. Ireland-Low left Katchikau in 144 at 11.40 to complete photos on Northern stretch and Zambesi from Katimo-Mulilo Rapids to Kazangula where more detail photographs were taken of the confluence of the rivers.  Landed at Livingstone at 15.35. 

Captain Meredith on 142 left Katchikau at 11.25 with kit and equipment landing Livingstone 12.45. 

Load dumped and machine left for Katchikau in ballast at 13.30 and arrives 14.10.  Loaded again with kit and equipment machine left 15.15 and arrived Livingstone 16.30. 

Saturday 22nd.
Both machines left Livingstone in ballast at 10.05 and arrived Katchikau 11.10.   At 12.00 loaded with stores and equipment the machines took off and arrived at Livingstone 13.15. 

Loads dumped and machines again left Livingstone at 14.40 and landed at Katchikau 14.45 to pick up Flt.Sgt Brain  Corporal James, kit and equipment.       

Took off at 16.45 and landed at Livingstone 18.00. 

Sunday 23rd.   
Free.   

Monday 24th.  
At 09.55 hours 142 left to take local oblique photographs.   

Engine spluttered again cutting out on one block.  Landed at 10.20 and another overhaul of petrol system and carburetors commenced.    

Oil changed in 142.    

After oil had been changed in 144 machine left ground at 12.05 on local vertical photography.  Landed at 12.25 whereupon, left petrol pump, which had dropped pressure, was changed.          

Packing of stores commenced.    

Tuesday 25th.  
Captain Meredith left on 144 at 09.55 to pick up balance of equipment at Katchikau.       

Flew out on course about 20 miles N. of Zambesi to observe area likely to be flooded from Zambesi.  Returned to Livingstone on direct course at 14.50. 

Overhaul of petrol system of 142 completed but again nothing fount to account for spluttering.       
Packing of stores continued.        

Wednesday 26th.   
Captain Meredith left ground at 09.45 for test flight on 142 and landed 10.05 with engine behaving perfectly.         

Interviewed Customs re-despatch of Stores and arranged with Northern Rhodesia Government Stores for taking over of 28 cases surplus petrol.  

General kit and stores required on arrival of machines at Zwartkop Air Station railed by Passenger Train.  

Packing and railing of balance of stores by goods train completed.      

Surplus petrol despatched to Government Stores.  Ford car decarbonised valve ground in and generally oiled, greased and inspected. 

Thursday 27th.
Machines packed up, final arrangements made and W.O.II Ireland-Low given letter of instructions.     

At 09.40 both machines left for Buluwayo landing there at 13.00. 

Machines filled up and pegged down.  

Friday 28th.                 
After packing up both machines left at 09.00 steering direct from Palapye Road which was reached at 11.25. 

Machines filled up from supplies brought to ground by Officer i/c Police (Lt. Poole).  Took off at 14.00 flying direct to Zwartkop Air Station which was reached at 16.45. 


The engine of 142 gave no trouble from Livingstone to Zwartkop Air Station and the spluttering on three occasions remains unexplained.    

GENERAL REMARKS.   
During the whole of the period away from Zwartkop Air Station on this RECONNAISSANCE the Air Force Detachment met with great courtesy and every assistance was rendered.         

When Stanley expressed his willingness to assist just as far as possible.      

He regretted his inability to clear the aerodrome free of charge, but this was due to the fact that all available Government labour was employed making preparations for the Prince of Wales' visit.     

On arrival by air at Livingstone the Detachment was met by the Governor, and Lt Col Stephenson, Commanding Officer Northern Rhodesia Police, the former again insisting on an appeal being made to him if assistance could be rendered.         

Lt. Col. Stephenson had tents pitched on the aerodrome to receive stores and an armed guard ready to take charge of the machines.        

This guard continued throughout our stay.

The officers and other ranks were accommodated in the N.R.P. Messes and this arrangement was most suitable particularly for the work in hand.   

Owing to the aerodrome being 3 1/2 miles out of town, the Governor very kindly placed a Ford at my disposal for official work.   

This car for which the Detachment had to provide petrol and oil, was the means of saving a large amount of money and transport, as it would have been practically impossible to work without it and hiring would have been prohibitive.      

Further Lt. Col. Stephenson rendered valuable assistance by lending me his animal transport to convey stores from and to Railway Station, the provision of tents and guards and many small services all of which simplified our work very considerably, apart from saving the money.

The Public Works Department were also most helpful in clearing a further portion of the aerodrome and carrying out work such as making trestles, etc. for our use.           

With your permission I would like to suggest that official letters be written to His Excellency The Governor, Sir Herbert Stanley, K.C.M.G., expressing appreciation of his personal interest and assistance and the services so very willingly rendered by the Northern Rhodesia Police, Chief Secretary's Office, and the Public Works Department.    

Further, that a similar letter be sent to Lt.Col. Stephenson. C.M.G. D.S.O., M.C. O.C. N.R.P. in regard to the provision of transport and guards and other assistance which went far to facilitate the work carried out.     

At Buluwayo the Mayor, H.J. Barbour, Esq., spared no pains to make things as easy as possible for us and on his instructions the racecourse was cleared by the Town Engineer (Mr. Thornton) at Municipal Expenses while the latter gentleman attended to markings and smoke fires in an admirable manner.           

To the Officer i/c B.S.A. Police at Buluwayo we are indebted for the provision of white police guards for the machines on both up and down trips, and also to the Buluwayo Turf Club for use of the racecourse.

Finally at Palapye Road the Officer i/c Bechuanaland Protectorate Police (Lieut. Poole) made all arrangements in a manner that left nothing to be desired.  Our supplies were on both occasions, on ground well in time and native Police were provided to assist in filling up and keeping the ground clear.   

This officer is perhaps worthy of special mention in that he keeps the ground clear and marked so that usually 24 hour notice of intention to land is sufficient.      

Although it is probably more a private than official matter it is as well to mention, as an indication of Lt. Poole's anxiety to assist, that on both journeys tea and sandwiches were ready when we landed and that a hot lunch was provided on the aerodrome before we left on the return journey.

May I also suggest letters being written to the various officials at Buluwayo and Palapye Road. 
Generally the reception accorded the Detachment at all points was excellent and I feel that I cannot stress too much the point that without the wholehearted co-operation of officials of Administrations outside the Union, the work of the Detachment would not only have been increased but hampered considerably.   

The Air Force personnel worked admirably early and late and had the success of the Expedition at heart.                           

                                                I have the honor to be,           
                                                Sir,      
                                                Your obedient servant,           
                                                (Sgd) C.W. Meredith.  Captain"


 

18.       Hierdie verslae het dan ook direk daartoe aanleiding gegee dat die Lugmag kontingent by die Kalahari Ekspedisie betrokke was, 'n "Mooiskoot" ontvang het.  Op aanbeveling van die Hoof van die Generale Staf, U.V.M., is 'n Ministers Nota van Generaal J.B.M. Hertsog opgestel aan die Goewerneur Generaal, Lord Athlone waaraan versoek word dat veskeie persone bedank moet word.  Die betrokke korrespondensie word hier onder aangehaal:

                                                                                    "51901/8/2/G3    GENERAL BRANCH;

MINISTERS MINUTE.

                        Will you please prepare and despatch a Ministers Minute on the following terms:-

                        MINISTERS have the honour to request His Excellency the Governor-General to convey to His Excellency the Governor of Northern Rhodesia the appreciation of Ministers of His Excellency's interest in and assistance to the South African Air Force Detachment which accompanied the Kalahari Reconnaissance Survey Party from the Union of South Africa during July and August last.

                        MINISTERS also desire that the appreciation of the Union Government be conveyed to the following officials and also the individuals named for the very great assistance which they rendered to the Union Pilots, The Chief Secretary and his department, The Northern Rhodesian Police, and his Department, The Northern Rhodesian Police, and the Public Works Department; and also to the following individuals personally:-

                        Lieut. Colonel Stephenson, C.M.G. D.S.O., M.C. O.C., N.R.P., for the appreciation of transport and guards and other assistance which went far to facilitate the work carried out.

                        Mr. H.J. Barbout the Mayor of Buluwayo who spared no pains to assist the Pilots and who caused the Racecourse to be cleared at Municipal expense.

                        The Officer I/C B.S.A. Police at Buluwayo, who provided White Police Guards for the machines.

                        The Buluwayo Turf Club for the use of the Racecourse, and finally

                        Lieut. Poole, Officer I/C Bechuanaland Protectorate Police, Palapye Road, who made the most excellent possible arrangements and who extended great personal hospitality to the Pilots at the Aerodrome.

2.                     Please return papers to me, together with sufficient copies of the Ministers Minute for transmission to the Irrigation department and the D.A.S.

                                                            Signed:                              Brigadier-General,          
                                                                 CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF, UDF.

Pretoria.          
28.9.25."

 

                                                                                    "PRETORIA. 
MINUTE.

                        MINISTERS have the honour to request His Excellency the Governor-General to convey to His Excellency the Governor of Northern Rhodesia their appreciation of his interest in and assistance to the South African air force Detachment which accompanied the Kalahari Reconnaissance Survey Party from the Union of South African during July and August last.

                        MINISTERS further desire that the appreciation of the Union Government be conveyed to the Chief Secretory and the following Officers for the assistance rendered by them to the Union Pilots;- Lieut. Colonel Stephenson, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C., O.C., M.R.R., the Officer i/c B.S.A. Police at Buluwayo, Lieut. Poole, Officer i/c Bechuanaland Protectorate Police, Palapye Road, and also to Mr. H.J. Barbour the Mayor of Buluwayo and the Buluwayo turf Club.         
                                                                                    Signed:  J.B.M. HERTZOG"

 

                                                                                    "HIGH COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE         
                                                                                                 CAPE TOWN,           
                                                                                                    10 February, 1928.  
Dear Colonel Creswell,

                        I have just seen the exceedingly interesting mosaic of the lower reaches of the Chobe river complied from photographs taken by Lieutenant Tasker, a copy of which the Union director of Air Services has been good enough to have prepared for the use of High Commissioner's Office. It will be very great value to us and I should be much obliged if you would convey his direction for the preparation of the mosaic.  My warm congratulations on the way their courtesy in furnishing a copy without charge.

                                                                        Yours sincerely,         
                                                                                    Athlone."

 


 

                                                                                    "Capetown.    
                                                                                                 February, 14th, 1928.

Dear Lord Athlone,

                        Many thanks for your note of the 10th.

                        I will transmit your message to Sir Pierre van Ryneveld and I know your congratulations will be very greatly appreciated.

                        The possibilities of map making from the air ought to be the subject of much more exploring than we give it.  It is one of the things I wish I had some money to play with to enable me to do it.

                                                                        Your Sincerely,        
                                                                                    F.H.P. Creswell.

 

 

The Rt. Hon'ble           
            The Earl of Athlone, &c.,&c.,          
                        Capetown."

"THE DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICES.

                        I forward for information, copy of a letter addressed by His Excellency the Governor-General to the Minister, together with a copy of the letter's reply.

                        I am please to note that the work of the Air Force has been so warmly commended.

                                                Signed:   A.J. BRINK    BRIGADIER-GENERAL,    
                                                                CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF,U.D.F.

at Capetown,   
            17th February, 1928."

19        Soos uit onderstaande briewe afgelei kan word is die Kalahari mosaik uiteindelik in 1932 gratis aan die Goewerment Sekretaris te Mafeking geskenk.


                                                                                    "DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICE,      
                                                                                                ROBERTS' HEIGHTS.      
                                                                                                            30 September 1932   
CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF,UDF.

AIR PHOTOGRAPHS: KALHARI.

                        The government Secretary, Mafeking, has applied for a copy of the mosaic taken in connection with the Kalahari Reconnaissance in 1925.

                        The mosaic consisted of nearly 2,000 prints and was reproduced on 355 negatives (10" x 8"). the cost of preparing a copy would, therefore, be very considerable.

                        We have however the original mosaic which is not now required and I suggest that we offer this to the Government Secretary free of charge.

                        Would you please advise me whether you agree.

                                                Singed:                 LIEUTENANT COLONEL.    
                                                                           for DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICES.
                                                                           DB.
                                                                           29.9.32."

                                                                        "CGS.311/8/2(G3).

THE DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICES.    
Air Photographs -Kalahari.

With reference to your DAS.854/34 of the 30th ultimo, it is approved that the original mosaic be supplied free of charge to Government Secretary, Mafeking, as suggested.

                                                             Signed:                                                   Colonel.          
                                                            for CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF:UDF:

Defence Headquarters,  
            PRETORIA, 
                        October 10th 1932.    
/deJ."


HOOFSTUK 2

1931 - 1940

1.         Die Direkteur van Besproeing verneem op 5 Februarie 1930, per brief aan Kaptein Ross, na die moontlikheid om skuins asook vertikale dekking van die Augrabies valle, Keimoes valle en die Irene valle te bekom.   Goedkeuring word op 24 Februarie gegee dat die taak vanaf Alexanderbaai gedoen kan word.

2.         Op 15 April 1930 rig die Direkteur van Besproeing weereens 'n versoek vir lugfoto opnames van:

a.            Pongola rivier (Natal)

b.            Krokedil rivier (Oos Transvaal)

c.         Elands rivier (20 myl vanaf Pienaars rivier stasie)

3.         Die bedrywighede tydens die Pongola rivier projek het die belangstelling  van  die  publiek  so geprikkel dat 'n artikel op 8 November 1930 in die Murcury verskyn onder die opskrif "ROBOT EYE SPIES OUT THE GOLDEN VALLEY".

4.         Tydes die projek ontvang Kaptein Ross ook opdrag om voor hy terugkeer ook die Umsolosie moras te fotografeer.

5.         Die rekening van die Pongola projek word op 2 Desember 1930 aan die Departement van Besproeing gestuur en beloop £ 109-1-6.   Dit sluit nie spoor koste in nie.

6.         Op 27 Jullie 1931 ontvang AO2 Ireland Low opdrag om per trein na Komatie Poort te gaan vir die uitvoering van 'n lugfotografiese taak.   Die vliegtuig wat dan ook die eerste aflos genoem word styg op vanaf Zwartkop 31 Julie 1931 en die twede aflos wat uit Wapiti 602 bestaan het om 09h00 op 8 Augustus 1931 vertrek.


                                                                                                                           "DAS.854/81. 
THE ACCOUNTANT & CHIEF PAYMASTER

 

AERIAL SURVEY ON ACCOUNT OF IRRIGATION
 DEPARTMENT - KOMATI POORT.
----------------------------------------

Your File D.F.A. 14/16334 refers.
Rail Warrants Issued by Aircraft Depot.

            No.                  Date.                Destination.                  Goods.
            595628            23.7.31.   )                                           Castor Oil and
            595651            13.8.31.   )            Baberton.                   Photographic
            595654            15.8.31.   )                                           Material.

Rail Warrants Issued by Zwartkop Air Station.

  No.                 Date.                Issued To.                               Nature of Warrent.      
180906.             24.9.31.               W.O.II. Ireland Low, J.          1st Return, Baberton.

No.                 Date.                Issued To.                               Nature of Warrent.      
180908.             24.9.31.               No.565. Air App.                     Baberton to Pretoria.                                                                 Garthorne, G.S. 2nd
                                                   Single.
180907             24.9.31.           Native Lab. William.                 3rd Return, Baberton.

  No.                 Date.                      Destination.                                    Goods.
38397.              10.7.31.            Lourenco Marques to                    Fuel.
                                                  Komatipoort.
38398.              20.7.31.            Komatipoort to Baberton.            Fuel.
38399.              24.7.31.           Pretoria to Baberton.                 Photographic
                                                                                                Material.
38400.             25.7.31.                       "                                   Trailer.
38302.              10.8.31.                       "                                   Photographic
                                                                                                Material.
38303.              10.8.31.            Lourenco Marques to              Fuel.
                                                  Baberton.
38306.              12.8.31.           do -                                         "
38307.              4.9.31.               Baberton to Lourenco             Empty Drums.
                                                  Marques.
38308.              4.9.31.               Baberton to Pretoria.              Photographic
                                                                                                Material.
38309.              11.9.31.           "                       "                       Trailer.

Cost of production of photographs has not yet been determined.


                                                                                                                           ZAS.854/150.
                                                                                    SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE,
                                                                                    ZWARTKOP AIR STATION,
                                                                                    ROBERTS HEIGHTS.

DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICES.

AERIAL SURVEY KOMATIPOORT.
---------------------------

Forwarding herewith particulars of rail warrants issued in connection with the above service.

No.      Date of            Service            From and To
            Warrant

180906            24.9.31.           W.O.II. Ireland-Low J.            Pretoria to Baberton.
                        1st Return.

180907            24.9.31.           Native Lab.William                   Pretoria to Baberton.
                        3rd Return.

180908            4.9.31.             No.585 Air App. Garthorne
                        D.S.  2nd. Single                        Baberton to Pretoria.

38397              10.7.31.           12/65 Gall. drums Borneo         Lourence Marques to
                        Spirit.                                                Komatipoort.

38398              20.7.31.           12/65 Galls Drums Borneo       Komatipoort to
                        Spirit.                                                Baberton.

38399              24.7.31.           Photographic Material.  Pretoria to Baberton.

 

No.                  Date of Service                                                 From and To
                        Warrant

38400              25.7.31.            Photographic Trailer.                         Pretoria West to                                                                                                            Baberton.

38302              10.8.31.            Sodium Sulphati.                                   Pretoria to Baberton.

38303              10.8.31.            3/64 Gall. Borneo Spirit.               Lourenco Marques to                                                                                                       Baberton.

38306              12.8.31.            3/64  "     "       "                           Lourenco Marques to
                                                                                                Baberton.

38307              4.9.31.             17 - 1/64 Gall empty                           Baberton to Lorenco
                                    Drums.                                                 Marques.

38308               9.31.                Photographic Material                                   Baberton to Pretoria.
                                    and Effects.

38309              11.9.31.            Photographic Trailer.                         Baberton to Pretoria.
 

Your minute No.DAS.854/81 of 19th ultimo refers.
                                                                                                LIEUT. COLONEL.
                                                                                        O.C. ZWARTKOP AIR STATION.
OVS.
16.10.31.

7.         Die taak was waarskynlik teen die einde van Augustus afgehandel aangesien AO2 Ireland Low die fotografiese sleepwa op 2 September 1931 gelaai en na die Baberton se spoorwegstasie geneem het vir terug sending per spoorvrag.   Tydens hierdie episode het 'n gereedskapstuk van L.A.M. Breytenbach verlore geraak en gevolglik is verklarings afgelÍ, ook deur AO2 Ireland Low wat as volg lees:

                                                                                                South African Air Force                                                                                                      Zwartkop Air Station                                                                                                  22.9.31.

O.C.
Photographic Section
No. 29 Ireland-Low J. WOII states:-
Sir,

            With reference to the sworn statement made by L.A.M. Breytenbach I hereby state that:
            On Wednesday the 2nd September 1931 the photographic trailer was packed by myself and A/A (Air apprentice) Garthorne with all photographic stores, engine spares and tools being included.  The boxes containing these spares and tools were handed to us in the trailer by L.A.M. Breytenbach, no check of articles being made.

            Having completed the packing, the trailer was removed to the Baberton goods yard S.A.R. where it remained until Monday 7 September.  During this period it was unlocked once by myself for the purpose of lowering the roof and of packing in three drums of engine oil.   This was done on September 5th.   It was then locked and loaded on to the railway truck.

            The trailer arrived at Z.A.S. on Saturday the 12th when certain tools were removed by L.A.M. Breytenbach, who needed some for a tool check.   As I was not present during this removal I am unable to state what articles were removed.

            On Monday the 14th September in the presence of Capt Pollock, L.A.M. Breytenbach and A/A Garthorne I supervised the unpacking of the trailer and it was then that the missing vice was reported to me by L.A.M. Breytenbach.   A search was then made for same but could not be found.

                                                                                    Signed:            J. Ireland-Low WOII
                                                                                                                        C.A.P.

Taken down before me on this 22nd day of September 1931.

                                                                                    Signed:             J.J. Venter Lt
                                                                                                O/C Photographic section
                                                                                                            Z.A.S."

8.         'n Rekening wat in totaal £248-9-04 beloop het is t.o.v. die taak betaal.

9.            Gedurende Desember 1931 doen die Besproeiings departement weer navraag i.v.m. lugfoto taak van bykans 150 vk myl in die Umfulusie moeras omgewing.

10.       Twee dae voor Hoof Lug Fotograaf "C.A.P." Ireland Low se vertrek per trein na Mukuzi word die voorgestelde plan aan bevelvoerder Zwartkop lugstasie gestuur.


                                                                                                                        "REFERENCE.
                                                                                                                                    6.6.32.

                                                            Ref. Map Union of South Africa (1923)
                                                                                                Scale 1 : 1 000 000
OFFICER COMMANDING,
ZWARTKOP AIR STATION.

Suggested Plan of Air Photographic
Operations in Zululand Season 1932.
-------------------------------------

For Department of Irrigation.

            Certain portions of both banks of the Pongola River and surrounding country, East of Lebombo Mountains, - on map North of Umbombo- in Northern Zululand approximately 500 to 600 square miles.

For Forest Department.

            Dukuduku Forest, a few miles West of St. Lucia Estuary, about 50 square miles, also 100 miles of Coast Line from mouth of Kosi Bay to mouth of St. Lucia bay.

Landing Grounds.

            (a)  At Hippo pool on left bank of the Pongola River on road from Ubombo - Ingwavuma about 4 miles after road crosses Pongola River, proceeding in a Northerly direction. (Blue Print attached)

            (b)  At Dukuduku Halt about 4 miles along railway to the East, on South of railway.  Size roughly 600 yards square.

            Both landing grounds are marked with white ņ on corners and circles in center.

            Fuel supplies at Hippo Pool only.

Communications.

            Telegrams.                   O.C. S.A.A.F. Detachment,
                                                P.O. Otobotini.
            Post.                            O.C. S.A.A.F. Detachment,
                                                P.O. Otobotini,
                                                Zululand.

( Otobotini is a small store about 3 miles from Hippo Pool, available for telegrams and postal matter only)

Rail Head.

            Mkusi station about 30 miles from Otobotini.  All stores must be railed to Mkusi station.

            Arrangements have been made for all Air Force stores to be transported across Lebombo Mountains to Hippo Pool, three times per week by mechanical transport or wagons.  Mkusi has a mail connection with Durban three times per week each way.

Photographic Trailer and Stores.

            Left Aircraft Depot on 3.6.32, consigned to Mkusi Station.

            C.A.P. Ireland-Low leaves by train for Mkusi, accompanied by Native William, on 8.6.32. By this time the trailer should have arrived.

            May instructions be given to the C.A.P. to arrange for the safe transport of trailer form Mkusi to Hippo Pool.  Irrigation Agent Mr. Rutherford have been instructed to have necessary transport available. C.A.P. will also take down by train with him one F.8 camera complete.

            It is suggested that on 9.6.32 Capt. C.G. Ross and L.A.M. van Niekerk will leave by air for the Hippo Pool in Wapiti 603.

            All necessary arrangements will be made to start the air survey; on completion of arrangements O.C. Zwartkop Air Station will be wired.

            It is then suggested that an extra aircraft be sent down with any officer to assist in the work. May Air Mec. de Lorme be sent down on the first trip and Air Apprentice Garthorne on the second trip; it would be advisable to allow Air Apprentice Garthorne to remain in Zululand until completion of work.  The first extra aircraft to arrive will require to bring down one F.8 camera complete with magazines, also 12 volt battery.

Bedding.

            Bedding will be provided for all personnel except for photographers, who must bring their own. Sheets and pillows are not provided.

Stores.
            I understand all stores required will be indented for from O.C. Aircraft Depot.

            The total time to complete the survey is roughly estimated at from six to seven weeks.

            Change of aircraft is suggested for periods of 7 or 14 days, aircraft to arrive on a Saturday.  This will enable the new officer to become better acquainted with his duties over the weekend.

            May copies of this minute, should it meet with your approval, be sent to the director of Air Services and O.C. Aircraft Depot for information, please.

            Kindly instruct if you concur.

            Signed: Chas. Gordon Ross. Capt.
                          O.C. i/c Photographic Sect.

11.       In 'n verslag meld AO Ireland-Low dat daar van 'n span donkies gebruik gemaak is om die sleepwa "MOBIELE FOTOGRAFIESE LABORATORIUM" vanaf Mkusi stasie na die eindbestemming te help sleep. Om met die pont oor die Rivier te kom moes die hulp van 45 arbeiders ingeroep word.

12.       Op 24 Januarie 1933 word 'n dringende versoek ontvang vir 'n opmetingstaak te Buffelspoort en magtiging word daartoe verleen op 28 Januarie 1933.

13.       Die Direkteur van Besproeiing laat weet dat hy verder fotografie in die Pongola distrik vanaf die Lebombo Berge insluitend die Mkusi Rivier tot by die Usutu Rivier in die Noorde benodig.  Voorgestelde Operasieplan as volg:

PROPOSED SCHEME OF OPERATIONS FOR AIR SURVEY
IN NORTHERN ZULULAND, SEASON 1933.

            The Director of Irrigation has asked for the following Air Survey:-

(1)        500 sq miles of Lebombo Mountains extending from Mkusi River to Usuto River.

(2)        300 sq miles of country along the right bank of Pongola River and left bank of Mkusi River (mostly flat country)

            It is proposed to do No.1 with the new F24 Camera from 15,000 feet altitude.

            No.2 with the F8 Camera from 10,000 feet.

            To carry out these operations the following personnel are considered necessary:-
                                    4 Officers.
                                    1 Warrant Officer - Photographer.
                                    1 Air Apprentice
                                    1 Corporal or Airman Fitter to maintain Aircraft.
                                    7 Total.

            It is suggested that 2 Wapiti Aircraft will be required.

            The scheme is to employ two Aircraft on each suitable flying day, two Officers per Aircraft one piloting and navigating and other officer operating the camera.

            The ground photographers being responsible to load, develop print and mosaic the work as well as keep the cameras in serviceable condition.

            The photographic trailer will be railed to rail head and then maintained in the field.

            It will only be necessary to mosaic the 300 sq miles on

The films of the 500 sq miles area will be developed
and afterwards returned to the Photographic Section.  Air directorate to be dealt with there.

            No.2 area will be printed at Air Directorate, certain suitable points being marked, returned to Zululand the Irrigation Surveyors will pinpoint and measure spot heights that will form a control, and it is hoped afterwards by this means to be able to place in form lines and contours.

            Officer in charge of Photographic and Survey Section will make arrangements through O.C. Depot to ensure a supply of fuel and stores, and generally supervise operations.  He will arrange for the photographic trailer to be in position etc.

            With a view to training, it is suggested that three of the officers will be changed over as often as possible - each officer doing about ten days' survey duties.  May an aircraft be changed over every ten days also two new officers coming down from Zwartkop Air Station each change.  This will, it is expected, enable from 9 to 12 officers to obtain most valuable experience in the field of ground and air work as well as organisation.

LANDING GROUND.

            At present a suitable landing ground known as the Hippodrome exists some two miles East of Otobotini on left bank of Pongolo River, which was laid out and used by our flight last season.  However it will not be so suitable this season as the Irrigation Engineers will have their Camps (2) on the right bank.  It is therefore suggested to lay out another ground on certain open country on the right bank.  It may be mentioned here that the Hippodrome cost £23 to lay out.  The Inspector of Surveys, Mr. Kean, knows the locality of the proposed new ground and will investigate its possibilities this week.  The cost of laying out the proposed new ground, at say £ 25, will be saved owing to the fact that it will not be necessary to transport by pontoon across the Pongolo River the photographic trailer and large supplies of fuel, stores, etc., which proved very costly last season.  Besides the facilities to live in the Irrigation Camps need not be stressed, also the question of transport and guard for aircraft will be simplified.  The Inspector of Surveys in consolation with the with the S.A.A.F. Photographic Officer recommends this procedure.

            The question of accommodation, food, medical stores, etc., will be arranged for by the O/C Photographic Section and the Inspector of Surveys.  Bedding must be provided by individual members.

            One officer and Ground Photographer will proceed by rail to Zululand and the remainder by air.

            Arrangements will be made to start air operations the first week in June, the work to be completed if possible in July.

            Daily progress reports will be kept and forwarded weekly to Air Directorate.

            Telegraph and Postal facilities are available some three miles distant at the local store at Otobotini.

                                                              Signed:              Chas. Gordon Ross. Capt.
                                                                                    O/C Photographic Section
                                                                                    S.A.A.F.

14.       Op 3 Augustus 1933 vra die Sekretaris van Landbou vir 'n kwotasie om die Umfolozie, Hluhluwe en Mukuze reservate wat onderskeidelik 1 000, 500, en 500 vk Myl beslaan.  Die Sekretaris van Verdediging beraam dat die koste ongeveer £1-00 per vk Myl vir vertikale fotografie op 'n skaal van 1 : 12 000 sal beloop.  Hy stel egter voor dat daar gebruik gemaak word van die dienste van 'n privaat maatskappy nl. "Aircraft Operating Company" wat ook skuins fotografie kan doen waarvoor die Lugmag op daardie stadium nog nie ingerig was nie.

15.       'n Bevestiging van die Departement van lande word op 15 September 1933 gegee dat die mosaik van die Umfolozi Moeras ontvang is.

16.            Gedurende April maand sluit Lug Vakleerling Q.E.W. Mc Glashan by die Lugmag aan en sy persoonlike ondervindinge som hy as volg op:

A PERSONAL HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE PRIOR TO WORLD WAR 2

BY COL. Q.E.W. Mc GLASHAN

I joined the South African Air Force as a photographic apprentice on the 3rd of April 1933 (Air Apprentice was the term used for all apprentices).  I was 17 years of age and my number was 592.  Regimental numbers were not repeated (ie the numbers of personnel who had resigned etc.) and I was thus the five hundred and ninety second other rank who had attested in the Air Force.

When I attested, the photographic staff consisted of Sergeant Major Ireland-Low, Sergeant Hobert Seymoor, Sergeant Stewart and Air Apprentice Garthorne who had already applied for his discharge and he left shortly afterwards (Discharge cost £60).

To the best of my knowledge the first photographic apprentice was Jackie Symes.  I am not certain of the surname but I feel confident that his first name was Jackie, as Sergeant Major Ireland-Low often spoke very fondly of young Jackie.  Unfortunately Jackie had been killed on the way to school at the Pretoria Technical College.  Apparently he fell off the Leyland lorry (World War 1 vintage) and one of the rear wheels passed over him.

From information given by Sergeant Major Ireland-Low, he had served in the Royal Air Force as a photographer during World War 1.  After the war he was with the RAF contingent sent to help the White Russians in the fight against the Bolsheviks after the revolution in Russia.  I have an idea that Sergeant Major Ireland-Low originally came from New Zealand.  (You will have to check the official records to ascertain if I am correct).  I do not know when Sergeant Major attested in the SA Air Force but I believe his regimental number was 13.

According to Sergeant Major Ireland-Low, the original photographic darkroom was under the staircase in the present SAAF College Officers Club.  When I attested, the photographic section was in the building occupied by CPE before it moved to Waterkloof Air Base.  However, the building was much smaller and consisted of the large room known as the Studio, one developing room, one enlarging room, one contact printing room and a chemical room.  Some of the building was occupied by the administrative staff before construction of the administrative building.  At the time of the outbreak of World War 2 CPE, or as it was then known as the Photographic Section, occupied the complete building plus some additional rooms which had been added.

At that time there were no photographic officers and the officer in charge was always a GD officer.  In 1933 the officer in charge was Captain Charles Gordon-Ross.  The only other officers I can remember were Lt Gilroy Allen King and Lt J.A. de Vos.  For a short period Lt Durrant was Officer in Charge.  He was sent to the RAF to complete a photographic course and on his return he was posted to another post.

The aerial cameras in use in 1933 were the LB camera, F8 and the F24 which had just come into use.  (I can not be sure regarding the F24 but I feel fairly sure as my first experience with an enlarger was with an F24 negative).  Glass photographic plates, 5" X 4" in size were used in the LB camera.  The glass plates were fitted into metal holders before being loaded into the camera magazines which held 18 plates.  The feed magazine was fitted on the top at one end of the camera and the wooden dark slide was withdrawn and folded over the top of the magazine.  An empty magazine was fitted at the opposite end of the camera below the level of the focal plane shutter and he dark slide withdrawn.  The camera was prepared for photography by moving a lever from one end of the camera body to the other end.  This action set the shutter and moved an unexposed plate into position.  The exposure was made by depressing a sliding catch and when the loading lever was moved again the exposed plate was dropped into the empty magazine and a fresh plate brought into position.  When 18 exposures had been made the dark slide of the receiving feed magazine was closed and the full magazine was removed.  The empty feed magazine was removed and placed into the receiving position and a new magazine was placed in the feed position, the dark slide removed and the shutter reset.  In order to accomplish this in the short exposure interval to obtain a 60% overlap required a great deal of practice.

The LB camera which was fitted with an 6" lens was used for vertical and oblique photographs but there was no special mounting for oblique photography.  The LD camera had been used during World War 1 and was the initial aerial camera used by the SAAF.

I do not know when the F8 camera was first introduced but it replaced the LB camera for all vertical photography.  The magazine of the F8 camera was loaded with a film that was sufficient for 100 exposures 7" X 7" in size.  Fitted inside the body of the F8 camera was an instrument box containing an altimeter, watch, counter, fore and aft and side bubble levels and a tag on which the area being photographed was entered.  These instruments were all recorded on one side of each exposure, the film being 9" wide.  The F8 could be fitted with either a 7" or a 12" lens, the 7" being the standard lens for area photography.

The three cameras mentioned above and the multi lens camera were the aerial cameras used by the SAAF until the outbreak of World War 2.

All apprentices in the technical branch who were under the age of 21 were attested as apprentices.  On attaining the age of 21, irrespective of the length of service, they were re-classified as Air Mechanics.  During the first year of service, apprentices were not permitted to wear civilian clothes and after the first year civilian passes were limited to one per week.  This was eventually changed and after one year of service permanent civilian passes were issued.

As apprentices we did not, as is the position today, have the privilege of attending school during working hours but attended classes at the Pretoria Technical College after work with classes usually starting at 17H30 and in some cases terminating at 22H00.  During summer the work at Swartkop started at 06H00.  We had a break for breakfast from 08H00 to 09H00 and terminated work for the day at 13H00.  With classes at night there were some very tired apprentices as it was not always possible to sleep during the afternoon.  On Saturdays work terminated at 12H30 and those of us attending surveying classes had to attend practical surveying classes on Saturday afternoons.

The rates of pay for apprentices were always coupled to age as follows:

17 years 1/6 per day  (15 cents when we changed over to the metric system)

            18 years 3/- per day
            19 years 4/- per day
            20 years 5/- per day
            21 years 6/- per day

                        Thereafter, annual increments of 1/- per day were granted until you reached the top rate of 10/- per day.  Leading Air Mechanics (now Lance Corporals) and Corporals were paid 12/6 per day, Air Sergeants 15/- per day, Flight Sergeants 17/6 per day, WO2 20/- (£) per day and WO1 22/6 per day.  During your first year of service uniform issues were free but after one year's service 9d (nine pence) per day uniform allowance was paid and all uniform replacements were your responsibility.  Nobody was permitted to marry until they turned 26.  On marriage a marriage  and a furniture allowance was paid.  You could if you wished, draw furniture from the Quartermaster's store instead of drawing the furniture allowance.  During my service the best increment, percentage-wise, that I received was when I turned 18, my increment was 100% from 1/6 per day to 3/- per day.

All unmarried noncommissioned ranks were accommodated in bungalows with 12 beds per bungalow.  The beds were of iron with no springing whatsoever.  The mattress supports were strips of flat iron across the frame.  The mattress (if it could be called such) was devided into three equal sections, commonly known as biscuits and were filled with coir.  The pillow (?), commonly known as a bolster was a cloth tube also fitted with coir and usually after long use ended up with a dent in the center that fitted your head.  The three separate biscuits were satisfactory in summer use but in the winter were inclined to allow cold air up through the lose joints.  The lower half of the bed which was fitted with small wheels fitted under the upper half.  Beds were not allowed to be made "down" during the day but had to be made up as follows:

The lower half of the bed was pushed under the upper half.

The three biscuits were placed on top of each other on the upper half of the bed and the blankets folded around the sheets on top of the biscuits.  A towel was wrapped around the blankets.

Webbing equipment was hung from pegs below a shelf.  The rifle was placed in a holder against the wall.

The greatcoat and undress blue uniform were folded around planks with one button showing in each case.  On either side of this a pair of black boots and the spare pair of brown boots were displayed.  The heels of the boots were shod with horseshoes and these together with all brass work had to be polished.

When I attested there was no formal photographic training and you had to learn by keeping your eyes open.  I had only been in the SAAF a few days when I was told to go to the enlarging room and practice enlarging on a Kodak commercial professional enlarger.  I knew that the negative had to go into a holder in the head of the enlarger and that the paper was placed in a masking board at the base of the enlarger.  Thank goodness the focussing on the enlarger was automatic.  I carefully placed the F24 negative in (or rather "on") the negative holder, and switched on the light.  I started to adjust the masking board when to my horror the image started moving.  I immediately switched of the enlarger and withdrew the negative holder but to my astonishment the negative was missing.  After some investigation I found that the lens was fitted to a panel which could be withdrawn.  I removed the panel and found the negative.  I studied the negative holder and discovered that I had placed the negative on top of the sheet of glass that was used to hold the negative against the lower glass.  That was how I learnt that a film negative had to be held down by a sheet of glass and that is how we learnt most things, with a minimum of instruction.

When I took some enlargements I had managed to make to show Sgt Seymor I received comments such as - "this is overexposed and underdeveloped, it is green".  "This is underexposed and forced in the developer, it's full of yellow stains".  That was how I learnt the relationship between exposure and development.  Not a very economical way of teaching but lessons you never forget.

On another occasion Sergeant Major Ireland-Low instructed me to accompany him to the enlarging room to make some enlargements and to my horror he walked to the developing dish and I had to operate the enlarger.  At least this time I received some instruction on exposure and shading when making the exposure.

In those days we used an Amidol developer for developing the paper.  Amidol gave very pleasant rich tones but the developer turned your fingernails black, a fact that all young photographers were very proud of at that time.  Amidol developer had a very short life when mixed and fresh developer had to be mixed each day.  We did get some instruction in this respect - "There are the scales, here is the formulae and there are the chemicals".

Sgt Seymoor, who was an excellent photographer, instilled into us that a good photographer did not need an exposure meter and should be able to judge the exposure.  Good practice for a learner photographer but hardly possible with modern film speeds and colour photography.

When I joined the SAAF, four areas as far as I can remember, had been covered by vertical photographs.  The Okawango swamps in Northern Botswane (then British Bechuanaland) had been photographed with the LB camera for a Professor Swart (Professor or Doctor, I am not sure) who had the idea of draining water from the swamps to irrigate desert areas.  He also consider that if large areas could be covered by water it would improve the rainfall in the area.  Two other areas that had been photographed with the LB camera were Johannesburg and Pretoria (When I left CPE the plates were still in the negative storage room).  An area in Zululand had been photographed in 1932 (the Mokatini Flats) with the F8 camera for the Irrigation Department who were mapping the area.  The photographs were not originally used to map the area but were used by the surveyors on the ground to find the easiest way through the dense clumps of bush of brush which covered most parts of the area.  No doubt the photographs were also used for filling in the detail on the maps produced by the Irrigation Department.

One small area that had been photographed to a large scale was the top of a table top hill named Mapungubwe in the Transvaal.  The photographs being at a large scale clearly showed excavations on the top of the hill.  I was shown how to use a stereoscope and I spent every opportunity examining the top of the hill.  I was only made aware that gold artifacts had been found when I read the attached article from the Pretoria News of the 4th April 1983.

I had only been in the SAAF for approximately two months when I accompanied Sgt Maj Ireland-Low to the Mokatini Flats for further photography for the Irrigation Department.  We travelled to Durban by train, from where we travelled by train again through the north of Natal.  The final destination of the train was Gollel on the Zwasiland border.  The train was known as the milk train as it stopped at every siding to pick up milk from the farmers in the area.  Sgt Maj Ireland-Low told me that the previous year the train had stopped in that appeared to be open veld.  When he asked the conductor why the train had stopped the conductor pointed to a cart some distance from the train and explained that the farmer was late with his milk.

I think we detrained at Mkuzi and travelled by road to the Irrigation Department's camp on the Mokatini Flats on the seaward side of the Lebombo Mountains.  The photographic trailer had preceded us and was already at the camp.  The landing was a strip which had been cleared on an open flat piece of ground and came to be known as the Rhinodrome as late one afternoon, on hearing shots from the black laborers, we saw a Rhino charging straight for two Wapiti's parked at the near end of the landing ground.  Fortunately the Rhino changed course when it was near the aircraft and passed between the landing ground and the tent which I shared with the aircraft mechanic.  Our tree was positioned under a thorn tree a short distance from the main camp and I know that I examined that tree very carefully.

I did all the vertical aerial photography from the back cockpit of a Wapiti and Sgt Maj Ireland-Low made all the preparations for processing the films.   Operating in the back cockpit of the Wapiti at 10 000 ft above ground it was bitterly cold even when wearing the old type of Sidcot suit and flying boots.  It was not possible wearing gloves when operating the camera and on one occasion the camera release wore through part of the skin of my thumb without my realising it until we landed.  On future flights I wore a piece of plaster bandage on my thumb.

When I left for Zululand I had been doing my recruits training and I thought that the course would be finished when I returned.  However, I was disappointed as I was placed on the next recruits course.

I think this is a good point to describe the original mobile photographic darkroom.  It was built on a trailer fitted with double wheels at each corner.  The wheels were fitted with very narrow tyres of World War 1 vintage.  The roof was designed to be lowered for travelling and was erected for use.  The roof was raised or lowered by a hand crank which operated a relatively simple system of bicycle type chains.  Electricity was provided by a petrol driven generator placed a short distance from the vehicle.  An outside tank held a supply of water which was pumped up to a small header tank inside the vehicle by means of a hand pump.  The inside of the vehicle was divided into a developing and printing room.  There was no forced ventilation.

Either late 1933 or early 1934 A/A White and I were told during early working hours to prepare two F8 cameras for use and to load two spare magazines.  We were also told that when we went up for breakfast to collect our kit as we were going on a trip, whereto, or for how long we did not know.  After breakfast we left in the Gloster 250 and two Wapitis.  Maj. Ireland-Low and A/A White travelled in the Gloster and I travelled in one of the Wapitis.  The aircraft mechanic was the passenger in the other Wapiti.  We did not travel with the Gloster as the Gloster was faster than the Wapitis.  On the way to our destination the one aircraft developed engine trouble and landed in a mealiefield and we followed suit (it must have been late in the year as the crop had been reaped).  It did not take long for some of the local farming population to gather and I remember one farmer asking me what we did when we came to a cloud.  He was amazed and probably did not believe me when I told him that we could fly through clouds.  After the fault was repaired we took off again and landed at Upington. 

We spent a few days in Upington and took off for Windhoek, landing for fuel at Keetmanshoop and Marienthal.  When we arrived the Gloster was already there.  Aircraft did not land at Windhoek often in those days and a large number of locals soon arrived.  A young boy approached me and asked me for my signature.  I could not understand why anybody should ask for the signature of a lowly apprentice but as he insisted, I signed.  I wonder where that signature is today.

We did not stay long at Windhoek and the two Wapitis took off for Gobabis where, on taxying after landing, one of the Wapitis became bogged down in the soft sand.  There had been unseasonably heavy rains in SWA and our task was to photograph the Aub and the Nossob Rivers which were flowing strongly for the first time in years.  The Rivers had been dry for so long that sandbanks had formed over the river beds, causing fairly large areas to be flooded before the water broke through the sandbanks.  The weather was very poor and we were unable to do any photography for several weeks.  They were very boring weeks as Gobabis consisted of a railway station, a hotel and a few houses.  We were very bored during our stay as the only reading matter was in German, as were all the gramophone records.

We eventually managed to complete the necessary photography and eventually returned to Pretoria.

The other photographic crew in the Gloster, S/M Ireland-Low and A/A White, also had the task of photographing flooded rivers.  They also photographed a large lake that had formatted some distance below where the flooded rivers joined.  This lake, if I can call it that, was known as the Abiquaputs.  This may sound like a tall story but when the lake dried up barbel or catfish were found.  This area had been dry for many years but apparently there were eggs in the moist ground some distance from the surface.  Photographs of these fish were published in the Rand Daily Mail.

The last occasion that I can remember taking photographs from a Wapiti away from base was when I was sent down with a flight of Wapitis to Port Elizabeth.  My task was to oblique photographs of a new dam near Port Elizabeth and photographs of the new airfield that was being opened at Port Elizabeth.

One incident that I can remember very well was when I was standing up in the back cockpit taking photographs of the airfield and the crowd that had gathered for the air display.  I was happily taking photographs when the pilot not realising that I was standing up in the cockpit, did a stall turn and then dived to do a low level fly past.  Suddenly I experienced neutral gravity and found myself floating in the cockpit.  I was not wearing a parachute (with a seat parachute it was very awkward to move around in the cockpit) and I made a wild grab for something to hold on to.  I spent the rest of the flight sitting on the floor.

The next photographic trip, as far as I can remember, was when we went on what was commonly called the "Game Reserve" trip.  I accompanied S/M Ireland-Low and A/A Swardt and we started operations from the Komatipoort aerodrome with the Gloster.  The photographic trailer had been railed down and we camped on the aerodrome.  Our stay at Komatipoort was uneventful and we photographed the control strips for a fairly large area south of the Kruger National Park. 

From Komatipoort we moved to a clearing in the bush some distance from the Satara rest camp.  Three of us, A/M Leeds the MT driver, A/A Swardt and myself, proceeded by road towing the photographic trailer.  Our cook Charlie who had accompanied us from Pretoria rode on the back of the truck carrying all our provisions.  Somewhere in the game reserve we were proceeding happily along a narrow road when there was a cry from Charlie.  We stopped immediately and saw the top of the trailer lying behind the rest of the vehicle.  An overhanging thick branch had ripped the top completely off.  We managed to get the top back into place and proceeded our journey.  That was not the end of our troubles however, as we were plagued with punctures.  We had a good supply of spare tyres and tubes but we eventually ran out of spares and tried filling the tyres with grass.  This was not successful and we eventually had to abandon the photographic trailer.  The journey took us three days and one night stop was, I think, at Pretorius Kop where the friendly sergeant allowed us to spend the night in one of the cells.

At Satara we camped just outside the rest camp.  Shortly after arriving at Satara A/A Swardt suffered from Tick Bite fever and he was flown back to Swartkops and a new photographer (I think it was A/A van Rooyen) was sent in his place.  At the same time assistance was sent for Sergeant E.A. Sterley who was responsible for the aircraft servicing.  A/M Schnetler and Sgt Sterley's assistant and I am afraid that we were cruel to him on the first day (it was his first visit to the Kruger National Park).  Late in the afternoon we started discussing, as previously arranged, who was to collect water from the river.  We all said that we had numerous turns and that we felt that A/M Schnetler take a turn and learn the procedure.  We warned him however that he was not to go alone as the crocodiles were very dangerous and that somebody should accompany him with a rifle.  We had him very worried for some time and then eventually told him that our water came from a borehole in the camp.

We were given permission to fish in a river some distance from Satara and one day when the weather prevented flying, A/M Schnetler saw what he thought was a log floating in the water.  After a short while he noticed that the log was coming closer and just in time he realised that the log was a crocodile and shouted a warning and they both jumped clear.  That was the end of the fishing trip.

Another incident was when the truck, returning to camp from the landing ground, developed trouble with one of the back differentials and the truck would not move forward.  The driver got out one side and one of the passengers got out the other side.  They were examining the back axle when one of the local black helpers, on the back of the truck, shouted Simba (lion).  The driver afterwards said that he moved fast but, by the time he got into the cab of the lorry the other person was already in the cab, had closed the door and had wound up the window.  The truck eventually had to return to camp in reverse as that was the only way it would travel.

From Satara we continued to photograph the controlstrips of the area.  As the photographic trailer was no longer useable, all exposed films were sent back to Swartkop for processing.  The trailer was railed back to 1 Air Depot for repair but it was decided that it was not worth repairing and plans were drafted for building another darkroom on a Ford 5 ton chassis. 

When work was completed at Satara we moved up to Punda Malia but long as the weather was very bad and we returned to Pretoria.

I think the next trip with the Gloster was to Gollel where we photographed an area along the coastline south of the Mozambique border down to below St. Lucia.  At the same time that we were operating from Gollel a SAAF detachment was spraying locusts in the area.  They were operating with a De Haviland Hercules, an old three engined biplane purchased from SA Airways.  Gollel consisted of a railway station in the Transvaal, a few railway houses also in the Transvaal and a hotel across the fence in Swaziland.  I cannot remember which other photographer accompanied me to Gollel.  There was no photographic darkroom and magazines were re-loaded under the bedclothes at night.

My next trip in the Gloster was when we went down to East London.  On this occasion I was accompanied by A/A Hodgson.  We did not have a mobile darkroom with us and we processed the films in the SA Police darkroom.  I cannot remember which area we photographed but the trip was uneventful and we did not stay in East London for very long.

We paid a second visit to East London some time later and on this occasion we operated with one of the recently acquired Airspeed Envoys which had been modified for photography.  We had the new mobile photographic darkroom and the photographic crew were S/M Ireland-Low, A/M Mobbs, A/M Burton and myself.  A/M Mobbs and I operated as the photographic aircrew and S/M Ireland-Low and A/M Burton the processing crew.  We photographed an area along the coast and for some distance inland.  The flying weather was not very good and we did not have many clear days.  When the weather was good we made full use of the opportunity and flew two photographic sorties each good day.  We took off for the first sortie as soon as the light was suitable for photography, landed again after about three hours, refuelled the aircraft and reloaded the camera magazines and took off again as soon as possible.  The normal height for survey flying was 10,000 ft above ground level and as we operated without oxygen the aircrew were very tired at the end of the day.  When operating with the Envoy I operated as photographic navigator.

At the same time we were operating from East London a second aircraft operated from Queenstown and photographed adjoining areas.  The photographic crew were A/M Gericke and A/M van Rhyn.  Their exposed films were sent back to Swartkop for processing.

On one trip to photograph an area in the vicinity of Piet Retief and Newcastle we started operating from Piet Retief.  The photographic crew consisted of S/M Ireland-Low, myself and  two other photographers whose names I cannot remember.  The airfield at Piet Retief was on the top of a low hill and there was a gentle slope in all direction from the centre of the airfield.  On the first day of operations we started our take-off from the extreme edge of the airfield.  As we approached the boundary fence at the opposite side of the airfield, I noticed with consternation, that the fence was approaching rapidly and we were not yet airborne.  However we cleared the fence and I breathed a sigh of relief.  The ground crew could not see the fence at the opposite side of the airfield but they were concerned about the take-off.  On the second day the ground crew travelled around to the opposite side to observe the take-off.  From my point of view we cleared the fence far higher than on the first take-off. When we landed after photography we were informed that we were moving to Newcastle as they stated that we have just cleared the fence and that the airfield was unsafe for operating the Envoy.  We moved to Newcastle from where we operated for some time without incident.  We had the photographic vehicle with us and all the film processing and printing was done at Newcastle.

My second trip to Barberton was with the Envoy and magazines were again re-loaded in the SA Police darkroom.  Using the controlstrips previously photographed we flew the filling strips of the area.  There were no specific incidents on this trip but there was one incident regarding the flying when we were returning from Swartkop.

It was a regulation that parachutes had to be changed every month and we and we made use of the opportunity to visit Pretoria.  We changed pilots during this trip and on the return journey from Pretoria there was low cloud all the way and the mountains on route to Barberton were covered by cloud.  The pilot attempted to cross the mountains by flying up a valley but the valley came to an end and the pilot turned to starboard through a cloud.  When we came out of the cloud we saw a sheer cliff directly in front of us which the pilot was only just able to avoid by a violent turn to starboard.  A few more seconds in the cloud would have meant the end of us all.  We completed the journey by flying around the mountains.

We had, in general, good weather and we stayed in Barberton later in the year than usual and in September 1939 we heard over the radio that Britain and France had declared war on Germany.

The photographic survey from Barberton was my last photographic trip and on the 14th June 1940 I left together with A/M R.J. Mobbs for East Africa in a JU 52.  At the time we did not know our destination but I remember we took a vast supply of chemicals and F8 films with us.

Before closing I would like to mention a few developments that took place during the period before World War 2

Initially when areas were photographed the spacing of the photographic runs were left to the judgement of the pilot.  This was an extremely difficult task, especially in an aircraft like the Wapiti, and photographic runs were seldom evenly spaced and there were often gaps between the runs or runs overlapping each other excessively.  The photographer obtained the timing for a 60% overlap and the drift by timing the passage of an object on the ground and judging the angle of drift by using a negative lens bomb-sight in the floor of the aircraft.  No automatic controls were used and the timing of exposures were made by using a stop-watch.

Two hands were rather inadequate for holding the stopwatch, keeping the camera level, making the exposure and rewinding the camera.  With practice it was possible to change the magazine of an F8 camera within the time interval between exposures to prevent the pilot having to turn of his run and then restart again when the magazine had been changed.  Changing a magazine meant winding over at least two exposures after the last exposure, removing the magazine and placing a fresh magazine in position, then winding the camera over for at least two exposures to clear fogged film.  When operating in the Gloster two photographers operated the camera, one to keep the camera level and the other to operate the camera.  In this case changing a magazine was easier.

When the Envoys were introduced a new technique had been developed and the photographic crew consisted of a photographic navigator and a photographer.  The navigator used an Aldis sight to obtain the time interval and the drift and to direct the pilot.  Using the Aldis sight the navigator could look directly down, forwards and backwards.

Normally, when control strips were used, they were flown approximately 5 miles apart across the area to be photographed and one strip was flown from each side of the area.  Prints of the control strips were mounted on linen and using the side strips, the control strips were marked to show the filling strips.  The system worked fairly well but there was no guarantee that the side strips were absolutely parallel and gaps between the filling strips often occurred.

The system was later refined after the war by flying the control strips over fixed survey beacons.  After the strips had been mounted on linen a low level "beacon hunt" was flown to identify the actual beacons on the photographs.  Using this method accurate scaling could be done and the filling strips marked off in straight lines.

During 1937 the multi-lens camera was introduced.  The camera which had seven lenses used F24 film.  The centre lens took a vertical photograph which was masked to give a hexagonal shape in the centre of the film.  The six other lenses were mounted at an angle and the light after passing through the prisms, was recorded on the films.

After processing, the film was printed through a rectifier which was basically the same as the camera, but the passage of light was reversed.  The image from the six side lenses again passed through prisms and were rectified to the same scale as the centre lens.  The result was a 9" X 9" print.  From 10 000ft above ground each photograph covered an area of 10 X 10 miles.  Results were fairly good but great care had to be taken to obtain the correct negative density.  Too dense films resulted in an excessively long exposure through the rectifier.  Underexposed film provided a film lacking in contrast.

The last time to my knowledge that the multi-lens camera was used was in East Africa during the early stages of the war.  The photographs were unusable as condensation had formed inside the filter and the centre of the photographs were completely blurred.

As a last few words I would like to add that Sgt Maj Ireland-Low (later Major) was one of the finest men I have ever worked under.

17.            Gedurende September word 'n mosaik van Jessievale (30vk myl) vir die bosbou departement afgehandel asook 4 areas in die Kalahari vir die departement van besproeiing.

18.       St Lucia baai asook die kusstrook tot by Oro point 'n area van 5 000vk myl word van 1-9-36 tot 8-9-36 gedoen en die tydsduur was 82 uur 40 min vliegure.

19.       Tydens die selfde tydperk is 'n lugfototaak vanaf Upington gedoen vir die departement Landbou.

20.            Volgens 'n personeel opgawe het die fotografiese afdeling te "Z.A.S." gedurende September 1936 bestaan uit 19 lede.

21.       Op 10 November 1936 word opdrag gegee dat 'n lugfototaak vir "Trig Survey" gedoen word.  'n F8 kamera met 7" lens moet vir die taak  gebruik  word  op 'n hoogte van 12 000ft teen 'n skaal van 1: 20 000.  Die taak word as 'n eksperimentele taak beskou vir opleidingsdoeleindes en die kostes word dan ook self gedra behalwe 10/- per vk myl wat deur die aanvraers gedra sal word.

22.       Na vele korrespondensie tussen A.O.C., Trig Survey, Dept. van Lande, Dept. van Nasionale paaie en die Lugmag is daar besluit om 'n Interdepartementele kommitee in die lewe te roep om alle aspekte betreffende lugfotografie te bespreek.  Op 21 Desember 1936 vergader die kommitee in Kamer 282 van die Unie Gebou.

23.            Gedurende Januarie 1937 word 'n lugfototaak in die George omgewing gedoen en die verslag aan die Direkteur Lugdienste lui as volg:

Area completed 12-1-37

            From George to Plettenbergbay and from the coast eleven miles inland.

            Also two runs east of the Keurboom River towards the coastline.

Area to be completed

            Strip along the East of the Keurboom River to Clarkson."

As gevolg van ongure weer sou die taak nog nie voltooi kon word nie.

24.       Eise ten opsigte van die volgende lede is op 26/2/37 ontvang:

a.         2e Lt                O.W.B. van Ginkel

b.         Lt                     J.A. de Vas

c.         2e Lt                C.C.O. Joubert

d.         S/Sers              G de Wet

e.         Ao1                 J. Ireland-Low

f.            "A/Mec"           W.M. Gericke

g.            "A/Mec"           P.J. Schnetler

Die direkteur tegniese dienste was nie seker of Driehoeksmeting, die paaie raad of verdediging dit moet betaal nie.

25.       Die totale rekening vir die Kysna George projek het £440-4-9 beloop, die taak sou slegs twee weke duur maar het as gevolg van ongure weer twee maande geduur.

                                                                                                              No.  A.D.854/29
                                                Union of South Africa.-Unie van Suid Afrika.
                                                  Office of the - Kantoor van die
                                                            Officer Commanding,
                                                                          Aircraft & Artillery Depot: U.D.F.
                                                                                    Roberts Heights.

THE DIRECTOR OF TECHNICAL SERVICES.
Air Survey - Knysna George Area.

As requested in your minute No. D.T.S.3/5/36            dated 10th November last, I forward herewith a statement of expenses in connection with the above.

                                                                        Signed:
                                                                        Lieut.-Colonel.
                                                                        COMMANDING: A.& A. DEPOT: U.D.F.
            RA.
            4.3.37.


                                                                                                            D.F. (X.J.) 21990

THE DIRECTOR OF TECHNICAL SERVICES.
Air Survey.

With reference to your minute No. D.T.S. 3/5/36 dated the 10th November 1936, I beg to inform you that the undermentioned Subsistence and Transport Claims have been passed for payment :

            2/Lt.                 O.W.B. van Ginkel                  £22. 8. -.
            Lieut.                J.A. de Vos                              £24.13. 6.
            2/Lt.                 C.C.O. Joubert             £42.10. 4.
            S/Sgt.               G. de Wet                              £32.12. 1.
            W.O.               I.J. Ireland-Low                 £33. 3. 2.
            A/Mec.            W.M. Gericke                                    £21.11. 9.
            A/Mec.            P.J. Schnetler                                  £21. 5. 1.
                                                                                    £198. 3. 11.

                        I shall be glad if you will kindly inform me whether the debit should be raised against the Trigonometrical Survey or National Roads Board or as a charge against the Vote of this department.

                                                                        Signed:
                                                                        ACCOUNTANT & CHIEF PAYMASTER.
26-2-1937

 

 

Defence Headquarters,
PRETORIA.

STATEMENT OF EXPENSES.
 AIR SURVEY - KNYSNA GEORGE AREA.

            Particulars.       £  s.  d.

            Petrol & Oil supplies.
            Zwartkop Air Station.


            31 galls. Petrol            £2.17 6.

Bloemfontein.
            72 galls. Petrol       £7.19. 0.
            2 galls. Oil                       £11. 2.

Port Elizabeth.
            46 galls. Petrol       £4.10. 1.

George.
            1032 galls. Petrol            £64.10. 0.
            54 galls. Oil                       £15.10. 6.

Cape Town.
            160 galls. Petrol       £8.13. 4.
            4 galls. Oil                       £16. 0.

Beaufort West.
            53 galls. Petrol       £5.17. 1.
            2 galls. Oil                       £11. 2.

Kimberley.
            53 galls. Petrol       £5.17. 1.
            2 galls. Oil                       £12. 2.
                        £118. 5. 1.     £118. 5. 1.

Chemicals.

 

Metol ..................                  1 3/4              ozs.                 10.
Sodium Sulphite ........              8                  lbs.                  4. 0.
Hydroquinone ..........              20                  ozs.      5. 8.
Sodium Carbonate .......              8                  lbs.      2. 4.
Potassium Bromide ......              2 ¨                ozs.         3.
Hyposulphite Soda ......              63                 lbs.     15. 9.
Potassium Metabisulphite               4                 lbs.      2. 8.
                                                £ 1.11. 6.         £1.11. 6.

 

TRANSPORT.

Amalgamated Motors Limited ........................ £24.15. 7.

LANDING FEES.

Municipality of George ............................ £5. 8. 4.

                        SUBSISTENCE & TRAVELLING EXPENSES ..... £198. 3.11.
                                                                                                            £ 348. 4. 5.

 

LABOUR.

WO1   Ireland-Low, J.
85 hrs. @ 6/10 per hour ........             £29. 0.10.
155      Air Sgt. de Wet, G
71 hrs. @ 5/-  per hour .........             £17.15. 0.
641      Air Mec. Gericke, W.M.
80 hrs. @ 3/3  per hour .........             £13. 0. 0.
616      Air Mec. Schnetler, P.S.
71 hrs. @ 3/3  per hour .........             £11.10. 9.
                                                            £71. 6. 7.
Plus 20% Supervision Charges      £14. 5. 4.
                                                            £85.11.11.
Plus 7ę% Overhead Charges                            £6. 8. 5.
                                                            £92. 0. 4.         £92. 0. 4.

26.       Op 18-6-37 word die stigting van "The Transvaal Air Survey and Photographic Squadron-SAAF (ACF)" in die staatskoerant geplubiseer. F.O. 1354 (A).

27.            Gedurende Julie 1937 is daar 'n vergelyking tussen die Envoy en B.A. Double Eagle getref en daar is besluit dat die Envoy meer geskik is vir lugfotografie.

28.       Die direkteur tegniese dienste Gnl. Hoare noem in 'n brief aan die direkteur driehoeksmeting dat dit wenslik is dat die beleid van die driehoeksmeting kantoor behoorlik gedefinieer behoort te word.

 

A unit of the South African Air Force has been established with effect from 1.7.37 wide Government Notice which appeared in the Government Gazette on 18.6.37 (F.O. 1354 (a).  The designation of the unit is THE TRANSVAAL AIR SURVEY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC SQUADRON-S.A.A.F. (A.C.F.).

                        The members of this unit will be employees of "The Aircraft Operating Company of Africa (Pty) Limited" and of "Airservice (Pty) Limited".

                        The unit will be administered by the Officer Commanding, Witwatersrand Command.

                        Members of the unit will not be issued with uniform and will do no training whatsoever.

                        They will be given ranks according to their technical qualifications.

                        They will serve for four years, and thereafter be placed on class A Reserve.

                        If under 21 years of age, they fall to be posted.  If over 21 years of age, they are to be attested.

If serving in some unit they are to be transferred.

Strength will be 8 Officers and 44 other ranks.

                        These citizens are employed daily by their respective firms on Air Survey and Photographic work.  In time of war they will be available for attachment to Brigades and will survey and photograph positions to be taken up by troops.

29.            Korrespondensie betreffende personeel sterkte vir nuwe eenheid en magtiging vir die inrigting sien as volg daar uit:


MINUTE.

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA.-UNIE VAN SUID AFRIKA.

                                                                        OFFICE OF THE    Adjutant General
                                                                         KANTOOR VAN DIE  ................
                                                                                                               5th October 1937
The Officer Commanding,
Witwatersrand Command,
Johannesburg.

Authorised Establishments.

            Your W.50/1 dated 20.9.37 has reference.
                        Four copies of the Provisional Peace Establishments Tables for an Air Survey and Photographical Squadron are forwarded herewith.

            The Establishment Tables for the 1st Heavy Bomber Brigade are at present in the process of complication and copies thereof will be forwarded to you as soon as they are available.

                                                                        Signed:    W.H. Hingeston (Captain)
                                                                                                    for Adjutant General.


AN AIR SURVEY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC SQUADRON (ACTIVE CITIZEN FORCE)

                                    PEACE ESTABLISHMENT.
(Provisional)

COLY/RC.
THE AIRCRAFT OPERATING CO. OF AFRICA (PTY) LTD.

                                                                                                   Aircraft House,
                                                                                                            23 Rogers Street,
                                                                                                                        JOHANNESBURG.
Staff Officer "G",
            Witwatersrand Command,
                        P.O. Box 1188,
                                    JOHANNESBURG.

Sir,
                                                            Authorised Establishments.

                        In reply to your letter No. 50/1 of the 7th October 1937, we now have pleasure in enclosing completed Establishment Tables and Statements for Commissions.

                        We would point out that the men marked with x on the attached forms have left or are about to leave the employ of this Company, but we have no doubt could be called up to serve with this squadron in time of war as they are trained men.

                                                                                    We have the honor to be,
                                                                                                                        Sir,
                                                                                                   Your obedient servant,
                                                                                    THE AIRCRAFT OPERATING CO.
                                                                                    OF AFRICA (PTY) LTD.
                                                                                    (Sgd.) E.J.D. Pritchard.
                                                                                    SECRETARY.

 

SQUADRON HEADQUARTERS.

Appointment.            Rank            Name.            Rank
            available.                     suggested.
Squadron Commander            Major               C.R. Robbins                        Major
Flight Commander                 Captain            W.D. Corse               Captain
Adjudant                                  Lieutenant        E.J.D. Pritchard            Lieutenant
Photographic Officer  do.            ---------------  2nd Lieut.
Equipment Officer  do.            S. Millyard            2nd Lieut.

A FLIGHT.

Flight Commander            Captain            * B.B.F. Russell            Captain
Pilot                             Lieutenant        J. McAdam                      Lieutenant

B FLIGHT.

Flight Commander            Captain            * H.I. Jaques              Captain
Pilot                             Lieutenant        E.U. Brierley                        Lieutenant

SQUADRON HEADQUARTERS.

Chief Stores Clerk    Air Sgt             A.F. Cunningham            Air Sgt
Clerk                            Air Cpl            --------------               L.A.M.
Storeman                                              L.A.M.            B.S. White   A.M.
Fabric Worker             Air Cpl            --------------   do.
Wireless Operator                      do.            D.R. Goss                Air Cpl
do.       A.M.            --------------   A.M.
Wireless Mechanic            L.A.M            .            (D.R. Goss)               (L.A.M.)
do.       A.M.            --------------   A.M.
Fitters                           WO1               H.J.C. Klopper            WO2
do.                               Air Sgt             C.J. Erasmus                       Air Cpl
do.                               Air Cpl            C.M.  Prinsloo                        do.
do.                               L.A.M.             *V.F.J. Wilmot L.A.M.
do.                               A.M.                H. de Bruiyn              A.M.
do.                               A.M.                F.B. Read                A.M.
do.                               A.M.                L. Meyer              A.M.
do.                               A.M.                R.H.H. Ford                 A.M.
Draughtsman                WO1               S.A. Thomas                        WO2
do.                               Air Sgt             *H.C. Willis                Air Cpl
do.                               Air Cpl            R.J. Haw                 L.A.M.
do.                               A.M.                *R.J. Heather                        A.M.
do.                               A.M.                J.A. Keusch             A.M.
do.                               A.M.                *N.A. Warren             A.M.
do.                               A.M.                *C.J. Elder                A.M.
do.                               A.M.                N.W. Lythgoe                        A.M.
Photographers              WO1            ------------      ------
do.                               Air Sgt             K.M. Roff                  Air Cpl
do.                               do.            ------------      do.
do.                               Air Cpl            E.A. Gerhardt                       L.A.M.
do.                               L.A.M.            ------------                              L.A.M.
do.                               A.M.                C.P. Putter               A.M.
do.                               A.M.            ------------                              A.M.
do.                               A.M.            ------------                              A.M.

A FLIGHT.

Fitters                           WO2               N.R. McMillan            F/Sgt
do.                               Air Cpl            O.G. Falwasser            L.A.M.
do.                               A.M.                *J.B. Orr                   A.M.
do.                               A.M.                M.P. Engelbrecht            A.M.
Photographers              WO1               L.J. Fuller                WO2
do.                               Air Cpl            C. Moller              L.A.M.
do.                               A.M.                R. Dunn                A.M.
do.                               A.M.                W.D. Porteous                       A.M.

B FLIGHT.

Fitters                           WO2               H.L. Sharman                       F/Sgt
do.                               Air Cpl            *G. Barton-Bridges            L.A.M.
do.                               A.M.                *N.C. Strudwick            A.M.
do.                               A.M.                A.K.A. Garvie              A.M.
Photographers              WO2               W.L. Restall              WO2
do.                               F/Sgt                P.W. Putter               Air Cpl
do.                               A.M.                *J.D. Currin               A.M.
do.                               A.M.                D.N. Kendall                        A.M.

----------------------------------

30.  Die beplande plan vir 1938 sien as volg daar uit.

                                         D.T.S. 3/5/36
                                          23rd October 1937.

O.C. CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL.   (in duplicate).
                        ROBERTS HEIGHTS.

O.C. AIRCRAFT & ARTILLERY DEPOT,    (For information)
                        ROBERTS HEIGHTS.
THE DIRECTOR OF TRIGONOMETRICAL SURVEY.                    "
LIEUT. DE VOS.                                                                           "
THE ACCOUNTANT AND CHIEF PAYMASTER.                       "

PROGRAMME OF AIR PHOTOGRAPHY, 1938

A scheme for combined operation between the Air Survey flight and the Department of Trigonometrical Survey (which will on mobilisation from the Survey Section of the Force) will come into effect next year.

On return of the three Envoys from S.A. Airways these will be converted to Photographic Aircraft, the necessary drawings being obtained from Messrs. Airspeed Ltd. for this purpose.  One of these aircraft will be issued to Trig Survey on repayment.

1.         The aircraft indicated above will be the property of the Trigonometrical Survey and will not be available for any service other than air photography for that Department.

2.         The aircraft will be maintained by the Air Force, all stores issued for this purpose being charged to the Trig. Survey.

3.         The Air Force will provide mechanics (one or two as may be considered necessary) for maintenance purposes, but Trig. Survey will pay any subsistence and travelling allowances incurred in that connection.

4.         The Air Force will also supply the Photographic Staff necessary under similar conditions.

5.         In the event of the aircraft being placed out of action when engaged on air survey, the Air Force will loan to the Trig Survey one of its photographic aircraft if this can be made available and generally will endeavor to assist the Trig. Survey to the best of its ability in completing the annual programme.

6.         The Trig. Survey will supply its own pilots (i.e. a pilot and navigator who will be interchangeable).  During the first year only one pilot (trained in the T.A.T.S.) will be available and it is proposed that Lieut. de Vos should be detailed for this work and paid by Trig. Survey for so long as may be necessary to carry out the programme.

7.         The Trig. Survey will meet all costs of operation of the aircraft and all photographic stores such as films, paper, chemicals etc. will be charged to them, but no charge will be made for use of photographic equipment at Zwartkop Air Station in developing, printing etc.  An F8 camera with spares and all equipment required for the Trig. Survey aircraft is on order and if available in time will be used during the next season; otherwise equipment can be loaned as required without charge.  (This will apply in any case to the 7 lens camera).

The above are the broad lines on which the scheme is based.  It will be seen that the Trig. Survey will bear the whole cost of the survey other than the pay of artisans employed and the Air Force will gain very valuable experience in carrying out surveys on a scale which may be expected in the event of mobilisation.

The programme for next year is as follows:

1.         Area bounded by longitude 27į and 29į and latitudes 25į and 27į approximately 17,000 square miles.  Additional smaller areas may also be required but these cannot be detailed at present.

2.         Technical data -
Average Height  -  10,000 ft.           
Scale with 7" lens  -  approximately 1/17000.
Overlap Forward  -  60%
Overlap Lateral  -  20% or as may be found satisfactory
in view of the fact that automatic control will be fitted.

3.         Method of operation.    
The area should be divided into 16 sections approximately 30 x 35 miles.

(a).       The four sections included in the Rustenburg                
degree sheet have already been photographed with the 7 lens camera and control is therefore available.

(b).       As regards the other 12 sections, it has been customary in the past to fly control strips with the F8 camera, but it is considered that in view of the advance which has been made in the technique of the 7 lens camera, a far better control would be obtainable by its use, the control strips being spaced 4 miles apart, with 80% forward overlap.

(c)        A mosaic compiled from every fourth print will give 100% control and the whole series of prints will be available for plotting when required.

4.         The theoretical cost of the air photography is estimated as follows:
 Camera F8  Lens 7"  Scale 1/17,000 (approximately).
Area 17,000 square miles.

            Advance per exposure forward        .78 miles
                                                 lateral       1.56   "
Area made good per exposure        1.217 square miles.
Exposure per section                             865
Overrun at ends                                   60
Total exposures per section                      925

Number of strips                                  23
Distance flown                                               700
Ends                                                         100

Photographic flying                              800 miles
Photographic flying time.                          5 1/3 hours.
Average total flying time say,                     6  hours.

Control strips with 7 lens camera.     8
Miles flown.                                                 280 miles
Ends.                                                         80  "
Total.                                                       360  "
Flying time say.                                   2  hours

Total flying hours per section.                     9 hours
Total flying hours per area.                      144   "

Cost of flying at £5 per hour                   £ 720
Film F8           165 rolls
F24   32 rolls                                               £1050

Prints 3 sets - 320 gross                         £350
Chemical etc.                                             £80
                                                            £2200

Per square mile    -    2/7 d.

Additional costs to be met by Trigonometrical Survey.

Pay of pilots - 3 months say                    £ 300
Maintenance costs (material)                         £150
Incidentals                                                   £100
                                                            £550

Additional costs per square mile                -    8 d.
Total theoretical cost per square mile  -   3/3 d.

5.         The actual cost will of course exceed the theoretical, but should not be more than 5/- per square mile.

6.         The following films and paper will be required, assuming 50% expenditure in excess of theoretical.

Film F.8  (16 sections)  rolls    -           £250.
F24 (12 sections)                    -           £36.
Paper 9 x 7ę gross                -           £480.
            10" x 10"                    -            30.

                                                                                                                                      Colonel.
                                                   for DIRECTOR OF AIR & TECHNICAL SERVICES.

30.       Op 23 Maart 1938 doen Sydney H Houghton die Direkteur van Geologiese Opname aansoek om 'n opname van Noord Natal asook Suid Oos Transvaal in die Wakkerstroom - Piet Retief gebied waarvan 1450 vk myl gefotografeer moet word.

31.       In 'n brief gedateer 21 April 1938 word verneem na die moontlikheid om Lugfotografie d.m.v. 'n Lugmag vliegtuig vir die "Pasture Research Station" in Rust de Winter 40 myl NNO van Pretoria te doen.

32.              Die antwoord lui dat die hoeke van die area met wit gekalkte kruise van 10 jrt x 10 jrt gemerk moet word.


 

33.            "Central Flying School" bewegings order no. 101 word op 24 Junie 1938 gepubliseer vir die Piet Retief taak:

                        "CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL MOVEMENT ORDER NO. 101.
                                                                                                   COPY NO. 2
                                                                                                   DATE.    24.6.38

    MAPS:                                 Union of S. Africa 1/500,000.

1.            INFORMATION:            An Envoy Aircraft is required to proceed
                                                to Piet Retief for the purpose of survey.
            AUTHORITY:            D.A.S. 854/45 Vol.III dated 20.6.38.

2.            METHOD:      Envoy No. 251 will be supplied by Trig.

                                    Survey.  Photographic and maintenance personnel
                                    will be provided by Central Flying School. Aircraft
                                    will leave Zwartkop Air Station for Piet Retief on
                                    23.6.38.  Ground party leave 0800 hrs.
                                                                                                                                    22.6.38.

3.            DETAIL OF PERSONNEL AND AIRCRAFT:
            Pilot                 Personnel                    Aircraft
            Mr. Joubert A/M Schnetler                      Envoy 251
                                    A/M Overbeek

4.            ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS:
            Petrol & Oil            Zwartkop Air Station            Full Capacity
            Piet Retief   600 gals 87 Octane

Ground Party            Personnel.            Vehicles          
            WO.            Ireland-Low.    1 Photographic Lorry
            A/Sgt.            Holl.                 1 V 8 Truck
            A/Cpl.            McGlashan.
            A/M.            Pienaar.
            A/M.            Gibson.

Transport            Supplied by Ground Party.
Petrol & Oil            Zwartkop Air Station            Full Capacity.
M/T. Vehicles            Piet Retief   88 gallons

5.            INTERCOMMUNICATION:
            Telegrams will be sent to Centair and Trig. Survey Office.

6.         W/T: The Aircraft will not carry wireless.

            DISTRIBUTION:
            1. ..... General Hoare.
            2. ..... Director of Air & Technical Services.         
            3. ..... O/C. Roberts Heights Command.      
            4. ..... O/C. Central Flying School.  
            5. ..... Trig. Survey Office Pretoria.
            6. ..... O/C. Photo  Flight.  
            7. ..... Mr. Joubert C.C.O.
            8. ..... O/C. No. 2 Squadron.       
            9. ..... File.     
                                                                        Signed.
                                                                                    Captain.
                                                                                    ADJUTANT: CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL

34.       'n Telegram word op 7 Julie 1948 deur 'n Mnr. Holger gestuur waarin hy aanbeveel dat die kamp na New Castle verskuif aangesien die landingstroke van Piet Retief en Vryheid 'n risiko vir die vliegtuig inhou.

35.            Gedurende Augustus vra AO Ireland-Low toestemming vir 'n addisionele dag om gapings tydens die Newcastle taak te vul en op 31.8.38 laat wett Brig. Genl Hoare aan AO Ireland-Low om terug te keer sodat die moontlikheid van die gebruik van 'n geel filter bespreek kan word.  Daar moes ook 'n kompas swaai op die vliegtuig gedoen word.

36.            Bewegings order No. 115 word gedurende Oktober 1938 gepubliseer waarin opdrag gegee word dat L/Kpl W.M. Gericke, Lugwerktuigkundiges C.W. Facer asook R.J. Mobbs per trein na Oos Londen vertrek om 'n Lugfotografiese opname te maak vir Driehoeksmeting.  Al die tegniese detail van die taak is deur Kapt. de Vos, Mnr Joubert en AO Ireland-Low met Brigadier Generaal Hoare bespreek.

37.            Bewegings order No. 116 gedateer 14.11.38 gee opdrag dat Envoy 235 met die bemanning wat bestaan uit Kapt. J.A. de Vos, Kpl T. Bond en lugwerktuigkundige P.J. Schnetler na Oos Londen via Bloemfontein vertrek.

38.            Driehoeksmeting rig 'n versoek aan die Direkteur Genl oorlogs voorsiening dat Mnr. B.F.L. Scott opgelei word in die hantering van Envoy vliegtuie buite normale werksure.  Om 0600 uur op 5 Desember 1938 neem sy opleiding in aanvang.

39.       Dit blyk dat daar 'n verskil was tussen die Lugmag en A.O.C. se prys vir Lugfotografie volgens die rekening vir die Piet Retief taak:


"THE DIRECTOR OF TRIG. SURVEY.       
Air Photography - Piet Retief District.           
                                    With reference to your minute No. 90/10/2336 of the 10th instant, I append summary of expenditure incurred by this department in connection with the above survey and attach a statement showing detail.

            1.            Petrol                                                               £128. 6. 7.    
            2.            Railage of Stores, Petrol and Drums                 £15. 6. 2.        
            3.            Repairs to Aircraft and Materials                         £96.19. 7.        
            4.            Transport                                                        £17. 2. 1.        
            5.            S & T                                                                 £260. 6. 0.    
            6.            Photographic Material                                         £152.10. 7.    
                                                                                                £ 670.11. 0.       

                                    Except for a small area on the East Rand which was photographed in June when the aircraft and operation of the automatic pilot were under test, this is the first area to be photographed and the charges except item 5, are considered reasonable.  The cost of S & T was acceptional owing to very unfavorable weather conditions, but it must be noted that the photography was undertaken as a matter of urgency and it was not possible to select the most suitable time in the year for work.  Owing to the late rains, it was realized that unfavorable weather conditions were likely to be met with.

                        I am not aware of the expenses incurred directly by your Department and cannot, therefore, estimate the total cost per square mile.

                        The area photographed, was approximately 1,200 square miles and if this had been included in the Aircraft Operating Co's contract the cost at 16/5d. per  square  mile  would  have  been £ 985; it must be noted, however, that the Aircraft Operating Co's rate is estimated on an area of over 20,000 square miles, most of which is in the high veld where weather conditions are favorable and operational costs correspondingly low.     
                                                                        Brig. General.                                              
                                                                        DIRECTOR GENERAL : AIR SUPPLIES"

40.       Op 8 Februarie 1939 word die finaal gemagtigde inrigting van die "Transvaal Air Survey and Photographic Squadron" aan die A.G. voorgelÍ met voorgestelde aanstellings:


"UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA - UNIE VAN SUID AFRIKA
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE
DEPARTEMENT VAN VERDEDIGING

                                                                        Headquarters Witwatersrand Command       
                                                                                    Johannesburg

The Adjutant General,          
            Defence Headquarters,  
                        PRETORIA.

                        I have the honer to forward herewith copy of the final authorised establishment of the Transvaal Air Survey and Photographic Squadron, shewing the appointments which are recommended.

                                                            Signed.
                                                            Lieut. Colonel.          
                                                            COMMANDING: WITWATERSRAND COMMAND

 

TRANSVAAL AIR SURVEY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC SQUADRON.

SQUADRON HEADQUARTERS.

Squadron Commander            C.R. Robbins                        Major  
Flight Commander                 W.D. Corse               Captain           
Adjutant                                   E.J.D. Tritchard            T/Lieutenant   
Intelligence Officer              J.J. van Nouhuys            2nd Lieutenant        
Equipment Officer              S. Millyard                        2nd Lieutenant        
Photographic Officer              E.A. Gebhardt                      2nd Lieutenant        

Clerk and Storeman                      A.F. Cunningham            Air Sergeant          

Clerk and Storeman            -            Air Corporal         
Clerk and Storeman            -            L.A.M.
Fabric Worker            -                       Air Cpl / L.A.M.          
Wireless Operator            -            Air Corporal         
Wireless Operator            -            A.M.   
Wireless Operator            -            L.A.M.
Wireless Mechanic            -            L.A.M.
Wireless Mechanic            -            A.M.   

Fitter    H.J.C. Klopper            WO2  
Fitter    C.J. Erasmus            (Sergeant Pilot)           
                        Air Sergeant          

            "            H. de Bruiyn  Air Corporal         
            "            F.B. Read    L.A.M.
            "            R.H.H. Ford     A.M.   

            "            -            A.M.   
            "            -            A.M.   
            "            -            A.M.   

Draughtsman            S.A. Thomas            WO2  

            "            R.J. Haw                 Air Sergeant          
            "            N.M. Lythgoe                        A.M.   
            "            D.P. Owen               A.M.   

Photographer            -            WO1  

            "            P.W. Putter               Flight Sergeant          
            "            D.N. Kendall                        Air Sergeant          
            "            K.M. Roff                  Air Corporal         
            "            C. Moller              L.A.M.
            "            L.C.J. van Vuuren            A.M.   

            "            -            A.M.   
            "            -            A.M.   


"A" FLIGHT.

Flight Commander            -                       Captain           

Pilot                 E.U. Brierley                        2nd Lieutenant        
                        (on Probation)       
Fitter                H.L. Sharman                       Flight Sergeant          

            "            -            Air Corporal         
            "            -            A.M.   

Fitter    -            A.M.   

Photographer                L.J. Fuller    WO2. 

            "            -            Air Corporal         

            "                       C.P. Putter   A.M.   

            "            -            A.M.   

"B" FLIGHT.

Flight Commander            -            Captain           

Pilot                 J. McAdam                      2nd Lieutenant        
                        (on Probation)       

Fitter    -            Flight Sergeant          
  "         -            L.A.M.

  "                     J.H.D. Lucas               A.M.   

  "         -            A.M.   

Photographer            W.L. Restall              WO2  
    "                   R. Dunn                L.A.M.

    "       -                       A.M.   
    "       -                       A.M."  


41.       Die tweede vergadering van die gesamentlike kommitee vind op 26 Junie 1939 plaas en die notule lees as volg:

                                                                                                            "No. D 90 / 1808        
                                                                                                            8th August, 1939.  
The Director General           
            of War Supplies,         
                        Defence Headquarters,  
                                    PRETORIA.

                                    I enclose Minutes of 2nd Meeting of Air survey Committee.

                                                                                                            Signed 
                                                                                                for DIRECTOR: TRIG SURVEY

 

Enclosures.      
Minutes of Meeting of       
            Air survey Committee (1)

NGH/GTC.


Minutes of the Second Meeting of the Air

                                    Survey Committee held in the Conference      
                                    Room, Union Buildings, on 26th June 1939
                                    at 10 a. m

Present:           
W. Whittingdale            Director of TRIG survey - Chairman.        
Gen. F.R.G. Hoare            Director General of War Supplies   
            Department of Defence.          
J.D.M. Keet            Director of Forestry - Department     
            of Agriculture and Forestry.         
Dr. S.H. Haughton            Director of Geological Survey -          
            Department of Mines. 
J.W. Cleghorne            Senior Soil Erosion Engineer -        
            Department of Agriculture and
            Forestry.        
J.A. Pentz            Professional Officer, Department                                          of Agriculture and Forestry.         
N.King            Department of Agriculture and
            Forestry (with Director of (Forestry).   
H.R. Roberts            Senior Engineer, Department of 
            Native Affairs.
Major S.F. Kos            Department of Posts and Telegraphs.           
H.S. Mills            do.      
H. Brune            Chief Roads Engineer, Provincial        
            Administration, Transvaal.        
Dr. G.W. Gale for        Deputy Chief Health Officer, Department     
            of Public Health.  
A.F. Bruyns-Haylett Chief Works & Estates Officer 
            S.A.R. & H.   
P.C. Jackson            Controller of Reconnaissance Department     
            of Irrigation.         
J.M. Hoffman            National Roads Board.
S.B. Youthed            do.      
W. Beattie            Department of Lands. 
V.J. Holzer            Professional Assistant, Trig Survey.     
N.G. Huntly            Mapping Officer, TRIG survey.

 

                                    Director of Trig survey's Addresses.      
                        Mr. Whittingdale in opening the meeting said that the Secretary for Lands could not be present to open the meeting and he had been asked to express the Secretary's regrets.  He remarked that in addition to the departments represented at the first meeting of the Committee there were now representatives from the Departments of Irrigation, Public Health, Native Affairs, Provincial Roads, Posts and Telegraphs.

                        Mr.  Whittingdale referred to the circumstances which led to the first meeting of the Air Survey Committee.  A a result of a departmental conference in 1936 he had submitted a scheme for the topographical mapping of the Union on the scale 1 : 50,000 within a period of twenty years.  As investigations in various parts of the world had shown that for several reasons air photographs were essential for topographical mapping under modern conditions, the scheme he had submitted to the Secretary for Land was based on the use of air photographs.  Furthermore it had been found that part from their value for mapping, aerial photographs assisted greatly in the field work of such departments as Geological Survey, Agriculture and Forestry, National Roads, Irrigation.  Dr Haughton had taken the lead in using air photographs to assist the field work of the Geological Survey and at the first Meeting of the Air Survey Committee he had explained the enormous advantages gained by the use of air photographs in geological survey work.  It became obvious that air photography for the Government should be pooled to prevent overlapping and duplication of work, and the 1st meeting of the Air Survey Committee was called in December 1936 to consider the whole question.  The recommendations made by the Committee was indebted to the Secretory for Lands for his vigorous support of the Committees recommendations and for his successful efforts in obtaining the necessary funds for carrying them out without the delays which sometimes occurred in new and extensive Government undertakings.

                        It would have been impossible for the scheme involved to be successful without the active cooperation of General Hoare, Director General of War Supplies, who had placed his expert knowledge and experience at the disposal of the TRIG survey Office.  As the result of his assistance it had been possible to make a very favorable contract with the Aircraft Operating Company which reduced the previous charges for air photographs by approximately 50%, and furthermore it had been possible to develop an efficient air photographic section whose work and technique compared favorably with that of commercial companies operating in Africa.  The cost to the Trig survey of the photography carried out by the air photo section was about half the cost charged by commercial companies.  Despite the heavy calls made upon him by his present duties as Director General of War Supplies, Gen. Hoare still managed to find time to control the technical side of departmental air photography.  Valuable assistance had also been rendered to the photographic scheme by Col. Daniel, Director of Air Services, Col. Tasler, O.C. Central Flying School and Capt. de Vos, O.C. Photo Section.

                        As a result of the recommendations of the 1st Meeting of the Air Survey Committee the TRIG survey Office acquired an aircraft and obtained the services of a pilot.  Owing to the exceptional weather conditions encountered it would have been impossible for this aircraft to complete its part of the programme had not the South African Air Force placed a second machine and Capt. de Vos at the Trig survey's disposal to enable the programme to be completed.  Furthermore when the TRIG survey aircraft was put out of action as a result of six months exposure to exceptionally bad weather conditions the Air Force had supplied another aircraft to enable the work to be continued while the TRIG survey aircraft was undergoing repairs.  General Hoare would submit a report on the work done by the Defence - TRIG survey Cooperative Scheme.

                        Research work in the use of automatic plotting machines for drawing line maps from air photographs, recommended by the Committee, had been authorized by the Minister for Lands and the services of Dr. Fourcade the well known authority on Air Survey had been secured.  He had designed and completed the construction of a new type automatic plotting machine called the 'Stereoprojector'.  The Fourcade Stereoprojector presented several marked advantages over the existing types of machine developed elsewhere and two of these were being built in the Mowbray workshop of the TRIG survey Office.  He was satisfied that this machine would be of great value in producing line maps from air photographs and particularly in mapping of mountainous areas where the cost of normal ground methods would be abnormally high.  Gen. Hoare had recently acquired a stereocomparator designed by Capt, Thompson, Research Officer at the War Office.  This should be of particular value in interpolating control from air photographs in areas where control was sparse.

                        Continuing Mr. Whittingdale said that Mr. Holzer would, in a separate report, deal with the question of the production of line maps from air photographs.  Mr. Huntly the mapping officer had been responsible for the administrative side of the work.  It was realized that the organization could be improved in several directions and it was one of the objects of the meeting to determine in what respects this might be done.  Demands for air photography in the past two years had been greater than could possibly be met and the meeting would be asked to decide upon essential areas to be included in the air photographic programme for the next two years.

                        It was impossible for the Defence - TRIG survey Cooperative scheme to cope with the whole programme and consequently it was necessary to employ on contract the services of the Aircraft Operating Company.  The relations with the Aircraft Operating Company had been very satisfactory and the work done by them had always been most efficient.

                        In conclusion Mr. Whittingdale said that he felt that taking into consideration all factors, the work carried out as a result of the 1st Meeting of the Air survey Committee had been unsatisfactory, and he looked forward to equally satisfactory progress during the next two years.

 

                        Gen. Hoare then read his report.
                                                            Gen. Hoare's report.

                        General Hoar said that at the meeting held in December, 1936, he had dealt at some length with a proposed scheme (which had been accepted by the Committee) involving the purchase of an aircraft and employment of a pilot by the Trigonometrical Survey for air photography in connection with the Topographical Survey.

                        It has been decided to use an Envoy Aircraft for this purpose and considerable correspondence took place with the manufacturers of this type, regarding the supply of an aircraft specially fitted for photography.  The estimated cost of the aircraft with one spare engine was £8,400.  It was how ever, finally decided to transfer to the Trigonometrical Survey one of the Envoy aircraft on charge to the Air Force at a cost of £4,698 including the cost of a new spare engine.  This aircraft was modified by the Aircraft and Artillery Depot on the lines discussed with the manufacturers and was finally available early in 1938.  It was fitted with Automatic pilot, the new Aldis camera sight, and usual photographic equipment, the camera being mounted centrally which involved considerable modification to control cables etc.

                        A number of trial flights were undertaken to test the automatic control etc. and certain urgent work on the East Rand was carried out to test the suitability for air photography.  The results of these tests were entirely satisfactory.  The following areas had been photographed up to date:

            1.            East Rand    1000  sq. miles          
            2.            Piet Retief   1200  sq. miles          
            3.            East London            7750  sq. miles          
            4.            Port Elizabeth            4000  sq. miles          
                        Total            13950 sq. miles

                        The original estimate of cost of air photography was 6/8 per square mile but experience had shown that weather and other conditions made the estimate of cost for any particular area one of considerable difficulty.  In consultation with the Director of Trigonometrical Survey it had therefore, been decided to classify areas in three categories.

A.   Difficult areas in which poor weather conditions might be expected and containing broken country with large variations of ground level.

B.   Normal areas, undulating country with reasonably good weather conditions.

C.   Easy areas such as the high veld in which normally very favorable conditions might be expected.

                        The first two areas undertaken were too small to afford a satisfactory basis of cost calculation.  Moreover, the Piet Retief area was photographed under most unfavourable weather conditions, heavy rains having fallen in the low veld just before the commencement of the work.  The East Rand Area was an easy one but the technique was not fully developed, and the cost 5/- per square mile was higher than it should have been.  The Piet Retief area was the first undertaken away from Headquarters and various troubles were encountered which added unduly to the cost which worked out at approximately 14/6 per square mile.  The area would be classified partly as 'normal' (B) and partly as 'difficult' (A).  After this preliminary work the large area East London     - Queenstown was undertaken with more confidence, but unfortunately the weather conditions were extremely unfavorable and though an Air Force aircraft and pilot were sent down to assist in the work it took nearly 5 months to complete.  The total cost worked out at £2700 or 7/- per square mile including £684 for subsistence allowance which was quite abnormal.  The cost of the Port Elizabeth area which had just been completed was not available but as conditions were similar to East London it would be about the same.

                        Continuing, Gen. Hoare said that he considered that it could be conceded that, owing to abnormal rains, the past year had been most unfavorable for air photography but several valuable lessons had been learnt.

1.   The difference in the amount of work completed in the same time by a highly skilled and experienced pilot such as Capt. de Vos and the less skilled and experienced pilot flying the Trigonometrical Survey aircraft was very marked.  They could, therefore, confidently expect better results in the future.

2.   With modern high speed film and large aperture lenses, photography could commence at 8.0 to 8.30 and be continued to 4.0 or 4.30 according to the time of year.  On perfect days (which had been rare that year) it should be possible to cover 1000 square miles.  On one occasion Capt. de Vos had photographed 860 square miles on one day with more than an hour to spare.

3.   For photography in coastal areas and for urgent work elsewhere which might have to be undertaken in the rainy season, it was essential to use an all-metal aircraft.  The Envoy was largely constructed of three ply wood and alternate wet and hot days had a most deleterious effect on this material.  After the East London survey both aircraft required very extensive repairs which would have put an end to the work for some months if another aircraft had not been loaned by the Air Force.

                        Close touch with the work had been kept by means of weekly and other reports.  Though there had been many disappointments and exasperating delays owing to weather, he was satisfied that the scheme outlined at the last meeting had proved both practical and economical.

                        Concurrently with the Defence Trig survey co-operative scheme, the Aircraft Operating Company had covered large areas and they had maintained the high efficiency for which they had been noted in the past.

                        Gen. Hoare very strongly recommended that an all-metal aircraft such as the Blenheim should be obtained by the Trigonometrical Survey.  The cost was high (about £15,000) but this sum would be well spent for the following reasons:

1.   The aircraft would be suitable for use under all weather conditions.

2.   It's High speed would enable fuller advantage to be taken of the clear days available.

3.   It's Large size would give ample room mounting and operating the camera.

4.   The higher cost of flying, which, however, was not a very important item in the total cost of photography, would be set off by the larger area covered in the same time (Blenheim 240 Envoy 150 miles per hour).

5.   If fitted with additional fuel tanks which could be easily arranged in view of it's high load carrying capacity (but impracticable with the Envoy) the flying time and range could be completed without return to base for refueling.

                        On a basis of 15000 square miles per annum the saving in comparison with work done by a commercial company would be approximately £6.000 per annum so the aircraft would pay for itself in less than three years.

 

Mr. Huntly's Report.

                        Mr. Huntly said that prior to December 1936 air photography and air survey had been carried out by the Aircraft Operating Company for the Departments of Mines, Agriculture and Forestry, and Irrigation.  It was realized that the pooling of Government air photographic requirements would be advantageous as it would prevent overlapping and would enable the Government to have the work done more cheaply.  Furthermore, it was realized that it would be desirable for the Government to do part of the air photography departmentally as the competition so introduced would result in the lowering of costs and the improving of technique.  These two factors lead to the First Meeting of the Air Survey Committee in December 1936.  This meeting passed five resolutions.  The first expressed the Committee's opinion of the value and necessity of air photographs and air survey.  The second recommended that the sum of ú25,000 be placed on the Trig survey Loan Vote to cover government air photography for 1937/38 and 1938/39.  The third and fourth recommended that the Director of Trig survey should arrange the Government air photographic programme and that this should be done partly on contract by the Aircraft Operating Company and partly by the Defence - Trig survey cooperative scheme.  The Defence - Trig survey cooperative scheme was one whereby the Trig survey Office supplied an aircraft, equipment, pilot and material and the Defence Department supplied the crew and servicing of the aircraft.  The fifth resolution recommended that Departments should pay for the prints or enlargements which they required for their work.

                        These resolutions were, after the necessary Departmental and Treasury approved, put into practice.  The Director of Trig survey obtained the information about the photographic requirements of the Departments represented and made the necessary arrangements for photography.  The order in which the photography was carried out was determined by (1) urgency (2) suitable photographic season for the areas in question.  The work was then divided between the Aircraft Operating Company and the Defence trig survey cooperative scheme.  Photography was done at a contact scale of 1:20,000.

                        The Trig survey Office ordered two contact prints of every photograph taken.  One set of these prints was for use by the field parties and would be filed as part of the survey records of the photographical survey.  The other set was in Pretoria a complete photo library.  (An example of these volumes was shown to the Committee).  Thus there was in Pretoria a complete photo library of one contact print of every photograph taken and these were available for examination by departments interested.  It was possible that this would be extended so that departments interested might use this as a lending library and take out photographs on loan provided they were not marked in any way.

                        Departments wishing to order prints of areas photographed under contract by the Aircraft Operating Company, if they found it more convenient, ordered through the Trig survey Office.  This was generally done in the case of departments which were not primarily survey departments, and which had no facilities for ordering and checking air photographs.  Otherwise departments could order directly from the Aircraft Operating Company, but accounts should be forwarded to the Trig survey Office to be certified.

                        For audit purposes it was necessary that these accounts should be certified as being in accordance with existing contracts for the supply of prints.  It was therefore advantageous for departments ordering direct from the Aircraft Operating Company to state when ordering, that invoices should be forwarded to the Director of Trig survey to be certified as a matter of routine.

                        Departments wishing to order prints of areas photographed by the Defence - Trig survey cooperative scheme must place their orders through the Trig survey Office.  This was necessary because the photographic section at Swartkop Air Station had no organised clerical staff and could not deal with extensive correspondence and accounts.  If all orders were placed through the Trig survey Office, all the photographic section at Swartkop Air Station had to do in the way of clerical organisation was to run an order book and a despatch book.  All photographic materials were automatically debited to the Trig survey Office.  The Trig survey Office arranged for the collection of money due by other departments, and dealt with all the correspondence.

                        The actual details of the carrying out of the resolutions were as follows:

1937/38.            Photography was only done by the Aircraft Operating Company.  Equipment was being considered and ordered for the Defence Trig survey Scheme.  The areas photographed were as follows:

            1.            Richtersveld    .......            4000 sq. miles.         
            2.            Zoutpansberg  .......            7500 sq. miles.         
            3.            Natal coast    .......            15500 sq. miles.         
            4.            Cape            .......            4000 sq. miles.         
                        Total   31000  sq. miles.    cost £23250.

                        In addition to the above the Trig survey Office arranged for a special contract for the photography of the Drakensberg Reclamation Scheme area on behalf of the Department of Agriculture and Forestry.  The cost of this was £2,500 for 1300 square miles.  The increased price was necessary as the area presented special difficulties and other special conditions had to be complied with.

1938/39.  Aircraft Operating Company.

            1.            Tzaneen - Pilgrims Rest                 5750 sq. miles.         
            2.            Krugersdorp - Potchefstroom              4300 sq. miles.         
            3.            Cape  .................                               4150 sq. miles.         
            4.            Natal Coast  ............                         4300 sq. miles.         

                            Total                18500 sq. miles.            cost £15175.

Defence - Trig survey Cooperative Scheme.

            1.            East Rand    ...........            1000 sq. miles.         
            2.            Piet Retief  ...........            1200 sq. miles.         
            3.            East London  ........... 7750 sq. miles.         

                        Total      9950 sq. miles.            cost £3780.

1939/40.            Aircraft Operating Company.

Completed            Laingsburg       ......            7500 sq. miles.            cost £6200.
In progress            Vryburg          ......            5000 sq. miles.

Defence - Trig survey Cooperative Scheme.

Port Elizabeth               ............            5000 sq. miles.

                        The total area photographed up to date was some 80,000 square miles including some 8,000 square miles completed before the 1st meeting of the air survey Committee.

                        As regards the handling of prints the Trig survey Office had either ordered or in some way assisted in the ordering of prints for the following departments.

            Irrigation .........................           6,200 
            National Roads .....................   5,600  
            Agriculture and Forestry ....... 5,400  
            Provincial Roads ...................     1,000  
            Geological Survey .................       8,600  
            Native Affairs .....................      200     
                                                                        Total .....       27,000.

                        In addition to the above, the Trig survey Office by virtue of it's policy of acquiring two copies of every photograph taken, had handled and filed one hundred and ten thousand prints.  Up to quite recently departments were interested in either contact prints or enlargements to the scale of approximately 1:10,000.  Recently, however, the Trig survey Office at the request of the Department of Native Affairs, had made arrangements for a special contract for the supply of enlargements to a scale of approximately 1:8,000. A special rate was necessary for such enlargements in view of their greatly increased size.

                        At the request of the Director of Geological Survey, the Trig survey Office was successful in obtaining more favorable rates for the supply of certain prints in Namaqualand.  A small area comprising some 156 photographs had been photographed as a speculation by the Aircraft Operating Company.  At first they asked to be paid £300 for a set of enlargements of this area.  Eventually these enlargements were obtained for some £32.  The Trig survey Office had arranged for the supply of about eight hundred prints to the public.  The magnitude of this work was sufficient to be a considerable nuisance without being any particular benefit to the Government.

                        Mr. Huntly then proceeded to deal with future arrangements for carrying out the work of the air survey committee.   The Trig survey Office had requests for photography of the following areas:

Towoomba Pasture Research         
            area                  ............            230 sq.miles            Agriculture &  
                                                                                                            Forestry.

Leeuwkuil Pasture Research         
            area                  ............                                                            "

Magaliesberg Valley                                                                           " (for Dr.      
                                                                                                             Phillips - Wits  
                                                                                                             University).

Baberton and part of  .....            600 sq. miles            Department of Mines                                   
Swaziland.            Holfontien..            15 sq. miles  
Public Health Dept.

National Road No. 4

Middelburg-Belfast ......            600 700 "       National            road.

            (This area had also been asked for by the Provincial Secretary and it was essential that it should be completed before October.)

Umbobo and Umgwavuma ......      2000 sq. miles  Agriculture &   
                                                                                    Forestry.

Glen School of Agriculture                                "

Bleomfontein Manoeuvre      
            area .................            Defence Department.

Glen Greu, Herschel,         
 Thaba 'Nchu and Witzies-    
hoek areas  ................            2000 sq. mi   Department of Mines.

                        The above list was not comprehensive.  An item on the agenda provided for discussion of areas required to be photographed by Government Departments and the matter would be fully dealt with then.

                        The Trig survey Office felt that there should be closer liaison with the representatives of the Air survey Committee.  Up to the present, representatives of the Air survey Committee no doubt felt that they were not kept in close enough contact with the progress of the work.  They would put in a requisition for photography and hear no more about it until when say some six months later, the photographs arrived.  It was realised that this was a very unsatisfactory procedure, and furthermore, that it was dangerous to attempt to offer explanations.  It should be pointed out, how ever, that the Defence - Trig survey cooperative scheme had encountered abnormal weather conditions and these had upset all arrangements.  In connection with the weather it must be realised that in order to be satisfactory for air photography weather had to reach a much higher standard than the average picnic conception of a fine day.  It was essential that there be virtually no clouds no clouds, as these caused shadows as well as obscuring detail and the wind must not be very high, or very changeable otherwise the drift of the aircraft would be upset.  Progress reports of the East London photography revealed that during four weeks of the first three months absolutely no photography at all was possible, and during the remainder of the time the maximum photography in any week was about five hours.  When faced with circumstances such as these, even the best organised schemes were liable to be unbalanced.  The officers administrating these schemes devoted most of there energies to overcoming such difficulties as how the scheme was to be completed at all, and how expenditure provided for could be made during the financial year, thus forgetting about the departments which had requisitioned for photography and were patiently awaiting results.  It was hoped in future to issue representatives of the Air survey Committee bulletins indicating the progress made in air photography.

                        Up to the present flight plans showing the positions of the photographic strips have only been sent to other departments on request.  In future these would be sent to all representatives of the Air survey Committee as soon as they were available.  The area photographed could be added to the key map issued in order to keep it up to date.  At the end of the financial year the Trig survey Office could arrange to send revised key maps to all representatives of the Air survey Committee.

                        It was desired to point out that members of the Committee would save much time by approaching the Trig survey Office first to ascertain if areas had been photographed.  As mentioned the photographic section at Zwartkop Air Station was not organised for extensive correspondence, and, had record of areas photographed by the Aircraft Operating Company.  The Trig survey Office maintained records of all areas photographed and it was therefore advisable to approach it first.

                        There being no questions on discussions on the reports presented by the Director General of War Supplies and the Mapping Officer, Mr. Whittingdale then proceeded to deal with item 4(e) of the agenda, namely, the air photographic programme for the next two years.  After some discussion it was ascertained that the requirements of all departments totalled up to some 72,000 square miles to be done during the next two years.  It was agreed that all departments should submit their requirements in writing, giving some indication of the urgency with which the work was required, to enable the Trig survey Office to draw up it's programme.     
                        The meeting then adjourned for lunch.

 

Mr. Hozer's report on the progress of

photographical mapping.

                        Mr. Holzer said that although the meeting had been convened for the purpose of discussing requirements in regard to air photography he had been asked to give a brief outline of what had been done in regard to topographical maps.  The topographical map could be regarded as the first by-product of the air photo.  In the scientific work being carried out by the Departments represented the photograph was in some cases more important in the first instance than the map, but sooner or later the results of the field work had to be plotted on a map base.  The ideal was to have both photo and map, the photo giving detail and the map true positions and heights.  Representatives had already been informed of the considerable area photographed, this unfortunately could not be said of the mapping.  In spite of the weather difficulties it was much quicker and easier to take photographs than to make maps from them.  To date the mapping of only 2000 square miles of country had been completed.  In 1937 only one party of 12 men was in the field and in 1938 two parties of men each. The areas mapped were situated in the Georg - Storm River coastal strip, Durban and South Coast, Natal Coalfields and the Pretoria - Witwatersrand areas.  These areas were mostly extremely difficult to map and were hardly what would have been chosen for training new men if a free choice had been possible.  However, many lessons had been learned by undertaking these difficult areas.

                        For the big work of carrying out the topo survey of the Union it was necessary to have a well-trained and adequate staff, modern instruments and transport, and in the nature of things the full complement of men and equipment could only be obtained gradually.  Moreover technical methods had to be evolved, experiments made, the organisation planned and the staff trained.  The two years that had passed had been devoted to this preliminary work and training.

                        The final organisation decided upon was as follows:  The Field staff was to be divided into five provincial parties with local headquarters at Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, East London and Bloemfontein. Each party consisted of fourteen officials under the control of a Professional Officer.  The first three parties were now formed and were at present mapping in the East Rand, Utrecht and Western Province areas.  The personnel for a fourth party had been approved and when recruited would form the Eastern Cape Party with headquarters at East London.  It was hoped that towards the end of the year the personnel for the fifth and final party would be approved to operate over the Free State, Northern Cape and South West Africa.  The Professional Officers in charge of the parties had been instructed to keep in touch with local representatives of the various Government departments to render assistance and advice on survey matters where desired.

                        The output from a fully trained party was expected to be from 3,000 to 6,000 square miles per annum depending on the nature of the country.  Thus five fully trained parties were expected to map at least 20,000 square miles per annum, and, with the aid of the Fourcade photogrammetric apparatus equipment, up to 30,000 square miles per annum.  It would take at least another two years before maximum efficiency was reached.  The photographical branch had been greatly hindered by resignations or transfers just when they were becoming useful.  With the slackening of the outside demand for survey assistants and draughtsman it was  hoped  that trained men would be retained.  Dr. Fourcade's stereoprojector machines for mapping from air photographs were nearing completion in the workshops of the Mowbray Office and should be in working order by the end of the year.  No estimate of output from these machines could be given at the moment.

                        The work of the topo Branch stopped with the completion of the field drawing.  Field drawings of each plane table board covering an area of 33/4 x 3 3/4 minutes were compiled on 'kodatrance' on the average scale of the photographs covering that area.  There were 16 of these field drawings to each 1:50,000 map sheet.  The field drawings were each reduced to a scale of 1:36,000 on transparencies, and then assembled on one glass plate.  From this plate, blue pulls were made on paper mounted on aluminium.  These blue pulls were used by the Mapping Office draughtsmen as the basis of their fair drawings.

                        In order to facilitate the location on a map of the area covered by an air photograph or vice versa to find the photograph covering a particular area, the photographs would be renumbered from 001 upwards in respect of each 15 x 15 minute map sheet.  The positions of the center of each photograph would be indicated on the map together with it's number.

                        Prints of the separate field drawings and of the working drawings of the 15 min. x 15 min. assemble on the 1:36,000 scale were available for the use of departments.  For some purposes these prints might be more useful than the final printing map.

                        Dr. Houghton pointed out that if the contact scale of photography were reduced the price of enlargements to the scale of 1:10,000 would be increased as a larger area of paper would be involved.  Dr. houghton enquired whether the arrangements for photography of the areas in South West Africa which were being surveyed by his department for the South West Africa Administration, were completed.  Mr. Whittingdale replied that the matter had been considered and that although the practical side was straightforward there was still some difficulty about the financial arrangements to be made with the South West Africa Administration.

                        Mr. Youthed enquired whether it would be possible for departments to be supplied with information showing line maps completed and an approximate estimate of maps to be completed during each financial year.  It would be of value if the order in which proposed mapping would be carried out could be indicated.

                        It was stressed in discussion that the 1:36,000 working drawings from which the final 1:50,000 topographical maps would be prepared would be of great value to all departments.  It was recommended that arrangements be made for the distribution of prints of these 1:36,000 working drawings.

                        Major Kos pointed out that it was impossible for Air Radio Stations to be accurately calibrated unless reliable large scale maps were available.

 

Resolution passed by Air survey Committee.

1.   The Committee considers that in order that the work of the departments represented shall continue satisfactorily it is essential that some 70,000 square miles be photographed during the next two years.  It therefore recommends that the Director of Trigonometrical Survey should take the necessary steps to ensure that this photography is carried out.  For this purpose it is further recommended that a sum of £25,000 be provided for the financial year 1940/41 in addition to the £25,000 already voted for the current financial year.

2.   The Committee recommends that the photography required for 1939/40 and 1940/41 be carried out partly on a contract basis and partly departmentally and that the necessary arrangements be placed in the hands of the Defence Force Representative and the Director of Trigonometrical Survey.

3.   In view of the report presented by General Hoare the Committee recommends that a new all-metal aircraft be purchased by the Department of Lands in order to enable the Defence Force - Trig survey Cooperative scheme to be continued.

4.   The committee recommends that the existing tariff for the sale of air photographs to the public be maintained.


5.   The Committee is of the opinion that the scale of photography for areas which may be required for economic purposes should not be less than 1:25,000 and that furthermore there is no objection to a residue appearing on air photographs.

6.   The Committee desires to call attention to the resolution passed by the Mapping Conference in 1936 and to stress the importance of completing the field organisation of the topographical survey without delay, so that the production of line maps may proceed as rabidly as possible.  In this connection it is necessary to point out that the full value of air photographs for investigational purposes can only be obtained when they are used in conjunction with the line map prepared from them.

7.   The Committee recommends that a complete library of air photographs taken be maintained at the Trig survey office, Pretoria.

8.   It was resolved that the Airsurvey Committee should meet every two years.


                        In closing the meeting Mr. whittingdale thanked all representatives for their assistance.


42.       'n Order vanaf die Direkteur Lugdienste word aan die Fotografiese afdeling gestuur waarin take in volgorde van dringindheid uiteen gesit word.

                                                                                                    D.A.S. 854/39
                                                                                                                         854/45 Vol. IV

THE OFFICER COMMANDING.    
                        CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL.      
                        (PHOTOGRAPHIC SECTION).

THE O/C., AIRCRAFT & ARTILLERY DEPOT.   )     
 THE ASST. SECRETARY (FINANCIAL).                       )  For information.     
  CAPTAIN J.A. DE VOS.                                      )

            CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL.

                                                    Air Photography - Trigonometrical Survey.
            In confirmation of verbal authority the following areas are to be photographed and are listed in order of urgency:-

1.         SABIE - BABERTON. 
(a)  Sheet area 2530 BB  - Extent 250sq. miles.   
(b)  Sheet area 2531 AC, AD,
            BC and BD 2531 C and D - Extent 3000 sq.
            miles.

(a)        To be done first providing weather conditions permit. 
            Pilot                 -                       Mr. Joubert.           
            Aircraft             -            Envoy No. 251.         
            Aerodrome                  -            Baberton.      
Defence Photographic Van to be loaned for service at Baberton.

N.B.            Portuguese border is not to be crossed until authority is received.

Photography should not continue over the border.

(2)            Pretoria.

            Sheet area - 2528 CA & CB - Extent 500 sq. miles.               
Pilot      - Mr. Scott.  
Aircraft   - Envoy No. 252 on loan from Air Force.

(3)        Piet Retief.


 

            Sheet areas 2730 B  - Extent 1000 sq. miles.   
Pilot                             - Mr. Scott.  
Aircraft                         - Envoy No. 252 on loan from         
                                                  Air Force.       
Aerodrome                               - Newcastle.      
Film to be sent to Pretoria for development.

 (4)            Northern ZULULAND. 
Area bounded as follows :-

            (a)            on North by Portuguese border.
(b)        on East by coast.         
(c)        South by previously photographed area boundary approx. from Gollel to coast along bearing 135' ast of North.

            (d)            West by Swaziland border.
Extent - 2,000 sq. miles (approx).

            Pilot                   -  Mr. Joubert.           
Aircraft   -  Envoy No. 251.                 Photographic van on loan from Air Force.  Aerodrome - Gollel.

(5)        NEW CASTLE - DUNDEE.

            Sheet Areas definitely specified in a couple of         
            weeks time.    
            Approximate Area            -            4,000 sq. miles.         
            Pilot                             -           Mr. Scott.       
            Aircraft                         - Envoy  No. 252 on loan from Air Force. 
            Films to be sent to Pretoria for development.

(6)        Pretoria - RUSTENBURG.

            Sheet Area                             2527 D.       
Approximate area      -                       1,000 sq. miles.         
Pilot                             -                       Mr. Scott.  
Aircraft                         -            to be decided later.   
Aerodrome                               -            Zwarkops.

            In all the above areas, the Air photographs are to be          
7" x 7".  Focal length 7 inches.
Longitudinal overlap to be near to but not less than 53%. 
Lateral overlap to be between 20% and 30%.
Scale of photographs to be as near to 1:20,000 as     
ground elevation permits.

                        The above arrangement is subject to alteration should the Air Force at any time require to withdraw Envoy No. 252 and the photographic van.

                                                                        Signed :                                     Lieut. Colonel,          
                                                                                       DIRECTOR OF AIR SERVICES."


43.       Die eerste van die take  wat aangepak word is die SABIE - BABERTON AREA volgens bewegings order N. 126.

                                                "CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL MOVEMENT ORDER NO.126.         
                                                                                                                          COPY NO.   3                       
                                                                                                                         DATE.  29.8.39

MAP REFERENCE:             Index to Sheets.                                                                                
                                                Topographical Maps of Union of S.A. 1/50,000.

INFORMATION:                 One Envoy Aircraft No.251 required to proceed           
                                                to Baberton to carry out an Aerial  Survey of        
                                                the Sabie - Baberton Area.

 

(a)        Sheet Area 2530 B.B extent 250 sq.  
miles.

(b)        Sheet Area 2531 A.C. A.D.       
B.C.  &  B.D.  2531 C. & D.  extent  
3,000 sq. miles.

AUTHORITY.            D.A.T.S. 854/39

METHOD:      
            BY AIR:                 The O.C., "Photo" Flight will provide Envoy
                                                No.251.          
                                                The undermentioned personnel will leave   
                                                Zwartkop Air Station at 0900 hrs. on the 31st           
                                                instant:-

                        Pilot.                               Personnel.       
                        Mr. Joubert.                                    No.537 A/Cpl. Bond, T.        
                                                                        No.616 A/Mec. Schnetler, P.J. 
                                                                                   
            Aerodrome :             Baberton.                                                                              
              BY ROAD :            Photographic Lorry No. 527 and Truck U.559   
                                    will leave Zwartkop Air Station at 0800 hrs.         
                                    on the 30th instant with the following          
                                    personnel for Baberton by road:-

            Driver of U.599 A/Sgt. McGlashan                  
Driver of U.527 A/Sgt. Facer. 
On completion of the Sabie - Baberton Area, Envoy No.251 with the same personnel will proceed to Gollel for an Aerial Survey of Area:-         
(a)        On North bounded by Portuguese Border.           
(b)        On East by coast.  
(c)        South by previously photographed area,    
            boundry approx. from Gollel to coast along bearing 135į East of North. 
(d)        West by Swaziland border.  Extent 2,000  
            sq. miles.

            Photographic Lorry No. U.527 and Truck No. 559 with the same personnel to proceed by road to Gollel. 


PETROL & OIL:     Z.A.S. - Baberton ............ Full capacity.          
ENVOY NO.251:            Petrol & oil available on drome.

TRANSPORT BY      
ROAD:            Z.A.S. - Baberton ......... Full capacity and    
                        carry 3 - 44 galls. full drums and 5 galls.    
                        oil.  Petrol available on drome.

INTERCOMMUNICATION:

(a)        Rules for aircraft movements and forced landings, S.A.A.F. Standing orders & Instructions, Part I, Paras. 38 and 40 will be complied with.

(b)        The aircraft is equipped with wireless.

(c)            Telegrams in terms of C.F.S. Standing Orders and Instructions, Chapter II, Para.58.

                                                                                                                           Lt.-Colonel.     
                                                                        COMMANDING : CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL.

DISTRIBUTION:

Copy No.1 ......... Director of Army Training.          
Copy No.2 ......... Director of Air Services.
Copy No.3 ......... Director of Technical Services.         
Copy No.4 ......... The O.C., Voortrekkerhoogte     
                                    and Transvaal Command.      
Copy No.5 ......... The S.A.A.F. Camp Commandant.  
Copy No.6 ......... The O.C., A. & A. Depot. 
Copy No.7 ......... The O.C., Photo Flight.  
Copy No.8 ......... The O.C., Photo Section.           
Copy No.9 ......... Mr. Joubert.           
Copy No.10 ........ Pay Section, C.F.S.
Copy No.11 ........ O.C., No. 2 Squadron.       
Copy No.12 ........ The N.C.O. i/c M.T. Section,  
                                    Central Flying School.  
Copy No.13 ........ File.

JI-L/DG.         
              29.8.39."



CHAPTER 4

67 Air School 1940 - 1950

1.         1940.            The School of Photography (S.O.P.) was formed at Z.A.S. in January 1940 out of 20 Squadron with 2 Airspeed Envoys and Captain J. Ireland-Low as O.C.  S.O.P. was redesignated as 67 Air School on 11 November 1940 (from "Yellow Wing" published by  S.A.A.F. museum).

2.         5 January a letter from O.C., S.O.P. to O.C., Z.A.S.   
                        "Due to expansion of the School and outstations the permanent staff will have to be increased and more NCO's are required.  It is recommended that the following promotions from the establishment be made (temporary ranks). 
            To flight sergeant:  
                                    Air sergeant            A.E.W. McGlashan      
                                    Air sergeant            W.M. Gericke           
                                    Air sergeant            E.W. White

            To Corporal:         
                                    Air mechanic            G.H. van Rhyn         
                                    Air mechanic            G.T. van Rooyen     
                                    Air mechanic            A. Gibson
                                    Air mechanic            R.C.R. Hodgson         
                                    Air mechanic            N.J. Swardt
                                    Air mechanic            R.J. Mobbs

            To Leading Air Mechanic (L.A.M.)         
                                    Air Mechanic            C.E. Burton

                                                                            Signed:  J. Ireland-Low. Capt."

3.         18 March - following on some correspondence on the matter :           Letter from O.C., Home Air Force, P.O. Roberts Hights.  "O.C. does not agree to proposals that the S.O.P. act as a supplying depot to outstations.  This would be contrary to General Stores regulations and D.G.T.S. circular No.7 of 1940."

4.         19 March - I like the rather informal tone of this letter from the O.C., S.O.P. (Ireland-Low) to the O.C. Training Command, Zwartkop Air Station:
                                    "Permanent Force Apprentice.     
                                                With reference to A.H.Q. 413/19 dated 20 Feb. 1940, could you send down some likely lads for interview to fill the vacancy for an apprentice on the Permanent Force Establishment of the School of Photography."

This reminds one of the strong R.A.F. influence on the S.A.A.F. in those days.  I well remember arriving at 67 Air School in 1947 and also being addressed as "lad" by the ex R.A.F. LAM. Ted Dickenson.

5.         7 August   -   Extract from Air Directorate order dated 21/10/1940 stating that No.20 photographic Squadron is disbanded with effect of 7-8-1940.

6.         11 November - 67 Air School is formed from 20 Squadron and S.O.P.  Under the J.A.T.S. (Joint Air Training Scheme) it is to train, S.A.A.F., R.A.F., W.A.A.F. and personnel from Allied Forces in aerial photographic work.

7.         The flying side of 67 Air School was initially "67 Flight" and later the "Photo Flight" and in addition to training carried out various photographic and survey tasks.

8.         67 Air School initially operated D.H. Dragons, Envoys and the unique Gloster A.S.31.  Later types such as Ansons supplemented and eventually totally replaced the earlier aircraft types. DH9 J No.151 was used by the school for ground training and after renumbering in February 1942 became No.258.  No.258 was used in this capacity till January 1944 when it was scrapped.

9.         12 October - From Director of Air Organization to Director of Air Training.

                                                            "PHOTOGRAPHIC TRAINING.

                                    Under instructions from D.G.A.S. will you please instruct O.C. Training Command to supply a report on the following:-

(a)        System of training which is being adopted with brief notes as to syllabi and length of courses.

(b)            Suitability of system for producing photographs for operational units and training schools.

(c)        What replacement by W.A.A.F. is envisaged.  At present it is understood there is only 1 W.A.A.F. out of about 100 trainees.

                                                                        Signed:             
                                                                        Lieut. Colonel.          
                                                                        DIRECTOR OF AIR ORGANIZATION."

10.       A reply to above is not to hand but would be of interest to us now.

11.       1940.            S.O.P. is redesignated 67 Air School on 11 November 1940

12.       21 December.            A memo from Deputy Director General of Air Services to O.C. Training Command states:  B flight, 60 Squadron has ceased to exist.  Personnel, Aircraft and equipment is to be taken over by the School of Photography (67 A/S)

13.       1940      During the year various requests are made for a/c eg. an A.O.C. photographic (Dragon).  A request for Anson no 1107 (dated 13 Dec) is also turned down.  On 21 Dec 1940 a letter from D.G.A.S. states that Anson 1107 is not to be transferred to 67 A.S. as it is earmarked for other duties.


14.       1940      December:  A letter from the O.C., 67 A.S. applying for Anson 1107 also includes a report on a/c situation at 67 A.S. at this time and reads as follows:

                        "The application for the transfer of the Anson Aircraft No. 1107 to No. 67 Air School, Z.A.S. has been submitted. This aircraft is at present undergoing repairs in No. 2 Hanger, South at Z.A.S., and will be ready for test within the next eight days.

                        The Anson is better suited as a Photographic Training Aircraft than the Dragon which is at present in use at No. 67 Air School for the training of Photographers and Photographic pilots.  It is preferable that the Pilot's who are being trained for Photographic work should have that training on a Service Twin-Engine Machine, who could then be posted to any Squadron when required.

                        Anson No. 1107 has been modified for Aerial Survey and Service Photography to accommodate all types of Aerial Cameras as used by No. 67 Air school and the R.A.F.  Included in this modification is a special fitting for the installation of the Aldis Camera Aiming Sight.

                        This Sight is specially desired for Aerial Survey work and is operated by trained Photographers who control the navigation of the Aircraft when on Aerial Survey work.  The position at the present moment in No. 67 Air School is as follows:

                        D.H. DRAGON No.1570:        
                        The engines of this Aircraft have now completed 489 hours, 10 minutes and are due for top overhaul.

                        ENVOY No 252:       
                        Is now undergoing a 360 hours overhaul.

                        D.H. DRAGON No 1414: is on the strength of No. 60 Photo Squadron and is required for survey work in the Union until more suitable Aircraft, such as Anson's, are available.

                        The remaining Aircraft D.H. Dragon No. 1570 and Envoy No. 1569 is totally unsuitable for training purposes.

                        As these two machines D.H. Dragon No 1570 and Envoy No. 252 will be unserviceable for some time, the training of Photographic Pilot's and Pupils will be seriously affected.

                        May this application for the transfer of Anson No. 1107 to No. 67 Air School be given your due consideration and approval please.

Signed:
                                    MAJOR           
                                    OFFICER COMMANDING NO.67 AIR SCHOOL"

15.       1941:  At this time there are various letters asking for Gloster a/c No. 250 which is strange.  Other information says that this aircraft was bought from Aircraft Corporation Company in March 1933 for photographic purposes and that this a/c was assigned to the photo school until it was scrapped in 1942.

16.       1941:  March 5-10.  Part I of a secret report on the photographic organisation in the SAAF by Wing Commander Hale, Defence HQ is reproduced here:

                        "REPORT ON PHOTOGRAPHIC ORGANISATION IN SAAF

INTRODUCTION:    
1.         The following report has been prepared after a survey of the photographic organisation in the SAAF.

            The report shows the position so far as I have been able to ascertain it and includes recommendations for the improvement of the organisation.  The report is NOT complete as further more detailed investigation must be carried out regarding the interpretation of air photographs but as it is desirable that certain matters should be attended to as early as possible, and have considered it best to make a report in part rather than delay it until a complete investigation has been carried out.  A further report upon interpretation will be made at a later date.

GENERAL:

2.         In obtaining information I have been very much impressed by the similarity of the general attitude towards photography in the SAAF and that of the R.A.F. in pre-war days;  namely that it is nobody's baby and something to be avoided as far as possible except in the case of air survey, the value of which is appreciated.

3.         Since the outbreak of war, however, the value of air photographs for intelligence purposes has become fully appreciated in the R.A.F. and as a result there have been many claimants to the guardianship of the once neglected child; so much so that it has been necessary to present the child to the rightful guardians and subsidise them in order that the child may hold its own amongst others.

4.         In carrying out my investigations and making my recommendations, I have been guided by the lessons learned by the R.A.F. - some of them expensive and bitter - since the outbreak of war.  I fully appreciate that the SAAF is operating under very different conditions to those in Europe, but it is conceivable that those conditions may alter considerably, therefore my recommendations are made with a view to increasing the efficiency of the Photographic Organisation so that neither the Army nor Air Force will be handicapped through the lack of an efficient Photographic Organisation, should there be a change in operational conditions.

CONTROL AND POLICY:        
5.         As mentioned in paragraph 2 above, there appears to have been no authority for controlling the development of photography and the laying down and co-ordination of policy in the SAAF with the result that the School of Photography has been isolated and more or less left to its own devices.  To take one simple case which I have had to deal with;  Training Command was aware of the training requirements for Training Units, but was unaware of the requirements of Operational Units were published between September and November of last year.

RECOMMENDATION:       
6.         An officer be appointed to the staff of D.G.S.A. to control the development of air photography in all its aspects and to decide and lay down policy subject to final approval by D.G.S.A.

            The officer appointed should be given executive powers to authorise the purchase of equipment which he might consider necessary for the efficiency of the photographic branch of the SAAF and to control training and the appointment of personnel.

TRAINING:

7.         (A) Photographers:
The syllabus of training personnel for duty in Unit Photographic sections as shown to me by O.C. School of Photography is somewhat similar to that in vogue in England except that the course is of only two weeks duration in England.  From conversations I have had, however, with O.C., S.O.P., it appears that the syllabus is not being adhered to.  The reason given for this is that in the past the majority of trainees had previous civilian experience as photographers.  In my opinion such a policy is wrong, because previous civilian experience, unless directly connected with air photography, is not of very great assistance owing to the difference in technique, whilst those with no experience are handicapped from the start.  O.C., S.O.P., also pointed out to me that the source of supply of the professional photographer is now drying up and that inexperienced personnel will have to be trained; I therefore handed to him copy of the latest U.K. syllabus to which he could work, and which has been evolved after many years of experience in England.  I was somewhat surprised when twelve days later, O.C., S.O.P., complained most bitterly that a new course had just started and that none of the trainees knew anything of photography, and I found the syllabus still on his desk where I had left it.  I now understand that the syllabus is being copied immediately and introduced.

            (B)  Instructors:      
In addition to the above course, there is also a course for the training of instructors whose function, after passing out from the School, is to instruct flying crews at flying schools, whilst a few have been retained for instruction in the school of Photography itself.

The system of training personnel to act as instructors at Flying Schools is no doubt sound, but I cannot be persuaded that to use such personnel as instructors in the School of Photography itself.

The system of training personnel as instructors in the School of Photography is also sound owing to the fact that they cannot have the necessary wide practical experience to enable them to instruct potential photographers efficiently.

            (C)  Chief Instructor:        
There appears to be no chief instructor in the School of Photography whose sole responsibility is the supervision of instruction of new technique due to changing conditions and the introduction of new apparatus.  So far as I can ascertain, the Officer Commanding , S.O.P., is in effect Chief Instructor and O.C. Zwartkop Air Station in addition to his other manifold duties.

            (D)  W.A.A.F. Personnel:        
I am informed that in addition to training airmen, it is the intention to train airwomen as photographers for duty at training establishments.  I see no objection to the employing of women for this type of work except that photographic staffs should not be comprised wholly of women, but rather that staffs should be diluted by not more than 33% women who can undertake the less skilled work.

8.            RECOMMENDATIONS:

(a)   The syllabus of training photographers should be revised and the syllabus as used in the U.K. should be adhered to as far as possible.

(b)   Inexperienced instructors at the School of Photography should be replaced by more experienced personnel if these are available.

(c)   There should be an establishment for a Chief Instructor on the staff of the School of Photography who will be solely responsible for the supervision of training within the school. The rank of the Instructor should be Lieutenant or Captain.

(d)   Women should be employed in photographic sections if Training Units to not more than 33% of the establishments.

SURVEY:       
9.         I was much surprised to learn that the School of Photography is also responsible for taking of photographs required for Air Survey within the Union and there are large commitments outstanding. 

            This is heavy responsibility for a training unit to undertake especially with the aircraft at its disposal, and bearing in mind the fact that there is already a unit (No. 60 Squadron) whose sole function is, at present, Air Survey.

10.       Orders for survey have, in the past, emanated from D.M.O. and I to the School of Photography although the school is under the control and administration of Training Command; the result has been placed in the very difficult position of having to serve two masters.  This procedure has now been regulised and orders for surveys are now passed through D. of A.T. to Training Command.

11.       I do not know what degree of importance is attached to survey within the Union, but it has been represented to me by Col. Willmott that the purpose of these surveys is in furtherance of the Empire war effort and are of the utmost importance e.g. geological surveys for the detection of oil and mineral deposits and the selection of new sites for aerodromes, bombing and gunnery ranges.

12.       If such is the case, the School of Photography has two very heavy commitments, namely training and survey and is labouring under considerable difficulties owing to the shortage of serviceable and suitable aircraft and is quite unable to discharge either commitment efficiently with its present strength of aircraft.

RECOMMENDATIONS:     
13.       I fully appreciate that there is a shortage of aircraft in the country, but if pupils are to be trained and a high degree of priority and importance is attached to survey, then I strongly recommend the provision of two suitable aircraft for survey must continue to suffer; these aircraft will be absorbed subsequently by No. 60 Squadron if my recommendation at paragraph 31 is adopted.  If it is impossible to provide aircraft then a policy decision must be made to decide whether training or survey are to have priority.

EQUIPMENT:
14.       The equipment provisioning policy appears to be based on two years maintenance under peace time conditions except in so far as equipment and material is concerned.  In this case it appears that provisioning has been done by guess-work and equipment has been ordered as required.

            (a)  F. 24 Cameras:

                        Fifty of these cameras were ordered about June or July, 1940, but it has not been possible to ascertain the basis upon which they were ordered, nor has it been possible to work out any basis from the known number of units and/or the expansion programme.  But certainly this number will be quite insufficient for requirements, let alone wastage, even if all the cameras in the Union (understood to be 28) are included.  Further, it has been noted that the cameras are being received in parts; thus until all the parts are received it will be impossible to make up even one serviceable camera.  I have caused a signal to be dispatched enquiring about the parts still to be received and expediting their despatch.

            (b)            Storage of Equipment and Material:

All photographic equipment and material for S.A.A.F. is stored at the School of Photography and the School is responsible for issues, receipts and accounting.  It is appreciated that such a procedure has been due to the lack of storage accommodation at No. 10 A.D. these men will become redundant and I am of the opinion that one airman will be sufficient to attend to the cameras held by the School.

15.            RECOMMENDATIONS:

(a)   The equipment provisioning policy for photographic equipment be urgently overhauled and brought into line with that governing other forms of equipment.

 (b)   Arrangements be made with a firm within the Union, say Messrs. Kodak, Ltd., to hold stocks of films and papers on behalf of the S.A.A.F. and issue direct to units as and when required. Such a procedure has the very great advantage that materials are stored under proper conditions which are non-existent at No. 10 A.D. and can only be constructed at considerable expense.  (This procedure was carried out in India.) and Messrs. Kodak, Ltd., are prepared to do the same in South Africa.

(c)   All photographic stores for issue to units be transferred from the School of Photography to No. 10 A.D.

(d)   Two of the instrument repairers on the establishment of the School of Photography be transferred to No. 1 Repair Depot and that  unit undertake the repair of all cameras and ancillary apparatus.

 

PHOTOGRAPHS REQUIRED FOR OPERATIONAL AND INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES.   
16.       All operational units have an establishment of cameras and personnel to undertake photography when required and there is also a survey Squadron (No 60) which undertakes photography in the field for survey purposes and is under the control of the Director of Air Operations although it operates with the forces in Kenya. It does not appear to be the function of this unit to undertake photography for purely intelligence and subsequent operational purposes but a few photographs have been taken by it; nor does there appear to be any Photographic Interpretation Unit in the field for extracting information from photographs. This is probably due to the fact that it is not appreciated that the camera can be just as lethal as the bomb in the long run and if the latter is to be placed at the decisive place, then the camera is complementary to it.

17.       It is fully appreciated that the conditions under which the S.A.A.F. are operating are very different from those in Europe, but as conditions may alter it is for serous consideration whether the organisation which has been evolved in the U.K. as the result of war experience should be introduced into the S.A.A.F. At this stage it is desirable that an outline of the organisation built up in the U.K. should be given.

 

 

PHOTOGRAPHIC ORGANISATION IN THE U.K.   
18.       As the result of war experienced in Europe and Middle East it has been found that a very large percentage - it has been put as high as 70% - of intelligence is obtained from air photographs, and if photographs of specific objectives are to be obtained it is not possible to rely on operational units to take the photographs for the following reasons:-

(a)   The primary function of say a bomber squadron is bombing and crews cannot be trained to a sufficiently high standard to undertake photography reliably. They can only be expected to take photographs if their course happens to take them over an area of which photographs are required and only then if they are not being attacked by enemy aircraft or ground defences.

(b)   For an operational unit to undertake photography, it is expensive in both aircraft and skilled crews and the photographs are not obtained owing to losses due to enemy action.

 

FORMATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC RECONNAISSANCE UNITS.           
19.       In consequence, it has been found necessary to provide special Photographic Reconnaissance Units whose sole function is photography, i.e. in addition to having Fighter, Medium and Heavy bomber, A.C. , Torpedo Squadrons, etc., it has been found necessary to provide Photographic Units also.(It is believed that the G.A.F. has similar units.)

The policy governing the provision of aircraft for such units is that nothing but the best is good enough and the aircraft must be superior to the best enemy fighter. Thus, if a new aircraft is introduced and is considered suitable, then the first ten or twenty aircraft off the production line are issued to the P.R.U.'s after which the flow goes to the operational units.

20.       The aircraft are modified to take as many cameras as possible, are given increased tankage if necessary, are cleaned and stripped of all armament in the case of fighters, and bomb racks and other unnecessary equipment.

22.       The following P.R.U.'s have been formed:-  
No. 1. which serves all three Service Ministries and Coastal Command. It is equipped with Spitfires and Blenheims and is the largest of the P.R.U.'s. It is organised on a seven flight basis, four of which are for normal photographic reconnaissance and three for special duty including one for training and communication purposes. Each flight is self contained and can operate from any aerodrome where there is a photographic section.

No. 2. serves M.E. Command and is equipped with Spitfires and Glen-Martins.

No. 3. serves Bomber Command and is equipped with Spitfires and MK V Pressure Cabin Wellington. The function of this unit is solely for the photographing of Targets before attack to provide bomber crews with a picture of their objective, and after attack for assessment of damage.

No. 4. This P.R.U. had not been formed eight weeks ago, and was still under consideration. If decided upon, it was to be attached to the new Army Command and would relieve all Army Co-operation Squadrons of photographic duties.

INTERPRETATION UNITS 
23.       It has been appreciated that no matter how successful the P.R.U.'s may be and how good the photographs taken, a photograph is almost valueless unless the P.R.U.'s are backed by a thoroughly efficient Interpretation Section or Unit and staffed by thoroughly competent officers,(R.A.F., and W.A.A.F., and Army) experienced in all types of interpretation; that is Industrial Works; Naval bases and docks; Aerodromes; Field Works, etc. All officers must have a good general knowledge of each but various officers specialise in one particular branch and all consult one another in the preparation of their reports.

24.       It is upon these units that the thorough extraction and dissemination of photographic intelligence rests - they are the brains of the whole organisation.

25.            Unfortunately. interpretation is NOT a subject which can be taught except for the basic principles. Officers are given a ten day course in the basic principles, after which they work alongside experienced interpreters and only constant practise and enthusiasm can make them proficient, the minimum period being about six months. They are not regarded as intelligence officers, who can undertake all branches of intelligence, but interpretation officers and are specifically posted for such duties.

            It might be mentioned also that the percentage of failures at least equals the percentage of officers who are eventually taken on as interpreters. Briefly, the qualifications necessary to make a good interpretation officer are:-

(a)  Genuine interest in the work.  
(b)  Keen natural observation.     
(c)  Ability to make sound reasoned deductions.      
(d)  Commonsense.
(e)  Good knowledge of map reading.    
(f)  Patience.    
(g)  Good eyesight.

26.            Interpretation is carried out in three phases ; 1st Phase at the aerodrome immediately the film is developed when only information of the highest and obvious priority is expected, e.g. movements of enemy naval forces.  2nd Phases at the Interpretation Units where the photographs are further examined in more detail and urgent reports sent out. 3rd Phase, at the Interpretation Units. Photographs are combed for every piece of detail and full reports together with maps and sketches are sent out.

27.            Information to be of value must be hot, it is the aim to provide a twelve hour service between the time the aircraft lands and the 3rd Phase detailed report together with maps and photographs is in the hands of the Ministries and/or Commands concerned.

28.            Photographs which are taken by operational units during the course of their normal work are briefly examined by the unit intelligence officer for anything of outstanding importance and are then forwarded to the Interpretation Units for detailed examination.

29.       All operational negatives are held by the Interpretation Unit which is situated some distance from a place vulnerable to air attack owing to the high value of its records.

30.       In addition the Interpretation Unit is equipped with a large photographic section including a multiprinter for the production of photographs on large quantities for use by operational aircraft crews when making attacks upon the enemy ; also a map making section for the production of maps to illustrate reports.

RECOMMENDATIONS      
31.            Photographic Reconnaissance Unit.    
            It is obviously unnecessary to introduce P.R.U.'s into the S.A.A.F., but it is recommended that No.60 Survey Squadron be re-organised so as to enable it to undertake survey and operational photography in the field and survey photography in the Union.

            This re-organisation will of necessity require the provision of suitable aircraft, but I am of the opinion that such provision will be more economical in the long run in that operational aircraft will be released for their proper role, the information required will be obtained and losses will be fewer.(An Anson together with a highly skilled crew have already been lost due to enemy action.)

32.            Interpretation Units.     
            As mentioned in para.1 a further report regarding Interpretation of Photographs will be made later.

                                    SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS.     
CONTROL AND POLICY.        
33.       An officer be appointed to the staff of D.G.A.S. to control the development of air photography in all its aspects and to formulate policy.

TRAINING OF PHOTOGRAPHERS.

34.       (a)            The syllabus of training as used in the U.K. be  
                        introduced and adhered to as far as local       
                        conditions will permit.

(b)   Inexperienced instructors at the School of Photography be replaced by more experienced personnel if available.

(c)   A Chief Instructor be appointed to the staff of the School of Photography.

(d)   Not more than 33% of photographers should be substitution personnel.

 


SURVEY WORK UNDERTAKEN BY S.O.P.  
35.       Two suitable aircraft be provided for the S.O.P. immediately if importance is attached to training and the survey work to be carried out.

EQUIPMENT 
36.       (a)            Provisioning policy for photographic equipment        
                        be urgently overhauled.

(b)   Arrangements to be made with the trade in the Union to hold photographic material (film, paper and chemicals) on behalf of S.A.A.F.

(c)   All photographic stores to be transferred from    
S.O.P. to No. 10 Air Depot.

(d)   All repairs of cameras and ancillary apparatus to be undertaken by No. 1 Air Depot; the personnel hitherto held on the on the establishment of S.O.P. be transferred to No.1 A.D.

 

PHOTOGRAPHIC RECONNAISSANCE UNIT
37.       (a)            No. 60 Survey Squadron to be re-organised to            
            undertake operational and survey photography in
            the field and survey photography in the Union.

(b)  Suitable aircraft e.g. Glen Martin, suitably            
modified to be provided for that part of the Unit which will operate in the field.

(c)  The training of crews to be carried out by the Unit.

                                                                                                WING COMMANDER"

17.       1942 March - April:-  After some correspondence on the subject a directive from D.A.P. (Director of Air Personnel) to D.D.A.S.D., D.A.T. (Director of Air Training) concerning employment of W.A.A.F. personnel.  "The board has decided that for the present a 40% replacement of S.A.A.F. (male) personnel by W.A.A.F. should be aimed at".

"TO:-            DEPUTY DIRECTOR AIR PHOTOGRAPHY.

                        O.C.  No.  67 Air School )          
                                                                                    )  - for Information.     
                        O.C. Survey Depot               )

            1.            No. 67 Air School maintain a section of 13 men at Aircraft House for a finishing training in photo production, process and mosaic work in charge of Sgt. Roff.  The men are attached to Survey Depot for discipline and rations.

            2.            The section carry out the printing of air photographs required for military and civil purposes.  In the past 6 months 15,500 prints have been supplied on requisition, mostly for survey and mapping purposes.  A considerable amount of process work is also carried out in connection with the map production work of the Survey Depot.

            3.            As, therefore, this photographic production and process work is an essential part of the Survey Depot's function, it is most desirable that the personnel employed unit should be on the establishment of the O.C. Survey Depot and from a subsection of the photogrammetric section of Depot, command by Lt. Thomas.

            4.            If this proposal is accepted, the re-transfer of Sgt. Roff and a strength of 8 men to Depot would be required.

            5.            If it is not convenient to transfer photographers from 67 Air School these men can be recruited and trained by Depot.

            6.            The photographic equipment belonging to No. 67 Air School would need to be transferred to Depot and Depot would then be responsible for requisitioning for the supplies of paper, process film, chemicals, etc.  as required.

            7.            A certain number of Survey films taken by S.A.A.F. for Trig survey under the civil air-photo scheme are still stored at the School.  These should be transferred to Aircraft House where suitable strong room accommodation is available for the purpose.

            8.            This proposal need not necessarily interfere with the use of Aircraft House for training details from No. 67 Air School as at present.

                                                                        (Sgd.)  W. WHITTINGDALE
                                                                         Lt. Col.           
                                                                        DIRECTOR SURVEY."

18.       1941 May 27 - Approved by Director of Air Technical and Q services states that all equipment be transferred from 67 Air School to the Survey Depot.  All S.A.A.F. personnel to be posted to S.A.A.F. unit and that Depot should recruit its own personnel.

19.       1941 June 16 - From Deputy Director of Air Organisation and Staff Duties:  Approval is granted for 2nd Lt. Bawden, W.A.A.F., to be posted to be assistant photographic officer to Captain Corse.

20.       1941 July 18 - From O.C., 67 Air School to O.C. Training Command Z.A.S.  Proposal to amend 67 Air School War establishment.

"1.        To appoint a W.A.A.F. officer as assistant to the O.C. of 67 Air School to assist O.C. in his task and to take charge of discipline of the W.A.A.F. personnel on strength.

2.         A Photographic officer to supervise production and organize survey flights and inspect equipment and personnel at all photographic outstations.

3.         A training H.Q. flight to service and maintain the Flight now being maintained by the Instructional Flight."

21.       1941 August - Following is Part II of a report on 21 Air School and 65/66 Air School photo sections:-

                                    "REPORT ON PHOTOGRAPHIC UNITS.   
                                                            PART II.        
                                                A. 21 AIR SCHOOL.

1.            ACCOMMODATION.
Accommodation is adequate but minor alterations and additions, as outlined in the attached report, are considered necessary, in order that the facilities available may be used to the best advantage.

            A copy of this report was handed to the Officer Commanding 21 Air School on 6th August, 1941.

2.            PERSONNEL:
The school is up to establishment, the following details being on strength:-

29621            A/Sergt.           Moller, C.       
16021            A/Mech.            Lissaeur, G.H.
99147  "  "                    Johnston,        
101339            "  "            Royle, G.G     
6879                "  "            Kriel. P.A.    
95622  "  "                    Tope, F.W.   
47195  A/Cpl.            (Miss) Beck, D.

                        Air Corporal (miss) Beck was found to be suffering from metol poisoning. The standard prescription was handed to the medical officer by the N.C.O. in charge, for preparation and issue to Air Corporal Beck.  The use of rubber gloves, which will be available shortly, will prevent a recurrence.

3.            TRAINING - AIR PUPILS:         
                        In the past there have been no examinations in photography.  This is detrimental in that (a) it is difficult to assess the value and quality of the instruction given and (b) the pupils do not give the same attention to the subject as they would if examinations were held.

                        The C.G.I., has agreed to assist in overcoming these difficulties by setting a short paper on the subject.

                        Hitherto, exposed cine gun films have been shown in short lengths and at no definite time.  In future they will be spliced together and projected at a specified time.

4.            EQUIPMENT:           
                        The section is well equipped, there being no shortage of essentials.  Minor items have been requested and most of these can be supplied ex stock.

                        B.            No's 65 & 66 AIR SCHOOL  -  Combined Photographic Section.

1.            ACCOMMODATION:

                        The existing accommodation, consisting of two dark rooms and one small general work-room, is totally inadequate for the amount of work demanded of the section and it is strongly recommended that a photographic block be created with the least possible delay.

2.            TRAINING:

                        Pupils do not always see the result of one exercise before proceeding on the next because (a) there are serious delays in the receipt of loaded magazines by 66 Air School and (b) there is often a delay of four to five days between the receipt of an exposed magazine and the delivery of finished prints.

3.            EQUIPMENT:

(i)         In order to speed up the processing, a film drying drum has been transferred from 67 Air School and a print drying machine and cine developing apparatus sent from 10 A.D.

(ii)        The outstanding requirement is F.24 developing apparatus which is on order but no shipping advice has yet been received.

(iii)This additional equipment will assist but not eliminate delay in production, and the urgent need for adequate accommodation cannot be too strongly stressed.

(iv)       A War Equipment Schedule based on the R.A.F., schedule and altered for South African conditions, together with an estimate of ten months maintenance requirements is in course of preparation.

4.            PERSONNEL:

(i)         The following are on strength  :-       
No. 97699        T/A/Sgt.            Phillips,             R.        
    94643            A/M.                Joering,            V.
   263187           A/M.                Norton,            S.T.     
   263202            "                       Dillon,              D.M.V.
   263201            "                       Kennedy,         M.B.   

(ii)        The section is not up to establishment but additional staff cannot be usefully employed in the limited accommodation available.

(iii)In consultation with Lt.Colonel Mcrae and Captain van Niekerk, Photographic Officer, it was considered advisable to change the N.C.O., in charge of the section.

(iv)            Accordingly A/Sergt. Sowell has been posted to this section and T/A/Sergt. Phillips recalled to No. 67 Air School

(v)        A/M Joering, V., has not attended a photographic course and will be recalled to 67 Air School for this purpose."         

1942 Febr., March, April. - Advanced Photo Courses held at this time includes some names which the reader might remember:  Advanced Course No. 1. :-

F/Sgt.            R.J.(Ronnie)                 Mobbs.
F/Sgt    S.W.                            D'Elboux.
A/Sgt.            N.J.(Blackie)              Swardt.
Cpl.      P.T.                              Wright.  (R.A.F.)          
Cpl.      L.                                 Roberts. (R.A.F.)        
A/Cpl.  D.M.                            Burt.    
A/Cpl.  A.                                Carter.
A/Mec.H.A.                             Klausner.

Advanced Course No. 2. :-

T/A/Sgt.            N.          Cowen.           
" "  "                 R.S.       James. 
" "  "                 P.C.       Sewell.
" "  "                 E.J.        Baker. 
T/A/Cpl.            M.H.      Ramsden.        
" "  "                 D.S.       Jones.  
" "  "                 C.S.D. Maräe.
A/Mec.            S.B.             Sara.

22.       1942 March 31 - A report from O.C. 67 Air School to D.A.T. (Maj. Corse) at Defence H.Q. a report by F/Sgt N.J. Swardt on equipment at Germiston:-

                                    "REPORT ON PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT 
                                    ON CHARGE TP NO. 5 WING.GERMISTON.

REPORT BY NO. P. 988 FLT/SGT N.J. SWARDT                    -            30.3.42.          
(1)        On being instructed by Major Ireland-low, Officer Commanding 67 Air School, I proceeded to Germiston by aircraft for the purpose of checking and inspecting the above equipment.

            Ten 125 exp. F.24 Film were drawn from 67 Air School to reload the magazines at Germiston.

(2)        On arrival at Germiston I was instructed by Maj. Harrison to fit cameras in two Maryland Bombers, i.e. one hand held oblique and one vertical to each machine.

(3)        I found one F.24 camera without a magazine or a protective cover in one aircraft, without the mounting.

            The Sergeant Photographer from 43 Bomber Squadron informed that the rest of the equipment was in the store.  We proceeded to the store, which is in a big steel hangar where the equipment was more or less dumped in a corner.

            The Sergeant 43 Squadron informed me that he found the equipment in the corner of an aircraft hangar and that he replaced the cameras in their storage cases and sent them to the stores.

 (4)       I took all the magazines from the stores, without signing for them including 4 F.24 Films and with the co-operation of the photographic section 43 Squadron these were loaded.  Most of the magazines were half loaded, some were half taken and others without spools altogether.

            Six magazines were placed in each aircraft, plus 2 spare films in tins per aircraft.

(5)        The cameras were in a shocking state - the gearboxes were very dirty and some parts rusted.  These cameras were originally serviced for high altitude photography with the result that there was no free oil on them which meant that they should have been oiled before storage.
            The efficiency of the shutters, including spares, leaves much to be desired.

(6)        There appears to be certain amount of deficiencies on which I could not check owing to the fact that the responsible stores personnel were not available.

(7)        I did what I possibly could under the circumstances, in servicing the cameras and returned to Pretoria by train arriving at 23.30 hours.

(8)        If I am allowed to express an opinion I wish to point out that the discussed equipment were originally picked from the best and great pains were taken to obtain certain items such as type C Shutters.  Every little detail was diligently checked and serviced.          
            The film previously loaded was the only reliable stock obtainable at the time, and it does seem an atrocity to having allowed everything to deteriorate and get into the state in which I found it.

(9)        Further more I would like to point out that if any of the equipment was taken in the air in the state it was before I found it, the chances of obtaining successful results would have been very remote.

                                                                                      (Sgd) N.J. Swardt, Flt/Sgt."

23.       March 31 - May 16 - A lengthy report on photographic sections in the Middle East.  Also includes a report on S.A.A.F. photo trailers in the Middle East:-

"REPORT ON INSPECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC SECTIONS
IN THE MIDDLE EAST.

INTRODUCTION:
            The following Report has been prepared after a visit to the squadrons doing photographic work in the Middle East.

No. 40 SQUADRON.

            The main function of this Squadron is photographic Reconnaissance, a considerable amount of photography being done for the 13th. and 30th. Corps.

PERSONNEL:
            The staff of one N.C.O. and 18 Air Mechanics is operating under the direction of F/Lt. Munro, R.A.F., A.A.H.Q.  These 18 Air Mechanics were posted to No. 40 Squadron having just completed a course at 67 Air School where they had little practical experience.  It is recommended that in future, among them should be at least some who have had practical experience either at a school or in an operational unit.

ORGANIZATION:    
            The nature of the work undertaken has necessitated the division of the photographic section into two Units, the one operating from the Advanced and the other from the Rear Landing Ground.

            Time being the important factor the Advance Section takes only two prints off each negative and as these must be produced in the shortest possible time, the negatives are consequently insufficiently washed.  They are then returned to the rear section whose function it is to rewash and produce any further prints which may be required.

EQUIPMENT:
            Each Flight is equipped with two aircraft for photography.  Each of these is fitted with three cameras with 14" or 20" lenses according to the nature of the operation undertaken.  These cameras are operated from one control and are so placed in the vertical, port and starboard positions that the photographs overlap.

            It was known that, on leaving the Union, this Squadron took with it certain equipment in excess of its War Equipment Schedule viz.  3 F.24 cameras complete with 5" lenses and 18 magazines.  In view of the acute shortage of this equipment in the Union instructions were given for these cameras and magazines, to be returned.  They have now arrived.

            The initial photographic equipment taken from the Union i.e. cameras fitted with 5" lenses, was returned to A.S.P. as it was unsuitable for the type of work required and the following equipment has been supplied by the R.A.F., M.E.   
            6 20" lens cameras, 8 14" lens cameras and 1 8" cone and lens.

ADVANCED LANDING GROUND - EL ADEM.

EQUIPMENT:
            An ordinary lorry has been converted into a darkroom and printing is done in a "dug-out" with a canvas roof.  As no water cooling apparatus is available, films have to be prehardened with Chrome Alum.

            Taken into consideration the poor working conditions reasonably good results are obtained but more contrasty paper will give better results and therefore, arrangements have been made for a quantity of this to be despatched from the base landing ground.

            It is essential that this Squadron be equipped with a photographic trailer and on bringing this to the notice of the Command Photographic Officer, I was informed that a mobile prototype trailer is being built in the M.E. and if this is a success it will be issued to No. 40 Squadron.

PERSONNEL:
            The staff consists of one N.C.O. and 8 Air Mechanics.

REAR LANDING GROUND.

            This photographic section was visited in company with Lieut. Duncan, Photographic Officer, 3rd. Wing.

            The quality of the work was fairly good but several minor technical faults needed to be rectified and it was arranged with Col. Wilmot's sanction, that Lt. Duncan should visit this section once a week, the reason for this being that the section is reasonably near to Advanced 3rd. Wing Headquarters and is therefore more accessible to lieut. Duncan than to Fl/Lt. Munro.

EQUIPMENT:
            This section is now equipped with an R.A.F. photographic trailer and all the necessary equipment for developing and printing.  The N.C.O. in charge complained that the trailer sent from the Union had D.C. and A.C. motors and was incorrectly wired, that the big ends on the power unit gave in after one days use and that the resistance coil and refrigerator were not working.  I was unable to inspect this trailer as it had been returned to M.E.

PERSONNEL:
            The Photographic Staff consists of 10 Air Mechanics.
            In view of the facts that these men are all inexperienced in the operation and maintenance of the R.A.F. trailer and the R.A.F. method of indenting for stores, it is unfortunate that the offer of the services of an R.A.F. Sergeant Photographer was declined for he could have given invaluable instructions in these subjects.

NO. 3 S. A. WING - BIR EL BAHERA.

GENERAL:     
            The Photographic Section of Nos. 12 and 24 Squadrons operate alternately from 3rd Wing.

            Complaints had been received from M.E.I.U. that the quality of the work produced by the photographic sections of these two Squadrons was not up to standard and consequently it was difficult to interpret the photographs accurately.

            Lt. Duncan was thus taken off an interpretation course and posted to No. 3 Wing as Photographic Officer.  This Officer has proved most efficient and subsequent to his arrival, the quality of the work improved considerably.

            No technical difficulties had been experienced.

            Infra red photography has been tested but it is considered that panchromatic film with a type 4 filter gives better results.  However it is my opinion that orthochromatic film will probably give still better and more certain results and films have thus been specially imported by Kodak for test purposes.

PERSONNEL:
            One Sgt., 1 Cpl. and 7 Air Mechanics in each Squadron.

EQUIPMENT:
            No. 12 Squadron is equipped with 7 f24 Cameras fitted with 8" lenses and 8 fitted with 14" lenses, the former being used at heights up to 12,000 feet and the latter above this height.

            No. 24 Squadron has 6 cameras with 8" lenses and three with 14" lenses.

            A new mirror attachment for rear obliques is being used at heights between 100 and 120 feet to record the results of low level bombing.  One of these instruments has been sent to Lt. Duncan for test and another was secured for instructional purposes in the Union.

NO. 2 P.R.U.

            No. 2 P.R.U. is manned and operated entirely by R.A.F. personnel.

            At the invitation of Flt./Lt. Jones, Officer Commanding M.E.I.U., this Unit was visited, it being the largest photographic organisation in the Middle East.

            The following points of interest were noted:

ORGANIZATION:    
            The Headquarters of No. 2 P.R.U. are at Heliopolis with detach flights based at Heliopolis, Levant and Iraq and in the Western Desert.

EQUIPMENT:
            Each flight is equipped with 4 I.E. Aircraft plus two in reserve, a photographic trailer, camera maintenance vehicle and an interpretation vehicle attached to which is a large tent for plotting air photographs.

            As Spitfires are mainly used there is no necessity for electric muffs because the bay in which the camera is fitted is electrically heated the temperature being controlled by the pilot.

            An interesting experiment is being carried out for bomber Squadrons.  One camera is installed in the nose of the machine, one in the vertical position and one in the rear with a 45į mirror attachment which points out to the rear.  This is in order to get a complete picture of a bombing raid viz. the run up, the bomb dropping and the explosion.

MIDDLE EAST INTERPRETATION UNIT.

            In view of the fact that proposals have been put forward to establish an Interpretation Unit in the Union, I visited the M.F.I.U. for the purpose of studying its organisation and equipment.

            The following points of interest were noted.

ORGANISATION:    
            This Unit is attached to No. 2 P.R.U. and therefore has its Headquarters in Cairo.

            The whole Unit is under the control of the Air Force and a number of army and navy specialist personnel are attached.  It is divided into the following sections:-

(a)            Photographic Interpretation.  2nd. Phase and 3rd. Phase (1st. phase is done by interpretation officer attached to Squadron).

(b)            Intelligence Section.

(c)        Mosaic Section.

(d)            Modelling Section.

(e)        Bulk printing Section where reprints are made of all operational negatives.

(f)         Ground Negative Section.

(g)        Mosaic Copying Section.

            The Unit is responsible for supplying interpreters for detached flights and all Squadrons belonging to the P.R.U.

            Interpretation is carried out in three phases, The first phase taking place at the aerodrome where the aircraft lands.  Information regarding targets that require immediate action is sent to units directly concerned by "Immediate" signal.  The second phase is carried out in greater detail and is a confirmation in Minute form of 1st Phase signals.  This is completed within twelve hours of the landing of the aircraft.

            Third phase interpretation involves research and very detailed examination into specific subjects by experts in those subjects and it may take up to one month to complete.

            In this phase specialists in the following subjects are employed:

 (i)           W.T.   
(ii)          Night Photography.   
(iii)   Bomb damage.          
(iv)   Communications.         
(v)    A.A. - Coastal Defence.          
(vi)   Camouflage and decoys.     
(vii)   Aircraft.   
(viii)  Shipping.

            It is interesting to note that W.A.A.F. Specialist Officers are being brought out to replace the men at the base.

            In November, 1941 four officers, namely Lts. Stanley, Duncan, Green and Basson were sent from the Union to M.E.I.U. for a course of training in interpretation.  The reason for their being sent up was not clear at the time of their departure.  They were sent for hurriedly during the advance as it was anticipated that the R.A.F. personnel would move forward and the M.E.I.U. on a much reduced scale would be taken over these S.A.A.F. officers after they had undergone a course of training.

            Only two of the officers, Lts. Stanley and Basson, completed the course, Lt. Duncan having been posted to No.3 Wing and Lt. Green having returned to the Union for an operation on his knee.

            As the plan to move forward into Tripoli did not materialise, the two trained officers are now superfluous.  However, arrangements have been made to post these officers to No.s 15 and 24 Squadrons, as interpretation officers.  Should the plan to start an interpretation school in the Union ever materialise, they should prove very useful as instructors especially in view of the shortage of fully trained interpreters in the S.A.A.F.

NO. 60 SQUADRON.

BASE LANDING GROUND - ABBASIA.     
            This Squadron has a base at Abbasia which works in close co-operation with No. 2 P.R.U. assisting this Unit wherever possible.

            There is installed one f8 enlarger and a Graber automatic printing machine which is capable of exposing, developing, washing and drying prints at the rate of 400 per hour from one negative.  Allowing time for negative changes, paper changes and attention to solutions, as many as 3,000 prints have been produced in one day.

ADVANCED LANDING GROUND. - SIDI BARANI.

EQUIPMENT:
            Maryland aircraft are used and are considered by the Squadron as most satisfactory for the purpose.

            The F8 cameras in use were old and required considerable maintenance to keep them in the air.  However, the Squadron has now received three new F8 cameras fitted with magazines to take 250 exposure films and this additional equipment will ease the situation considerably.

            The Advance Photographic Section is equipped with one R.A.F. Trailer and a three ton lorry which has been converted into a camera maintenance vehicle.

            The Squadron requires F8 developing apparatus which, however, is unobtainable at present.  It will be supplied by R.A.F., M.E. as soon as possible.

            The method of using a single camera in the vertical position has been superseded by the use of a camera which is so installed that it swings about its fore and aft axis through a definite angle depending on the focal length of the lens exposures being made with the camera tilted alternately to port and starboard.

            By this method a much larger area is covered in a single flight.  The problem of rectifying the semi-oblique photographs to the vertical has been solved by the introduction of a 5" rectifier which is designed to rectify tilts up to 25į.  A pamphlet giving details regarding the construction of this instrument was secured for use in the Union.  One of these instruments is installed in an auxiliary trailer attached to the photographic trailer.

PERSONNEL:
The Photographic staff of 20 is distributed between the base and advance Landing Grounds according to the requirements of each Section.

            A Camera repairer is urgently required but at present no suitable man is available.

GENERAL.

1.         One of the objects of this tour was to try to procure equipment of which there is an acute shortage in the Union.  I was successful in obtaining some useful material including 12 14" lenses and cones which are urgently required by the Coastal Flights.  Lists of equipment and publications obtained from M.E. and 105 M.U. Nairobi are attached as Appendix I to this report.

2.         It is recommended that photographers are given more practical experience before being sent North.  They could be posted to a Training School, to Aircraft House or to the Production Unit at Z.A.S.  When this comes into operation.

3.            Instruction should be given in R.A.F. methods of indenting for stores and the maintenance of the R.A.F. Brownhall trailer which is used exclusively in Middle East.  In this connection, I would mention that the Command Photographic Officer is willing to lend a Photographic N.C.O. to any new Squadron for as long as his services are required.  Officers Commanding should be informed of this so that if necessary application can be made on arrival of the Squadron in the Middle East.

4.         No further S.A.A.F. Trailers of the present design should be sent to the Middle East.

            It is considered that no useful purpose would be served by sending these trailers up unless they are brought more nearly into line with the Brownhall Trailer used by the R.A.F.  The most necessary modifications to the S.A.A.F. trailer are the incorporation of film drying apparatus and accommodation for a print drying machine.

            With regard to these trailers, the Command Photographic Officer has circularised all Units in the M.E. asking for suggestions for the improvement of both S.A.A.F. and R.A.F. trailers.  These suggestions will be forwarded to the Union and on receipt of them, a further report will be submitted.

            A copy of a report by the Chief Photographic Officer, 207 Group, on the S.A.A.F. Photographic Trailer is attached as appendix II. to this report.

                                                                                        Signed:  W.D. Corse. MAJOR          
                                                                                        STAFF OFFICER PHOTOGRAPHY      
Defence Headquarters.  
PRETORIA.

 


                                                                                                                            APPENDIX I.
EQUIPMENT OBTAINED FROM 105 M.L. - NAIROBI.      
            Camera P.17 Oblique            1         
            C/W Plate Adaptor            1         
            Cut film adaptor            1         
            Cut film adaptor            1         
            Roll film adaptor            1         
            Bodies Camera            1         
            Boxes Gear F8            1         
            Boxes Instrument F8            1         
            Cases Storage F8            1         
            Cones 7"      F8            1         
            Covers Protective F8            1         
            Lens 7"  F8        1         

EQUIPMENT OBTAINED FROM M.E.   
            14" Lenses and Cones  12       
            F24 Camera Complete                    
                with 5" Lens and Cone    1         
            Mirror Attachment            1         
            Italian precision Camera                       
            (ground) with telescope lens      1         

DUBLICATIONS FROM M.E.:- 
            (i)         "The Five Inch Rectifier"         
            (ii)        Air Survey - Tilt Correction to Height         
                         Measurements.
            (iii) Air Survey - The adjustment of Minor Control 
                         Pots.   
            (iv)       A.P. 1355 Vol. 1 - Night Photography - 
                         Accessories - Intensification of Negatives    
                         (Passed to Photographic Officer Training
                         Headquarters.  
                                                                                                            APPENDIX  II

207  GROUP., E.4.  FORCES.       
SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE PHOTOGRAPHIC TRAILERS.
Report on their defects and suggestions
for improvement.

1.                     The trailers supplied to the S.A.A.F. were found to be to cumbersome to negotiate the very bad roads encountered during the East African campaign.

2.                     Their weight (empty) was such that on many hills one three ton lorry was found insufficiently powered to pull the unit.  At one stage, three, three ton lorries were coupled together to give sufficient power (It must be borne in mind that any towing vehicle will itself be fully loaded with Squadron stores).

3.                     The clearance of the chassis was excellent, but the type of turntable necessitated a wide are when turning.  Sudden, sharp turns were liable to capsize the trailers.

4.                     The lorry couplings were too weak to stand up to more than three hundred miles (sometimes less).  On one occasion a trailer broke loose and, as no secondary coupling was fitted to prevent its taking charge, it was only luck that kept the unit from going over a hillside.

5.                     The braking system provided on the trailer did not function.

6.                     Wheels, springs, shackle-pins, etc. were not standard and interchangeable with spares from the types of lorry used in the campaign.  This caused some trouble and might have caused much more if luck had not been with us.

7.                     Altogether, the speed of towage was too slow and the unit could not keep up with the squadron.  On one occasion this held up the processing of films.

8.                     No space in the trailers was allotted for the following essential equipment:-     
                        Film drying drum; Print drying drum;  
                        Titling desk; Fire extinguisher;     
                        Methyl-chloride cylinder.

9.                     The spare wheels were not locked on, consequently the spares disappeared before the advance started and could not be replaced in time.  A set of tools and special jack were not provided.

10.                   A sail to keep the trailer cool and induce draught during film processing was not provided (This is most important. also, from the point of camouflage).

11.                   The cupboards, being unsuitable, made it necessary to carry the photographic stores in lorries, mixed up with provisions, petrol and personal belongings.

12.                   The standard 100 gallon water trailer was excellent and gave no trouble when towed behind a one ton lorry.

SUGGESTIONS.     
1.         The defects above to be remedied.

2.         The two units:  Trailer & Motor, & Generator (latter carried up to the present in a three ton lorry), could be split up for incorporation on standard lorries as follows:-

(a)        Lorry carrying:  Motor, generator, refrigerator & insulated water tank (The system being simplified so that the motor works direct on to the compressor, thus cutting out one electric motor).  Pump from water trailer to ins. tank.

(b)        Lorry carrying:  Darkrooms and electric motor to work either air circulating system or water to taps.

(c)        Stores lorry, fitted with cupboards holding specialized equipment rigidly;  film & print drying system, and air circulating fans.

 (d)       Water trailer as before.

            An insulated water pipe will be necessary to couple (a) & (b).  And water pipe for filling insulated tank.

3.         Each lorry should have a sail for spreading over its unit to protect it from the sun and induce draught.

4.            Photographers should undergo a course in the working and filling of the refrigerator.  This is most important as our knowledge was taxed to the utmost on one occasion during the advance when a pipe cracked and all the gas escaped.

5.         Air cameras must not be overlooked in respect of storage space.  Cameras suffered badly through damp and dust in the East African campaign.

General.          
                        The motors and generators supplied for the Trailers worked excellently.  In selecting the voltage and current of apparatus for future units, due regard must be given to spares.


                      Capt
                      Chief Photographic Officer,                                Headquarters 207 Group.                          12th May, 1942."
                     

23.       1942 May - Advanced Course No.3 - persons who completed and passed this coarse were:    
            W.O.II            R.C.  Hodgson.        
            F/Sgt.            E.G.  Keeling.           
            F/Sgt.            H.L.  Linforth.          
            F/Sgt.            R.E.  Edwards.         
            A/M.            C.W.  Olley.  
            A/M.            I.    Gardner.          

24.       1942 July - Advance Course No.4 includes:-         
            W.O.II            A.D.  Bensusan.        
            F/Sgt.            R.G.  Pollock.           
            Cpl.            C.E.  Dean.  
            Cpl.            P.G.  Crawley.         
            LAC.            N.B.  Blackman.       
            A/M.            C.    Nicholls.          

26.       1942 August - Advanced Course No. 5.  Those that passed:-          
            A/Cpl.            (S.A.A.F.)        J.  Sovaur.           
            A/Cpl.            (S.A.A.F.)        G.  Gibbs. 
            A/M.            (S.A.A.F.)        E.  Ballance.         
            Cpl.            (R.A.F.)           R.  Gey.    
            Cpl.            (R.A.F.)           S.  Smith.  
            Cpl.            (R.A.F.)           P.  Vaughan.         
            Cpl.            (R.A.F.)           P.  Talbot 
            LAC.            (R.A.F.)           E.  Dickenson.

27.       1942 December 1 - Gloster A.S. 31 (No. 250) bought from A.O.C. in 1933 is scrapped.  When purchased this was the S.A.A.F.'s first twin engine aircraft.


28.       1942 December 10 - "Minute from D.A.T. to Training H.Q. concerning a Photographic Course for officers.

"1.                    The attached syllabus for the above mentioned course is hereby approved.

2.                     It is pointed out that the object of the course should be to teach these officers photographic section routine and general production principles and to acquaint them with relevant Air Publications in order to fit them for their duties in supervising the smooth running of the sections.

3.                     It is doubtful whether the technical knowledge which could be acquired on a course of 14 days duration would be sufficient to enable the officers concerned to judge the technical quality of the work in every aspect.  In the initial stages, should they have reason to believe the work is not of the required standard, it is suggested that they apply through group to Training Headquarters or this Directorate for advice sending specimen photographs from the section in question.

4.                     Kindly submit the detailed "Working Syllabus" for this course to this Directorate for approval.

                                                                                    Signed: W.D. CORSE. (Maj)
                                                                                                AIR VICE MARCHAL.   
                                                                                    DIRECTOR OF AIR TRAINING."

29.              1943 February 17 - From O.C., 67 Air School to O.C. No. 21 Group H.Q.   
"Johannesburg - The following personnel who have qualified on instructors courses but who have to date not been promoted (all of rank less than temporary corporal).        

30.            S.A.A.F. :

            A/M.                R.C.            Triggs. 
            A/M.                G.            Royle. 

            W.A.A.F. :
            A/Wom.            G.M.N.            Chamings.       

            R.A.F.   :
            L.A.C.             N.B.            Blankman.       
            L.A.C.             E.            Dickenson.     
            L.A.C.             W.            Langridge.       
            L.A.C.             A.H.            Braud.
            L.A.C.             R.G.            Chippington.
            L.A.C.             E.            Guiel."

30.       1943 April - From D.A.T. to O.C. No. 25 Group:-           
                        "No. P. 988 Lt.  N.J. Swardt has been selected as No.
            25 Group Photographic Officer but due to his posting from    
            East Africa it is uncertain when he will arrive to take up            
            his new duties."

31.       1943 July 15 - From D.A.P. - An Air Force instructional Film Section (A.F.I.F.S.) has been formed as part of 67 Air School establishment but attached to U.D.F. Film Production Unit.  It will function under Director of Air Training While under administration of 67 Air School.  The Section will be accommodated in Impala House, Pretoria with Lt. W.H. James as its O.C.

32.       1944 - Job No. 15/43 was a photo survey done in Swaziland for the Resident Commissioner of Swaziland.  The survey party returned to 67 Air School on 21 February 1944.  The following letter of appreciation was received by the O.C. 67 Air School:-     

                                                                "THE RESIDENT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE,
                                                                                    MBABANE   -   SWAZILAND.           
                                                                                                 23 February, 1944.  

Dear Major Ireland-Low,   
            As the Officer who introduced Lieut. Molyneux and his Survey Detachment to Swaziland I write to you to express my pleasure at the way all the members of the detachment have conducted themselves while stationed at Mbabane.

            The frequent bad weather has often given them many very tedious hours during which they must have been tempted to give way to boredom, but always they were in good spirits and were appreciated as welcome members of the local community.

            A great deal of the credit for the happiness of the detachment and its good relations with everyone was due to its Officer Commanding, Lieut. Molyneux.  His perpetual cheerfulness and assured control of his men could not but ensure the excellent relations which existed always between the members of the detachment and officials and the public here.  I am also indebted to him for the assistance he gave to the Director of Public Works in taking him as a passenger in his aircraft as approved by you in October last.

            Generally the Aerial survey is likely to be most useful in the future to this Territory, and I am most gratified that it has been carried out with such complete co-operation from the detachment you sent down.

                                                Yours sincerely,         
                                                                                                 (SGD) E.V. Featherstone.
                                                                                                   RESIDENT COMMISSIONER.
Major J. Ireland-Low,   
            O.C. No. 67 Air School,
                        Zwartkop.      
                                    P.O. ROBERTS HEIGHTS."

33.       1944 February - Instrument repairers courses No. 18 and 19 were held during the month - no failures.

34.       1944 March - No less than 4 photo survey parties are busy around the country at this time - Gollel, Queenstown/Aliwal North, Ladismith and Cape Town.  One N.C.O. and one Air Mechanic was sent to Cape Town to man the photo stall at the Cape Town Cavalcade.  During February and March some 1925 contacts, 827 enlargements and 12 mosaics were made at the unit H.Q.

35.       1944 March 24 - "Some months ago Captain McGlashen, Chief Instructor at No. 67 Air School and Lieut. Swardt, then in the Middle East, were posted to U.K. to study the latest Photographic production methods and equipment.  Captain McGlashen has now arrived in London but it is learnt that Lieut. Swart has been appointed Photographic Officer to No. 3 Wing and has thus missed the opportunity of gaining new and valuable information from U.K."

                                                                                                 Signed: W.D. CORSE. Maj.
                                                                                                            C.O. PHOTOGRAPHY."

36.       1944 April 24.          
"Telegrams : "Airmed"      CENTRAL MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENT S.A.A.F.
                                                              P.O. ROBERTS HEIGHTS.      
                                                                        24 April,  1944.

DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY, S.A.A.F. DEFENCE HEADQUARTERS, PRETORIA.

CAPE TOWN CAVALCADE.

1.         The Central Medical Establishment would like to place on record their thanks and appreciation for the help given to it by the Photographic Section of the S.A.A.F. in the preparation of the Establishment's Exhibits at the Cape Town Cavalcade.

2.         The Medical Officers in charge of the Establishment's stalls report that the interest and value of their exhibits were greatly enhanced by the assistance given them by the Photographic Section from whom they always received the fullest co-operation.

                                                                                                Singed: E.M. GRAFF  
                                                                                                   S/LDR.
                                                                                                   for OFFICER COMMANDING
                                                                         CENTRAL MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENT
                                                                                    SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE.

COPY TO:            DIRECTOR GENERAL OF MEDICAL SERVICES, M.8 BARTON KEEP, PTA."

37.       1944 April 27 - Aerial Photographers Badge.

"DIRECTOR OF AIR PERSONNEL & ORG.

AIR PHOTOGRAPHERS BADGE.

1.         A request has been received from the Officer Commanding No. 67 Air School that representations be made to higher authority for photographers to be granted permission to wear a distinguishing badge.

2.         As the Royal Air Force photographic personnel are not required to fly in the course of there duties the need for the issue of a distinguishing badge has not arisen but in the South African Air Force certain photographers are required to do a considerable amount of both operational and survey flying.

3.         The following details, submitted by the Officer Commanding No. 67 Air School, give some indication of the flying hours put in by photographic personnel of the S.A.A.F.

No.                  Rank            Name                           Operational                  Non Operational     
P.4749V            W.O.I            Mobbs    R.J.                  92.55 hours                729.10 hours.  
P.6328V            A/Sgt            Pfuhl    J.A.                  76.00 hours                524.00 hours.  
 35108V            A/Sgt            Klausner H.A.             Nil                                326.00 hours.  
 96842V            A/Cpl            Smart    R.H.                 No Record             336.15 hours.  
116014V            A/Mec            Thompson J.V.            Nil                                309.00 hours.

            Besides the above mentioned there are photographers at both schools and squadrons who have completed an equally large number of flying hours in the course of their duties.

4.         There have been several photographers Mentioned in Despatches for their photographic work in the air during operations and one Corporal Sowell (now Lieutenant) was awarded the D.F.M. and yet these men can wear no distinguishing badge of any kind to indicate that their work entails air crew duties.  In this respect Captain Duncan, three times Mentioned in Despatches, has been authorized to wear an Air Gunners Badge in recognition of the work he has carried out, but this is the only known case of its kind.

5.         It is therefore suggested that photographers who have completed not less than 25 hours operational flying or 50 hours survey flying be granted permission to wear a Half Wing with the letters "A.P." within the laurel wreath.

6.         It is further suggested that S.A.A.F. and W.A.A.F. personnel who are qualified air photographers but are not employed on flying duties be granted permission to wear an arm badge, as is the practice in Naval Services, e.g. a Petty Officer and Chief Petty Officer wears a camera surmounted by a star.

                                                                                                             Signed: W.D. Corse.   
                                                                                       STAFF OFFICER PHOTOGRAPHY."

38.       1944 April (From War diary) - Three Photo survey parties are in the field doing assorted photo surveys while 2 areas are being flown from 67 Air School H.Q. (Pretoria).  A Court of enquiry was held at 67 Air School concerning a camera which fell out of the aircraft on one of the tasks in the Drakensberg area (Grants Castle).  Capt. E.B. White was posted to 67 Air School on 24-4-44 and has taken over as chief instructor.

39.       1944 May to July - With further work on the above surveys, tasks included were undertaken from Ladismith (Natal), Oudshoorn, Queenstown, Kimberly and Maun (Bechuanaland).  Lt. B.R.Beanetts was posted to this unit on 24 May 1944 and attached to the survey team at Ladysmith to gain experience in the field.  Problems are being experieced keeping the limited number of survey cameras operational as they are now old and worn and there is also no time to repair them properly.  Capt. Q.E.W. McGlashan was posted back to 67 Air School on 27-6-1944 on his return from the U.K.

40.       1944 July - Major Ireland-Low (O.C.) and Maj. Corse (Staff Officer Photography)  left by air on 18 july to visit the Maun  survey party.  While landing at Palapye Road to refuel the a/c overran and crashed into trees bordering the aerodrome.  Nobody was hurt and the party proceeded to Francistown by rail and then on to Maun by air.  Returning to HQ on the 25 July 1944.

41.       1944 July - During the month a Bechuanaland Protectorate Official who had been taken seriously ill at Mhemba was conveyed to Maun by air with one of this Unit's (67A/S) aircraft.  In a letter of appreciation received by the Unit, the Bechuanaland Authorities state that the movement by air of the official concerned undoubtedly saved his life.

During May/June/July  -  the following production was done by 6745 HQ.

1320 Contacts, 3550 Enlargements, 9 Mosaics, 3469 Passports/ID  and assorted other tasks.

42.       1944 August - Exact date unknown - Newspaper unknown.  From a clipping in a newspaper.

"FIRST SAAF MOSQUITO LANDS IN SA.

The first of a squadron of Mosquitoes to belong in South African Air Force, landed at Swartkop Air Station yesterday afternoon at 3 pm from Kisuma.  The plane flew at an average speed at 360mph.

The other planes, eight are expected, will arrive at Swartkop this afternoon and will be met by the British High Commisioner,Sir Evelyn Barins, Air Vice Marshal M.B. Frew, head of the British Air Mission, and Senior South African Air Force Oficcers.

Mosquitoes are the fastest twin-engined aircraft in the world and can fly at well over 400 mph.

The Mosquitoes belong to No 60 Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron of the SAAF.  The squadron was equipped with them on the instructions of Field Marshal Montgomery for a survey of the .... .... before he launched his attack.  They were used throughout the rest of North African Campaign and again in Italy.  In the course of these campaignes, under Major E.U. Brierley, D.F.C. and American D.F.C.  The squadron won 12 D.F.C.'s, three American D.F.C.'s, two M.B.E.'s and 16 Mentions in Dispatches.

With the return of the squadron to South Africa the aircraft have been handed over to the SAAF by the R.A.F."

43.       1944 August - AIRCRAFT.   
            Survey during the past month has been held up due to various unavoidable circumstances.  Anson 1104 which was to replace Anson 1107 which has been written off by a Board of Survey needed modifications to enable it to be used on Survey.  These modifications were carried out at 7 Air Depot and took just over two weeks.

            Anson 6602 which is to replace Oxford 3622 had also to be converted and will only now be available on the 10 th of this month.

            As previously stated Ansons 1121 and 4302 crashed and were thus unserviceable for about the whole month of August.

            The position has now improved greatly and we should be operating all five Ansons this month.  With standardization of Aircraft i.e. All Ansons, it will be able to improve the Aircraft serviceability and turn out a large amount of work.

            Photographic work carried out at Headquarters during the month is as follows:-

            F. 24 Films ..................     5         
Ground Negatives .............   223 
Contact Prints ............... 1,219  
Enlargements ................. 2,024  
Mounts .......................     9         
Mosaics ......................     8         
Lantern Slides ...............    nil

44.       1944 September - AIRCRAFT.   
            The aircraft position is now most satisfatory.  All aircraft are serviceable and have been converted for survey flying.  The addition of electrical intercommunication has still to be carried out on two aircraft, both of which are almost due for major inspections when additions will be effected.           
            Stadardisation of aircraft and fittings has now been reached with result in superior work being turned out under easier working conditions.  With the proposed Sperry Automatic Pilots fitted, the aircraft, as now operated by this Unit, will be as near perfect as we can hope to achieve the present circumstances.

45.            October 27 - Anson 1104 crashed at Piet Retief while on survey  duty - No casualties.

Enlargements ..................  1047   
Contacts ......................  2444   
Ground Negs ...................   268     
Mosaics .......................     5

46.       1944 November - PIET RETIEF - JOB 16/43.   
            Weather conditions in this area have been most unfavourable for aerial survey and storms have further retarded work on this job.      
            On the 22nd a severe hail storm broke over the aerodrome causing extensive damage to plywood of the main planes and tail planes and to a lesser degree to the fabric on the upper parts of the fuselage and control surfaces.  The N.M.C. guards reporting the damage, estimated the size of the hail stones to be as large as tennis balls.   
            Wo.I. Leysath in charge of a party of mechanics has been sent to Piet Retief to effect repairs.   
            Piet Retief is now recognised as the area with the worst Thunder-lightning in the whole Republic of South-Africa.

47.       1944 December - Anson 4302 crashed at Gaborone on 28/12/44 while engaged on survey duties - No casualties.  
            Lieut/s J.P. Sullivan (pilot) and T.W. Williamson (photo officer) were posted to the unit during this month.       

48.       1945 January 17 - Warsaw falls to Russian army.

49.       1945 April 28 - Mussulini killed by Italian Partisans (this was a real nasty show)  
April 30 - Hitler and Eva Brown commit suicide 
May 2 - German troops in Italy surrender.        
May 7 - German surrender to Western Allies.

50.       1945 May - May 8 - German surrender to Russians signed V.E. (Victory Europe) Day.   
July 16 - First atom bomb tested.

51.       1945 August - Aug. 6 - Atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima.       
Aug. 9 - Atom bomb dropped on Nagasaki.

52.       1945 August - Aug. 15 - Japan's Emperor Hirahito broadcasts Japanese surrender - V.J. Day.

53.       1945 January - Jan. 15 Capt RCR Hogson (photo officer) is posted into the unit.     
            Lt. W.B. Gibson proceeds on 90 days Temporary Release 19/1/45.

                                                Enlargements .................  796     
                                                Contacts ..................... 5,627  
All done at HQ.    
February         
                        Captain D Duncan posted in on 13/2/45           
                        Tasks done during February.        
                                                Contacts ...................... 2,273  
                                                Enlargements ..................  1095   
April 30 - Anson 6607 damaged at Upington while engaged on aerial survey work  - No caualties.         
                        Lt. W.B. Gibson (pilot) posted back to his unit.           
May - Anson 6604 and 4573 allotted to 67 A/S.    
May - 8 V.E. day parade held at Z.A.S.  
July - posted in:  T/Capt. P.C. Sewell D.F.M. (photo)
                                                WS/Lt. GL Thornland (Pilot)  
              Posted out:  WS/Lt. HOV Jensen (pilot)   
No further courses - training stopped.          
August. 2nd/Lt.  O.P. Kelly (pilot) posted in 13/8/45.          

54.            September - WS/Lt KH Lawlor MBE (pilot) posted in 6/9/45 
                                      Lt PK Springett (Nav) posted in 29/9/45           
                                      Lt G Williams (Obs)

                                    A/M M. Kaplan qualifies as Photographer Aircraft.
October - WS/Lt BW Barnes (pilot) posted in 23.10.45

1946.  
            The Air Force Instructional Film Unit was disbanded during this year.           
            Dakota's for photo survey work introduced during this year - and the first big survey task undertaken was the search for the "lost city of the Kalahari" - which was never found.  There is a story about a bunch of farmers who were loaded, with stacks of biltong, in the Dakota and while in the air the farmers got pretty sick which made the crew of the a/c  heir to a lot of biltong!  (These farmers all professed to know where the city was!)   
            30 April - Major Ireland-Low retires and Capt. G McGlashan takes over as O.C. of 67 Air School.

56.       January - The first post-war basic photography course started about this time.
Names of students:  A/Mechanics              P.H. Ellis,  H.L. Kruger, W.F. Rabe', F.A. Vosloo.           
            These courses ran for a year but the students were also used on full production during their basic training.  They were also used to clean the section etc! - Parades were held every Saturday morning and cleaning up of sections occurred directly after the parade.

57.       Royal visit.  (H.M. King George VI, Queen Elizabeth and Princess Elizabeth and Margaret.)       
            During the visit some Hawker Sea Furies from 802 squadron (Fleet Air Arm) from aircraft carrier H.M.S. Vengeance flew up to Zwartkops on a visit to the SAAF members that included the following volunteers from 67 A/S: Air Sgts.  P.A. Kriel and J.A. Phuhl, W.F. Rabe' and F.A. Vosloo.           
            At a function held at the Military College on 31 March 1947 in honour of the Royal Family, the following 67 A/S.    
            Members attended:      
Capt McGlashan (OC), Lt Lello (Adjudant), Lt Lotz, Lt Thornton, Lt. Grove', FSgt Van Rhyn, FSgt Mobbs, Air Sgt Kriel, Phuhl and Burton, corporals: Law, Drayton and Schoeman, Air Mechanics Ellis, Kruger, Rabe' and Vosloo.           

58.       At this time practically every Air Force had a Bugle and Drum band of its own for parades. Regular parades were held every Saturday morning.  We worked 5 1/2 day weeks in those days!      

59.       1947 June - June 19 - a letter from Lt Grove', officer ic of 67 A/S Survey detachment at Bethlehem.      

a)         A fuel order to Vacuum Oil Co (now Mobile), Bloemfontein (Mr du Plessis) was cancelled after receipt of telex from O.C. 67 A/S.           

b)            Permission is requested to have air bottles filled at Bethlehem Engineering Works to save time and rail expenses.        

June 27 - Letter from O.C. Afs Zwartkops to OC., 67A/S.  Only £10 a year is available to recharging of bottles for the whole of the SAAF.  In view of this it is neccessary to submit a demand as and when neccessary.  67 A/S should procure a petrol driven compressor to be used by detachments away from Unit HQ.

60.       1947 September - September 19 - letters from GHQ: Dakota no 6825 is to be used for photo survey and requires a Radio altimeter SCR 718. - OC, 31 Group to investigate.   
September 25 - From 31 Group, SAAF:-  The following radio equipment is required for the aircraft:-

a)            Standard radio equipment is required for all A/C.

b)            Interphone equipment as is fitted to other photographic Dakota's.         

c)         A high Range Radio Altimeter.

61.       1947 August - August 8 - A memo from the S.A.R., "V" Building to 24 Air Training Group, SAAF concerning MT vehicle and General Stores 18020 lbs (ú77-17-2d) ex 67 AD ST, Graaf -Reinet to obtain and forward to above office the rail consignment note giving details of above commodities.  Also certify that the vehicle has been in use in the Union of SA. for over 6 months or not. (See minute dated 19 April 1948)

62.       1947.  The second post war course must have started in the last half of this year or more probably the beginning of 1948.


63.       1948 January -   Start of second post-war photo course?  About this time  L.A.M. Dickinson and A/M. Slingsby-Smith, joined SAAF and became photo instructors at 67 A.S. Students on this course were:- Cordier, Wells, Bouyd, Venn, Botha, de Villiers, Human, Lategan and Machelvey.      
            Dickenson and Smith were ex R.A.F. - if you look back to August 1942 you will see that Smith and E Dickenson passed their advanced Course (NO 5) at 67 A/S.       

64.       1948 July - July 26  - August - September 30:-            SAAF aircrews participated in the Berlin Airlift.

65.       1948 April - Handwritten minute from:     
                                                                        "Financial Section        
                                                                        Dept. of Defence, "V" Bldg    
                                                                        Beatrix Str.  Pretoria.   
            To O.C.   
              67 Air School 
                 P.O. Valhalla   
                                    Lyttelton Goods Railage December 1946.

            With reference to your minute 67 A/S 461/Accts dated 20/8/47 I have to advise that not S.A.T Depot, Port Elizabeth had no knowledge of the consignment in the question.  The attached is a copy of a consignment note now obtained from the SAR. H.    
Item, Photo Van:                
            Please obtain the registered weight of the van from the director of Transport and declare "Motor vehicle in use in the Union for more than 6 months."          
Item, 17 boxes spare parts.     
            Please furnish a complete description and separate weight, which may be estimated if actual weight is not available.   
Item, Power Plants. 
            Please describe and say for what purpose used and furnished weight of same.
                                    An early reply will be appreciated.

            (See enclosure:  Reply by 67 A/S)

                                                                                    Officer Commanding.  
                                                                                     No 67 Air School.      
                                                                                      P.O. Valhalla.          
Asst. Secretary Fin.     
"V" Buildings,  
PRETORIA.

            Lyttelton Goods Railage December 1945.  
            Your minute reference DF 1435/21699/A2 dated 19.4.48 refers. 
                                    Enclosed herewith please find the consignment note with the required details.           
            Item Photo Van.      
            All up weight of the van is 11,400 lbs. and is a "Motor vehicle in use in the Union of S.A. for more than 6 months."          
            Item 17 Boxes spare parts.               
            Comprise of the following equipment.       
            1.            Containing oil.                                      30 lbs. 
            1.            Screw picquets and cord.                            35 lbs.
            1.            Tent pegs.                                                    90 lbs.
            3.            Tool boxes.                                                  90 lbs.
            1.            Aircraft tyres and tubes.                                    40 lbs.
            1.            Portable compressor.                                       50 lbs.
            9.            Cases oxygen.                                                            325 lbs.                  
            Item Power Plant.    
            A power plant approx. 3' 6" by 3'0" weight approx 300 lbs for the purpose of supplying electricity to the Photo Van when required for photographic work.  

/JEL                                                                                                     Officer Commanding.  
                                                                                                             No 67 Air School."

66.       1948 August -             1  Aug (to 31 July 49) - 3rd post-war photo course started 1 Aug.  Some names that I remember:  Van der Walt (who drew excellent cartoons), "Carly" Burger, Keyser (Sgt. Schoeman always got confused between these two), Alf MŁller, Boyd, Venn, Rabe plus some others. 
            I arrived at 67 A/S (Alf MŁller) during 1948 and was placed on the 3rd course - during the years that I was at 67 A/S (1948 - Jan 1951) "Trig-Survey" had some of their staff stationed at 67 A/S (civilian personnel).

67.       There are assorted letters concerning rail warrants and the refunds on rail tickets.       
            These letters are signed by Lt. Featherstone who became adjudant of 67 A/S (1949) after Lt Lello left.      
            67 A/S played a game of rugby against a team of pilot officers - final score a draw: 6-6.     
            A civilian club called "Club 17" was founded at ZAS and 67 AS was strongly represented on the club's membership.  Most of the members were either SAAF or their families.  Rank was not used in the club.  The club held various functions (dances, picnics, etc.) and even had it's own band!  
            During this year we again had a visit by "Sea Furies" from a RN aircraft carrier docked in Cape Town.

68.       1950 - Zwartkop Air Station (ZAS) - The Dutch spelling of "Zwartkop" was dropped in favour of the Afrikaans "Swartkop"

69.       1950 -             (Insert) 60 Eskader Krygsverrigting order no. 2/50.

70.       1950 March -             13 March - 16 June. The remaining students from courses 1,2 and 3 were thrown together to form one group and was placed on course.  This "Refresher Course" was something in the nature of a qualifying course and consisited of revision and updating on new equipment, material and teqniques.  After completion of this course the students were considered qualified for all practical purposes, but not officially, i.e. they were not paid as qualifieds or considered for promotion until after 5 years service.

71.       1950 November - A decision to relinguish Photographic Reconaissance resulted in 60 squadron being dissolved and aerial survey photography being taken over by 67 A.S. using ex 60 Squadron aircraft.

HOOFSTUK 5

1950 - 1959

1.            Negentein vyftig was 'n jaar waar daar veranderinge plaasgevind het.

2.         Op 1 Feb 1950 kry die fotografiese afdeling sy eie naam waar hy voorheen 67 lugskool geheet het kry hy nou sy eie naam nl. Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting. ("Central Phototechnical Establishment"). Hierde naam word reg deur die lugmag gebruik om die afkorting  C P E  of S F I word algemeen bekend.  Die oorsprong  van die naam is heel moontlik verkry  van die "Central Phototechnical Establishment" in BelgiŽ waar Lt Lello later Brig gedurende die oorlog op kursus was.

3.         Die bevelvoerder van SFI was Kapt Q E W Mc Glashan en die adj Lt Featherstore 'n vlieenier.  Ook in Feb word 'n voorlegging gedoen van 'n voorgestelde eskader wapen vir 60 Fotografiese.

4.                  Eskader waarvan 'n voorbeeld aangeheg is.

5.                  Vakleerlingskap 5 jaar.

 

Telephone  5-3641                                                    Ref:60S/728/1/EQ     
 Extension     155                                                      No. 60 Squardron,      
                                                                                                P.O. Valhalla.          
                                                                                                1st February 1950
Director General of Air Force  
Air Directorate,           
Voortrekkerhoogte.

UNIT BADGES : NO. 60 SQUARDRON

1.         Your letter DGAF (OA) 728/2/19/EQ dated 3rd January 1950 refers.

2.         Your specimen, showing the tentative design of the No 60 Squadron Unit badge in the new frame, is acceptable, and is enclosed.

                                                                        Signed:  (R.F. ARMSTRONG)   MAJOR                                                                                        Commanding Officer No 60 Squardron"

5.         Later in 1950 gaan Kapt Mc Glashan op 'n stafkursus by die Lugmag Kollege en Kapt E B White word waarneemende bev Na Kapt Mc Glashan sy stafkursus voltooi het word hy 'n K S by die Kollege.

6.         Die uitrusting wat gebruik was vir opmeting was 'n 9" Negatief  OSC kamera wat in die Dakotas gemonteer was.

7.         1950.  Die Koreanse oorlog breek uit en die volgende fotograwe doen toere in Korea 1950 - 1951.   
            L/Kpt            E Dickenson                    26/9/50 - 18/12/51       
            L/Kpt            F SlĒter                        26/9/50 -5/10/51          
            L/Kpt            L A Titchener                      26/9/50 - 5/10/51

8.         Hierdie personeel doen hoofsaaklik geweer kameras en algemene grond fotografie. Gedurend 1950 word daar met opmeting en opleiding voortgegaan.  Daar is egter geen rekord voogehou nie aangesien leers vernietig was.  Sover vasgestel hou word kry Lt R N Mabbsen Lt N J Swardt hul kommisie in 1950 en Lt Swardt word verplaas na LMHK en Lt Mobbsen word Adj SFI.

9.         1951.  In Feb 1951 was die sterke van SFI soos volg:- en Mei 1950 as volg en elieeniers. Aug soos volg:

                                                                                    "Ref:-CPE/825/6/ORG.

Telephone : 71-2441                            Commanding Officer,   
Extension : 110                         Central Photographic Establishment,  
                                                                        Air Force Station Swartkop,       
                                                                        P.O. Valhalla.          
                                                                        1st August, 1951.

Officer Commanding,  
Air Force Station Swartkop,       
P.O. Valhalla.

The Secretary, 
SAAF Officers Mess,  
P.O. Voortrekkerhoogte.

MONTHLY NOMINAL ROLL : PERMANENT FORCE S.A.A.F.         
1.            Forwarding herewith nominal Roll in respect of this unit for the month ending 31st July, 1951.

(a)            Permanent Force : Officers

Rank    Name            Mustering         Living In or Out         
Capt     E.B. WHITE.            Photo.Off       Out     
Lieut     C.A.P. Crisp.            Pilot.GD.        Out     
Lieut     T.W. Hill.            Pilot.GD.        Out     
Lieut     E.K. West.   Pilot. GD.      Out

(b)            Permanent Force : Other Ranks.

  No                 Rank                Name                           Mustering         Living In or Out         
P.6328             F/Sgt                Pfuhl  A.J.                  Photo.A/C      Out     
P.8204             A/Sgt               Kelly  A.G.R.             Photo.A/C      "          
P.8643             "                       Nel A.J.H.                    Clerk.GD.               "          
P.7622             A/Mec             Armour  A.K.                Photo.A/C (AT)            "          
P.13001           "                       Baverstock  G.A.            Photo.A/C.     "          
P.10136           "                       Bezuidenhout A.J.            Photo.A/C (AT)            IN       
P.12485           "                       Bosch J.S.A.               Photo.A/C (AT)            "          
P.7635 "                                  Burger N.H.                 "           "          
P.11609           "                       de Villiers A.J.       "           "          
P.12523           "                       Fritz C.A.                  "           "          
P.11849           "                       Kotse H.A.                 "           "          
P.13117           "                       Langley E.P.                   "           "          
P.11593           "                       McKelvey J.G.            "           "          
P.11101           "                       Polden B.J.                  "           "          
P.9921 "                                  Rabe W.F.                 "           "          
P.7669 "                                  Schnetler O.G.                            "            "          
P.14390           "                       Smith G.C.J.              Clerk.GD       "          

  No     Rank            Name            Mustering         Living In or Out         
P.11107            N/Mec             Swardt C.C.D.             Photo.A/C (AT)            "          
P.11589           "                       Venn N.C.                    "           "          
P.7661 "                                  Wapenaar H.J .               "           "          
P.9061 "                                  Wetton E.B.                   "           "          
P.11174           "                       Wells C.G.                     "           "          

                                      Signed:    (E.K. West).    Lieut.
                                                    Commanding Officer,  Capt. 
                                                                        Central Photographic Establishment."

 

                                                                                    "Ref:- CPE/825/6/ORG.

Telephone : 71-2441.               Commanding Officer,   
Extension : 110                         Central Photographic Establishment,  
                                                                        Air Force Station   
                                                                        Swartkop.      
                                                                        30th June, 1951.

Officer Commanding,  
Air Force Station Swartkop,       
P.O. Valhalla.

The Secreatry, 
SAAF Officers Mess,  
P.O. Voortrekkerhoogte.

MONTHLY NOMINAL ROLL : PERMANENT FORCE SAAF

1.            Forwarding herewith nominal roll in respect of this unit for the month ending 30th June, 1951.

(i)            Permanent Force : Officers

Rank                Name               Mustering                     Living In or Out         
Capt     Q.E.W. McGlashan            Photo.Off.                  Out     
Capt     E.B. White               Photo. Off.                  Out     
Lieut     C.A.P. Crisp                Pilot. GD.                  Out     
Lieut     T.W. Hill                   Pilot.GD.                    Out     
Lieut     E.K. West                Pilot.GD.                    Out

(ii)            Permanent Force : Other Ranks

Number            Rank                Name                           Mustering         Living IN or Out
P.6328             F/Sgt                Pfuhl A.J.                  Photo.A/C.     Out     
P.8204             A/Sgt               Kelly A.G.                 Photo.A/C.     Out     
P.8643             A/Sgt               Nel A.J.H.              Clerk.GD.      Out     
P.7622             A/Mec             Armour A.K.                Photo.A/C(AT)            Out     
P.13001            A/Mec             Baverstock G.A.            Photo.A/C      Out     
P.10136            A/Mec             Bezuidenhout A.J.            Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.12485            A/Mec             Bosch J.S.A.               Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.7635             A/Mec             Burger N.H.                Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.11609            A/Mec             de Villiers D.J.   

         Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.12523            A/Mec             Fritz C.A.                 Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.11849            A/Mec             Kotze H.A.                 Photo.A/C(AT)            In        

Number            Rank                Name                           Mustering         Living IN or Out        
P.13117            A/Mec             Langley E.P.                  Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.11593            A/Mec             McKelvey J.G.            Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.11101            A/Mec             Polden B.J.                  Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.9921             A/Mec             Rabe W.F.                Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.7669             A/Mec             Schnetler O.G.                        Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.14390            A/Mec             Smith G.C.J.              Clerk.GD.                  In        
P.11107            A/Mec             Swardt C.C.D.             Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.11589            A/Mec             Venn N.C.                Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.7661             A/Mec             Wapenaar H.J.                        Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.9061             A/Mec             Wetton E.B.                 Photo.A/C(AT)            In        
P.11174            A/Mec             Wells C.G.                 Photo.A/C(AT)            In        

                                                                        Signed:            (E.K.West)     Lt      
                                                                        Commanding Officer                 Capt.                                                                            Central Photographic Establishment"

 

 

"Telefoon : 5-3641                               Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting,          
Bylyn    :             77                                   Lugmagstasie Swartkop,       
                                                                           P.K. Valhalla.  
                                                                           12de Maart 1951.

Bevelvoerender Offisier,           
1 Groep,         
P.K. Voortrekkerhoogte.

Bevelvoerende Offisier,           
Lugmagstasie Swartkop,       
P.K. Valhalla.

STERKTESTAAT SOOS OP 28.2.51.

No.      Rang            Naam            Indeling           
(i)         Kapt.            E.B. White            Foto.Off.

(ii)  Minderes.  
P.6328             V/Sers.              Pfuhl J.A.            Opm. Foto.     
P.6879   "                                 Kriel P.A.         "      
P.7622             L/Wtgk            Armour A.K.    Foto. L.M. (AK)      
P.7635             L/Wtgk            Burger N.H.        "      
P.7647   "                                 Keyser D.K.        "      
P.7661   "                                 Wapenaar H.J.                "          
P.7669   "                                 Schnetler O.G.                "          
P.8204             L/Sers              Kelly A.G.R. Foto. L.M.   
P.8528   "                                 Nel J.A.      Klk. A.D.    
P.9061             L/Wtgk            Wetton E.B.            Foto.L.M. (AK)         
P.9921   "                                 Rabe W.F.         "     
P.10074             "                       Vosloo F.A.          "     
P.10136             "                       Bezuidenhout A.J.              "          
P.11101             "                       Polden B.J.           "     
P.11107             "                       Swardt C.C.D.      "     
P.11174             "                       Wells C.G.          "     
P.118589           "                       Venn N.C.         "     
P.11593             "                       McKelvey J.G.                 "          
No.      Rang            Naam            Indeling           
P.11609             "                       de Villiers D.J.            "          
P.11632             "                       Lategan G.             "     
P.11849             "                       Kotze H.A.          "     
P.11852             "                       Louw J.T.           "     
P.12485             "                       Bosch J.S.A.        "     
P.12523             "                       Fritz C.A.          "     
P.13001             "                       Baverstock G.A.            Foto.L.M.       
P.13117             "                       Langley E.P.                  Foto.L.M. (AK)         
P.14390             "                       Smith G.C.J.              Klk.A.D.       

Daar is geen toevoegings by hierdie eenheid nie.

                                                Geteken:     (E.K. WEST)  Luit namens Kapt                                                                                           Waarnemende Bevelvoerder,                                                                                                      Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting"

 

10.       In 1952  Kapt E B White is nog steeds waarnemende bevelvoerder.

11.       Die sterkte van die nie blanke arbeiders was 4 lede waarvan Meshak die bekendste  was.  Waar vakleerlingskap vroŽer 5 jaar was word daar nou erkenning gegee vir skool kwakifikasies BV GTSI kry 'n vakleerling ses maande af van sy vakleerlingskap.

12.            Opmeting gaan voort en baie grondfotografie word gedoen. V/Sers P.A. Kriel word verplaas na LMS Ysterplaat.  V/Sers B Burton is die fotograaf na LMS Langebaanweg.En Kpl Slingsby Smith  die fotograaf op Congella.

13.            Fotograwe word die borskenteken vir lugfotograwe vir die eerste keer toegeken. Voorheen was daar nie 'n spesifieke kenteken vir lugfotograwe nie.  Die volgende lede kry die toekenning.

"Telephone : 2-1031                                        DGAF/SOA/728/3/EQ        
Extension  :       474     
Telegrams  : DEFAIR                                                                      Air Force House,  
                                                                                                            Potgieter Street,         
                                                                                                            Pretoria.          
                                                                                                            18th August 1951

S.A.A.F. Groups, Stations and Units.

Badge Breast Air Photographers

1.         The following member have qualified and are authorised to wear the badge Breast Air Photographers in terms of S.A. Air Force Personnel Instruction, Section 1, Number 36, paragrapghs 1-7:-

                        Captain                         Q.E.W. McGlashan      
                        Captain                        E.B. White  
                        Lieutenant                    N.J. Swardt
                        Lieutenant                    R.S. Mobbs
                        P.6328                         F/Sgt Phuhl, J.A.


2.         This information is to be published in Part II Orders of the stations or units concerned.

                                                                        Signed:  (A.J. Mossop)  Commandant   
                                                                                        for Brigadier         
                                                                                        Acting Air Chief of Staff"

14.       Twee vlieŽniers van die fotografiese vlug bedank uit die SALM naamlik Lt T.W. Hill en Lt E.K. West.

15.       1952.  Maj Q.E.W. McGlashan keer terug van die SALM Kollege en word weer bev Lt. R N Mobbs is die adj.  Die vlugure gedurender 1952 was soos volg:    
                        Opleiding vlugte             43.25  
                        Komunukasie vlugte       28.00  
                        Opmetings vlugte          211.40

16.            Dakotas 8625, 6837, 6876 en 6850 word gebruik.  Opmetings was gedoen oor die volgende areas Piketberg, Limpopo rivier, Potgietersrus, Oudshoorn, Saldanha Baai, Potchefstroom, Pretoria en verskeie ander plekke.  Daar word voort gesoek na ruines in die Lehututu area maar niks word opgemerk nie.  Die vlieŽniers van die fotografiesie vlug was die volgende Lt West, Lt Mills, Kapt Collins en Lt Crisp.

17.       Die Volgende lede vertrek na Korea: 
            V/Sers             P.A. Kriel                 4.9.52 - 1.10.53         
            L/Kpl               J.G. McKelvey                    26.5.52 - 21.7.53         
            Lt                     N.J. Swardt                         29.6.52 - 15.10.53       
L/Wtgk Wells en Kruger is die eerste naoorlogse fotograwe wat kwalifiseer vir die bors kenteken.

18.       1953.  1953 word gewone opmeting en opleiding voortgesit. Maj McGlashan bevelvoerder en Lt Mobbs adjudant.

19.       Die volgende lid vertrek na Korea: 
            L/Kpl            C.C.D. Swardt             15/4/1953 - 3/12/1953

20.       Die volgende lede ontvang medaljes vir diens in Korea:

"Telefoon : 71-2441                                        AFSS/909/2/PI          
Bylyn     :            34       
                                                                                    Lugmagstatsie Swartkop,       
                                                                                    PK Valhalla.

Bevelvoerder,  
Sentrale Fotogeniesie Inrigting           
PK Valhalla.

VERENIGDE VOLKERE DIENSMEDALJES

1.            Ingesluit hiermee is die bogenoemder medaljes vir oorhanding aan die ondergenoemder personeel.

            P11291          L/Sers            Dickinson                    E.               geteken           
            P12601          L/Kpl            Stokr                            F.                   geteken           
            P8206              L/Sers            Schoeman                  P.A.              geteken

2.            Geliewe ontvangs te erken.

                                                                        Geteken:          (G.J. Rossouw)      Kapt   
                                                                                                                          namens Komdt
                                                                                                Waarnemende Bevelvoerder   
                                                                                                  Lugmagstatsie Swartkop"

21.       In Des 1953 word die Wild RC 5 opmetings kamera vir die eerste keer in Dakota 6825 gevlieg.

22.       1954.  Bevelvoerder Maj McGlashan Adjudant Lt R N Mobbs. Lugopmetings en opleiding gaan voort.

23.       Die RC 5 kamera word aanvaar en al die fotos daks word ingerig om die kamera te akkomadeer.

24.       L/Kpl C.C.D. Swardt ontvang die VV diens medaljie

"Telefoon  :  2-1-31                                         DGAF/P2B/909/3/Pl  
Bylyna     :  189                       
Telegramme :  DEFAIR                                              HK, Lugstafhoof,    
                                                                                                Verdedigingshoofkwartier,      
                                                                                                Potgieterstraat,           
                                                                                                Pretoria.

Bevelvoerder,  
Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting.

VERENIGDE VOLKERE DIENS MEDALJE

1.            Aangeheg is een 2 1/2 duim lengte lint van bogenoemde medalje vir oorhandiging aasebleif.

P11107            Lug/Kpl           Swardt C.C.D.

2.         Die aangehegte duplikaat aansoekvorm behoorlik bekragting, moet op sy eenheidsleer geliasseer woord.

3.            Geliewe ontvangs te erken.

                                                                        Geteken            (J.P.Steyn)     Kaptein 
                                                                                                              namens Brigadier         
                                                                                                                          Lugstafhoof"

25.            Lugfotograaf borskenteken word verander.

"Telephone : 71-2441                                                           CPE/728/1/EQ

Extension  :         110     
                                                                        Central Photographic Establishment,                                                                                       A.F.S. Swartkop,       
                                                                        P.O. Valhalla.          
                                                                        14 April 1954.

Air Chief of Staff,

H.Q., Air Chief of Staff,

Defence Headquarters,

Potgieter Street,

Pretoria.

BADGE BREAST AIR PHOTOGRAPHERS

1.         It is recommended that the qualifications for the Badge Breast Air Photographers as laid down in S.A. Air Force Personal Instruction, Section 1, Number 36, paragraph 3 be amended as follows.

2.         To qualify for the Badge a photographer must:-

(a)        (i)         Be qualified ground photographer.

(ii)        Have successfully completed not less than 50 hours as a photographic navigator.


(iii)Have successfully completed not less than 50  hours as a camera operator.

(iv)       Have successfully navigated the controls, indentified the beacons and navigated the filling strips for an area of not less than 2000 square miles.

(v)        Satisfy a board of technical officers of this general ability in the maintenance of this equipment in the field and in the air. 

OR

(b)        (i) Be a qualified ground photographer.

(ii) have completed not less than 100 hours  flying as a camera operator.

(iii) Have successfully operated as a camera operator for an area of not less than 8000 square miles.

(iv) Be fully conversant with all form of camera aiming sights in current use in the S.A.A.F. and be able, with the aid of a sight, to obtain drift and time interval readings for any type of camera used for vertical photography.

(V)  Be able with the aid of a camera aiming sight to direct the aircraft for a photographic line overlap of not less than 10 miles.

(vi) Satisfy a board of technical officers of this general ability in the maintenance of his equipment in the field and in the air.

3.         In the qualifications recommended above the term "successful" implies that the work is completed without any fault whatsoever and must fall within the requirement for survey photography.

4.            Qualifying flying hours are only the hours flown, from take off to landing, when photography is actually undertaken and does not include flying due to cloud or any other fault whatsoever.

5.         The qualifying area stipulated in para 2(a) (iv) must be completed in not less than three separate survey areas with one area not less than 1000 square miles.  No area less than 200 square miles will be acceptable towards the qualifying area. The qualifying area stipulated may include one area of not more than 500 square miles and not less than 200 square miles which may be flown directly from the map without the aid of control strips.

6.         The qualifying area stipulated in para 2(b) (iii) must be completed in not less than four separate survey areas and no area less than 200 square miles will be acceptable towards the qualifying area.

7.            Qualifying areas in para 2(a)(iv) have been stipulated on the bases of the present standard scale for air survey of 1/30000. Areas of not less than 100 square miles which are flown at a greater scale will be credited by an increased area according to the scale relationship but any area credited may not exceed twice the actual area.    

8.         All photographic aircrew are to be responsible that flying log books are suitable endorsed be a responsible technical photographic officer.

9.         The reasons for recommending the above alteration to the qualification for the Badge Air Photographer are as follows:-

(a)   The survey programme for the 1954/55 season involves only three quarters of a square degree to be flown by the method involving beacons, thus restricting beyond reasonable limits the opportunity for any member of photographic aircrew to qualify.

(b)   Certain members of photographic aircrew have proved to be very satisfactory & conscientious camera operators but do not have the necessary qualifies for training as photographic navigators and under the present equlations would never be able to qualify for the badge, irrespective of the amount of flying as a camera operator.

(c)   With the advent and possible adoption of the Wild RC 5A camera the responsibilities of the camera operator are increased in that the camera operator will be responsible for the time interval and drift readings.

(d)   The badge Breast Air Photographer is regarded by all photographic aircrew as a standard of high qualification but they feel that with the present limited survey programmer they have very little opportunity to qualify under the present regulations.


                                                            Signed:            (Q.E.W. McGlashan)      Major  
                                                                                                             Officer Commanding   
                                                                        Central Photographic Establishment"

26.       Lt Mobbs bedank en Lt N.J. Swardt word adjudant.  B/L/Wtgk  Armour en Fritz kry lugfotograaf borskentekens.

"Telefoon : 71-2441                                        PF/CPE/959/2/P2      
Bylyn     :     110                                          Sentral Fototeniese Inrigting,          
                                                                                    Lugmagstasie, Swartkop,       
                                                                                    PK. Valhalla.

Adjudant Generaal,         
Groothoofkwartiere,    
Potgieterstraat,
Pretoria.

Lugstafhoof,    
Lugmaghuis,    
Potgieterstraat,
Pretoria.

Hoofbetaalmeester,     
"V" Gebou,      
Beatrixstraat,   
Pretoria.

Bedanking: Luit R.J. Mobbs

1.         Die bedanking van begenoemde offisier van die S.A. Lugmag (Staande Mag) word hiermee bekragtig. Magtiging A.G. (1) P1/40917/1 gedateer 26 Mei 1954.

2.         Die werklike datum van bedanking is net afsluiting van diens op 29.5.1954.

3.         Luit Mobbs moet op die algemene reserwe van offisiers geplaas word.

4.         Dit word hiermee gesertifiseer dat Luit Mobbs geen regiments of departimnetale skulde of laste het nie.

5.         Adres waarheen pensioen gestuur moet word:-

                                                                        R.J.Mobbs                                                                                                                               Lorainweg 9,                                                                                                                          Valhalla.

6.            Identifikasie Kaart No. 8077.  Staf dokumente en persoonlike leer word hiermee aangeheg.

Geteken:            (Q.E.W. McGlashan)   Majoor                                                                                     Belvelvoerder 
                                                                          Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting"

27.       1955.  Bevelvoerder Maj Mc Glashan en Adjudant Lt N.J. Swardt.  Lt N.J. Swardt vertrek na Engeland vir 'n kursus.  Na sy terugkeer stel hy 'n verslag op om 'n foto-vertolking sentrum op die been te bring.  Die verslag lui soos volg:

"Telephone  :  71-2441                                               CPE/S/819/2/ORG     
Extension   :          110     
                                                                        Central Photographic Establishment,  
                                                                        A.F.S. Swartkop,       
                                                                        P.O. Valhalla.          
                                                                        6 August 1955    
Officer Commanding,  
Central Photographic Establishment,  
A.F.S. Swartkop,       
P.O. Valhalla.  

AIR RECONNAISSANCE INTELLIGENCE IN THE
UNION DEFENCE FORCE

1.         I have recently returned from the United Kingdom where I completed No 31 Long Photo-Interpretation course at the Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Center.  During my stay in the United Kingdom I was closely associated, and had many discussions with British, Canadian, Australian and Dutch Intelligence Officers.  I have also previously completed two other Photo-Interpretation Courses, served during that latter stages of World War II in a P.I. capacity and as Intelligence Officer in the Korea Campaign.  As a result of these experiences and knowledge so accumulated it is patently clear to me that the U.D.F. has grossly neglected development of military intelligence is as much as that virtually nothing has been done in developing the major source of military intelligence i.e. Photo-Interpretation.

2.         In time of war photographs provide over 80% of the useful intelligence.  Most modern nations are keenly aware of this fact and have established large organizations where air reconnaissance is developed into a highly skilled science.  One nearly has to examine the priority given to P.R. aircraft to appreciate the importance Britain and the United States attach to the matter.  It is understood that in the formula of the Africa Defence Plan, photo-reconnaissance is provided for as a commitment of the allied nations.  How ever, it must be clearly understood that a photo-reconnaissance commitment is purely the provision of air photographs and not of necessity the provision of processed information from those photographs.  After all, in the modern army a patrol leader must be able to use photographs intelligently and if we wish to shelve the responsibility of photo-interpretation training we shall be at a distinct disadvantage.  There is no modern operational unit that can do without photo-interpretation simply because it provided the bulk of intelligence which is a pre-requisite to any form of military planning.

3.         In order to improve the fighting potential of the U.D.F. and to place it on a competitive basis with the forces of the nations it is recommended that the South African Air Force take the initiative and establish an organisation for the development of photo-interpretation.  As it is a matter common to all three services the co-operation of the army and navy must be sought.  Photo-interpretation involves considerable activity and is a skill or science entirely on its own, the organisation should therefore be independent.

4.         In broad outline I suggest that a Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Center be formed under the Administrative and Operational Control of the S.A.A.F.  The functions of such Unit will be the:-

(a)   Training of specialist photo-Interpreters who are to serve as instructors in initial stages.

(b)   Training of selected personnel in first and second phase interpretation.

(c)   Establishment of a reconnaissance intelligence library.

(d)   Development of P.I. in the U.D.F. with particular emphasis on African conditions.

            Such a unit will form the nucleus for futher development into an organisation on similar lines as J.A.R.I.C. in the United Kingdom.

                                                                        Signed:            N.J. SWARDT            Lieut."

28.       Lt N.J. Swardt ontvang die Amerikaanse Brons Ster dekorasie vir sy diens in Korea.  Lt Swardt was nie as fotograaf in Korea nie maar wel as inligtings offisier.

29.       In 1955 word 'n mosaik van Pretoria gelÍ vir die Pretoria skou.  Hierdie mosaik was van 'n baie hoŽ gehalte en akuraat in skaal.

30.       Unie dag word gehou op 31/5/55.

31.       1956.            Bevelvoerder Kapt. N.J. Swardt.  Gedurende 1956 word 'n konvensionele oorlogs oefening gehou te De Brug.  Hierdie operasie staan bekend as operasie Oranje.  S.F.I. personeel wat deel geneem het is as volg:

L/Sers              E.                     Dickenson.
L/Kpl               C.A.A.             Fritz.   
B/L/Wtgk            A.                    Schoenknecht.
L/Wtgk            V.                    Kassier.          
L/Wtgk            M.                    Mullins.
L/Wtgk            D.                    Botha.
L/Wtgk            R.                     Raath.

32.       L/Wtgk V. Kassier word as grondfotograaf saam met die infantrie in die veld gebruik.  Daar word baie uitvlugte met Harvards gedoen met die F24 kamera.  Ontwikkeling word in die ou Ford fotografiese laboratoruim gedoen.  Die Lugmag vlieg vanaf " " of die ou Tempe lughawe.

33.       Die volgende lede ontvang sitate vir hul deelname in Korea:

"Telephone  :  2-1031                                     DGAF/E4/909/2/PI     
Extension  :          90       
Telegrams  :  DEFAIR                                              H.Q. Air Chief of Staff,   
                                                                                                 Defence Headquarters,  
                                                                                                 Potgieter Street, 
                                                                                                 Pretoria.          
                                                                                                 7 September 1956   
Officer Commanding,  
Air Force Station,
Swartkop.

DISTINGUISHED UNIT CITATION
TO 2 SQUADRON

1.         An emblem is enclosed herewith for each of the following members who served with No. 2 Squadron during period 28th November 1951 to 30th April 1952.

P6328              F/Sgt            Pfuhl                             J.A.     
P8206              F/Sgt            Schoeman                  P.A.    
P11291            F/Sgt            Dickenson                   E.

2.         A.F.O. 99/56 in this connection giving all details is being published and will be distributed in the near future.

3.         Kindly acknowledge receipt.

                                                               Signed:  D.J.J.C. VAN VUUREN  Captain           
                                                                                                                          for Brigadier    
                                                                                                             Air Chief of Staff"

34.       Daar word baie korrospondensie gerig aan L.M.S. Swartkop oor die swak toestand van SFI se geboue en opleidings fasilitiete:

"Telefoon  :  712441                                                CPE/705/1/EQ          
Bylyn    :            131     
                                                                           Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting,          
                                                                           L.M.S. Swartkop,       
                                                                           P.K. Valhalla.  
                                                                           9 Maart 1956. 
Bevelvoerder,  
L.M.S. Swartkop,       
P.K. Valhalla.

OPLEIDING AANGELEENTHEDE.

1.         Van tyd tot tyd, sedert 1947, was daar versoek dat die geboue wat die Sentrale Fototegniese Eenheid huisves opgeknap word.  Hier en daar is gevat en gelos met die gevolg dat in sommige gevalle die toestand net vererger is.  Gebou U.G. 1122 wat die hoof gebou voorstel was oorspronklik drie kantore wat in die laaste 25 jaar of so gegroei het tot 'n doolhof van 27 kamers, afskortings en hokkies.  Ventelasie, elektriese installasies, riool en sanitasie het slap gelÍ met die baksteen en sinkplaat vooruitgang.  Om die werksplase enigsins redelik aantreklik te maak met die hulp van 'n verfkwas was nie die minste aandag aangewy nie.

2.            Dieselfde aanmerkings soos in paragraaf een geld vir Gebou U.G. 2179, wat die opleidings afdeling voorstel behalwe dat die gebou gedurende die oorlog opgerig is op die R.A.F. standaard plan wat bedoel was om werksaangeleenthede vir sowat 8 fotograwe te verskaf.  Hierdie gebou word gebruik om gemiddeld 25 leerlinge op 'n slag in op te lie, d.w.s., kwekelinge van die Staande Mag, Gimnasium en op die oomblik Aktiewe Burgermag.  In hierdie gebou bestaan en ontwikkel 'n gevaarlikke toestand met die elektriese installasie wat sal dwing dat opleiding daar gestaak sal moet word.

3.            Bykomende by die geboue, gebruik die eenheid 'n lesingkamer in gebou U.G. 1818 wat 'n geruime afstand is van die praktiese opleidingsentrum wat 'n onbevredigende toestand skep.  Instrument opleiding vind weer in 'n kantoor plaas en die instandhoudings afdeling is in nog 'n ander omgeskepte gebou.

4.         Die vaal eentonigheid en slordige verwaarlosing van hierdie geboue is genoeg om enige mens te grief en 'n mens is bepaald skugter om besoekers toe te laat in die werksplekke.  Onder sulke omstandighede kan dit ook nie met redelikheid verwag word nie dat die personeel algeheel vaardig en ywerig moet wees nie.

5.            Kortliks, die toestand is uiters onbevredigend en dit word streng aangedring dat die saak aandag geniet voor die nuwe gimnasium kursus aanvang neem by die eenheid van April van hierdie jaar.

6.         'n Totaal van 15 bykomende vertrekke is dus nodig en dit word aangevra dat die hele blok van U.G. 2183 en die groot vertrek in gebou U.G. 2182 beskikbaar gemaak word aan hierdie eenheid.  Die groot vertrek in gebou U.G. 2182 is nodig as 'n groot lesingkamer.  Die lesingkamers in geboue U.G. 1818 en U.G. 2184 word natuurlik opgesą.

                                                                        Geteken:   N.J. SWARDT            Kapt   
                                                                         Waarnemende Bevelvoerder   
                                                                           Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting"

 

"Telefoon  :  71-2441                          CPE/705/1/Eq 
Bylyn    :             131     
                                                                           Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting,          
                                                                           L.M.S. Swartkop,       
                                                                           P.K. Valhalla.  
                                                                           19 Maart 1956.  
Bevelvoerder,  
L.M.S. Swartkop.

SENTRALE FOTOTEGNIESE INRIGTING  :  HUISVESTING.

1.         Ten einde hierdie eenheid meer ruim te verskaf en om meer vaardigheid te bevorder word u versoek om bykomende huisvesting beskikbaar te maak.  Omstandighede maak dit noodsaaklik dat sommige van die voorstelle soos hieronder as noodsaaklik geag word, soos byvoorbeeld die huisvesting vir die afdeling wat eersdaags aanvang sal maak met die vertaling van die opleidingsfilms, die bykomende lesingkamers, en plek vir droŽ prosesse wat binnekort hier begin mee sal gemaak word.

2.         Verder is daar die gevalle waar een kamer vir meer as een onverwantedoel gebruik word.  Alhoewel so 'n toedrag van sake nie juis 'n onmoontlike toestand skep nie is dit nie wenslik nie.

3.         Die volgende word voorgestel:

(a)   Die administrasie tak, d.w.s., die Bevelvoerder se kantoor, die dienskamer wat ook biblioteek is, en die tikster se kantoor wat ook filmberging, landkaarte en opmetingsrekords bevat trek uit die hoofgebou U.G. 1122.  Dit laat dan vier leŽ kamers wat sal gebruik word as tegniese adjudant se kantoor, bemannings en opdragkamer, senior onderoffisier se kantoor en kamer vir droŽ proses masjiene.  Daar is dus nou 6 kamers elders nodig om te dien as kantore vir Bevelvoerder, Tikster, Dienskamer, Biblioteek, Kaarte en Opmetingsrekords en filmberging - 'n totaal van 6.

 (b)   Op die oomblik is daar twee lesingkamers beskikbaar een elk in U.G. 1818 en U.G. 2184.  Die vereiste is ten minste 4 lesingskamers waarvan een met gerief 25 studente kan neem.  Die twee beskikbare lesingkamers is vÍr uitmekaar en vÍr van die praktiese opleidings afdeling en moet dus vervang word.  'n Bykomende vier kamers is dus nodig vir hierdie doel.

(c)   Die nasien van opmetingsfilms word nou in die algemene werkskamer gedoen wat onbevredigend is, gedoen.  Een aparte kamer is nodig vir hierdie doel.

(d)   Dan is daar die nuwe verantwoordelikheid van die eenheid, nl. die vertaal van die opleidingsfilms, klankbane, hiervoor sal vier kamers, waarvan een klankproef moet wees, nodig wees.

4.         'n Totaal van 15 bykomende vertrekke is dus nodig en dit word aangevra dat die hele blok van U.G. 2183 en die groot vertrek in gebou U.G. 2182 beskikbaar gemaak word aan hierdie eenheid.  Die groot vertrek in gebou U.G. 2182 is nodig as 'n groot lesingkamer.  Die lesingkamers in geboue U.G. 1818 en U.G. 2184 word natuurlik opgesą.

                                                                        Geteken:   N.J. SWARDT            Kapt   
                                                                                     Waarnemende Bevelvoerder   
                                                                                       Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting"

35.       Lede op sterkte:

                                                                                                "SFI 825/12 Bylae 6
                                                                                                 16/3/56           
LEDE OP STERKTE VAN SFI

Kapt                N.J.                  Swardt
V/Sers              J.A.                  Pfuhl    
V/Sers              P.A.                 Schoeman
Sers                 E.                     Dickinson
Kpl                  A.K.                Armour
Kpl                  C.A.A.             Fritz
LAM                B.J.                  de Wachter          
AM                  V.A.                 Kassier
AM                  A.J.                  Schoenknecht
AM                  P.J.                  Nel
AM                  H.T.                 Hutton
AM                  D.J.                  Botha
AM                  A.J.                  Germishuys
AM                  V.H.                 Langley
AM                  R.W.                Raath
AM                  J.M.J.               Toerien
AM                  H.A.                 Venter
AM                  M.J.                 du Preez   
AM                  J.                      Soden
AM                  P.A.                 Daly
AM                  H.J.S.               Wapenaar"

36.       Daar word beweer dat 'n persoon 'n vlieŽnde piering afgeneem het.  Die negatief word na SFI gestuur vir ontleding:

"Telephone : 71-2441                                               CPE/37/2/AIR           
Extension  :           8         
                                                                        Central Photographic Establishment,  
                                                                        A.F.S. Swartkop,       
                                                                        P.O. Valhalla.          
                                                                        17 October 1956.
Air Chief of Staff,   
H.Q. Air Chief of Staff,           
Defence Headquarters,  
Potgieter Street, 
Pretoria.

                                    PHOTOGRAPH OF ALLEGED FLYING SAUCER        
1.            Herewith report on the investigation carried out on your instructions of the negative supplied.

2.         The negative is returned herewith.

                                                                            Signed:   N.J. SWARDT   Captain           
                                                                                                Acting Officer Commanding   
                                                                         Central Photographic Establishment

REPORT ON PHOTOGRAPH
   OF ALLEGED FLYING SAUCER

            The mark on the negative appears to be the result of an impurity in the developer, or some contamination possibly from a finger before development.

            When viewed by reflected light the centre of the "flying saucer" appears discoloured and would not have been so if it had been caused by exposure or (intense exposure) and proper development.

            The enlargement was purposely over exposed to show detail in the flying saucer area and its make.  Nothing solid is apparent at this magnification and at greater magnification the grain of the negative would break up and obscure any detail.

            The author shows definite pictorial ability in his presentation of the river, and it is suggested that he was taking this scene and the white mark was accidental."

37.            Bydraes of verkennings fotografie deur L/Sers E. Dickenson en Kapt. N.J. Swardt:

38.            Bydraes of verkennings fotografie deur Kapt N.J. Swardt en L/Sers E. Dickinson.

"Telefoon : 71-2441                                                    CPE/805/3/Org         
Bylyn    :           110                              Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting,          
                                                                        L.M.S. Swartkop,       
                                                                        P.K. Valhalla.          
                                                                        17 Mei 1956.  
Bevelvoerder,  
1 Groep, S.A.L.M.

bydraes VIR DIE U.M.V. TYDSKRIF
KOMMANDO

1.            Hiermee artikel geskryf deur P11291 Lug-Sersant Dickinson E. vir moontilike publikasie.

                                                            Geteken:                      N.J. Swardt Kaptein           
                                                                                       Waarnemende Bevelvoerder   
                                                                         Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting           
/SDJ

                                                MARTA HARI'S SUCCESSOR
                                                                                     A/SGT E. DICKINSON A.T.B.P

            "Either way visual reconnaisance is out!"  This is the opinion of the U.D.F. chief exponent of photographic interpretation who considers reconnoitering the enemy by mere observation from the air is like using a sundial to clock the 100 yds sprint race.

            A pilot flying over enemy territory is most likely to stay alive either by hedge hopping or flying at extremely great heights.  Low flying calls for the pilot's utmost skill and undivided attention.  At 500 feet the ground flashes by faster that the telegraph poles past an express train.  At 50,000 feet the ground looks flat like a tattered old rug and important features like railway lines are almost invisible or indistinguishable, from main roads.  Thus, either way, flying high or low, the pilot can have very little reliable information for the intelligence officer when debriefed after the raid.

            "Aerial photography, however, followed by careful study of the photographs by specialist photographic interpreters can provide the Intelligence Officer with the vital knowledge he requires".  This new science of photographic interpretation has progressed tremendously since W.W.II, but even then it had ousted the Marta Haris from top place on the Intelligence Ladder.  One example will suffice.  Photo interpretors "looked in" on the Penemude Rocket launching sight, described the Rocket Bomb, warned where it was directed, and when expected weeks before the news of the secret weapon leaked through other intelligence channels.

                        Aerial reconnaissance photographs fall into two categories - vertical photographs taken of the ground immediately below the aircraft, and oblique photographs taken with the camera pointing to the side of the aircraft.

                        Vertical photographs appear strange to a person unacquainted with them - unusual views of familiar objects are puzzling and disconcerting.  How simple it would be for you to pick out a picture of your house from a dozen others?  But would you still be able to pick it out, if all the photographs were taken of the roofs, from above the houses?  That is the view which the vertical photograph presents.  The sterioscope, however, assists the learner photo interpreter to become familiar with common objects on vertical photographs.  By means of the Sterioscope two photographs taken of the same object from slightly different viewpoints are "fused" and appear as a photographic relief model of the object.  Once this instrument is mastered the vertical photograph presents a mine of information, and extraction is limited only by the ability, general knowledge and powers of observation of the interpreter.

                        Magnifying measuring devices enable objects on the photographs as small as tenths of millimeter to be accurately measured and their true size determined.  It was thus possible to measure the size of the Flying Bomb (Hitler's V I weapon) determine its capacity, and estimate its probable duration of flight and powers of destruction before it ever appear over the coasts of England.  A height measuring instrument enable the interpreters to check the depth of water at the different beaches for the D.Day landings, determine the capacity of the Ploesti Oil Wells, or simply show the easiest way of getting the artillery from point A to B in mountainous Burma where the maps were not reliable.

                        Oblique photographs present a more familiar view of the ground, and often be filched in circumstances when the taking of vertical photographs would be to hazardous in war or in cold war, not permissible.  It would thus be possible for an aircraft to fly seaward of the five mile limit of a potential enemy country and take photographs of the coastline without causing an international incident,

                        Comparisons of recently taken oblique photographs taken at an earlier date often give the clue to the enemy's intentions.  Photo interpreters checked day-by-day the massing of barges and landing craft in the Low Countries as the starting gun to Hitler's invasion of Britain.

                        Photo reconnaissance is just as successful for tactical targets.  Camouflage does not deceive the photo interpreter and if he is in doubt, infra-red film is sure detector.  In most cases tracks are the give-away to any hidden position; no matter how good the track discipline of the men, the guns have to be moved into position, and ammunition conveyed to them, and once the ground is disturbed, years may elapse before the tracks are completely removed.  An extreme case of the lasting impression made on the ground when disturbed was the discovery on a vertical photograph taken in England of a roman camp site which 1800 years of forming had not completely obliterated.

                        Yes, the future of photo reconnaissance is assured; only one factor causes any anxiety.  Can photography keep pace with modern aircraft flying at extremely high or at very low altitudes?  High altitude is no limiting factor to photography.  An almost identical photograph of a target could be taken from 50.000 feet to one taken at 5,000 feet;  only a more powerful lens is required, producing the same result as a telescope.  Low altitudes are more of a problem, and various methods are being tried to "stop" the tremendous speed of the ground below the camera.  The most successful method as yet released from the secret list is to gear the continuously moving film to the same relative speed as the aircraft.  This method is not completely successful as it requires the pilot to fly at a constant height above the ground,  but the problem will be solved.  Anything so vitally important to war has to be solved, the photographic reconnaissance has a high priority number.

Telephone : 71-2441                  Cpr/805/3/Org
Extension :         131                    Central Photographic Establishment,  
                                                              A.F.S. Swartkop,       
                                                              P.O. Valhalla.          
                                                              13 June 1956.      
Officer Commanding,  
1 Group,         
A.F.S. Swartkop,       
P.O. valhalla.

ARTICLE FOR "COMMANDO JOURNAL"

1.                     Herewith an article on target intelligence by Capt. N.J. Swardt for possible use by Commando journal.

                                                                        Signed:   N.J. SWARDT    Captain
                                                                                      Acting Officer Commanding
                                                               Central Photographic Establishment
/SDJ

TEIKEN INLIGTING.

            Die lugmag is in staat om 'n groot verskeidenheid van teikens aan te val en te vernietig weens die feit dat hulle hoogs geskoold is in die vliegkuns en uiters mobiel is.  Hulle taktiek is doeltreffend, en die wapens en uitrusting vir hierdie doel is beskikbaar.  Maar al hierdie dinge baat geen duit tensy hulle weet waar die teiken is, en hoe en waaruit hulle vervaardig is nie.

            As ons van die standpunt uitgaan dat daar in die volgende oorlog hoofsaaklik van kernwapens gebruik gemaak sal word, moet ons ook besef dat die aktiewe fase van kort duur sal wees - dae, miskien weke.  In hierdie kort tydjie moet die lugmag sy hardste houe slaan om enigsins doeltreffend te wees.

            In die verlede was dit goed genoeg vir die taktiese lugmag om gewapende verkenning to onderneem in die begin stadium van 'n oorlog en om te wag totdat die landmagte hulle vra om teikens aan te val.  Gewapende vekenning in die volgende oorlog sal alleen kan geskied indien die lug skoon is van vyandelike vliegtuie.  Die aanvaller sal nie 'n aanval waag alvorens hy nie seker is dat hy die inisiatief in die lug het, en kan hou nie al is dit net vir 'n kort tydjie.  Daar sal dus geen kans wees vir die taktiese lugmag om teikens te gaan soek nie.  Die teikens moet dus voor die skietery, dus alreeds in vredestyd gevalueer en bepaal word.

            Hierdie opstel en bepaling van teikens staan bekend as die teikeninligtins-program.  Dit het in ander lugmagte alreeds kort na die einde van die tweede wÍreldoorlog, en as gevolg van die lesse wat toe geleer is, in werking gekom.  Die besonderhede van so 'n program kan natuurlik nie hier bespreek word nie.  In breŽ trekke egter kan gesÍ word dat dit die uitsoek is van 'n aantal strategiese punte, byvoorbeeld in 'n kommunikasie stelsel.  Die taktiek en wapens wat gebruik moet word om maksimum doeltreffendheid met minimum poging te bekom word uitgewerk, op 'n dossier geplaas en dan uitgereik aan die verantwoordelike instansie.  Met ander woorde dit geld as die werklike opdrag.

            Dit is natuurlik onmoontlik om 'n alles-omvattende program op te trek ter wille van baie redes, gebiede verander in hulle taktiese belang, nuwe installasies word opgerig, nuwe uitrusting en wapens word beskikbaar ens., maar met 'n deeglike inligtingsdiens is dit moontlik om genoegsame teikensinligting in te vorder ten einde die taktiese lugmag in aksie te bring sonder versuim wanneer dit nodig is.  Natuurlik is teikeninligting nie volledig op bewegende teikens nie maar intelligente tekenbeplanning sal die vyand dwing om van sy plan af te sien en om kwesbare konsentrasie te vorm.

            Teikeninligting is in vereiste in vredestyd.  Daar is 'n huidige en toekomstige nodigheid daarvoor en dit moet gedurig hersien en aangevul word sodat die lugmag altyd gereed kan wees vir onmiddellike operasies."

39.       'n Foto-tolk kursus word by die Lugmag Kollege aangebied.

"Telephone:  6-8111                               SAAFC/C/202/18/Tr  
Extention :      96       
                                                                           South African Air Force College,           
                                                                           Air Force Station Waterkloof,     
                                                                           P.O. Lyttelton. 
                                                                           4 June 1956    
Officer Commanding,  
Central Photographic Establishment,  
A.F.S. Swartkop,       
P.O. Valhalla.

INDIVIDUAL COURSE REPORTS-
PHOTO INTERPRETATION COURSE NO 1/56

                        Enclosed herewith individual course reports in respect of the undermentioned officers and non-commissioned officers who attended the abovementioned course at this College.

                        Lieut            P.C.                 Smith
                        Lieut            I.                      Lemmer
                        Lieut            G.Z.                 Rautenbach
                        Lieut            M.J.                 du Plessis 
P11482            S/Sgt            R.                     Marshall
P6328              Flt Sgt            J.A.                  Pfuhl
P18170            Bdr            E.O.                 Dixon
P16556            Cpl            J.J.                   Myburg

                                                            Signed:   (W.F. MARITZ)  Lieutenant        
                                                                                                 for Commandant   
                                                                                       Acting Commondant   
                                                    South African Air Force College
Encl:  8

                                                                                                SAAFC/C/202/53/1/Tr

SUID-AFRIKAANSE LUGMAGKOLLEGE

KORT FOTO-VERTOLKINGSKURSUS
9 APRIL 1956 - 28 APRIL 1956

INDIVIDUELE VERSLAG

Rang. Staf Sersant                                                             Naam.  Marshal R.      
                                                                                    S.A.P.K.       
Onderwerp Taksering        
1.
 Volg    : Onderwerp  :                Slaagmerk:      Student se :       Klassi-  :           Slaag of        
No       :              :                           %    :             gemiddeld  :     fikasie  :           Druip   
                        (a)                       (b)                     (c)                    (d)                      (e)     
1          Foto Matesis                60 %                     59 %                D                       D     
2          Herkenning en               60 %                     63 %                C                       S          
              Vertolking       
3            Algemeen                       60 %                61 %                C                       S      

Algemene Opmerkings

2.         Staf Sersant Marshall het baie hard gewerk en het bepaald presteer om die merke in wiskunde te behaal al is dit net onder die verlangde slaag syfer.  In die herkenning- en vertolkingsfase was hy geneig om die ooglopende feite nie te vertrou nie en het dus in verwarring gekom.  Sy eerlike belangstelling en werk gedurende die kursus verdien beter merke as wat hy in die eindeksamen behaal het.

Kontrole Staf   
3.         (a) Kaptein                        N.J. Swardt
            (b)Lugsersant               E.   Dickinson

                                                                        Geteken:  B.J.L. BOYLE   Kommandant   
                                                                                                   Waarnemende Kommandant   
                                                Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmagkollege            Waterkloof."

40.       1957.  Bevelvoerder Kapt. N.J. Swart en Adjudant AO J. Phuhl.  Die volgende lugtake is gedurende 1957 gedoen:  
                        Warmbad                    1 uur.  
                        Prieska                         4.30    
                        Port Nolloth             9.10    
                        Upington                          10.15  
Al die take was vir Departement van Driehoeksmeting gedoen.

41.       Bek en klouseer breek in die Unie uit en die Lugmag word gevra om die kwarentyn gebiede te fotografeer.  Daar word ongeveer 30 vliegure gevlieg om die areas te dek.

42.       1958.  Bevelvoerder Kapt. N.J. Swart en Adjudant AO J.A. Phuhl.  Lugsensortake is as volg:         
                        Mesina
                        Wyliespoort
                        Pietersburg
                        Tom Burke  
                        Komatiepoort
                        Bronkhorstspruit
                        Taak 407     
                        Taak 406     
43.       In 1958 word die SFI eenheidswapen ontwerp en ingestuur vir goedkeuring.

"Telefoon  :  2-1031                                        DGAF/SOA/728/9/EQ        
 Bylyn     :     497     
 Telegramme:  DEFAIR                                              Lugmaghoofkwartier,   
                                                                                                Verdedigingshoofkwartier,      
                                                                                                Potgieterstraat,
                                                                                                Pretoria.
                                                                                                17 Mei 1958.  
Kwartiermeester-generaal.


KOMITEE : INSIGNIAS VIR DIE S.A.V.M.

1.            Ingevolge die besluit geneem deur die bogenoemde komitee, op 'n vergadering gehou op 3 April 1958, soos genotuleer in para 11(a) van die notule van die vergadering onder verwysing ORD/181/21 n.l. dat veranderings wat deur die komitee op voorgestelde ontwerpe aanbeveel word, eers weer na Stafhoofde verwys moet word vir goedkeuring, alvorens dit na die Kommandant-generaal vir finale goedkeuring gestuur word, het ek nou die komitee se opmerkings en die betrokke ontwerpe bestudeer en my kommentaar daaroor word in die volgende paragrawe gelewer:-

Notule van Eerste Vergadering

2.         Para 4 : Rangkentekens : Adjudantoffisiere.  Ek gaan akkoord met die aanbevelings.

3.         Para 5 : Arend by Lugmagrangtekens.  Ek gaan akkoord met die voorstel dat die arend weggelaat moet word.

4.         Para 6(b) : Wapen : Lugmaggimnasium.  Ek gaan akkoord met die ontwerp uiteengesit in para 11(g) van die notule van die tweeede vergadering.

5.         Para 8 : Lugmagvlae en Wimpels.  Die gebruik van 'n wimpel deur die kommandant van die S.A. Lugmagkollege is nie goedgekeur nie.  Brief KG/AOS/6/2 van 26 Maart 1958, 'n afskrif waarvan aan u gestuur was, verwys.

Tweede Vergadering

6.         Para 11 (d) (1) : VlieČnierskenteken.  Ek gaan akkoord met die nuwe ontwerp.

7.         Para 11(e) (1) & (11) : Kentekens : Lugbemanning.  Ek gaan akkoord met die voorstelle en ontwerpe.

8.         Para II (g) : Wapen : Lugmaggimnasium.  Sien para 4 hierbo.

9.         Para 17 : Wapen vir Lugmaghoofkwartier.  Ek gaan akkoord met die ontwerp, maar aangesien die wapen nie die S.A. Lugmag verteenwoordig nie maar slegs die hoofkwartier, moet Majoor du Toit 'n ander toepaslike leuse daarvoor uitwerk, soos met hom bespreek.

10.       Para 18.: Eenheidswapens.         

(a)    28 Eskader : goedgekeur

(b)    40 Eskader : goedgekeur

(c)    S.A.L.M. Telekommunikasiesentrum.  Die ontwerp is uit proporsie;  daar is te veel see en te min land.     'n Nuwe ontwerp, soos met Majoor du Toit bespreek, moet opgestel en aan my vir oorweging voorgelą word.

(d)    44 Eskader : goedgekeur

(e)    22 Eskader : goedgekeur

(f)    10 Lugdepot: goedgekeur

(g)    1 Lugdepot: goedgekeur

(h)    68 Lugskool: goedgekeur

(j)    S.A. Lugmagkollege : Die kleur van die rol waarop die leuse verskyn moet na hemelsblou verander word.

(k)    Sentrale Vliegskool : goedgekeur

(l)    1 Lugverdedigingseenheid : goedgekeur

(m)    Lugoperasieskool : goedgekeur

(n)    6 Eskader : goedgekeur

(o)    4 Eskader : goedgekeur

(p)    1 Eskader : goedgekeur

(q)    2 Eskader : goedgekeur

(r)    105 Vliegveldonderhoudseskader : goedgekeur

(s)    100 Vliegveldonderhoudseskader : goedgekeur

(t)    Beheer en Meldingskool : goedgekeur

(u)    8 Eskader : Goedgekeur, maar die leuse moet verander word.

(v)    5 Eskader : goedgekeur

(w)    27 Eskader : nuwe ontwerp nog nie beskikbaar nie.

 

11.       Para 19 : Eenheidswapens.

(a)    35 Eskader.  Ek is dit eens dat die woord "SHAYA" gebruik moet word, d.w.s. as dit beteken "om die water te slaan".

(b)    Lugnavigasieskool : goedgekeur

(c)    1 Motorbooteskader : goedgekeur

(d)    3 Eskader.  Nuwe ontwerp nog nie beskikbaar nie.

(e)    17 Eskader.  Die naaldekoker word aanvaar maar die leuse moet weer deur Maj. du Toit nagegaan word.

(f)    Sentrale Fotogeniese Inrigting.  Goedgekeur met die volgende leuse in Latyn, "Deur die lens tot kennis".

 (g)    64 Lugskool.  Die ontwerp soos aan Maj du Toit aangedui word goedgekeur.

(h)    15 Lugdepot : goedgekeur

Vaandels, Wapens en seremoniŽle Sabel

12.            Ontwerpe vir die volgende is op 16 September 1957 aan die Kommandant-generaal U.V.M. gerig:-

(a)    S.A. Lugmagvaandel

(b)    Vaandel vir eskaders

(c)    Petkenteken en kraagkenteken (S.A. Lugmag)

13.       'n Afskrif van my brief DGAF/SOA/706/10/EQ van 16 September 1957 word hierby aangeheg.

14.            Aangesien u komitee belas is met die ondersoek van insinjes, word hierdie aangeleentheid ook na u verwys.  Ek sal dit waardeer indien u bogenoemde ontwerpe so gou moontlik kan afhandel.

                                                              Geteken : B.G. Viljoen Generaal Majoor
                                                                                                                           Lugstafhoof"

44.       Lede wat nie in staatskwartiere gebly het nie.

"Telephone : 71-2441                                               CPE/705/2/Eq           
Extension  :     189     
                                                                        Central Photographic Establishment,  
                                                                        A.F.S. Swartkop,       
                                                                        P.O. Valhalla.          
                                                                        6 December 1958   
Chief Commandant,  
Inland Group,  
S.A. Air Force,           
P.O. Valhalla.

MARRIED MEMBERS NOT LIVING IN
MARRIED/POTLUCK QUARTERS

1.            Telephonic conversation between Capt. van Vuuren of your Headquarters and Air Cpl de Wachter of this unit of to days date, refers.

2.         The undermentioned married members are not living in married/potluck quarters:-

            P6328              W.O. II          J.A.            Pfuhl    
            P8206              Flt Sgt              P.A.            Schoeman     
            P11291          Flt Sgt              E.            Dickinson       
            P20587          L.A.M.             C.G.            Wells   
            P18706          Air Mec     N.A.P.            Liebenberg    
            P20206          Air Mec     R.J.            Widdicombe   
            P20387          Air Mec     J.P.            du Plessis 

                                                                        Signed : N.J. Swardt  Captain           
                                                                                    Acting Officer Commanding   
                                                             Central Photographic Establishment"             

45.       Foto-tolk kursus te Lugmag Kollege:

                                                                                                "SAAFC/202/53/1/Tr

SUID-AFRIKAANSE LUGMAGKOLLEGE
VERSLAG OOR FOTO-VERTOLKINGSKURSUS NO 4
9 MAART 1958 - 29 MAART 1958

AANHANGSELS:-
                                    A - Naamlys van Studente                      
                                    B - Leerplan          

Inleiding
1.         Die kursus was gehou oor 'n periode vanaf 9 Maart 1958 tot 29 Maart 1958.

Doel van Kursus
2.         Die doel vna die kursus was om opleiding te verskaf in die beginsels van foto-vertolking wat toegepas kan word deur inligtingsoffisiere gedurende normale dienste in tyd van operasies.

Bemanning
3.         Die kursus was beman deur ses lede van die Spesiale Reserwe van Vliegoffisiere en een van die Algemene Reserwe van Offisiere.  Die naamlys van die studente word in Aanhangsel A aangegee.  Al hierdie offisiere het gedurende 1952 'n inligtingskursus by die S.A.L.M. Kollege bygewoon.

Opleidingsleerplan
4.         Die kursus het twee fases gedek, naamlik foto-vertolking en wiskunde.  Die fases was gelyktydig behandel Aanhangsel B weergee die strekking van die opleiding wat gedoen is.

5.         Die voertaal was deurgaans op 'n 50-50 basis.

Uitslae
6.         Oor die algemeen is die uitslae bevredigend want dit word in aanmerking geneem dat die kandidaat vir byna ses jaar uit voeling was met die Lugmag en dat die tipe van werk vir hulle, in die begin, heel vreemd was.

Kommentaar deur Studente  
7.         Al die kandidate verlang dat hulle langer voor die tyd van kursusse meot gewaarsku word, as wat die geval hier was.  Verder vind hulle die tyd van die jaar uiters ongerieflik.  Meestal is hulle verbonde aan besigheid en boerdery en hierdie tydperk van die jaar dek natuurlik die einde van die finansiŽle jaar en is dit ook vir baie boere oestyd.

8.         Die soldy en toelaes waarop die kandidate geregtig is, is so karig dat so 'n kursus vir hulle 'n finansiŽle verlies bybring.  Hulle het ook voorgestel dat hulle 'n toelae gegee word vir die aankoop van 'n uniform.

9.         Die mening is dat kontinuiteit van opleiding volgehou moet word.

10.       Die offisiere stel ook voor dat hulle uitgenooi word om Lugmagoefeningkampe, waar hulle dienste gebruik kan word, by te woon.

Algemeen
11.       Die kandidate was deurgans ywerig en het hulle self gou aangepas.  Kennis is geneem van hulle beswaar teen Maart maand vir kursusse.

Aanbevelings
12.       Dit word aanbeveel dat Luitenante Clark, van Schalkwyk, Venter, Odendaal en Viljoen ingedeel word as Inligtings- en Operasie-offisiere op die reserwe.  Luitenant McCreath verskyn alreeds as 'n Inligtingsoffisier op die Algemene Reserwe van Offisiere.  Dit word verder aanbeveel dat bogenoemde offisiere kans gegee word om 'n Inligtings- en Operasie-offisierskursus by die Lugmagkollege aanstande jaar by te woon.

13.       Dit word aan die hand gedoen dat die Sentrale Fototegniese Inrigting gemagtig word om fotovertolkings uitrusting aan bogenoemde offisiere te leen sodat 'n korrespondensiekursus in fotovertolkingswerk vir hulle kan gereŽl word om hierdie offisiere in fotovertolkingswerk op te knap.

14.       Dit word voorgestel dat die kwessie van soldy en toelae vir A.B.M. offisiere weer oorweeg word.

                                                                          Geteken:  R.F. ARMSTRONG  Kolonel