Shawano in the news

Shawano in the news

Shawano County Journal

5 January 1878


Died - Last Saturday morning, Johnny O'Brien, of Northport, was taken from the train at Northport in a dying condition and passed quietly away the next morning.  He had been at work in the Michigan pineries this winter, where he was fatally injured on the 11th inst. by having his head jammed between two logs.  For several days after the accident his friends had hopes of his recovery, as he seemed to be getting better, but a few days before his death he became insane and began failing immediately after.  He had many friends throughout this part of the country who will deeply mourn his sad fate. --- New London Times


List of letters- List of letters remaining in the Shawano Post office uncalled for Jan. 1, 1878:


Anchwil, William Hawkins, Jerry
Bassett, Ogden Johnson, Erlon
Brodhagen, Herman Johnson, John
Bull, Mrs. Josiah Kattau, A C
Buth, William Kuhl, Thomas
Coylus, Rufus Kuntson, Mrs. Mart.
Crozier, Henry II Lambert,  Mrs. Wm.
Cuttay, A C Lane, Cha's A
Dearing, K Leaps, Miss Minnie
Dorner, William Learman, Adolph
Dove, Thomas Malbur, Miss Anna
Doxtator, D McClure, Margaret
Doxtator, Mrs. Emily 2 Morgan, David
Dutcher, Frank Peterson, Charles
Gipp, Albert Phillips, William
Glass, J II Sedgwick, Samuel
Golden, Ettie M Valandra, Mrs. S
Grignon, Marshall Wagner, Joseph
Gumtz, Albert Willard, H 2
Haines, John E Wilson, George A
Hampel, Miss Augusta 2  

Persons calling for any of the above letters will please say "advertised".


Died - In this city at the residence of his son-in-law Jan'y 2, 1878, Lyman Dodge, aged 85 years

Mr. Dodge was born in the town of Truebridge, Vermont.  in 1829 he removed to Warren Co., N.Y. from there to Seneca Co. and after a residence in that county of twenty years he moved to Georgiana, Canada West, and from there moved into this county in 1857, where he has since resided.  He was the father of thirteen children, ten of whom survive him, namely, Lyman Dodge of Pekin, Ill, Mrs. Wm. Markham of Chilton, Wis., John Dodge of Chippewa falls, Wis., Frank Dodge and Mrs. Jos. Daniels, Neenah, Wis.,  Mrs. R. F. Morly of Smith Mills, Minn, Mrs. E. F. Sawyer, Mrs. Jos. Maurer, Fred. and Theodore Dodge of this city.

Years ago he became connected with the Baptist Church and has always lived a consistent Christian life.  For several years past he has been gradually sinking under the heavy hand of old age ---- quietly waiting for the summons to call him home.  He died as he had lived, a quiet unostentatious man.


Citizen Papers - ? R. Raisler, Circuit Court clerk, requests us to give notice that all persons who wish to get their citizen papers can do so at the next term of the Court, which convenes in this city on the 15 inst.

Town of How - Dec 18, 1877.  As you have my promise of another communication from this part of the county.  I will try and see what can be done, but can assure you that news and sensational items are about as scarce as hen's teeth in these diggings.

There have been two deaths in the town this fall ---- an infant son of John and Martha Kruse, and old father Shulpeltz, who came from Germany about one and a half years ago and settled in this town upon land purchased of C. F. How, Jr.  He leaves a wife, four sons and one daughter, to mourn his loss.  His children were settled around near him and all have nice clearings started.

 The settlers hereabout have sown considerable fall wheat and have got it in pretty good season.  The most of them will busy themselves at lumbering this winter.

 Mr. Ed. Sargost is in his old camp with a small crew of men putting in basswood logs.

 Our two school houses are completed and will be ready for the school-marms in the spring.

The German Evangelical Church have organized a society here, and have preaching occasionally in the German language.  They have got a burying-ground, and if we only had a doctor in the town would soon have it full, but as we have no doctor and are unable to support one, we shall have to be satisfied with slow progress in that direction.

It is very strange to me that so many poor men and families will stay in the cities and villages, and barely make a living, when they can get 160 acres of land for almost nothing, with almost a certainty of future independence.  It is true that the first few years upon a new place in the woods is pretty hard, but no harder than for the poor in the cities, and to any thinking the woods is much the pleasantest and healthiest place to live.  Come and see.  Come and breathe the pure air of Northern Wisconsin, and drink some of our sweet pure spring water, and you will never sigh for the pent up air and filth laden water of the city.

I fear that I am already too lengthy and will write **finis."                       South Branch



Shawano County Journal

12 January 1878


Telephone - The voice of the gently whispering telephone can now be heard in this locality.  ? has manufactured one, and the experiments with it along the length of Main street, last Wednesday evening, were highly satisfactory.  Standing by the side of one of the operators, we could hear most of the whispered conversation carried on quite plain, which satisfied us that the telephone must eventually become as extensive an institution on a "short haul" as the electric telegraph is on a long one.

Married - In the town of Hartland, Jan. 1st, 1878, Mr. John Beitfuts, of Hartland, to Miss Hannah Krutzmaker, of Washington, by G. Olmsted.  May they live long to enjoy each other's happiness.

Child Died - We learn that on Saturday Inst. Mr. Al. Hill of the town of Navarino lost a child by accidental scalding to death.

Died in Child-birth - The wife of A. Meinhardt, of Belle Plaine, died suddenly in child-birth last Monday morning.  Mr. Meinhardt has the sympathy of numerous friends in this city in his bereavement.

Our Moral Code - To treat others as we would that ourselves should be treated; consider others'  feelings, and act accordingly; demand nothing; accept kindly offerings, and be true to our principles.

Abstinence Workers - We bid a God speed to every total abstinence worker in the field, and we are willing each one should perform his and her work as seemeth to them good; but while we extend this charity to others for their views, we claim a like charitable tolerance from them in the enjoyment and promulgation of what seems sensible to us.  Let us all do our best for the cause in our own way.

Misery From Strong Drink - Almost every click of the clock of time records some scene of misery from strong drink, and for every one God will hold some one responsible.  What a privilege it is to so use our vote, example and influence, that when the day of reckoning comes no charge will be entered against us.  Where do you stand, reader?

Notice - Whereas my wife Fredericka Faltz, has left my bed and board without just cause or provocation, I hereby gave notice that I will pay no debts contracted by her.                     August Faltz



Shawano County Journal

19 January 1878

Newspaper Views - The Shawano Journal is getting complimentary.  Because The Times contained a communication from Clintonville which was uncomplimentary to Prof. Beckel, it calls it the "great moral mud slinger."  If Loomer will leave off lumbering and run his own paper, the readers of the Journal would be better satisfied.  It hasn't the intellectual capacity to even sling mud under its present management.---- New London Times.

     "Hung be the heavens in black!"  Well that's a bad showing for the "present management," no mistake----coming from such high authority, too.  If the p.m. did not know that it was innocent, and would with care survive, it would consider itself the worst squelched p.m. that ever was ground under the heel of retributive Times.   Our editor must understand that he can't come down here and call the editor of the Times a "moral mud slinger," and then run back to the woods, chuckling to think what a dressing down there was in store for the unsophisticated p.m.  the "mud slinger" part of the outrage would not, perhaps, have attacted attention, for it could be construed into a compliment, viz: that the editor of the Times was fast and racy, like the horse that slings mud on the same principle that the students in Hebrew complimented his tutor by saying that he was a first-class male, because he was a good he-bra-ist; but any one who has read the Times so regularly as our editor has, and could attribute to it anything "moral,' apart from the "Parson's Corner," is fonder of a joke that the p.m. is, and the editor of the Times is excusable for getting mad over it and tearing his little shirt.  The Times editor says that the p.m. does not seem to like his paper &o.  Now that's all bosh.  It is a little jealous, of course, because it hasn't the "intellectual capacity" of the Times editor, but it will set up all night and day to read the Times, considering it only second in the State to the La Crosse Sun.  There, now keep quiet.


Town of Angelica - Jan 15, 1878.  As "Jeems" is gone from this home of Angles, and nobody is corresponding with you, I suppose it is about time to bolster up.

McCaren has left us, and his genial laugh and jolly corperosity are no more a part of this place.  He and his family are missed, as also Hogaboom, who has left for the Hot Springs.  Ed. has the good wishes of everyone in this place.  He was always was a trump, and showed it.  His place is filled by Frank Laird,  Now Laird is a good fellow, whose word is not to be disputed.  He says he is getting fat, and brags how much he weighs; but then he is fat like a broom handle.

Mr. Hutchinson, of Maple Grove, is spreading the gospel among the heathen.  Mrs. Upham attends to bossing the Sunday School; R. W. Button precedes over the Band of hope.  We had four initiates last Sunday, vix: ---- Laura Krake, L.D. Krake, Justin Smith, and Willie Culver.  The Band will meet for a while Monday evenings, and we will wager a can of cove oysters with the local editor that we do more temperance work this winter than you do in Shawano.  Now, let your light shine!

Upham & Bro.'s mill started up yesterday with about 400,000 feet of logs.  J.P. Maird & Co. have not started up as yet, and have only about 125,000 feet in.  They will run this week.

Terwald Johnson, of Sec. 6, T. 25, R. 18, raised 35 1/4 bushels of wheat from one bushel of seed, and received the handsome compliment of having brought to Fort Howard the best wheat of the season.  Now, if any of you good western towns can make such a showing as that, we will go one better.  We won't put up your best until we must.

Now, as this is our first, we will close, not because we are out of material, for there is enough going on to fill a volume, but because we don't want to sicken you on the start.

By the way, save up you nickels and send them over here.  Joe Goetetre and Ole Severson are paying a good premium.         Bustauricus


Business - Mr. C. Striech of Oshkosh, was in this city yesterday and called at the Journal office.  Mr. S. and his brother are running one of the largest and best wagon, carriage and sleigh manufactories in the northwest.


Divorce - The wife of Mr. Falts has left him again, and it is possible that the June term of the Circuit Court will have a divorce case to settle.  She has left him once before, last fall, but through the influence of friends of both parties they were induced to live together again.  The trouble seems to be ill treatment on the part of the husband.

Winter Term Of School - Our winter term of school, taught by C. R. Klebesadel, of the town of Richmond, is making good advancement, judging from the daily attendance of all the older scholars, who have not attended school for some time.


Stolen Deer - A party of men from Belle Plain were out hunting in this town, and killed a couple of deer.  They dragged them within a few rods of a man's house and covered them up well, while they went home for a team to take them away.  This was towards evening.  The next morning, when the party came to carry away their deer, they had disappeared, and the only clue they could get to them were tracks to a certain man's house.  A search warrant was procured, and the man's premises searched, but the party could not find the missing deer, and they finally left, enraged at their loss.  Leaving the thief, whoever he was, in possession of two fine deer to commence the new year with.


Scarlet Fever - We learn that scarlet fever has broken out afresh in Keshena, two of the scholars in the boarding school there being taken down with it last week.  The disease has been unusually severe among the Indians this winter, though good medical attendance has not been wanting.  The Indian's mode of living is not always favorable to a safe termination of the disease, even under the best treatment.


Farmer Arrested - Deputy Sheriff Murdock's professional visit to the Green Bay road, last week, resulted in the arrest of a farmer named Fred. Boecher, in whose house about seventy pounds of the stolen sugar was found.  He confessed to the robbery, and implicated two or three other farmers living on the road.  He was set at liberty on bail, his trial to take place today before Justice Klebesadel, in the town of Richmond.  He was absent when is house was searched, and the deputy and his posse (Dick Gumar and B. Wiley) had to do with the maddest kind of a German "frau," who said "she been so mad she was sick," and offered to whip the intruders one at a time.  We hope Mr. Boecher will get such punishment as will be a warning to the thieving farmers on that road, who are mostly well off and have no excuse for stealing other than a natural propensity.

Circuit Court - The January term of the Circuit Court for Shawano county convened last Tuesday, Judge K. H. Ellis presiding.  The court adjourned Thursday evening, having been in session but two days.  We are indebted to C. R. Klebesadel, deputy Clerk of Court, for the following list of cases disposed of at this term:

N. M. Edwards vs. K. Thompson, M. Palmer and H. Raymond ---- stricken from the calendar.  Oconto Company vs. John J. Jerrard and W. W. Hutchinson ---- judgment in favor of defendant.  Fara Haskins vs. Frederick H. Smith and Wm. Smith ---- continued.  Charles Otto vs. James Miller ---- settled.  Wm. Hanscom vs. Parlan Semple ---- continued.  H. D. McCulloch and Benj. Burr vs. Parlan Semple ---- continued.  Joseph Roganboth vs. Wiley & Ackerman ---- settled.  Daniel Joncs vs. N. M. Edwards ---- settled.  David Wetherby vs. T. Hilliker ---- stricken from calendar.  Wm. Smith vs. Chris. Brie ---- continued.  Wm. Smith vs. Matthew Miller ---- continued.  J. P, Laird, et al, vs. William Hotchkiss ---- plaintiff allowed to proceed to judgment.  John Darrow vs. Richard Darrow and Thos. Darrow ---- continued.  Calvin H. Upham and H. C. Russell vs. John Darrow and Martha Darrow, his wife, and Richard Darrow ---- continued.  D. Honig vs. C. M. Upham and H. C. Russell ---- plaintiff's att'y allowed one week to make brief.  Wm. Heleman vs. Ferdinand Kronig ---- decision reversed.  State of Wisconsin vs. Thomas Jennings ---- continued.  State of Wisconsin vs. George Allen ----recognizance forfeited.  State of Wisconsin vs. Louisa Ross ---- continued. 




Shawano County Journal

26 January 1878

Waters of Green Bay - The waters of Green Bay are nearly free from ice.  An old Indian, living in the vicinity of Red River, reports that the same thing occurred 45 or 48 years ago ---- there being no ice in Green Bay during the entire winter.


Lessor Items - The Norwegian Lutherans of this and adjoining towns have decided to build a church 28 x 40 feet adjacent to their cemetery, which is located near the north-east corner of section 12 in this town.  Its estimated cost is $800, of which $200 and some work has already been subscribed.


Shawano County Journal

2 February 1878


Boy Drowns - A little Indian boy named Chas. Antoine was drowned the other day at Keshena.


Bankruptcy - J. C. Bridgman, of Keshena, Shawano County, has filed a petition in voluntary bankruptcy at Commissioner Bloodgood's office. Liabilities, $18,000.


Accident - Mr. Grim met with a bad accident to his team, one day last week.  While driving to Shawano the wagon struck a handspike laying across the road, which flew up and injured one of his horses so badly that he is ruined for further service.


Returns To Pella - Mr. Christian Lade, an old resident of this county, who left here some time ago and went to Fond du Lac to reside, has returned and intends to remain permanently.  I understand he is about commencing a suit to recover his property, which he is sorry that he ever abandoned for a residence in any other part of the State.  That is the way the discontented ones all talk and feel, who return to Shawano County after trying to better their condition elsewhere.  There is no place like old Pella, after all.


Attempt At Pardon Failed - An effort made to secure a pardon for Geo. Brandt, sentenced to State Prison a few years ago, has failed, and he will no doubt have to serve out his term.  Brandt's family live in the town of Grant, and many think he has been sufficiently punished for his crime, and that keeping him in prison is only continuing the hardships of his family unnecessarily.


Accident - Stephen Austin a young man working in Crain's camp on the Lillie, had his left thumb smashed so badly by a log that amputation became necessary, and Dr. LaCount performed the surgical operation for him last Thursday.


New Grist Mill - It has been rumored for some time past that Buettner & Co. will build a grist mill in the Town of Grant next summer, and that A. Koeppen, Esq., intends to open a store near the mill site.  A grist mill in that town will fill a want long felt, and would be of great benefit to the farmers there.  The Town of Grant is one of the best farming towns in the county, and the territory west of Grant T. 20 R. 12 & 11 is as good a township of land for farming purposes as can be found in Northern Wisconsin.  It comprises much excellent water power and an abundance of timber of all kinds, and should the railroad run through it, as is very likely, that section will be the best part of the county.


Changes in Real Estate - In the town of Belle Plain a few changes in real estate have taken place.  C. L. Wiley, the post-master of your city, has purchased a tract of land and is operating a good farm on the Town line road.



Shawano County Journal

9 February 1878


Town Of Pella - Jan. Feb. 6th, 1878. The wife of Charles Steinberg, of the town of Seneca, died last week.  They had only been married about a year, and Mr. S. takes his bereavement very much to heart.    

     Mr. Westphal's residence, on the Town Lake road, was the scene of another lively social gathering one evening last week, to which your correspondent was honored with an invitation.  A large party from New London were present, among them the Herman Brothers, agents of the Island City Marble Works, and Ed. Westphal, a brother of the host, Insurance agent.  Excellent music was in attendance, and the festival was kept up until daylight, every one present being satisfied that Mr. Westphal and lady knew how to entertain their friends.

     On a recent trip down to the Embarrass river, last week, I was surprised to see the improvement made in a section which a few years ago was a wilderness of heavy forest.  To see the hundreds of acres under cultivation and the substantial buildings scattered here and there, would astonish even those who have some idea of the change an energetic farmer can bring about in a short time.  I stopped at the residence of Mr. Wm. Smith, who has on the ground all the timber necessary for putting in a dam on Sec. 9, Town of Pella, and says he will commence framing in a few weeks.  In returning I crossed the logging road of Mr. B. Overton, which I found to be in condition for hauling quite a load.  The track is about two miles long, and is kept in good state by sprinkling, which shows what can be done by men who have pluck and energy

     Passing into the town of Herman, I made a halt at the house of Fred Young, the chairman of that town.  While his brother was taking care of the team, Mr. Young showed me his apiary, where the bees were flying about as they would in the month of July.  I do not remember ever seeing such a sight on the 2d of February before.  In company with the venerable District Attorney, we were ushered into the room where dinner was prepared, and there my surprise took a new turn to find several vases of blooming flowers and two large myrrh trees, the largest about six feet high by two wide, all making as grand a display as ever was seen in any regular green-house.  Mr. Young and brother have a fine farm, containing 160 acres, with about fifty acres of clearing, a comfortable house, barn and other buildings.  The surrounding country looks well, and in course of time that portion of the town will hold its own with the best farming tract in the county.


Accident - One Julius Long was badly hurt on Saturday last, at Seymour.  While unloading hub-stuff from a wagon, his feet slipped between some sticks, and a large stick fell from the wagon upon his head.  He was living at last accounts.


Quite a delegation of Menomonee Indians were in the city Wednesday, conferring with some strange lawyer.  From what we could gather, some old claim is about to be laid before the department, and a large number of the Indians entertain the ridiculous notion of becoming citizens.


Priesthood - We see by the Green Bay Advocate that Mr. Paul Faranacci, for several years a resident of New London, and for a term proprietor of the stage line between Shawano and New London, is to resume the duties of the priesthood in the Roman Catholic Church.  Since severing his official connections with the church, years ago, Mr. F. has been married and raised quite a family of children.


Died - At his home in the town of Richmond, on Thursday the 7th inst.  Ralph, the oldest son of Geo. W. and Lucy J. King, aged 10 years, nearly.

     His disease was of the brain and spine, and of long standing.  He had  been declining for several years, the last year of his life he failed rapidly, suffering more or less --- his last illness was very painful, and in death only did he find relief.  He was a bright intelligent little fellow, early displaying a great aptness for mechanics in particular, but with too much mental activity for his physical structure.  He would have been ten years old on the 2nd day of March, next.  The bereaved parents have the sympathy of their many friends.



Shawano County Journal

16 February 1878

Sick - What with scarlet fever, diphtheria, lung complicates, and other ills too numerous to mention, our physicians are kept running night and day, and all agree this has been the unhealthiest winter so far that Shawano County has yet experienced.


Wagon Broke Through Ice - There was much excitement and running to and fro inaugurated, Monday afternoon, by the report that two of Mr. H. Naber's teams, engaged in hauling hay from his marsh to the head of Shawano Lake, had broken through the ice about a mile and a half from shore and were probably lost.  The distance to be traveled to the point indicated is about four miles, and the hope of rescue was very forlorn, but in less time then it takes us to tell it every available "rig" was impressed, and Mr. Naber and his friends, provided with rope, blankets, and other restoratives, were flying toward the scene of trouble.  Arrived at the lake, Mr. Naber was relieved to see his two teams moving along in the distance towards home all right, but a wagon box on the ice was evidence that some team had broken in, and the rescuers were soon on the spot.  It proved to have been a team belonging to Mr. H. Wescott, going after a load of hay, and the horses had already been rescued and taken ashore, leaving the wagon and harness at the bottom of the lake, to be fished up another time.  Mr. Wescott tells us that the horses were in the water over two hours, owing to the ice breaking repeatedly under their weight when partly out.  The place where they broke in is a "crevasso" or air crack in the ice, extending a long distance, and usually open except when closed temporarily by a night's hard frost, in which case an inexperienced person would be deceived.  The ice elsewhere on the lake is about a foot thick and perfectly safe.


Condition Of Jail - The State Board of Charities and Reform, in their last annual report of the condition of jails visited throughout the Sate, made the following complimentary mention of the Shawano County Jail.  We hope it may induce the County Board to authorize the necessary repairs in that institution before another State Board comes around to make remarks about it.  It is in bad condition all through, no doubt of it, and should be either made fit for jail purposes or moved off the county property altogether.  Those chimneys, for instance, would be a disgrace to a Patagonian novel.  The report said:

 "Shawano County Jail. Shawano. Visited March 23.  It contained no inmates, and would not greatly restrict the liberty of any one placed in it.  It is, without exception, the most liberally ventilated jail in the state, and is undoubtedly a healthy place of abode in mild weather."


Lung Fever - We were sorry to learn, Wednesday, that Mr. W. D. Sexton, of Waukechon, was very low with an attack of lung fever.

We also learn that Mrs. Parlan Semple is very sick with the same disease.


Logs In The River - No snow yet on the Wolf river, and from present indications it don't look as though there would be any.  But very few lumbermen have been fortunate enough to get any of their logs into the river, although millions of feet are on the skid ways. 

     /the following is a very correct estimate of the amount of logs now in the river:


Seymour Hollister,     3,000,000
H. H. Martin,                                  


Martin & Loomer,                            225,000
Stephenson, 1,000,000
J. D. Magee,                         550,000
Labbs,      300,000
Geo. Streeter,                                    700,000
Geo. Gilkey,                                         600,000
Hamilton & Finley,                         500,000
James McLond,                                150,000
T. E. Craine, (3 camps)                                  700,000
Sam. Lawrence,                              130,000
Bray & Chonte,                                 250,000
P, Doyle, for Sherry,                     1,600,000
S. P. Wescott,                                   200,000
Mackay & Bro,                                                   130,000
S. Mills,                                                350,000
C. P. Montelius,                               100,000
T. H. Dodge,                                        125,000
Wm. Smith,                                        200,000
Howe & Winans,                             125,000
J. M. Robinson,                                150,000
Other small lots, say                     150,000

Suicide - Joseph Potts, a farmer living near Embarrass, eleven miles south of this city, committed suicide by hanging himself in his barn last Saturday.  He went out to the barn as usual that morning to feed his stock, and not appearing for breakfast when called, his wife went out and found him hanging to a beam over the threshing floor.  He was immediately taken down, and every means used to restore life, but all proved of no avail ---- he was dead.  He seemed to have been deliberate and determined to make a success of the job ---- selecting the best place in the barn, and tying his hands in such a way that he could not use them to help himself in the life struggle.  He was 45 years old, in good circumstances, perfectly healthy and sane to all appearance, and his family relations have always been of the most cordial kind.  He leaves four grown up children, two sons and two daughters, to whom the father's rash act is as inexplicable as it is to the neighborhood.  One of the young men was employed in some lumbering camp on the Upper Wolf, and we get the facts from a messenger sent to inform him of the sad occurrence.


Shawano County Journal

9 March 1878


Found Dead - The Indian found dead in the woods back of Keshena, last week, proved to be and old Stockbridge named Charlie Brant, who has led a sort of vagrant life around this county for several years past.  He was tolerably well educated, always pleasant, and ready to to do odd jobs for the charity extended him, but within the past few months he had become almost helpless from age and partially insane.  


Two Orphan Boys - Mrs. Wm. M. Bridge, of this city, lost a widowed sister by death a few weeks ago, leaving two bright little orphan boys to be taken care of by relatives.  Mrs. Bridge returned from Berlin (where the sister resided) last week, accompanied by the two boys, which she has taken to bring up, in accordance with her sister's dying request.  All who know Mrs. Bridge,  and have ever had occasion to realize the worth of her kind, motherly heart, will agree with us that the orphans have fallen into good hands, and a dead sister trust will be honored to the letter of their care.  Father Bill will find quite a masculine increase in his family when he comes out of the woods.


Birth - Now would every old woman in Belle Plaine give quite a consideration for just one square hug of that Yankee Hill baby.  We congratulate our friend M. H. Wells and his fair wife on the event; and, as Lambert has set up the cigars and is entitled to have a word in, he wants to know of M. H. what his lowest fighting weight is now, and how much, is his estimation, that "nugget" will pan out to the ton?


Town of Angelica - Did you ever hear of Joseph Perry?  He is one of the characters of this town.  He was down to the village yesterday, looking hale and hearty.  He is a veteran.  During the war he was shot almost to pieces.  In one battle he received two horrible wounds in the legs, but preferred to leave the field, saying "he'd be d----d if he wouldn't pop a reg,." so stooping down to see under the smoke of the battle, he got a ball in the eye, which laid him out.  The next morning he crawled into camp, a pitiable sight, just as his company prepared to march.  His friend, Nat. Bruce, started to help him, where the orderly sergeant ordered him into line again, saying it was no time to attend to "dead men."  That remark and action made Nat. Bruce cry, but Perry went to the surgeon to be doctored.  He too had no time for "dead men." but told the steward to give him a quart of brandy, thinking Joe would drink the whole of it and die easy----but he was too sharp for that; he gargled out his throat, took a swallow, and started for another hospital.  In time he got home.  One day an old friend asked Joe where he was when his regiment lay so close to theirs?  "Oh, out of doors." he replied.  I believe it was Dr. LaCount who examined him as pension surgeon, and who asked Joe what kind of a ball it was that took his eye from him?  "I didn't see the d----d thing; if I had I would have dodged."  Joe replied.  He is kind hearted as he is quick at repartee, brave as kind hearted, and just as good a worker as brave----in fact a genuine man.


Shawano County Journal

16 March 1878


Fatally Injured - Mr. Michael Berdell, while chopping down a tree last week, was fatally injured by the falling of a limb.

Hunting River - March 7th, 1878.  Mr. Editor: ---- Yesterday and today have been very warm and pleasant, the sun shining as beautifully as in summer, and the pretty little birds, who were not such fools as to fly away last fall from their cozy homes in the pine woods to unfitted up sunny homes in the south, may be seen flitting over and around the camp, singing their sweet and innocent songs, which, in spite of this snowless winter, fills the listener's heart with joy and gladness.  But enough of this.

     The lumberman, who have been waiting for  the "beautiful snow," have given up all hopes of ever seeing any --- at least not this winter, though they still keep on hoping and waiting .  A few of the lumbermen who have short hauls have been travoying the logs in lively, and don't care a cent whether school keeps or not, if only it keeps cold.

Injuries - George Budd, Geo. Streeter's "boss," has been laid up for some time with the rheumatism, but is around again, feeling quite well.  Mr. Neil McGinnis, of Magee's camp, had the misfortune to get one of his legs badly jammed between a tree and a log, a week ago last Saturday morning, while travoying the latter to the river, and returned to the camp, leaving his horse team, a beautiful span of blacks, with Thomas O'Lanny, who in the afternoon of the same day, had the presumption to bruise his knee in the same manner and place.  As no bones were broken, both gentlemen have been doing well under the careful treatment of the "Captain." and hopes are entertained that they will be all right in a few days, though their limbs are still very weak.  Mr. McGinnis is one of the best horse teamsters on the river.

Children's Death - We are sorry to be obliged to report two more deaths of children from scarlet fever this week.  Mr. John M. Robinson, living on the Red river, lost his only child, a little girl in her seventh year, last Monday, and Mr. C. Shanahan, in this city, lost a little boy, aged about four years, on Thursday.  The bereaved families have the sympathy of the whole community.

Died - In the town of Richmond, March 11th, 1878, of scarlet fever, Alice Lillian, only child and daughter of John M. and Phorba M. Robinson, aged 6 years and 8 months. 

     The untimely death of little Alice comes with more than usual hardship to the fond parents.  She was a very bright, lovable child, and all they had to make their home in the woods seem the brightest spot in the world to them.  It will be long before they can be reconciled to the void which death has made in the joy of their daily life, and they have the heart-felt sympathy of friends and relatives in their sorrow.

Town of Angelica - March 14th, 1878.  Lumbering is going on out this way, although the bottom has dropped out of almost everything, the roads included.

     C. D. Wescott was out to see us a day or two since, looking first-rate.  He is travoying logs to the Oleson Mill, which has been leased by Upham & Bro. Upham says he is bound to clean up his pine this season, and we think he has the "sand' to do it.  He has now in the Oleson Pond nearly 300,000 ft,, and is building a tramway to his timber.  He expects to work at it until July or August --- so C. D. W. says, who has been hauling the past week on a road, or canal, ---- it is hard to say which ---- the horses are in up to their knees, while the log moves the slushy mud, or muddy slush, with it all the way down.  But even this wont get Charley straight on politics ---- he is as crazy as ever.

     J. P. Laird & Co. will be through this week with their sawingThey are cutting 150,000 shingles a day now.  F. C. laird is at home this week ---- Button being clerk.

     Mr. Bullock, of Ft. Atkinson, Wis., was here last Sunday and Monday.  We hope to see him again. 

     H. C. Russell, of Shawano, was out this way for a few days.  He left his son at Mr. Upham's to recuperate.  He could not be at a better place.





Shawano County Journal

23 March 1878

Improvements - Mr. William Pendleton, of this city, has rented the tavern stand known as the John Corn place, on the Langlade road 18 miles north of this city, and intends moving to it this spring.  He will build a large barn, and make other improvements for the better accommodation of the traveling public who will find Mr. Pendleton and his wife the most attentive of landlords and landlady.

Searching For Their Daughter - Nellie Mills, A daughter of John Mills, of the town of Richmond, dressed herself in boy's clothes, last Sunday, and left her home, leaving a note for her parents bidding them a good-bye and informing them that she was "on her road to ruin."  The girl is about 18 years of age, unusually masculine looking in feature and form, and will readily deceive people as to her sex, if she continues to wear men's clothes and does not "give herself away."  She was seen on the same day in Belle Plain, traveling south on the New London road, but was not recognized, and her father started after her on learning the direction she had taken.  The family are respectable, though poor, and the girl's character, so far as we can learn, was without reproach, notwithstanding the suspicious "declaration of intention" conveyed in her farewell note.  What could induce the young women to thus unsex and throw herself upon the world is beyond our explanation, but we hope it is nothing more than a mad freak and that Mr. Mills will speedily overtake his wayward daughter and return her to her home, none the worse for this masculine masquerade.

Died - In this city March 18, 1878, Wilhelmine S. wife of C. A. Raisler, aged 26 years, 3 months and 21 days.

     Mrs. Raisler died of consumption, that dread scourge of the lovely and best of our land.  Her gentle disposition and amiable character had endeared her to the large circle of friends and acquaintances among whom she passed her season of girlhood and brief period of wife and mother.  Hopeful for the future beyond the grave, she has peacefully passed away, leaving a fond husband and two children, and many relatives to mourn her loss.

Log Prices - The Lincoln County Advocate says that logs are selling on the Wisconsin for about $2 per thousand more than last year, and that it hears of some sales being made at $6 per thousand.

Token of Respect - D. H. Pulcifer, of this city, legislative reporter for the Oshkosh Northwestern, and also an official of the Senate chamber, was made the happy recipient of an elegant chair last week, a token of respect from the messengers of the Senate.  Mr. Chairman, we congratulate you.

Arrested - Dep. U. S. Marshal Whitney's business in this section, last week, was the arrest of a man called John Davids, accused of horse stealing.  He arrested him in Wescott Swamp, on Red River, and started for Green Bay with him Saturday morning.  We learned since that the man has plead guilty and has been sentenced to six months in the Brown County Jail.

Still On Crutches - We were glad to see our old friend T. Hilliker, of the town of Navarino, last Tuesday, but we were sorry to see those crutches which he has been obliged to carry around with him for the past three months, owing to an injury in his hip sustained jumping from a wagon.

Stabbing - Last Saturday night, at a dance in the town of Bloomfield, Waupaca County, at the house of Mr. Draugham, a fellow by the name of Dick Brown, from Lind, got into a quarrel with a German named Bodenz,  As Brown was leaving the yard, Bodenz ran up behind him and stabbed him with a knife near the shoulder blade.  Brown was taken into the house and a physician called, who thought it was impossible for him to live. Bodenz fled and has not been arrested.  Dancing, whiskey and a woman ---- the old murder story.


Shawano County Journal

March 30, 1878


Burned To Death - We learned that last week two Keshena Indians, engaged in fishing on the Shioc river were nearly burned to death by the taking fire of the tent in which they were lying in a drunken sleep.  Before he could be dragged from the flames, one of them, named Puagun, was so badly burned about the breast and head that there was doubt about his surviving the injuries.  The Indians sold fish in New London and bought some of the whiskey peculiar to that town, which would indicate that the fire was the result of carelessness in spilling some of it on or near the tent.  Our energetic Indian Agent will make it unpleasant for some of those New London liquor sellers, if he can once get squarely on their track.

     We learn that the Indian Puagun has since died.


Girl Returned - Nellie Mills, The girl mentioned last week as having assumed male attire and left her home, was found by her father at Raymond's Mill, in the town of Pella, where she had obtained employment as a farm hand, her sex unsuspected by Mr. Raymond or his family until discovered by the arrival of the father, who promptly took her home.  She is said to make as good looking a young man as ever made love to rural maiden, and the Pella boys ought to be thankful that the "cuss" has so soon been exposed and taken from their midst.  Now, Nellie, behave yourself, and you will find that it is much better to be a good girl than to be a miserable boy, smoking and chawing tobacco, and going to dances and drinking beer and getting your trousers tore and all that.


Serve As Mayor - To the Hon. D. H. Pulcifer, Mayor of the city of Shawano:

    We the undersigned citizens of the city of Shawano, being fully satisfied with the economical management of our city affairs under your hands, would most respectfully request you to serve the city as Mayor again for another term:

H. Naber, H. Klosterman,
A. Hicks, H. M. Loomer,
S. W. McKay, S. Wiley,
S. Yung, K. M. Phillips,
G. W. Gibbs, C. Crowley,
C. M. Upham, L. D. Roberts,
E. Bauerfiend, C. Raasch,
J. Doran, G. Dengel,
A Lieg, M. Achten,
A. Weber, J. H. McNichol,
H. C. Russell, R. W. Jackson,
H. L. Christenson, A. M. Andrews,
G. W. Gibbs, C. Gardipee,
H. Bauerfiend, F. Schweers,
P. Gratten, P. J. McDonald,
A. Schroeder, W. Westerfelt,
H. W. Cattau, M. Muller,
M. Heisinger, J. Wagner,
C. A. Raisler, E. Sommers,
M. Devlin, S. P. McNichol,
A. Bibelhausen, M. Miller,
Wm. Charnley, J. M. Schweers,
H. A. Small, A. Gibbs,
D. Gorham, M. Wescott,
C. H. Durrin, W. H. Murdock,
W. Bridge, H. H. Martin,
A. Zerwas, D. A. McDonell,
G. W. Latta, S. J. H. Girths


Messrs. H. Naber, H. Klosterman, Moritz Muller, C. M. Upham, Julius Wagner and others:

Your request asking me to allow you to present my name as a candidate for re-election as Mayor of the ensuing year, is received.

While it is gratifying to know the citizens are pleased with the economical administration of city affairs, during the past year, it is but justice to say that much credit is due to aldermen, clerk and treasurer, who have so ably and cheerfully seconded every effort to reduce taxation.  It is also gratifying to know that our city is entirely free from debt, and has a fund of nearly three hundred dollars in the treasury.

While I have no personal ambition or desire to serve as mayor another year, I feel that our city, which has so often honored me with its suffrage, has a right to ask for my services in any position where they feel it would be beneficial to the general interest, therefore, I do not feel at liberty to decline your request.

                                                                                                                         D. H. Pulcifer.


Shawano County Journal

6 April 1878


Election Results - The charter elections last Tuesday passed off very quietly and harmoniously. There were no opposition to the ticket nominated Saturday evening, except for justice of the 1st ward and constable in the second ward --- A. M. Andrews being elected justice over J. King, the regular nominee, in the 1st, and Jas. B. Miller giving W. H. Murdock, regular nominee, a close run for constable in the 2d.  The vote of the city was light, many voters being absent in the camps and on the drives.  The ticket elected is as follows:


Mayor ---- D. H. Pulcifer

City Clerk ---- D. Gorham

Treasurer ---- C. H. Durrin

Police Justice ---- Ed. Sommers

     First Ward:---- Aldermen, John M. Schweers, C. Crowley, G. Garbrecht; Supervisor, Mat. Miller; Assessor, C. Raasch; Justice, A, M. Andrews; Constable, J. F. Maurer.

     Second Ward: ---- Aldermen, M. Wescott, S. Wiley, T. H. McNichol; Supervisor, H. M. Loomer; Assessor, J. Loan; Justice, D.H. Pulcifer; Constable, W. H. Murdock.

     H. S. Orton and David Taylor received 123 votes for Judges of the Supreme Court.


Assault And Battery - The Town of Washington stepped to the front, this week, with an assault and battery case, to show that there was enough excitement over the elections in some of the towns to make up for the lack of interest in the city.  The case was that of Fred. Kruger vs. Wm. Winter, both parties residing in that town, and was commenced before Justice Pulcifer on Thursday, occupying two days in its trial.  It appears that on town meeting day, Winter committed an assault on Kruger, by striking him with a stick on the arm and shoulder.  A jury was duly empanelled at the request of the defendant, and the examination of witnesses, some 30 in number, commenced.  After the argument of council, K. M. Phillips for defendant and G. W. Latta for the State, the jury retired and in less than ten minutes returned a verdict of guilty, the Court fining the defendant $5 and costs, which amounted in all to $84.90.  People must act civil at town meeting, if they wish to keep clear of the strong (and expensive) arm of the law, which is made to apply strictly in all such cases.



Shawano County Journal

14 April 1878


Man Ruled Insane - Peterson, the insane man from this county who has been an inmate of the Oshkosh Insane Asylum for several years, has been pronounced incurable, and was brought to this city last Monday.  He will be sent to the Waupaca Poor House, and kept there at the expense of this county.


Military Pension - According to an act of Congress of the U. S., March 9, 1878, all the surviving officers and enlisted and drafted men, without regard to color, including militia and volunteers, of the military and navy services of the U. S. who served for 14 days in the war with Great Britain of 1812, or who were in any engagement and were honorably discharged, and their surviving widows, are entitled to pensions.  The loss or lack of a certificate of discharge will not effect the applicants of the benefit of the law.  All cases for pension under this act will receive prompt attention, if placed in the hands of G. W. Latta, Att'y at Law, who has received the necessary blanks, &c., from the Department of the Interior for applicants.




Shawano County Journal

21 April 1878


Moved to Loon Lake - O. Andrews has betaken himself to country life on the banks of classic Loon Lake, about ten miles north-east of this city, where he will devote his energies to raising stock, mosquitoes, wheat, suckers, rye, musk-rats, cranberries, and other articles usually grown on a farm.  We wish Orl. all manner of good luck in his granger undertaking.

Shawano County Journal

21 Apr 1878

Died – In this town, on Friday, the 29th inst., Willie, eldest son of Frederick and Wilhelmina Schroeder, aged 4 years and 14 days.

Died – Also Anna, eldest daughter of Frederick and Wilhelmina Reschke, aged 8 years and 6 months.     Juno



Shawano County Journal

4 May 1878


Lime Delivered - H. S. & A. Springsted have an advertisement in another column, in which they say they are prepared to deliver lime in quantities to suit customers.  They are fair dealing men and should be well patronized.


Family Deaths - The members of the family of Mr. Geo. Senft, of the Town of Naswaupee, were taken with diphtheria a short time ago, and inside of three days five of them died of a terrible malady.  Three more are not yet out of danger, but are also very low.

     The following are the names and ages of those who died:  August. 13 years; Mary 11 years; Emilie, 9 years; Lizzy, 5 years; and Minnie, 4 years of age.

     One of the children died Saturday, three Sunday, and the other Monday.

Door Co. Advocate.


Moving To Kansas - Tho's Snowden, who for several years past has carried on a first-class boot and shoe shop in this city, has purchased a farm near Russell, Kansas, and will remove their next week.  Mr. Snowden has gained many warm friends during his stay in this city, by his honest and upright dealing and we congratulate the neighborhood in which he is to settle on securing a perfectly honest man.


A Daughter's Death - In this city, May 6, 1878, of scarlet fever, Luella M. only daughter of H. A. and E. C. small, aged 2 years, 1 month, and 20 days.

     (Appleton papers please copy)


You remember dear mother, how dark was the night,

When the mist gathered o'er me, and put out my light,

You were care worn and weary, and Oh! how you cried,

For little Luella was crossing the tide.


The water was cold, the river was dark,

But Jesus just drew me close, close to his heart,

And when we were over, Oh! what do you think ----

Bright angles were waiting for us at the brink,

And hosts of dear cherubs no larger than me,

And such beautiful music, I wish you could see,

The welcome there was in heaven for me.


I'm not a bit lonely, and there is no night here,

And we never are sick, and we never shed tears,

For papa and mama and Georgie and Guy,

And dear baby brother are coming, by and by;

And you must all be ready or you cannot come.

To live with Luella in her heavenly home;

But come unto Jesus and he will give you grace,

And together we'll dwell in this beautiful place.



Shawano County Journal

11 May 1878


Died- In this city May 6, 1878, of scarlet fever, Luella M. only daughter of H.A. and E.C. Small aged 2 years, 1 month and 20 days.

     (Appleton papers please copy)

Your remember dear mother, how dark was the night,

When the mist gathered o’er me, and put out my light,

You were care worn and weary, and Oh, how you cried.

For little Luella was crossing the tide.


The water was cold, the river was dark,

But Jesus just drew me close, close to his heart,

And when we were over, Oh! What do you think---

Bright angels were waiting for us at the brink,

And hosts of dear cherubs no larger than me,

And such beautiful music, I wish you could see

The welcome there was in heaven for me.


I’m not a bit lonely, and there is no night here,

And we never are sick, and we never shed tears,

For papa and mama and Georgie and Guy,

And dear baby brother are coming, by and by,

And you must all be ready or you cannot come,

To live with Luella in her heavenly home,

But come unto Jesus and he’ll give you grace,

And together we’ll dwell in this beautiful place.




Shawano County Journal

18 May 1878


Close Call – A singular, and what came very near being a fatal accident, happened to Ernst Jang of the firm of Klosterman & Jung, of this city, last Wednesday.  He was walking in his garden and had in his hand a stick, about four feet long and rather pointed at the upper end, which he was using as a cane.  While thus walking he stubbed his foot against some obstruction and fell forward on the stick, the sharp point of which run three inches into his neck just above the collar bone, within a quarter of an inch of the jugular vein, and then broke off.  Dr. La Count was at once called who made an incision into Jung’s neck and removed the piece of stick.  Mr. Jung is alright now, but it was a narrow escape from death.


Minnesota – C.F. How, Jr., left Saturday for some pace in Minnesota with an outlandish name, to be gone several months.  He is interested in a large tract of land in that part of the state, and as there is a large immigration to that state, he will no doubt dispose of it to a good advantage.


Died – The wife of Mortiz Heisinger of this city, died last Thursday after a short illness.  On Monday last she gave birth to a little girl, and until Tuesday night appeared to be very comfortable.  On Wednesday she was taken very sick, having some way caught a cold and on Thursday afternoon died.  All that good friends and medical aid could do was tried, but to no avail.  Mr. Heisinger has the sympathy of the whole community in his affliction.


New Job – Will Rogers, who for the past year has been the private secretary to the Indian Agent at Keshena, has (?) a situation as local editor of the Racine Advocate. We congratulate the people of Racine, and especially the press, on acquiring the services of Mr. Rogers.  He is talented, well educated, and will make a first-class journalist.


Bathing House – The city has completed the bathing house near Kast’s Mill and it is now ready to use.  The building is a good substantial one, ten feet wide and twenty feet long, built across the stream from the mill.


Jury Drawing – Shawano County—Circuit Court.  Is pursuance of the stature in such case made and provided, notice is hereby given that the Clerk of the Circuit court for the county of Shawano, Wisconsin, will at his office in the city of Shawano, on Monday 27th day of May, A.D.. 1878 at the hour of two o’clock P.M. of said day proceed to draw thirty-six persons to serve as petite jurors, for the June term of the Circuit Court for the year 1878, in and for said county of Shawano.

Dated at the Clerk’s office in Shawano, this 17th day of May, A.D. 1878.

                                                                                    C.A. Raisler

                                                                        Clerk of the Circuit Court



Shawano County Journal

Thurs 19, May 1877


Obit and Life History – Capt. John Lynch a prominent citizen of Oshkosh fell through a raft of logs one day last week and was drowned before he could get out.  It was at first supposed that he died of heart disease, but an inquest was held and a verdict rendered of accidental drowning.  The following from the Northwestern is a brief sketch of his life:

Capt. John Lynch was born in the state of New York, in the month of July 1834.  His parents moved to this county when he was ten years of age and settled in the town of Nekimi.  When nearing the age of twenty he went into the woods as a cook in a lumber camp, which was his initiatory degree into a business in which he was interested at the present time to a large extent.  He worked in the woods winters and on a farm summers for several years, and finally got a situation as deck hand on a boat running on Wolf River.  From that time he took a great interest in boating and gradually worked his way up through the gradations of that business until he became captain and pilot.  Boating in those days was one of the most stirring features of this new country.  He was captain of several popular boats and was looked upon with a great deal of favor.  He was in the pilot house at the wheel of the Steamer City of Berlin, when she blew up on July 4, 1857.  He was blown far up in the air by the force of the explosion, and came down in the river considerably scalded, from the effects of which he was laid up for several weeks.  At the same time he commenced dealing in pine lands, and by careful speculation had shrewd management managed to make quite a fortune.  Fortune seemed to favor him at every turn and all his enterprises resulted successfully.  Several years ago he was elected President and Superintendent of the Wolf River Transportation Company, which position he has held ever since.  He had investments and business connections with some of the leading lumber operators in this part of the State, and on the Wisconsin River, as well as in many other business enterprises other than lumbering.  Directly and indirectly he gave employment to a large number of men, and in his dealings was always known to be fair and honorable.  His record was one to be proud of.  He was a man who never could be trifled with, and was sensitive to a marked degree.  While he stood by and enjoyed seeing others joke, he did not like to be joked himself.  He was a devout Catholic and endeavored to live up strictly to the rites and rules of that denomination.  He was very devoted to his family and his aged parents, who still live, and who, in their declining years were mainly dependent upon him for support.  He leaves a wife and three children, the oldest about six years of age.

He had $32,000 insurance on his life, $20,000 in the Home of New York, $5,000 in the Northwestern Mutual of Milwaukee, $2,000 in the Penn of Pennsylvania, and an accident policy of $5,000 in the Travelers.


Shawano County Journal

25 May 1878


Traveling – C. How, Jr. is stopping at St. Cloud, Minn.  He has our thanks for the late papers of that part of the union.  Cal. Have you gone back to your adopted State and city, or are you ashamed of us that you register from Casanovia, N.Y.


Birth – Aug. Schweers was presented with a twelve and a half pound lump of humanity, in the shape of a young tin-smith, by his wife last Wednesday night.  Friend Schweers’ face is smiles and cigars are plenty.


Notice – To all who it may concern:  I hereby give notice that my wife Aurilla Simons has abandoned my bed and board without any consent, and I shall not be responsible for any debt of debts which she may

                                                                                                            Thomas Simons

     May 4, 1878


Lightning – During the thunder shower last Thursday afternoon, the lightning struck a tree near the clearing of Fred. Klunder in the town of Richmond, and knocked down two boys who were hunting for some sheep close by.  They were not seriously injured.


Lime:  Lime:  Lime:

The undersigned have commenced burning lime in their kiln on Lime Kiln Hill, and are now prepared to deliver lime in any part of the city or at the kiln in quantities to suit customers.

Prices Reasonable

All kinds of country produce taken in exchange for lime.

H. & A. Springsted.

April 27, 1878



Shawano Harness Shop,

H. A. Small, Proprietor.

Main Street, one door south of H. Naber’s

The citizens of Shawano and vicinity can always find a full assortment of

Harness, Trunks, Valises,

Ladies and Gent’s Morree co Bags

 Horse Whips, Horse Boots, Horse

      Brushes, Curry Combs, Buffalo Robes, Horse Collars, Collar Pads,

                  Blankets, Fly Nets, and

Horse Furnishing Goods Generally

All goods or work warranted by represented

Special Attention Given to Repairing and Jobbing.



Died – In the town of Waukechon, Shawano Co. on the 19th inst., Mary M. wife of Dennis Sullivan, aged 80 years.

Mrs. Sullivan leaves a husband and four children t mourn her death.



Shawano County Sash, Blind & Door Factory

D. Jones, Proprietor

Located on Perry’s Mills, on the Embarrass River.  I keep constantly on hand all kinds of mouldings, architrave Battings, &c.  Plaining, matching and siding splits to order.  Dressed siding kept constantly on hand.

Give me a call.  Terms Reasonable.

16-17                           Daniel Jones