History of Wyoming - Chapter XXVIII
Origin of Newspapers—First Publications in Europe and the United States—First Newspapers in Wyoming—The Leader—Wyoming State Tribune—Other Early Cheyenne Newspapers—Newspapers of Laramie—The Laramie Boomarang—The Laramie Republican—Other Wyoming Publications—"e;Bill"e; Nye—"Bill Barlow"e;—Wyoming Newspaper Statistics in 1918 ... 45O
    The newspaper, as we know it. was preceded many centuries by the manuscript pubhcations of old Rome–engraved upon wax tablets with an instrument known as the stylus–which were hung in prominent places in order that people might read of the passing events and the political trend of the times. These publications were called the "Acta Diurna," and were issued irregularly.
    Little progress was made in the profession of journalism until the year 1622, when there was born the first publication worthy of the appellation of "newspaper." Europeans had received their news in the form of manuscript literature and for a time the written news-letter was in vogue, to be enjoyed, however, only by those of the wealthier class of people.
    Then, in 1622, the "Weekly News from Italic and Germanic" made its salutatory to the London public. This publication was printed upon a crude press invented by Nathaniel Butler, which press has been designated by historians as the progenitor of the modern type of machine. The content of this small newspaper consisted exclusively of social items and satirical essays upon the foibles of human nature, until 1641, at which time the parliamentary reports were published. This was the first attention given to politics. The first advertisement appeared in 1648, written in verse, and exploited a Belgravia tailor.
    The first daily morning newspaper was the "London Courant," published in 1709, consisting of a single page, with two columns each about five paragraphs in length, and using for content various translations from foreign journals. With the inauguration of the first daily newspaper, the press quickly gained in favor and before the year 1760 over 7,000,000 newspapers were sold annually in England alone.
    The first newspaper, as such, in the United States was the "Boston Public Occurrences," established in 1690. This was a small quarto sheet, with one blank page, and was afterwards suppressed by the Massachusetts authorities. Then came the "Boston News-Letter," first conducted in 1704 by John Campbell, the postmaster. The "Boston Gazette" was established in 1719, then changed to the "Massachusetts Gazette." This paper and the "News-Letter" were the official organs of the British administration until the evacuation of Boston. In 1721 James Frankhn began the "New England Courant," which suspended in 1727. Two years later, Benjamin Franklin, who had been employed by James Franklin, established the "Pennsylvania Gazette" at Philadelphia, which he operated as a weekly until 1765. Then it was merged with the "North American." The "Boston Evening Post" ran from 1735 until 1775. The "Massachusetts Spy" began in 1770 and continued until 1848; the "Philadelphia Advertiser" was started in 1784; the "New York Advertiser" in 1785. The "Evening Post" of New York City was founded in 1801 and is still published.
    Within a few weeks after the first settlement was made in Cheyenne there appeared the "Cheyenne Leader," the first newspaper in what is now Wyoming. This paper was established in July, 1867 by Nathan A. Baker and J. E. Gates. For nearly two months the publication was printed at Denver, but on Thursday, September 19, 1867, Baker first printed an issue in Cheyenne. In 1868 the "Leader" was enlarged and issued tri-weekly. Shortly thereafter the success of the publication warranted a daily issue. It is interesting to note the scale of prices in those days; the subscription price was $12 per year and $7 for six months. Advertising was scarce, much of it being in the form of "patent" copy, for which little remuneration was received. Consequently, the editor felt keenly the necessity of charging a round price for his paper. Mr. Baker began his paper as an independent republican organ and in his salutatory he stated:
    "This is an age of speed. Railroads are the motive influence that works changes bewildering to contemplate. An apt and striking illustration of it is presented in the growth of Cheyenne, the infant prodigy, and railroad center of the West. Sime six weeks ago but two houses indicated the city's location, where now between one and two hundred houses stand to attest the vigor with which American people set about in important undertakings. All this indicates a confidence which must have a sure basis. Having full conviction of the destined importance of this point, we have come among you to print a newspaper and we ask, as the pioneer journal, that cordial support which we know will spring from persistent, effective labors for the commercial growth of our city. Promises as to the course of our paper are hardly necessary, as the best test of capabilities consist in the actual performance of duties pertaining to our position, rather than in words. We come upon no speculative venture, nor from mere curiosity; we mean work, and shall give exclusive attention to our profession. So give us that kind encouragement of the heart as well as of the purse and our success is assured."
    If a review were made of the newspaper histories of the various states of the Union, especially those of the Middle and Far West, few towns would be discovered wherein a daily newspaper existed during the pioneer days. It is a notable fact that two communities in Wyoming–Cheyenne and Laramie–possessed sufficient vim and progressiveness to support a daily paper during the hard and troublesome days of settlement. The fact assumes greater singularity when it is considered that Cheyenne and Laramie were plains settlements and not created within easy distance of older and large centers of population.
    Mr. Baker secured a small printing outfit, undoubtedly a hand-operated affair, and had it hauled to Cheyenne by ox-teams and installed in a small building on the east side of Carey Avenue, then called Ferguson Street, immediately north of the alley between Fifteenth and Sixteenth streets. From this small plant the paper was published by Mr. Baker until April. 1872, when Baker sold out to Herman Glafcke. The latter had come to Wyoming two years previously as secretary of the territory. Mr. Glafcke conducted the paper under the republican policy, but in later years, when he again assumed control of the "Leader," he operated it as a democratic sheet.
    According to one account, Mr. Glafcke sold his paper in 1877 to a group of wealthy cattlemen, who employed John F. Carroll as editor and Joseph A. Breckons as manager, both of whom were Pennsylvanians. However, another authority (Hubert Howe Bancroft) states that Glafcke retained the paper until October, 1881, then sold to the Leader Printing Company, composed of the following gentlemen: Morton E. Post, A. H. Swan, G. L. Hall, J. W. Collins, J. C. Baird, E. A. Reed, Frank H. Clark, and H. B. Kelly. Notwithstanding the contradictory nature of these facts, it is known that John F. Carroll became editor of the paper on May 23, 1884, and continued in that position for three years, then surrendered the office for a few weeks, but soon returned to enter a period of service which extended until the winter of 1895-96. Carroll was a born newspaper man and was gifted with a brilliant personality and trenchant pen, which insured him the success he won. He is directly responsible for the rapid growth of the "Leader," during his years of incumbency, for his journalistic genius was such that could not be denied.
    The Leader Printing Company sold out the paper before the end of the year 1881 to W. C. Irvine, who in turn disposed of the plant to the firm of Morrow & Sullivan. Soon after it was owned by Morrow alone. In 1884 the paper passed into the hands of the "Democratic Leader Company," an organization composed of W. C. Irvine, J. C. Baird, N. N. Craig, John F. Coad, Fred Schwartze, Luke Murrin, David Miller, Thomas Mulqueen, Charles F. Miller, Luke Voorhees. C. P. Organ and others.
    In the winter of 1895-96 the "Leader" was sold to Col. E. A. Slack, then owner of the "Cheyenne Sun," an account of which is given later. Colonel Slack merged the two publications and changed the official appellation to the "Cheyenne Sun-Leader." However, within a few years the word "Sun" was dropped and the old title retained. Wallace C. Bond, a son-in-law of the Colonel, was an associate in the business until the latter was appointed receiver of the land office, then Capt. Harry A. Clark became a partner, forming the firm of Bond & Clark.
    Under this management the "Leader" was continued until the year 1906. At this time I. S. Bartlett and his sons organized a company and purchased the publication from Bond & Clark. Mr. Bartlett immediately changed the policy of the paper from republican to democratic, an affiliation sustained until the present day. For two years the Bartletts conducted the "Leader" in a highly successful manner, then sold to W. S. Edmiston. J. Ross Carpenter, Alexander Hastie and Sen. John S. Kendrick were also associated with the company at this time. In 1914 Mr. Hastie was forced to withdraw from the company on account of ill health and at the same time the Carpenter and Kendrick interests were taken over by the present publishing company. The officers of this company in 1918 are : Burke H. Sinclair, president; Thomas Hunter, vice president; E. A. Swezea, secretary, treasurer and manager. The company has a capital stock amounting to $60,000.
    Among the men of prominence who have been associated with the "Cheyenne State Leader" during the past half century are: W. E. Chaplin; Robert Breckons, late United States attorney to Hawaii; Will Reid, present land office register; S. A. Bristol, Cheyenne; T. Joe Fisher, clerk of the District Court, Cheyenne; John F. Carroll, for years managing editor of the "Portland Telegram," who died in the autumn of 1917.
    On November 20, 1869 there appeared the first issue of the "Wyoming Tribune" in Cheyenne. Edward M. Lee and Samuel A. Bristol inaugurated this paper, the latter in the capacity of editor-in-chief. Mr. Bristol was a native of Connecticut, came to Colorado in 1867 and to Wyoming in 1869, just a short time before the establishment of the paper. In addition to his efforts upon the "Tribune," which paper was obliged to suspend in September, 1872, Mr. Bristol, in company with John J. Knopf, started the first printing office and book bindery in Wyoming in May, 1882.
    Late in the year 1884 a gentleman by the name of Hobart, backed by Senator Hill of Colorado and Sen. F. E. Warren of Wyoming, established another newspaper in Cheyenne and called it the "Wyoming Tribune." Whether or not this paper was a continuation of the publication started in 1869 under the same name or an entirely new venture is difficult to determine. The office was located at 1709 Ferguson Street (now Carey Avenue) and from here the "Tribune" was published every day except Sunday. A short time after the paper had been established J. K. Shingle became business manager and George W. Perry, now of Sheridan, took the position of editor. J. A. Argesheimer, now a resident of Cheyenne, was city editor under the Hobart and Perry management.
    Sometime in December, 1894, Joseph M. Carey purchased the plant and organized the present Tribune Publishing Company, which was incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000. The name of the publication was changed to the "Wyoming Daily Tribune" and the sheet was issued every morning except Monday. The paper quickly became a live news organ and, in addition to local reportorial excellence, had the advantage of the Associated Press service. Frank Bond became editor under the Carey management, btit resigned to accept a position in Washington, D. C, and is now chief clerk in the general land office.
    In March, 1901, William C. Deming came to Cheyenne from Warren. Ohio, and took charge of the "Tribune" as editor and manager. In August, 1904, in partnership with J. H. Walton, Mr. Deining bought the paper from the Carey interests. At this juncture, the "Tribune" was changed to an afternoon daily. Mr. Deming purchased the stock owned by Mr. Walton in October, 1917, and now possesses nearly all of the interest in the plant. The "Wyoming State Tribune," a name adopted March 25. 1918, is republican in its political affiliation and has won a state wide circulation and popularity by its editorial and mechanical excellence.
    The "Cheyenne Sun" was originally the "Daily News." started by the firm of Benton & Fisher in 1875. This latter paper ran about six months, then was purchased by A. E. Slack and the name changed to the "Sun." The merger of this paper and the "Leader" occurred when Slack purchased the latter in the winter of 1895-96.
    The "Star" was established in Cheyenne sometime in December, 1867, by O. T. B. Williams, but survived only one year.
    The "Argus." a democratic newspaper, was started in 1867 by L. L. Bedell and suspended in the year 1869. The printing firm of Stanton & Richardson revived the paper for a period of a few weeks only.
    The Cheyenne "Gazette" was established by Webster, Johnson and Garrett in 1876. but within a few weeks was removed to the Black Hills. This paper came originally from Plattsmouth, Neb.. to Laramie, Wyo., and bore the name of "Chronicle."
    The "Northwest Live Stock Journal" was started by A. S. Mercer and S. A. Marney in 1883, and continued publication for over ten years.
    "The Frontier Index" was the first newspaper published in the City of Laramie. This paper was established by Fred K. Freeman & Brother in 1868 and began its existence as a daily in May of that year. The sheet was published in the rear of the old Frontier Hotel, the site of the W. H. Holliday Building. However, the life of the "Index" in Laramie was short and uneventful. In the autumn of 1868 it passed on with the railroad to Benton, then a town located where Fort Steele now stands, thence to Bear River, where it was soon afterward destroyed during a riot. The "Index" was a three-column, four-page paper, carrying local news and advertising.
    The "Laramie Daily Sentinel" was the second paper printed at Laramie. N. A. Baker was the proprietor and J. H. Hayford the editor. The first number was issued May 1, 1869: the "Sentinel" was of five columns and was issued daily. On the first day of May, 1870, Baker sold the plant to J. H. Hayford and J. E. Gates, and the publication was continued under the firm management of Hayford & Gates, with Hayford as editor. On January 1, 1879 the daily issue was suspended and the publication continued as a weekly until March, 1895. when the plant was closed entirely. During the life of this paper the policies of the republican party were supported and the sheet became very popular. James H. Hayford was one of the most forceful writers of the Rocky Mountain region; he was appointed judge of the Second Judicial District and died about three years later. James E. Gates is still living at Santa Monica, Cal.
    The "Laramie Daily Independent" was established December 26, 1871 by E. A. Slack and T. J. Webster, the former acting as editor. The "Independent" proclaimed a policy indicated by its name, but in truth followed the dictates of the democratic party and began its career in opposition to the territorial government. In 1872 it supported Horace Greeley for President of the United States. T. J. Webster sold his interest in the paper to Charles W. Bramel on March 21, 1875 and then the title of the '"Independent" was changed to "The Laramie Daily Sun," which then took up the democratic cause without reservation. The sheet was suspended, however, on Washington's Birthday, 1876. E. A. Slack bought the interest of C. W. Bramel and transported the plant to Cheyenne, where, on March 3, 1876, he issued the first number of the "Cheyenne Daily Sun," a republican paper.
    The "Laramie Daily Chronicle" was established by C. W. Bramel about May, 1876, to fill the vacancy left by the removal of the "Sun" to Cheyenne. He conducted the paper during the summer and autumn, but after the November elections sold it to three employes–T. J. Webster, A. R. Johnson and George A. Garrett. These three men conducted the paper until March, 1877, when they moved the plant to Cheyenne and established there the "Daily Gazette." Shortly afterward, on account of poor business conditions in Cheyenne, the paper was again moved to Deadwood, S. D. Of the three owners of this democratic paper, only one, Mr. Garrett, is now living and he resides at San Diego, Cal.
    The "Laramie Daily Times" was originally a Danish paper at Salt Lake City, then was moved to Evanston, and finally L. D. Pease and C. W. Bramel brought it to Laramie City January 1, 1879. In 1882 the plant was sold to F. W. Ott, who continued it for several years as a weekly publication, supporting the democratic party.
    The "Laramie Boomerang" was established by a stock company on March 11. 1881, to supply a much-needed organ for the republican party. The republicans had been used rather roughly by the democrats at the fall elections of 1880 and, in self defense, the former decided that a daily newspaper would be the best fortification. The incorporators of the Boomerang Publishing Company were: M, C. Jahren, Robert Marsh, Henry Wagner, A. S. Peabody and J. J. Strode. Jacob Blair also held stock. A. S. Peabody was the president; M. C. Jahren, secretary and treasurer; and E. W. Nye, editor.
    Edgar Wilson (Bill) Nye was at this time a resident of Laramie, having come from Wisconsin in May, 1876. He was connected with the "Sentinel" while it was a daily paper and also acted as correspondent for the old "Denver Tribune," upon which paper Eugene Field was then employed, also the "Detroit Free Press," "Texas Siftings" and "Peck's Sun." Nye continued as editor and manager of the "Boomerang" until the winter of 1882-83, when he was taken sick and left the state. He returned during the following summer, sold his stock in the paper, then went upon the lecture platform.
    The "Boomerang" then passed under the control of Mark Jennings, George A. Garrett, George Cannon and W. E. Chaplin, each of whom owned an equal amount of stock. Subsequently, about the year 1885. Jennings and Chaplin became the sole owners and, still later, Jennings took over the Chaplin interest and conducted the paper alone until the summer of 1886, when he sold to W. E. Chaplin and T. L. McKee. In 1888 the two latter gentlemen bought the few outstanding shares of stock, dissolved the corporation and entered into partnership under the firm name of McKee & Chaplin. This organization was perpetuated until May, 1890, then the "Boomerang" was sold to N. E. Corthell, who represented a number of democrats.
    Until this time the paper had been republican. After the sale, a stock company was organized and from 1890 until 1918 the publication has been issued by the Boomerang Publishing Company. There have been numerous changes in management, but the policy of the paper has been consistently democratic. In 1915 the daily edition was suspended, but was resumed in the fall of 1916.
    The "Laramie Republican," now issued daily and semi-weekly, was first published August 14, 1890 by Thomas L. AIcKee and W. E. Chaplin. The republicans of the county had offered a bonus of $1,500 to acceptable individuals who would establish a republican paper in Laramie and continue its publication until after the campaign of 1890. The firm of McKee & Chaplin undertook to fill the contract and carried it through successfully. In the latter part of 1891 J. C. McRae purchased McKee's interest and the firm of Chaplin and McRae operated the plant for two years. T. L. IMcKee returned to the partnership about 1895. and in 1896 F. D. Spafford became a member of the firm. In the spring of 1898 James Mathison bought the McKee interest and since that time Mathison, W. E. Chaplin and Frank Spafford have jointly owned the Republican. From the very beginning this paper has been republican in politics and has won an enviable reputation in the journalistic field of Wyoming.
    In the fall of 1882 Charles L. Rauner and Charles F. Wilson established a daily paper in Laramie which they called the Missing Link. As a daily it did not survive long, and as a semi-weekly it was issued just a few months.
    In 1891 ex-Governor John W. Hoyt, who had been president of the University of Wyoming just previous to that time, conceived the idea that Wyoming needed a paper built upon the style of Harper's Weekly. Accordingly, he established the Wyoming Journal, a weekly publication. This venture quickly came to an end.
    About 1906 a paper was established at Centennial, Albany County, by the owners of the Laramie, Hahn's Peak & Pacific Railroad. It was operated as a weekly publication under the name of the Centennial Post until about 1915.
    The first newspaper in Uinta County was the Evanston Age, established October 10, 1872.
    A newspaper called the Sweetwater Miner was started at Fort Bridger in February, 1868, by Warren & Hastings. This paper, which was active in promoting immigration to this region, was afterward removed to Bryan.
    The South Pass News was started in 1868 by N. A. Baker, sold to E. A. Slack, and moved to Laramie.
    The first paper in Johnson County was the Buffalo Echo, owned by a stock company, with T. V. McCandlish as editor.
    In connection with the newspaper history of Wyoming, it is fitting that something more in detail should be said of Edgar Wilson. "Bill" Nye, who was editor of the Laramie Boomerang for over a year and who became in later years one of the foremost humorists and lecturers in the United States.
    "Bill" Nye was born in Shirley, Me., August 25, 1850, and his death occurred near Asheville, N. C, February 22, 1896. While Nye was yet a young man, his parents removed to Hudson, Wis. When twenty-six years of age, Nye came to Wyoming, became identified with the Sentinel at Laramie and then became editor of the Boomerang. He was admitted to the bar in 1876 and was also elected to the Wyoming Legislature. He filled the position of postmaster and justice of the peace in Laramie, the character of the last-named office being one of honor, if not lucrative. Nye wrote of this as follows:
    "I was elected justice of peace in 1877. It was really pathetic to see the little miserable booth where I sat and waited with numb fingers for business. But I did not see pathos which then clung to every cobweb and darkened the rattling casement. Possibly I did not know enough. I forgot to say the office was not a salaried one, but solely dependent upon fees. So while I was called Judge Nye, and frequently mentioned in the papers with consideration, I was out of coal half of the time, and once could not mail my letters for three weeks, because I did not have the necessary postage."
    Nye's newspaper office, while he was editor of the Boomerang, was over a livery barn at the corner of Garfield and Third streets. Over the entrance was the sign: "TWIST THE TAIL OF THE GRAY MULE AND TAKE THE ELEVATOR!"
    Nye made his home with Judge J. H. Hayford when he first came to Laramie, and here he met Miss Fannie Smith, who later became his bride. Several children were born to this union and were means of great happiness to Nye, who always loved children. He fostered the youth of Laramie during his residence there, gave gifts to the high school graduates, and to the graduates of Wyoming University in the early days he sent a gold medal. Nye's first opportunity to make a name for himself occurred when the New York World became familiar with his writings and offered him $150 per week to work for that paper. He then moved to New York, stayed a few years, then went upon the platform for a lecture bureau, speaking in the various cities of the country. He and James Whitcomb Riley, the Hoosier bard, also traveled together for a number of years. After his travels were over. Nye wrote column matter for the American Press Association, and his witty articles became familiar in the households throughout the country. Among his longer written works may be mentioned : "Forty Liars." 1883; "Remarks," 1886; "Fun, Wit and Humor." 1889: the latter in conjunction with James Whitcomb Riley: "Comic History of the United States," 1894; "Comic History of England," 1896; and "Baled Hay, Etc."
    Another Wyoming journalist and writer whose reputation extended far beyond the borders of the state was Merris Clark Barrow, who wrote under the pseudonym of "Bill Barlow.'" So well did he become known by this pseudonym that many of his nearest acquaintances were ignorant of his real name.
    Merris C. Barrow was born at Canton, Pa., October 4. 1857, a son of Rev. Robert C. and Helen (Harding) Barrow. In 1863 his parents removed to Nebraska, where he learned the printer's trade, and in 1876 he leased the Tecumseh (Neb.) Chieftain. A little later he received the appointment of postal clerk, and in 1879 was transferred to Wyoming, with headquarters at Laramie. In that same year he quit the postal service to become city editor of the Laramie Daily Times. When "Bill" Nye started the Laramie Boomerang in March, 1881, Mr. Barrow accepted the position of city editor, and when Mr. Nye retired from the paper in 1883, Mr. Barrow became managing editor. In September, 1884, he went to Rawlins to take the editorial management of the Rawlins Tribune, and early in 1886 he removed to Douglas, where he established the Budget, the first number of which appeared on June 6, 1886, three months before the railroad was completed to the town.
    When the United States land office was established at Douglas, Mr. Barrow was appointed its first receiver by President Harrison. He was removed by President Cleveland in 1894, but in June, 1897, he was reappointed by President McKinley and continued in office under the Roosevelt administration. Mr. Barrow was one of the delegates from Converse County to the constitutional convention of 1889; was mayor of Douglas for two terms; was chief clerk of the House of Representatives in the legislative sessions of 1894 and 1896; was a past master of the Douglas Masonic Lodge, a Knight Templar, and a member of the Shrine.
    Shortly after locating at Douglas he began the publication of a little monthly magazine called Sagebrush Philosophy, which soon had a circulation that extended to all parts of the Union. His writings scintillated with wit, philosophy and optimism, and his vocabulary was both extensive and unique. Sagebrush Philosophy was built up on his personality and when his death occurred on October 9, 1910, it was realized that no one could continue the publication of the magazine, so its last number was issued in November following his death.
    In Wyoming at the present time there are ninety-three newspapers and periodicals published, comprising seven dailies, seven semi-weeklies and four monthlies. Twenty of these newspapers are published at county seat towns. The following comprehensive table will show the identity of each paper in the state and all pertinent facts concerning same:
    Afton–Star Valley Independent: established 1903; independent weekly, published by C. F. Settle.
    Arminto–The Flockmaster; established 1915; independent weekly, published by J. E, Hanway.
    Baggs–Big Horn Rustler; established 1889; democratic weekly, published by A. W. Coons. Republican; established 1903; republican weekly, published by Lou Blatsley.
    Big Piney–The Examiner; established 1911; independent weekly, published by G. W. Hopkins, Jr.
    Buffalo–The Bulletin; established 1891 ; republican weekly, published by F. E. Lucas. Mid-west Farmer; established 1914 ; monthly. The Voice; established 1883; democratic weekly, published by H. M. White.
    Burns–Golden Prairie Herald; established 1908; nonpartisan weekly, published by L. E. Fenwick.
    Carpenter–The News; established 1913; weekly, published by S. G. Glower.
    Casper–Natrona County Tribune; established 1891; republican weekly, published by J. E. Hanway. The Press; established 1914; progressive daily, published by P. M. Cropper.
    Cheyenne–State Leader; established 1867; democratic daily, published by Meredith Davis. Wyoming Labor Journal: established 1910; monthly, published by James Burkley. Wyoming Stockman-Farmer; established 1895 : monthly, published by W. C. Deming. Wyoming Tribune: established 1895; republican daily, published by W. C. Deming.
    Chugwater–The Record; established 1914; independent weekly, published by A. R. Bastian.
    Cody–North Wyoming Herald; established 1907: republican weekly, published by Newton & Shaw. Park County Enterprise: established 1899: democratic semi-weekly, published by W. J. Watkins and L. M. Prill.
    Cokeville–The Register; established 1911 ; weekly, published by L. E. Shields.
    Colony–The Coyote; established 1911 ; weekly, published by C. W. Shepard.
    Cowley–The Progress; established 1906; republican weekly, published by E. Vaterlaus.
    Dwyer–The Herald: established 1916; weekly.
    Douglas–Budget and Converse County Review: established 188(1; democratic weekly, published by T. F. Doyle. The Enterprise; established 1906; republican weekly, published by Douglas Enterprise Company.
    Elk Mountain–The Republican; established 1916; republican weekly.
    Evanston–Wyoming Press: established 1896: republican weekly, published by J. T. Booth. Wyoming Times; established 1908: republican weekly, published by George Ewer, Jr.
    Glenrock–The Gazette: established 191–: weekly, published by C. C. Hixon.
    Garland–The Courier; established 1910: independent weekly, published by B. C. Peterson.
    Gillette–Campbell County Record; established 1914; republican weekly, published by Joseph Hare. The News : established 1904 : democratic weekly, published by Ricketts & Moore.
    Green River–The Star: independent weekly, published by O. O. Davis. The Sun; established 1913; weekly.
    Greybull–Wyoming Standard: established 1903: weekly, published bv T. A. Dickey.
    Guernsey–The Uplift; established 1910; weekly. Gazette; established 1899; republican weekly, published by G. O. Houser.
    Hillsdale–The Review: established 1916: weekly.
    Hudson–The Miner: established 1907; republican weekly, published by L. Davidson.
    Hulett–Inter-Mountain Globe; established 1907: republican weekly, published by P. W. Yeoman. Wyoming Blade: established 1911 ; democratic weekly, published by P. W. Yeoman.
    Jackson–Jackson Hole Courier; established 1909: weekly, published by Richard Winger.
    Jay Em–The News; established 1916.
    Kemmerer–The Republican: established 1913: republican weekly, puljlished by L. G. Baker. The Camera; established 189S; republican weekly, published by R. R. Rose.
    Kaycee–Independent; established 1916; published by F. E. Lucas.
    Keeline–Record; established 1916.
    Lander–Wind River Mountaineer; established 1881 ; democratic weekly, published by H. J. Wendt. Wyoming State Journal; established 1887; republican weekly, published by A. H. Maxwell.
    Laramie–Boomerang; established 1881 ; democratic daily, published by Boomerang Publishing Company. Republican; established 1890; republican daily, published by W. E. Chaplin. Wyoming State Journal; established 1904; monthly, published by Teachers' Association, Wyoming Student; established 1897: published by University students.
    Lost Springs–The Times; established 1914; republican weekly, published by B. F. & H. C. Buffington.
    Lovell–The Chronicle; established 1906; independent weekly, published by R. Leedom.
    Lusk–Herald; established 1886; democratic weekly, published by G. C. & A. H. Forsythe. Standard; established 1910: republican weekly, published by J. H. Slater.
    Lyman–Badger Valley Enterprise; established 1912 ; independent weekly, published by Melvin Rollins.
    Manville–Niobrara County News; established 1911; republican weekly, published by L. T. Tebbs.
    Meeteetse–News; established 1896; independent weekly, published by R. T. Baird.
    Moorcroft–Democrat; established 1913; democratic weekly, published by Charles H. McKee.
    Newcastle–News-Journal; established 1889; republican weekly, published by W. O. Carleton. Pythian Review ; established 1913; monthly, published by W. O. Carleton. Weston County Gazette; established 1911; democratic weekly, published by D. G. Gates.
    Pine Bluffs–Post; established 1908; independent weekly, published by M. R. Hemphill.
    Pinedale–The Roundup: established 1904; republican weekly, published by C. F. Patterson.
    Powell–Leader: established 1910: republican weekly, published by R. C. Peterson. Tribune : weekly, A. S. Morse.
    Rawlins–Republican; established 1879; republican weekly, published by R. A. Alcorn.
    Riverton–Chronicle ; established 1911 ; weekly, published by W. H. J. Bowery. Review ; established 1907 ; democratic weekly, published by A. F. & H. C. Duntsch.
    Rock Springs–Advisor-News; established 1912; democratic weekly, published by G. D. Morris. The Miner; established 1881 ; republican weekly, published by F. B. Crumbly. The Rocket; established 1907; independent weekly, published bv Cora B. Wanamaker.
    Saratoga–The Sun; established 1891 ; republican weekly, published by R. I. Martin.
    Sheridan–The Enterprise; established 1887; democratic semi-weekly, published by Randolph Leigh. The Post; established 1887; republican semi-weekly, published by Post Printing Company.
    Shoshoni–Enterprise; established 1913; republican weekly, published by W. A. Lilly.
    Sundance–Crook County Monitor; established 1895; democratic weekly, published by Charles Woodall.
    Thermopolis–Independent; established 1906; independent weekly, published by L. I. Noble. Record; established 1901 ; weekly, published by L. J. & A. L. Duhig.
    Torrington–Goshen County Journal; established 1907; republican weekly, published by James Johnston. Telegram; established 1907; republican weekly, published by James Johnston.
    Upton–News-Letter; established 1909; republican weekly, published by F. L. Young. Weston County Gazette; established 1911 ; weekly, published by G. F. Gosline.
    Van Tassell–The Pioneer; established 1912; democratic weekly, published by G. C. & A. H. Forsythe.
    Wheatland–The Times; established 1902; democratic weekly, published by E. S. Drury. The World; established 1894; republican weekly, published by Frame & Richardson.
    Worland–The Grit; established 1905 ; republican weekly, published by W. G. Johnston.