It is frankly confessed by mining experts that in the superficial appearance of the country included in the Republic Camp there is little to  signify the presence of gold or any other mineral.  There are surrounding mountains of considerable height;  there are deep ravines.  But the rocks seldom come to the surface, there being almost everywhere a considerable depth of soil, or was, from which springs a most abundant growth of bunch grass.  Still, a few of the primary facts touching the formation and mineral characteristics of the district have been made reasonably certain by careful exploratory work.  There is a contact between porphyry and granite on the western edge of Republic Camp.  In this porphyry have been found most of the best mines carrying the highest values.  The area of the porphry (sic) zone extends from the Golden Harvest, on the south, to the Tom Thumb mine on the north, this end turning toward the east, thus forming the arc of the circle.  Between these  two mines mentioned the distance is about nine miles.  Ore of a similar character has been found in both these mines as well as throughout the intermediate country.  Three miles will, probably, limit the width of this district and the entire mineral area in this immediate locality may be said to contain nearly thirty square miles.

     Although the character of the rock varies greatly in this area, both in texture and appearance, the porphyry formation is found throughout.  So soft is it that much of the work may be prosecuted with a pick, and especially true is this in the case of the famous Republic mine.  At the remarkable rate of thirteen feet per day, the Republic company ran a 1,400 foot tunnel, the No. 3.  The country rock is found remarkably easy to work, as a rule, which fact, as will readily be appreciated by the miner, has exerted great influence in the rapid development which has already eventuated in this district.  In a northerly and southerly direction run the mineral bearing lodes, although a number of cross-veins have been struck.  Despite the fact that the usual iron cap of British Columbia is not found in this locality, leads are indicated by out-crops of decomposed quartz, often mingled with prophyry, for the latter does not confine itself to the "country", but everywhere invades the veins and generally carries a modicum of gold.

     The veins of this district, known as the Eureka district, strike at various angles from nearly due north to 50 to 60 degrees east or west of north, the whole system showing fissures following the lines of contact and structure, while others run transversely.  Occasionally showing a slight westerly pitch, the veins, as a rule, dip eastward, varying from a few inches to 60 or 70 feet in width.  Throughout their entire length, apparently, none of them run on a straight course.  By intrusions of porphyry, they are usually more of less faulted, or split.  However, little trouble is experienced in following them underground where the planes of strike, or dip, are known.  These ores contain as high as 93 per cent silica.

     Republic Camp has to some extent, been unfortunate in losing, temporarily it is hoped, several valuable industries.  The Republic Gold Mining and Milling Company, in 1898, erected a 35-ton experimental mill, employing the Petalin-Clerici process.  This proved a very expensive method, and was abandoned.  During the fall of that year, the Mountain Lion Gold Mining Company built a 100-ton mill using plate amalgamation to save what free gold there was in the ore - about 35 per cent - and the straight McArthur-Forest cyaniding process for recovery of the balance of the values.  This, however, fell considerably short in grinding capacity for fine pulping of ore, and in the leaching capacity for coarse crushed material.  This ore, also, required roasting and for this no adequate provision had been made.  So much below the percentage guaranteed by the company did bullion recovery fall, and railway transportation to distant smelters being assured, that this mill was closed.

     Two years ago the Republic Consolidated Gold Mining Company, successors to the Republic Gold Mining and; Milling Company, shut down the large and elaborate 500-ton sampling and 200-ton cyaniding, mills.  This, also, proved a serious blow to the camp.  Following the abandonment of the Petalin-Clerici process the new company had cast about for a method by which the low-grade ores of Republic Camp could be successfully treated.  D. C. JACKLING was commissioned to build the present magnificent, though silent, cyaniding plant, but the Republic mine reached a point when it could no longer supply its promised quota of ore without additional exploration.  Ores which had been sent to this mill from other mines had been merely experimental lots.  By the time tests were completed, and the mill was in condition to contract for a guaranteed supply of custom ore, sufficient to run it to its full capacity, and on a revenue basis, two railroad companies were in the field talking construction.  To encourage these railroad companies to build, thus giving competitive rates, the mill charges for the experimental shipments, with wagon haulage added, being considered too high - the mine owners found it inadvisable to contract with the new milling company until more economical transportation from the mines and lower rates for treatment would be established.  This mammoth mill, however, was in operation several months, during which period it handled ore from the Sans Poil, Lone Pine, Surprise, Ben Hur, Black Tail, Quilp and Tom Thumb mines.  It was erected with the expectation of treating ore to its full capacity;  the Republic mine to provide one hundred tons per day;  other mines of the camp combined the same quantity.  This the Republic could not do; the others refused for reasons specified.  It is hoped, and sanguinely, that all these difficulties may be adjusted in the future, and the splendid property on the outskirts of the camp come into its own in the way of ample supply of ore for treatment.

     By the courtesy of the publisher of the Republic Pioneer-Miner, Mr. Fred BARKER, we are permitted to give the following descriptions of the leading mines of the Eureka District, written by Mr. M. H. JOSEPH, one of the ablest mining correspondents in the west:

     The CHICO mine is bounded on the west by the Butte and; Boston and Jim Blaine, and partly on the north by the Jim Blaine claim.  It carries at least 1,200 feet of the Republic vein.  It is opened by a prospect tunnel and a two-compartment shaft, suitable for hoisting and pumping, and a manway.  At a depth of two hundred feet, a cross-cut intersects the vein which, by a right angle measurement, is twenty-five feet wide on that level. A drift funs 200 feet south, and another 100 feet north, on this level, each following a part of the respective distances on the vein.  On the 400-foot level, a cross-cut from the shaft intersects the vein, which is followed south with a short drift.  There is some very fine looking quartz on this as also on the level above, and the assays given have run from $19 to about $224 per ton.  The exploratory work in the mine covers about 1,000 running feet.  The surface improvements consist of a shaft and boiler house, blacksmith shop, office, a 50-horse-power boiler, an air-compressor, a steam hoist, good for 800 feet, a pump and blacksmith and timber framing tools.

     The BUTTE and; BOSTON mine, adjoining the Princess Maud and Jim Blane, on the south, has 17,700 feet of exploratory work.  Many samples of ore in each drift have assayed very high, running from $10 to $40 per ton.  The mine is equipped with a 35-horse-power boiler, a hoist good for 500 feet of depth, and a No. 7 Knowles sinking pump, all well housed.

     The PRINCESS MAUD mine joins the Jim Blaine on the west, and lies but a short distance southerly from the Republic mine.  It has a remarkably fine vein, which through all its exploitation, shows an average width of five feet between its walls, with the filling mostly of excellent appearing quartz.  A pocket of ore very rich in gold was found 30 feet down the winze, and a pay shoot, the ore averaging $40 per ton in gold and silver, was discovered 90 feet in on the No. 5 level, three and one-half feet in width.  Samples from the cropping have assayed as high s $300.  The mine is equipped with a Leyner 3-drill air compressor and a 60-horse-power boiler, which furnish air for an 8-horse-power hoist at the head of the winze.

     The REPUBLIC mine has been regarded as the richest in Ferry county, with $625,000 in dividends to its credit, of which $120,000 was paid by the original company... One section forty feet long and 25 feet wide carried average milling values of $180 in gold and $5 or $5 in silver to the ton.  Although it is thought that this shoot is worked out, there are still rich breasts of ore remaining, which when followed, may lead to rich paying deposits, particularly as the vein is from 60 to 70 feet wide between the walls.  The year ending the fall of 1898, the REPUBLIC mine produced 4,000 tons of ore, that was broken down in exploratory work.  About 1,200 tons of that averaged eight and three-quarter ounces gold and seven ounces of silver per ton, as shown by the smelter returns.  On the seventh floor, where the pay shoot was fourteen feet wide, the ore sampled five days consecutively, averaged $445.80, the highest assay running $687.17, and the lowest $303.40 per ton.  Roughly estimated the present company must have produced not less than 37,000 tons of ore - high and low grade - some of which was sent to the smelters, but the most of it was mixed, to run about $20 per ton, a grade suitable for cyaniding, and that was treated at the mill.

     The QUILP mine, remarkable for its bold outcrop, which overlooks the wagon road near the mouth of Eureka Gulch, wa one of the earliest locations of Republic Camp.  It shows promise of development into one of the most valuable mines in the neighborhood. It is shipping ore daily, and there is every prospect of favorable development.

     Of the QUILP mine, The Mining World of August 15, 1903 says:

     The only mine in Republic undergoing systematic development on a liberal scale is the QUILP, which employs one shift only to break the ore, having an output of 80 tons per day which, of course, is limited, there being no market for a larger quantity.  a perpendicular shaft was sunk to a depth of 400 feet below the tunnel level.  From this, cross-cuts have been driven to the ledge at the 100, 200, 300 and 400-foot levels, all showing much work done.  The vein is from ten to forty feet in width.  As greater depth is attained, the ore bodies increase in width and values.  From surface values of equal parts in gold and silver, the ore character changes in the lower level to two-thirds in favor of gold.  Technically in sight, blocked out, are 80,000 tons of ore.  During the first half of the year, over 8,000 (16,000 tons for the whole camp) was shipped to Tacoma and Granby smelters, and during the month of June shipments increased to 2,500 tons.

     The BLACK TAIL mine has developed a fine vein with splendid croppings its entire length, three or four lateral veins, and about 400 feet of the Surprise vein.  The croppings have been opened with cuts, pits and shafts, showing valuable ore in every direction.  The BLACK TAIL longitudinal and lateral veins have been opened by a main cross-cut tunnel, over 600 feet in length, penetrating the hill from the west, at about 30 feet above the bed of Eureka gulch.  Over 200 tons of ore were shipped to the Republic Power and Cyaniding Mill, the returns showing an average value of over $20 per ton.  The part of the Surprise vein situated on this property has been opened by stripping and sinking shafts on it, one of the latter to a depth of 45 feet.  The ore from the latter averaged $28 per ton. Single assays from the shafts and vein croppings ran from $200 to $300 per ton.  The ore shoots in the mine are from three to ten feet wide and several deposits have yielded ore averaging from $40 to $70 per ton.

     The LONE PINE - SURPRISE is a group of four claims, of which the LONE PINE has fine gold-bearing veins apexing within its boundaries.  The No. 1 tunnel intersects four of them, giving assay values of from $3 to $8 per ton.  No. 2 is from four to 16 feet wide.  The ore on No. 3 vein runs from $7 to $8 per ton.  The No. 4 is from five to six feet wide, with assay values running from $10 to $250 per ton, and averaging $18 per ton, principally in gold.  Development work on the SURPRISE consists of tunnels, shafts and open cuts, aggregating about 1,100 linear feet.  Some high values were obtained on the surface.  A tunnel was run 160 feet, intersecting the vein at a vertical depth of 50 feet below outcrop.  Drifts have been run in the vein north 160 feet and south 260 feet.  The vein shows a width of from 8 to 15 feet.  In the north drift values are low.  In the south drift stringers and bunches of $20 to $30 or were encountered.  Near the south end of the claim a shaft is sunk 35 feet on the vein.  The first 25 feet shows 3 1/2 feet in width of $25 ore, the remaining 10 feet and a drift 16 feet long from the bottom of the shaft being in low grade quartz.  A tunnel was started at a point south of the shaft giving 110 feet depth below collar of shaft.  At  a point 80 feet from its portal a tunnel intersects the vein.  A drift extended north in the vein to a point beneath the shaft is in low grade quartz, assaying from $2 to $6 per ton.  The Quilp mine, belonging to the Quilp Mining Company is located on this vein, and adjoins the SURPRISE on the south.

     On the LONE PINE property, work is done in the nature of tunnels, shafts, raises, cross-cuts and drifts, aggregating approximately 2,500 linear feet, disclosing the Black Tail vein and four cross-veins, so-called, as the general trend of the veins in this district have a northerly and southerly course; whereas these cross-veins bear approximately at right angles to the north and south system.  The No. 1, or upper tunnel, is started near the center of the LONE PINE claim and about 320 feet north of the south end line.

     The SANS POIL is remarkable for the cleanest fissure and truest walls of any mine in the district.  Its croppings, distinct, well defined and observable, about 1,700 feet in length, have been prospected at intervals of 50 feet from end to end of the company's ground.  A shaft was sunk on a fine pay shoot, 128 feet deep, and a tunnel connects with it.  A winze goes below the latter 70 feet to the intermediate level on which some of the ore developed assayed over of $300 a ton.  The highest assay of the ore runs $400, and the average $15 to $17 per ton.

     The NORTH SANS POIL mine occupies 260 feet on the vein between the Sans Poil and Ben Hur mines.  The ore from top to bottom of the shaft averages $13.50 per ton.  From 20 to 50 feet above the bottom of the shaft the ore runs from $30 to $40 per ton.  At the bottom clear quartz six feet wide assays $16.50 per ton.  About fifty feet below the surface an ore streak runs as high as $300, and shows native gold to the naked eye.  This ore carries but little silver.

     The BEN HUR, situated on the Sans Poil vein, between the North Sans Poil and Trade Dollar mines, covers a fine quartz cropping developed by several cuts from six to twenty feet wide, with values generally ranging from $6 to $15 per ton, and samples occasionally as high as $130.  The BEN HUR has a vertical double compartment shaft second to none in the camp.  About 500 tons of ore raised out of the shaft, from exploratory work, and the little stoping done, was shipped to the Republic Power and Cyaniding mill, the sampling of which showed average commercial values of $22.50 and $20 per ton, over haulage and treatment.  The BEN HUR can produce over 25 tons of ore daily.

     The vein on the TRADE DOLLAR mine was struck by a tunnel sixty feet in length at a depth of 34 feet, and short drifts on this level disclosed a body of ore ten feet wide that averages $20 per ton, and was further explored by a winze, sunk to a depth of 40 feet.  A double compartment shaft, eighty feet north of the old workings was sunk two hundred and fifteen feet.  Drifts were driven northerly 127 feet and southerly 117 feet on the vein, disclosing two pay shoots, the former 75 feet long, two and one-half to four feet wide, with 50 linear feet of ore 30 inches wide, assaying $107 and the balance about $14 per ton.  A picked sample ran %3,120.92.  This drift was started from a cross-cut 40 feet distant from the shaft.  The south drift exposes the pay shoot from six to twelve feet wide, which for 50 feet has an average value of $15;  the balance assays from $6 to $12 per ton.  The TRADE DOLLAR is on the Sans Poil vein and adjoins the Ben Hur on the North.

     The LITTLE COVE mine is situated north of the Lone Tree-Surprise group, on the Pearl-Surprise vein, and adjoins the Pearl claim on the north.  It is opened by a shaft, 200 feet deep, from the bottom of which a drift runs north to the vein 300 feet.  The vein is from ten to twelve feet wide, and the drift has developed a long pay shoot of ore that averages about $11 or $12 per ton.

     KNOB HILL mine is opened by a shaft and two tunnels, one two hundred feet in length and one four hundred feet long.  Depth of lowest workings, 250 feet below the apex of the vein.  Several hundred of tons of ore have been sent to smelters, the average value of which was a little over $18 per ton.  The average width of the ledge is five feet.  There is one large pay shoot in the mine which averages $30 per ton - car load lots.

     The MOUNTAIN LION has enjoyed the distinction of being one of the most valuable mines and now for the quantity and value of ore blocked out and broken underground and on the dump, it stands as the leading one of the district.  Upon the surface, it shows the croppings of three distant parallel veins and underground a great tonnage of ore has been developed.  The mine is opened by over 6,000 feet of tunneling, shafts and other auxiliary workings.  The main ore shoot has been determined more than six hundred feet in length and sixteen feet wide, and it evidently goes from the surface to below the lowest level.  The average value of the ore is $11.25 per ton, or rather that was the value when treated at the company's mill.  The main working shaft is equipped with a very substantial house, which covers a 75-horse-power motor, arranged to operate a fine Fraser and; Chalmer hoist and Blake rock breaker.  A fine power plant, mill equipments, electrical machinery and machine ship are all enclosed in one building.  The power plant, originally intended for both the mine and mill, consists of three steel tubular boilers, the first half of a Rand air compressor, an Ide high speed engine for driving an electric plant, and a Bates-Corliss engine.  The company has a fine assay office and laboratory elaborately equipped for any metallurgical work demanded of it in connection with the mine and mill.

     Added to considerable prospecting on the croppings, the TOM THUMB, one of the leading mines of the camp, has been opened by three vertical shafts and exploited by drifts, cross-cuts, upraises, etc., amounting to more than 1,600 linear feet.  From the surface down to the No. 3 level, the ore shoot has an average width of nine feet;  the depth following the main dip of the vein is 242 feet.  The ore averages from $14 to $18 a ton if carefully broken and taken out of the mine clean.  Fourteen tons of ore sent from the TOM THUMB mine to the Granby smelter at Grand Forks, assayed over $25 per ton, proportioned in one ounce of gold to six or eight ounces of silver.  The equipments of the No. 3 shaft consists of a 100-horse-power boiler, an eight-drill Lyner air compressor, a 45-horse-power hoisting engine, a 600-candle power electric light plant, and well equipped blacksmith shop, all substantially housed.  The No. 2 shaft is equipped with a horse whim and pump for drainage, which are also well housed.

     The discovery of native gold at the surface of the MORNING GLORY mine created such excitement in 1898 that every foot of vacant ground near it was immediately snapped up by locators.  The MORNING GLORY was incorporated as late as November, 1898, since when its vigorous management has spoken volumes fro the company.  The company received $35,654 for 55 tons of ore shipped to the Granby smelter at Grand Forks, B. C.  Ore on the dump will average $26.25 per ton.  The improvements and equipments consist of a blacksmith shop and ore assorting house, a 22-horse-power gasoline hoist, a two and one-half horse-power gasoline engine, a blower and Cornish pump good for a depth of 500 feet below the tunnel.

     Of the MORNING GLORY, on August 15, 1903, The Mining World says:

     The MORNING GLORY property having the elements of permanency, lying directly west of the Quilp has been developed by tunnel and shaft to over 800 feet depth.  A shaft is now being sunk from the tunnel level, and has reached a depth of 260 feet to be continued to the 300 foot level before the ledge will be cross-cut.  Four thousand tons constitute the monthly amount the smelters can conveniently handle in the Republic mines, but their producing capacity in their present development stage is 500 tons daily, very easily advanced to 1,000 tons if necessity required it.

     The first work done on the EL CALIPH mine, which adjoins the Morning Glory at end lines, consisted in stripping a six-inch vein, near where it passes through the northwest end of the latter mine.  High grade ore showing freely in native gold was found.  A shaft was then sunk sixty feet on the vein, and a tunnel started the same time was driven 340 feet, intersecting the vein in a barren spot, 178 feet below the cropping and passing 30 feet  beyond it.  In April, 1901, lessees drove an upper tunnel thirty feet, struck and ran sixty-two feet on a pay shoot, and extracted the ore thirty-five feet to the surface.  This ore, amounting to eighty-three tons, was shipped to the Granby smelter at Grand Forks, and gave average returns of $125 per ton, with a net profit to the company of over $1,400.

     The GOLD LEDGE mine, three miles east of Republic Camp, has one of the finest ledges in the district.  It crops out boldly and massive at the north end, in clean quartz forty feet wide; and south of the main shaft pits have been sunk that expose ore of $6 to $16 value per ton.  Samples of ore from the underground workings ran from a dollar or two to $1,084 per ton, chiefly in gold, and one streak, eighteen inches wide, ran $204 per ton.  The mine was opened by three shafts, the main one being 110 feet deep.  At the end of the southwest drift, 156 feet from the shaft, is a cross-cut 20 feet long, from which a drift runs north 50 feet, all in milling ore of $11 per ton value, but there is no sign of the hanging wall in either.

     To a younger group of mines belongs the CALIFORNIA.  It first attracted attention in the summer of 1900, being bonded at that time for $5,500.  The bond was thrown up and shortly after the claim was purchased by E. J. DELBRIDGE, for the Apollo Gold Mining Company, of New Haven, Connecticut.  Development work was proceeded with in a most systematic manner from that day to this, resulting in opening up one of the most valuable mines in the camp.  The ore averages much richer than the general run of mines around Republic, and is a hard white crystalline quartz, carrying gold, silver, copper and lead.  The CALIFORNIA is located about nine miles southeast of the city.  In the matter of ore production, the CALIFORNIA has a truly remarkable record.  There is only one small stope in the property, but the course of development there has taken large quantities of the richest ore, which was shipped by wagon, and the lower grades saved for railroads.  The CALIFORNIA has the distinction of being the first Republic property to ship ore over the Kettle Valley lines.  Three carloads amounting to about 105 tons were sent to Curlew by wagon, and thence by rail to the Granby smelter.  This shipment sampled about $10,000.  Over $100,000 worth of ore has been shipped since.  The Apollo company is a New Haven, Conn., concern, and is one of the strongest in Republic Camp.  It owns 18 claims in the California district and three near the city of Republic, and close to promising companies.

     Commenting on the CALIFORNIA, The Mining World of August 15, 1903 says:

     Ten miles southeasterly from Republic is the CALIFORNIA, a shipper for four years.  After paying smelter and transportation charges, the yield from 1,300 tons of ore was $70,238, or $54 to the ton.  Nine hundred and seventy-five tons second class ore yielded $4,586.  The ore is galena and chalcopyrite, carrying zinc.  The principal value is gold.  There are sixteen promising veins in the Apollo group, of which the CALIFORNIA is the only one that is developed.

     In describing the preceding mines it has been the aim to present an account of the development of the district accurately and completely, so that the reader may judge for himself the possibilities of the camp as a producer of ore.  Development has proceeded here since 1896, and up to 1902, a grand total of $2,500,000 had been expended in developing the fine surface showings.  In 1900, representatives of the Great Northern railway examined the camp thoroughly, and their reports in substance were that there was an abundance of ore, and since that time every possible route for a railroad has been examined to discover the route offering the most favorable grade.  The opinions of the railway experts, and the fact that the Great Northern and Kettle Valley railway lines are backing these opinions with over $2,000,000 necessary to build the roads now entering the district, substantiate the statements in these pages of the quality and quantity of the ores of the camp.  It is well to bear in mind that other mines and perhaps greater ones are being developed while the big ones are shipping.

     The preceding paragraph was written by Mr. BARKER in 1902.  Since the publication, both the Great Northern and Kettle Valley railway lines have reached the camp, and the companies are running trains daily.  The transportation facilities are ample at present.  There are five smelters in the immediate vicinity of Republic Camp, which are in the market for Republic ore: the Granby smelter, Grand Forks, B. C., the Greenwood smelter, Greenwood, B. C., the Le Roi smelter, Northport, Washington; the Canadian Pacific smelting works, at Trail, B. C.; and the Hall mines smelter, at Nelson, B. C.  These works have a total combined capacity of 3,000 tons per day, and are amply able to handle all the ore produced in the district.  They all lie within a 100-mile radius of Republic Camp, and are all competitors for ore.

     There are a number of camps in the region of which Republic is the center that are destined to become valuable producers in the future.  Some of these which are tributary to Republic are the Sheridan, Bodie, Belcher, Wauconda and Wolf's camps on the "North Half", and Park City and Davis camps on the "South Half".  As a rule, the managers of these camps make their residence in Republic, and here supplies and labor are contracted for.

     Twelve miles west of Republic is located Wauconda camp.  Properties have, also, been developed in this camp by the Republic Gold Mines and Lime Works Company.  Fourteen miles northwest of Republic is Sheridan camp, and in this neighborhood considerable development work has been accomplished.  One of the most prominent mines in the camp is the ZALA M., very rich ore having been encountered in the workings.  A fine showing has, also, been made by the AMERICAN FLAG.

     On the Republic-Chesaw wagon road, twenty-four miles northwest of Republic, is Bodie camp, in Okanogan county, the principal property being the BODIE mine.  Shipments made to the Granby smelter, Grand Forks, B. C., showed values of $500 per ton.  The GOLDEN REWARD group of claims was operated by a company of Spokane men, the mine being under the management of R. E. WILLOUGHBY.  An assay of $97 was obtained from an open cut.

     A group of eleven patented claims, owned by Harry BAER, of Spokane, lies ten miles north of Republic Camp.  They are in what is known as Wolf's Camp.  BAER's properties, known as the FRANKFURT group were among the first to be worked on the reservation, involving the expenditure of many thousands of dollars.  Values ranged upwards of $8 per ton.

     The BELCHER mine, on Lamber creek, is developed by three tunnels from 200 to 500 feet in length.  The lowest cuts the ledge 250 feet from the apex.  Where the vein is crossed in No 2 tunnel the ledge is 80 feet wide - solid metal.  The largest body of solid ore known to exist in the state of Washington.  It carries high per centage of iron.  The other values are in copper and gold.  The mine will be shortly equipped with an air drill compressor plant.  The BELCHER promises to become a great factor in the development of the mines of this region, as its product is just what is needed to mix with the ores of Republic camp to make an ideal smelting ore.  With a smelter near the foot off Curlew Lake, the product of the two camps can be treated at a very moderate cost as it would be within the reach of the ores of both camps.  It would be reached by the lines of two railroads which practically reach every mine in Republic camp.

     The HAWKEYE mine, which lies near the Belcher, is developed by a shaft 240 feet in depth and with diamond drills to a depth of over 400 feet.  The ledge is upwards of 100 feet in width and carries ores similar to those found in the Belcher mine.  It is equipped with a fine gasoline hoist.  It gives promise of becoming one of the great mines of this region.

     There are a number of camps on the "South Half" directly tributary to Republic, and in Republic the greater portion of the business connected with these mines is transacted.  Twenty-six miles south of Republic is the Davis Camp, of which the PARK and; CENTRAL mine has a small ledge, rich in native silver.  Another silver-lead property is the HARVEST, with an excellent showing.  The RAMORE property is situated wo (sic) miles from the Park and; Central managed by a Montana company.  The MOUNTAIN BOY claim, in Park City camp, was worked by A. S. SOULE and Richard PURCELL.  They have opened a ledge that promises to become a producer of no mean proportions.  From this new find, an assay of $227 in gold, silver, copper and lead was obtained, and a general sample taken with a view of determining the value of the entire ledge returned over $30.  Doubtless sorted ore could be obtained running over $100.

    Hundreds of claims on Bridge Creek, Iron Creek, Keller and on the Nespelim are owned by Republic people.  In time they are destined to add much to the wealth and prosperity of Ferry county and Republic Camp.

     The Republic Gold Mining and; Milling Company was the first to declare a dividend on Ferry county mines.  A dividend of three cents a share, or $30,000 was declared payable October 10, 1898.  A year and one-half previously, stock in this company was selling at ten cents a share, but the development of the mine was very rapid since that date.

     It would be a serious omission were we to close this chapter on the mining properties of the Eureka District without reference ot George W. RUNNELS, of Camp Keller, Washington, or "Tenas George" as he is generally recognized throughout Eastern Washington and British Columbia.  He is a native of the state of Maine, and was a sailor in early life, and in following this vocation landed on the Pacific coast forty-three years ago.  Drifting into the mining country, he participated in all the famous stampedes, and invariably managed to secure some of the best properties.  He has taken out $300 daily from placer claims, and if he now had only a part of the dust he has unearthed, he would not be troubled concerning finances during the remainder of his days.  "Tenas George" is a typical miner and frontiersman, and his generosity and kindness so predominates over his rugged and adventurous nature that he has spent his money with a lavish hand.  Any case of hard luck or want coming to his knowledge impelled him naturally to share his store with the less fortunate of his fellow creatures.  He is a man of indomitable energy and enterprise, and for many years operated pack trains and trading posts throughout the Indian country.

     Revered and respected is "Tenas George" among the Indians and not without good reason.  One of his earliest experiences with natives was a fierce duel with knives in which a lusty young buck of the Sans Poil tribe was the aggressor.  This Indian still lives in the Sans Poil valley, and carries long scars on his body in testimony of the prowess of the young "Boston man".  The character of this sketch appears to have borne a charmed life.  On several occasions he has faced other desperate men in mortal combat with pistol or gun, and in every case his antagonist came out second best.  It is said that two of his assailants fell in their tracks, being overtaken by the unerring aim of the redoubtable and fearless prospector.  Mr. RUNNELS is intelligent and singularly well read in a variety of subjects, besides being an advanced thinker.  He is a careful reader of the daily press and the author of several poems and ballads of considerable merit.  For a life partner he chose the flower of the Sans Poil tribe, though he might have selected one of the beauties of his own race, had he so desired.  His married life has always been happy and he has never found reason to regret his choice.

     Sufficient hidden treasure has been discovered by this man to build a city or a railroad.  Among the many quartz mines he staked are the "Triune" in Okanogan; the "Golden Eagle" at Fairview, in British Columbia; the "TRAILER", "TENDERFOOT", "MOUNTAIN LION" and "LAST CHANCE" in Republic Camp;  the "Iron Mask" in Kootenay, and the famous "ICONOCLAST" on the Toloman Mountain in the "South Half" of the Colville reservation.  The combined value of these properties would furnish wealth enough to make this man the J. Pierpont Morgan of the Pacific coast.  Mr. RUNNELS says:

     "The ICONOCLAST is, I believe, the greatest mine I have ever staked.  I discovered this thirty-one years ago, and there, on that stunted pine tree, are the marks I made with a hatchet at the time I staked it.  I took samples of the rock to Walla Walla, and old Dr. Day assayed it and pronounced it good copper ore.  I have held that ground ever since, and about the time the reservation was thrown open, at the peril of my life, for other men were there to seize the claim, I secured it, and put up my stakes.  I was determined no one should get it without killing me first, and I told my wife that if, perchance, I lost my life defending the ICONOCLAST against the intruders, to bury me on the claim."

     For months preceding the opening of the "South Half" to mineral entry, "Tenas George" stood guard with his Winchester over the ICONOCLAST, and though the temptation was great, none ventured to dispossess the rightful claimant.

    (A list of mine owners in Ferry county and the total value of properties, including improvements, as appears on the assessor's tolls can be found on the FERRY COUNTY MINE VALUATIONS page.

     (A list of the patented mines in Ferry county and the names of those to whom the patents were granted can be found on the FERRY COUNTY MINE OWNERS page.)

     At the present writing, sanguine hopes are entertained by the residents of Republic Camp that the new Hendryx cyaniding process is destined to work a revolution in mining industries in this immediate vicinity.  Of this process, Dr. W. A. HENDRYX, the inventor says:

     "The claims made for the process are:  First, that it will extract all the  values that any cyanide process can;  second, that it will deposit the precious metals in the form of marketable bullion without the intervention of any troublesome precipitating and refining process;  third, that it will make the extraction with less cyanide on account of the perfect aeration and the regenerating action of the electric current;  fourth, that it will do this work at a much less expense for plant and operating costs than the ordinary methods; fifth, that it is especially adapted to handling tailings from amalgamation and concentration plants already equipped and running.  It is a process for the extraction of the precious metals from ores and mill tailings by means of cyanide of potassium in very dilute solution (usually one pound of cyanide per ton of water), and depositing the metals so dissolved upon metal plates by the agency of an electric current.  The essential mechanical feature is the Hendryx agitator, which consists of a cylindrical tank having a conical bottom.  In the center of the tank is a cylindrical well, in which a vertical shaft revolves carrying two or more screw propellers, and driven by a pulley above he tank.  In the tank outside the well, the anode and cathode plates are placed and supplied with current from a small dynamo.  The ore is rushed to the proper fineness and charged into the agitator together with the water and chemicals.  The revolution of the propellers in the well creates a strong upward current there, which immediately starts agitation in the tank and circulation of the whole charge upward through the well and downward through the electrically charged plates.  Thus, the extraction of the gold and silver by cyanide, through aeration of the charge, and deposition of the precious metals are going out at the same time."

     There are at present no developed marble quarries in Ferry county, although in time some valuable properties will doubtless be worked.  Until September, 1903, no marble claims had been recorded, but at that time some claims were taken up in the vicinity of the town of Danville, near the northern boundary of the county.  These claims are along Lone Ranch Creek, a tributary of the Kettle river.  The gentlemen who have located these clams and who are at present endeavoring to interest capital in their development are J. C. STUTZ,  S. E. BELT,  T. E. DULIN,  S. C. GATES and L. B. DULIN.


Marge Reid is proud to be the County Coordinator for Ferry County's USGenWeb Project page.
Contact her at [email protected] .

This county page was revised on 04 Mar 2007