BURLINGTON, the shire town, lies near the center of the west line of the county, on the lake shore, in lat. 44° 27' and long. 3° 52'. It was granted, according to the charter deed which now hangs, appropriately framed, upon a wall of the city clerk's office, by Benning Wentworth, the Colonial Governor of New Hampshire, under King George III., June 7, 1763, to Samuel WILLIS and sixty-three others, in seventy two shares of 320 acres each, making a total area of 23,040 acres. Its original bounds were as follows:
"Beginning at the southerly or southwest side of French or Onion River, so called, at the mouth of said river, hence running up by said river until it comes to a place that is ten miles upon a straight line from the mouth of the river aforesaid, then runs upon a line perpendicular to the aforesaid ten miles line southerly so far as that a line to Lake Champlain, parallel to the ten miles line aforesaid, will, within the lines and the shore of the said Jake, contain six square miles."
      This area, however, was changed by the legislature, October 27, 1794, by annexing to Williston all the land lying east of Muddy Brook; and again, by an act of the legislature, approved November 22, 1864, and accepted by the inhabitants of Burlington, January 18, 1865, all the township lying rest of an irregular line drawn from the mouth of Shelburne Bay, northeasterly through the center of the township to the Winooski River, was incorporated into the City of Burlington, while the residue has since been known as South Burlington. But as they were so long considered as a whole, and so lately separated, we shall, in speaking of their surface, rocks, early settlement, etc., consider them as one -- the old town of Burlington.

      In surface, the territory is just broken enough to lend a pleasing diversity to the landscape, the western part rising, gradually in some places, at others abruptly, from the lake shore, to an altitude of about 300 feet, forming a very handsome beach scene as viewed from the lake. From the northern part of the shore, a long, narrow neck of land extends into the Champlain, terminating in Appletree Point, south of which, extending to Rock Point, is Appletree Bay. Rock Point, especially, is noted for its wild, picturesque aspect. It rises almost abruptly from the water, a bold, beetling, craggy, rock promontory, nearly a hundred feet in height In the course of time, the elements have wrenched huge crags and large bodies of rock from its sides, which have come crashing down to its base, where they now lie in a confused, picturesque pile, not unlike the ruins of some giant castle. About twenty feet from this mass, with a deep channel of water between them, rises Lone Rock, a solid mass of stone some forty feet in diameter, conical shaped, lifting its head to a height of twenty five or thirty feet. South of this, extending to Red Rocks Point, is the broad, crescent shaped Burlington Bay, with its long stretch of silvery white sand beach, the finest harbor on the lake. About a mile southwest from Red Rocks Point is Pottier's Point, with the entrance to Shelburne Bay lying between them, extending south into Shelburne, and which may almost be termed an arm of Burlington Bay, as it opens directly from it. Add to this, then, the beautiful country that forms a background to the scene, its handsome groves, fine residences, and the fair city and harbor of Burlington, the latter with its long docks and immense lumber piles, lying at the foot of the town, which extends up the slope of the hill until its summit is capped by the University of Vermont -- the "Queen City's" crown, and you will have in all a picture of rare beauty. The southern and eastern part of the territory (now South Burlington) is low and level, and in the northeastern part it is an extensive pine plain. Muddy Brook bounds it on the east, separating it from Williston, an inconsiderable stream flowing north into the Winooski, containing no mill seats of any special value. The Winooski River forms the northern boundary, a stream that not only takes the precedence in size, being seventy miles in length and watering 970 square miles of territory, but also is the first in Vermont in its curiosities and beauties of nature, as well as in historical interest. Since the earliest days, long before Vermont contained a settlement, in the time of King William's and Queen Anne's wars, the French and Indian outbreak, and indeed all through these earlier troubles, the Winooski bore warlike parties upon its bosom. But as we have already spoken at some length of this stream, on page 37, of its gorges, natural bridge, and derivation of its somewhat peculiar vegetarian name, we will only mention at this point its singular gorge, lying three quarters of a mile above Winooski village. Here, the channel, which is about seventy feet in width, for a distance of forty rods, has worn its course through the surface to a depth of sixty five feet, leaving a perpendicular wall of solid rock on either side, over which has been built a bridge, called High Bridge, a view from which is well worth a visit. There are also abundant evidences at this point that there formerly existed a large pond here, whose waters were drained off by the wearing down of the river channel. On the south the country is bounded by the town of Shelburne. No streams of any magnitude; except those mentioned, flow through its soil, which is quite uniform, a general sandy loam, with a productive clay in the southern part, yielding large crops of fruits and grains indigenous to the county, with comparatively little labor. The original timber, of which little is standing, was mostly pine, hemlock, cedar, spruce, maple, oak, and ash.

      The principal rock entering into the geological structure of the territory is red sandrock, underlying nearly the whole of the central part of the country, affording a very excellent building stone. The western portion of the northern part of the town is composed of Hudson Riper slates. The eastern portion of South Burlington, next to the range of red sandrock, the rock formation is of the Eolian limestone variety. The geology has been quite fully treated in connection with the county chapter, so we shall mention here only the above bare outline of facts.

      BURLINGTON, the largest, and one of the only two cities in the State, was incorporated by the legislature, November 22, 1864, and organized, by the election of the proper city officers, January 18, 1865. Its corporation is embraced in the following limits:

“Beginning at the east shore of Lake Champlain, at the northwest corner of one hundred acre lot number 163, thence easterly in the north line of said lot to the northeast corner thereof; thence northerly in the west line of one hundred acre lot number 155, to the northwest corner of said lot number 155, thence running easterly in the north line of said lot number 155, to the east line of the stage road from Burlington to Shelburne; thence northerly in the east line of said stage road, to the northwest corner of one hundred acre lot number 165; thence easterly in the north line of one hundred acre lots numbers 165 and 183, to the east line of Spear street; thence northerly in the east line of Spear street, to the south line of Winooski turnpike.; thence easterly in the southerly line of said turnpike, to a point opposite the angle formed by the north line of said turnpike and the east line of the road leading northerly from said turnpike to Colchester avenue, east of the residence of Henry W. CATLIN; thence crossing said turnpike northerly to said angle; thence from said angle in a straight line to the centre of Winooski River, at the northern termination of the east line of one hundred acre lot number 18; thence, in the centre of Winooski River, down said river to Lake Champlain; thence southerly on the lake shore, at low water mark, to the most western point of Appletree Point; thence in a straight line to place of beginning."
      After the division of the town and the proper organization of South Burlington as a town and Burlington as a city, the board of aldermen of the latter place met the selectmen of the former, and a basis of settlement was agreed upon, settling all questions and dividing all property in which each had an interest. The payments due by virtue of this agreement are shown by the following statement, copied from the records, which may prove of interest to many:
BURLINGTON, June 17, 1865.

Due from the City of Burlington to the Town of South Burlington.

One tenth of valuation of Town Hall, $ 3,000.00
One tenth Basement of Court House 125.00
One tenth balance in hands of Treas. in town of Burlington, 51.31
One tenth County order in favor of Town of Burlington, 10.25
One tenth balance due Town of Burlington from Town of Williston, 1.02
One tenth uncollected rents of Town Hall, down to February 21, 1865, 6.06
One tenth valuation of personal property of Town of Burlington in Town Hall and in the hands of highway surveyors,   27.00
One tenth balance due Town of Burlington from Town of Colchester, 4.74
One tenth uncollected Town Taxes in hands of Samuel HUNTINGTON, Constable of Town of Burlington, 28.09
One tenth excess of State Taxes for 1864 in hands of said Huntington as said Constable, 42.82


Amount brought forward,  $3,296.29

Due from the Town of South Burlington to the City of Burlington.

One tenth of outstanding notes of Town of Burlington above specified,  $2,120.00
One tenth balance of judgment against Town of Burlington in favor of the Merchants' Bank, 10.95
One tenth interest on the U. S. deposit fund for the year ending Feb. 1, 1865, due from the Town of Burlington, 93.39
One tenth excess of liabilities of town liquor agency over assets, 40.66
One tenth receipts of liquor agency since Feb. 21, 1865, paid into the treasury of the Town of Burlington, 179.76
Balance due from the City of Burlington to Town of South Burlington, $851.53

      Having thus followed the division of the town, we will now endeavor to speak more minutely of the city, and then of its near relative, South Burlington. No city or village in the New England States surpasses Burlington in beauty of location. The hill upon whose gentle slope it is situated rises gradually back from the lake front until its highest point is reached one mile from the shore. The principal streets extend east and west, and are intersected at right angles with numerous others extending north and south, cutting nearly the whole city into regular squares. Upon the highest point, College Hill, is situated the University, of Vermont, from whose observatory a view may be obtained of the surrounding beautiful scenery -- scenery that few, we take it, will claim to have seen excelled. On the east rise the Green Mountains, Mansfield and Camel's Hump in full view from base to summit, with a fine sweep of open country between. On the north is the valley of the Winooski, and of Lake Champlain stretching north to St Albans Bay, while on the south the hill sinks away and leaves in sight Shelburne Bay with its picturesque shores, land locked, and apparently a lake rather than a bay, and with everything that is beautiful of hill and dale, woodland and meadow, distant water and mountains sinking into the horizon, for accompaniments of the scene. On the west the sweep of the eye takes in the gentle slope of the city to the lake shore, the bay, Pottier's, Red Rocks, Rock and Appletree Points, and between the city and the opposite shore, ten miles distant, one of the broadest parts of Lake Champlain, reflecting the mountains and flecked with the shadows of clouds, gemmed with the green isles juniper and Four Brothers, while the Adirondacks sink into the horizon beyond, stretching north and south for nearly a hundred miles, Old Whiteface "heaving high his forehead bare" behind the front tier of Peaks right opposite, and Mount Marcy and his tall companions on the southwest, with the tracks of land slides marked in' white on their blue sides. Immediately below, from the front of the college green, extend the broad well kept streets, leading to the lake front, where acres upon acres of land have been made by filling in along the shore, and the whole now covered by immense lumber yards, large mills, and extensive wharfing, proclaiming that enterprise, commerce and manufacture are marching onward, hand in hand. Between us and this manufacturing district, stretching north and south, lies the fair city, with over 11,000 inhabitants, its substantial public buildings, public square and Battery Park, five banks, five hotels, eight churches, fifteen public schools, long rows of business blocks and many elegant private residences.

      Previous to its incorporation, the city was looked upon as a very prosperous village; yet it had no village charter, although some attempts had been made to procure one. In the fall of 1852, an application was made to the selectmen of the town by several freeholders, requesting them to warn a meeting, to ascertain if the town would make an application to the legislature for an act to incorporate the whole or a part of the township into a city. A meeting for this purpose was called, therefore, on the 7th of October, when the following resolution was introduced by Lyman CUMMINGS:

"Resolved, That it is expedient to incorporate a part of the town of Burlington into a city, with proper boundaries, and suitable provisions therefor."

      It was also voted that a committee be appointed to carry the resolution into effect, with an amendment recommending that the proposed city embrace the whole instead of a part of the town. A committee of five was accordingly chosen, consisting of George W. BENEDICT, Timothy FOLLETT, John VANSICKLEN, D. W. C. CLARKE, and William WESTON, who were instructed to report at an adjourned meeting to be held on the 12th instant, following, a draft of a bill to incorporate a part or all of the town into a city. At this adjourned meeting the committee reported as directed, and the resolution was adopted by one hundred and sixty nine ballots in the affirmative against sixty-three in the negative. The legislature was in session at that time, so the bill was immediately sent in, when an act was passed incorporating the village and that part of the town lying north of it, into a city, and likewise an act chartering the village of Burlington, with the power left to the town of adopting or rejecting either act. Accordingly, on January 21, 1853, a meeting was held within the limits of the contemplated city, to ascertain which act should be adopted, with the following result: for a village charter, 273 votes were cast; for a city charter, 233 votes. As it was thus decided that the "city act" should be abandoned, another meeting was called on the 7th of the following month, for the purpose of voting on the question whether the village charter should be accepted or rejected, and the vote being taken there were cast for accepting the charter, 115 votes; for rejecting it, 200 votes. And, thus ended the first attempt to incorporate the town or a portion of it into a city, until 1864, when an act passed the legislature, incorporating the city, as previously mentioned.

      In pursuance of this act, a special town meeting was warned, January 2, 1865, as follows:

“The inhabitants of the town of Burlington, who are legal voters in town meeting, are hereby notified and warned to meet at the Town Hall in said Town on Wednesday, the 18th day of January, A D., 1865, at 10 o'clock A. M., for the following purposes, viz.: 1st. To choose a Moderator to govern said meeting. *  *  *  3rd. To vote by ballet on the acceptance or rejection of a certain Act of the Legislature of Vermont, approved November 22nd, 1864, and entitled `An Act to incorporate the City of Burlington.' by the terms of which act those in favor of the acceptance of this act, shall cast ballots on which shall be inscribed or printed the word `Yes,' and those opposed to such acceptance shall cast ballots on which shall be inscribed or printed the word `No.' 4th. To do any other business proper to be done at such meeting. 


      Pursuant to the foregoing warning, the meeting was held at the time and place specified, and was duly organized by the election of William G. SHAW as moderator, who appointed Albert L. CATLIN, James A SHEDD, Russell S. TAFT, and Nathaniel PARKER, tellers to sort and count the ballots. The whole number of ballots cast was 671, upon 452 of which was found inscribed the word `Yes,' and upon 219, the word `No.' Within twenty days after the acceptance of the charter thus made, the selectmen of the town, according to the provisions of the act, divided the city into wards appointed places in each for the holding of elections, and ward officers to officiate until an election should be made, and also issued the following warning for the first city election:

"The legal voters of the city of Burlington are hereby notified and warned to meet in their respective Wards, at the places therein hereinafter severally designated and appointed, on MONDAY, the 20th of FEBRUARY. A D., 1865, at 10 o'clock A M., for the election of Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, Common Councilmen, and Ward officers, as prescribed in the Act incorporating the City of Burlington. And the undersigned, Selectmen, have divided the City of Burlington, in conformity to the said Act of incorporation, into three Wards, which are hereby severally designated: The North Ward, the South Ward, and the Centre Ward *  *  * 

"Given under our hands at Burlington, this 4th day of February, A D., 1865. 


      At the meeting thus warned, the following list of officers were elected: Mayor, Albert L. CATLIN; recorder, E. R. HARD; aldermen, Lawrence BARNES, Levi UNDERWOOD, Calvin BLODGETT, Omri A DODGE, Giles S. APPLETON, and Russell S. TAFT; clerk, J. R. HICKOK. Common Council, -- president, Salmon WIRES; J. H. WORCESTER, Henry LOOMIS, and J. A. ARTHUR, North Ward; Salmon WIRES, Charles WILLER, and W. H. BRINK, Centre WARD; George W. BECKWITH, O. J. WALKER, and P. D. BALLOU, South Ward; and William H. HOYT, clerk. By an amendment to the city charter, however, approved November 9, 1865, the common council was abolished, and the government from March, 1867, established in the Mayor and board of Aldermen, the said board being, since 1873, when the city was re divided into five instead of three wards, composed of two aldermen from each, making ten in all.


      The water supply, at the time of the organization of the city, was exceedingly poor, as may be inferred from the following official statement, made in 1865: "There are 650 who depend for their entire supply of water upon the lake, which is mostly hauled in casks; 1828 persons who depend entirely upon cisterns; 1,214 upon cisterns and WELLS, fifty seven upon springs and the lake; forty eight are entirely dependent on their neighbors, and one thousand persons receive water from the Aqueduct Company."

      The great cause of this deficiency was the difficulty, and at most points impossibility, of sinking WELLS a sufficient depth to strike a water vein; but the lake and the Winooski afforded means for an abundant supply, and the city council early turned their serious attention to the subject. The village had been afforded an indifferent supply by an aqueduct company, organized in 1850.

      As early as 1827, the Champlain Glass Company, whose works were located on the lake shore near the Battery Park, laid a line of log pipes thereto, from or near the present residence of Henry LOOMIS, on Pearl street, for the purpose of conducting water to their factory from several springs in that vicinity. This line was in use until 1850, when Frederick SMITH, who at that time was a part owner of the glass factory property, started a stock company, known as the Burlington Aqueduct Company, which was incorporated by the legislature for the purpose of furnishing the village with an adequate supply. The old logs were superceded by iron pipes, about three miles of which were laid during the first year. A reservoir, forty feet square and twelve feet in depth, arched over with brick, was built in the center of Pearl, near WILLIAMS street, which is still in existence. This reservoir was supplied by four springs, two being situated on the lot now owned and occupied by George L. LINSLEY, at that time owned by WARREN ROOT, and two just above him, one in the center of the street. Subsequently, about the year 1855, an arrangement was made with the old Pioneer Shop Company, by which water was pumped from the lake. But even then, as previously shown, the growth of the community had made the supply wholly inadequate to the demand; consequently, the city took the affair in hand and issued bonds to the amount of $150,000.00 for the construction of new works, and bought the property of the Aqueduct Company for $24,000.00, coming into possession October 1, 1866. A resolution for the construction of the new works was adopted by the city council on the 2d day of April, 1867, and the city now has one of the finest supplies in the State. The reservoir is situated at the junction of Winooski turnpike and University place, a distance from the pump house of 8,362 feet, with a head of 289 feet, and a capacity of 2,236,000 gallons. The pump house and machinery are situated at the foot of Pearl street, and were first put into operation December 25, 1867. There are at present twenty-seven miles of mains, with 1,620 service pipes or taps, through which was used, during the year 1881, 276,869,535 gallons of water, for which the city received $24,407.21. Throughout the city there are 123 public, and twenty private fire hydrants, the great force of the water precluding the necessity of fire engines, as hose has only to be attached to the hydrant when a powerful stream is thrown. In addition to the first appropriation of the city, there has been bonds issued at different periods until the whole bonded debt of the water works is now $244,900.00, and their entire cost $271,470.83.


      On the 5th of November, 1852, the Burlington Gas Light Company was incorporated by the legislature, with John PECK, president; Charles F. WARREN, treasurer; and Salmon WRIES, secretary. During the following year, the construction of the works, located at the corner of Bank and Battery streets, was commenced, and finished in 1854. The contract was let to DUGAND, CARTWRIGHT & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., who constructed works for the manufacture of gas from coal; but in 1879, the process was changed, and petroleum gas is manufactured instead. The works were finished, and the city first lighted May 15, 1854, with only a few miles of mains, which have since been extended until they aggregate ten miles in length, conducting gas to 365 meters. The present officers of the company are Nathaniel PARKER, president, and F. H. PARKER, treasurer and superintendent.


      The first extensive manufactory commenced at Burlington was in 1827 when the Champlain Glass Company built a factory, between Champlain and Battery streets, near the Battery Park, and commenced the manufacture of window glass. For a long time the company was quite successful and did a large business, employing as mans as two hundred hands; but later, more, from mismanagement than any other reason, it declined, and finally practically died, in 1834. Mr. Frederick SMITH, however, who was then a young man employed in the office as an accountant, considered he had the requisite tact and energy to rebuild the enterprise, and therefore bought out the business, and, with several changes of partners, carried it on successfully for a number of years, or until 1848, when the manufacture of glass was abandoned, principally on account of high prices of fuel. In the meantime the manufacture of cotton cloth was commenced, a business which has since grown to extensive proportions.

      Burlington and Winooski Cotton Mills. -- In 1845, a firm under the title of The Winooski Mill Co., was granted a charter by the legislature, for the purpose of carrying on the manufacture of cotton cloth at Burlington. During that year the company was organized, with a capital stock of $25,000.00, and Joseph D. ALLEN elected president Thus it remained until 1853, when the legislature authorized the increase of its capital to $75,000.00. 

      Manufacturing was first commenced in a wooden building, known as " the oil mill," situated on the west side of the highway, near the south end of the covered bridge, at Winooski Falls.

      On the night of January 1, 1852, the entire works were destroyed by fire. Soon after this catastrophe, in the following spring, a site some twenty rods above the bridge was purchased, and a commodious brick and stone factory erected, 45x103 feet, in addition to the wood building, 34x84 feet, already standing upon the site. In 1880, the property was purchased by the present proprietors, Joel H. GATES and Robert G. SEVERSON, who have been many years prominently identified with the business interests of Burlington, and is now operated by them under the firm name of Joel H. GATES & Co. They soon made many improvements, and greatly increased the concern's facilities, so that the mill property of the company now consists of the greatly enlarged mills at the falls, and their large factory on Pine and St. Paul streets.

      The falls factory is devoted exclusively to the process of picking, carding, and spinning, where 23,000 spindles, and the machinery necessary to supply them, are continuously running during the working hours of each day, in addition to the machinery for a well appointed repair shop, the whole of which is driven by water power. Immediately adjoining the mill are the necessary storehouses, tenements for operatives, boiler house, where steam is generated for heating purposes, and various other requisite out buildings. Upon Pine and St. Paul streets, in the western part of the city, is located the weaving mill a large frame and stone structure, two stories in height, with a basement. The two main floors are each 50x60 feet, containing 650 looms, while the basement contains the machinery for measuring, folding and baling the finished cloth. At one end of the main building, forming an "L," is a substantial brick structure, 50x100 feet, two stories high, in which are located the repair and machine shops, and the machinery for dressing warps, etc., and also the boiler room, containing four large boilers which supply the steam for running the engine (one hundred horse power) and heating the buildings. Within convenient distances are the office, boarding house, barns, stables, ice house, etc., all situated so as to leave a large yard, or clear space, around the mill, thus providing ample light and air at all seasons. Their machinery and equipments are all modern, and capable of turning out work fully up to the times.

      The class of goods manufactured is what is called "print cloth," 25,000 yards of which are woven daily, making an annual product of 7,500,000 yards, giving employment to 350 persons. Thus the establishment is one of the largest and most extensive concerns in the State, and very ably managed by its general superintendent, Mr. Horace W. BARRETT, who has been connected with the institution ever since it was first established, in 1845.

      The Pioneer Mechanics' Shops. -- About the year 1850, the cause of the dearth of manufactures began to lie canvassed by several of the representative business men of Burlington, with a: view to changing the condition of affairs. “Here is a village with undoubted facilities for manufacture," they said, "with communication by water and rail with the large cities, and there is no reason why it should not become an extensive manufacturing center, could we only induce some good live mechanics to act as ` pioneers.' " And they were right.

      The awakening of this sentiment soon took practical development, owing principally to the energy of Messrs. Frederick SMITH and Henry P. HICKOK, resulting in the establishment of "The Pioneer Mechanics' Shops Co.," May 31, 1852, a. stock company with a capital of $30.000.00, divided into shares of $25.00 each. The legislature had granted them a charter in November of that year, and the first directors were Henry P. HICKOK, Frederick SMITH, T. R FLETCHER, Edward W. PECK, and Morillo NOYES. Land was donated for the erection of suitable buildings, by Henry B. STACY, Henry P. HICKOK, Eliza W. BUEL, and Nathan B. HASWELL, the said buildings, with steam engines and fixtures for running machinery, being intended "to be rented to mechanics and manufacturers, in convenient allotments, in such manner as to facilitate and invite the introduction of new branches of mechanical and manufacturing industry."

      In 1853, the shops were completed, located on the east side of Lake street, of brick, four stories high, 400 feet long, and 50 feet wide, divided into four apartments, each one hundred feet long, with a heavy brick wall between, the machinery being driven by two heavy engines in a building just east of the shops.. It was not long before the buildings were occupied, proving the enterprise a success, and chairs, doors, sash, blinds, and machinery were soon counted among the exports of Burlington.

      The corporation, however, having borrowed money over and above their capital for the completion of their buildings, and given a mortgage on their property to secure its payment, were unable to meet their obligations, so the mortgage was foreclosed, and the property came into the hands of Henry P. HICKOK. Soon after, April 2, 1858, the entire buildings were destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of about $150,000.00. But manufacturing industries had become too firmly seated hereto succumb to even this misfortune. The citizens of the town donated $8,000.00 towards the re construction of the works, and Mr. Lawrence BARNES purchased the ruins, and immediately erected three brick shops, two stories high, each one hundred feet long and fifty feet wide, being the same, with others which have been erected adjoining, that are know as "The Pioneer Shops" today. Immediately after their reconstruction, January 1, 1858, the property was transferred to the present proprietors, B. S. NICHOLS & Co., who lease the shops to the following firms, who collectively furnish employment to 500 persons:

      E. B. and A. C. WHITNEY, who are successfully engaged in the manufacture of brush stock. The Ferguson Manufacturing Co., in the manufacture of "bureau creameries." R. M. CLAPP, curtain rollers and fixtures. J R. BOOTH, doors, sash, blinds, etc. Messrs. WING & SMITH, manufacturers of shoe lasts and boot trees. Wallace S. HOLLAND, manufacturer of fancy cabinets and cases, and Venetian blinds. S C. KIMBALL & Co., in the manufacture of doors, sashs and blinds. WOODBURY & Co., as a planing mill. W. H. BRINK, as a brass and iron foundry, and also by several other firms who carry on a less extensive business.

      J. R. BOOTH's manufactory is under the management of U. A. WOODBURY, and employs 125 hands. Aside from the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds, etc., Mr. BOOTH, who resides in Canada, is extensively engaged in the manufacture of lumber, having mills at Ottawa, where 47,000,000 feet of lumber are cut annually, 20,000,000 feet of which are sold from this point, making his business in Burlington, commenced in 1874, aggregate a half million dollars per year.

      S. C. KIMBALL & Co. commenced business as CROMBIE & KIMBALL in 1858, in the Pioneer buildings, and continued thus until 1868, when their firm's title was changed to the one they now bear. This company employs twenty five men, and turns out about $50,000.00 worth of manufactured goods annually.

      R. M. CLAPP's manufactory was established in 1870, employs twenty five men, and produces $40,000.00 worth of goods per annum.

      Wallace S. HOLLAND's manufactory furnishes employment for twenty persons, and turns out $20,000.00 worth of goods per year.

      J. W. GOODELL & Co.'s marble and granite works, located on Pine street, are among the largest of the manufactories situated outside of the Pioneer Shops. Their buildings, which cover an area of several thousand square feet, are admirably located for conveniently carrying on this manufacture, as the railroad passes right by the door, affording an easy mode of shipping and receiving goods, and also situated near the lake, from which a constant supply of water may be pumped, an item extremely essential in sawing and polishing marble. Business was commenced by them in the spring of 1875, under the management of Mr. J. W. GOODELL, who, with Messrs. F. W. SMITH and C. R HAYWARD, constitute the company. Since that time they have been very extensively engaged in the manufacture of finished marble and granite work, and are now producing more marble tops for furniture that any other firm in the country. The method of working and polishing the various kinds of stone has been greatly improved during the past few years, and Messrs. GOODELL & Co. have kept promptly up with the improvements, inventing not a few of them themselves, so that their factory is now an interesting place to spend an hour in observing how the rough blocks of stone are metamorphosed into beautiful, polished specimens of mechanical and artistic genius, which eventually perform an active part in decorating both the interior and exterior of some of our grandest private and public buildings, as well as to embellish our cherished "cities of the dead." Two hundred men are employed here continually, night and day, producing a quarter of million dollars worth of manufactured goods per annum.

      Burlington Manufacturing Co., located on the corner of Pine and Maple streets, is a stock company largely engaged in the manufacture and sale of marble, with Hon. Torrey E. WALES, president, and Charles R HAYWARD, secretary. The company was organized, and buildings erected, in 1863, for the manufacture of nails, and as a rolling mill, which business was continued several years, or until 1872, when the factory was fitted up for the present manufacture of marble. The firm has exclusive control of several quarries of very popular marble, owing to the fact of different members of the firm owning a portion or a whole of the said quarries. Among these several grades maybe mentioned the celebrated Verona, Lapanto and Moriah marbles of New York, and the Florence marble from the quarries at Pittsford, Vt., and also at the same time they import large quantities from Italy. They operate twelve gangs of saws and employ seventy men at their works, besides retaining numerous other workmen at their several quarries, while their sales of rough blocks aggregate many thousand feet each year.

      The Queen City Steam Granite Works, located at 143 College street, are owned by L. A. WALKER and Eben TAPPEN, who manufacture there all kinds of monuments, headstones and building blocks, from granite and marble, employing twenty five men and doing a business of $25,000.00 per annum, though some years it amounts to as high as $75,000.00.

      Guy N. WILLARD's stone quarries, located southeast of the principal part of the city, were first opened by Mr. WILLARD's father, Levi, in 1805; since which time many thousand yards of stone have been taken there from, entering into the structure of some of the finest buildings in Burlington and vicinity. The material consists in most part of a pinkish white, fine grained limestone, somewhat resembling granite in its construction, with layers of reddish sandstone interstratified with red sandstone marking the transition from the arenaceous to the calcareous form of deposit. Mr. WILLARD employs fifty men at his quarries.

      Homer M. PHELPS's steam marble and granite works, located on Bank street, were established by him in 1862, for the manufacture of all kinds of building and cemetery work, anti now give employment to twenty men.

      HOLT & BARNES's spool and bobbin works, located on Pine street, south of Maple, were established at Salisbury, in 1869, and removed to Burlington in 1875. Spools for thread only were manufactured previous to 1877, but during that year machinery for the manufacture of bobbins was introduced, since which time the business has largely increased, so that eighty hands are now employed at the works.

      WALKER, HATCH  & Co., stair builders and manufacturers of doors, sash, blinds, etc., have their office and salesroom at 153 Main street, though their mills are located at Winooski village. The business was established in 1874, by David WALKER and D. F. HATCH, since which time it has continued to steadily increase, until they now employ thirty five men.

      TAFT, MORGAN & Co., manufacturers of sash, doors, blinds, and house furnishings, on College, Battery, and Lake streets, commenced business in 1877, as TAFT & MORGAN, and continued until 1879, when the present firm was organized. They employ eighty men, and manufacture $200,000.00 worth of goods per year.

      MATTHEWS & HICKOK, manufacturers of packing boxes, cloth boards, etc., on Pine street, were organized as a firm in 1871. They employ fifty men and turn out $200,000.00 worth of goods per annum.

      The Burlington Spoke Company, WALKER & HATCH, agents, engaged in the manufacture of carriage spokes, axehelves, pick, hammer and sledge handles, have their mills located at Winooski village, and their place of business in Burlington. They employ a number of experienced workmen, and do a large business.

      Jerry LEE's carriage shops, located at 175 Pearl street, were established in 1856. He now employs ten men, and manufactures from $8,000.00 to $10,000.00 worth of carriages and sleighs per annum.

      Harmon RAY, engaged in the manufacture of carriages and wagons, on Front street, first commenced business in Hinesburgh, where he was established ten years; he then removed his works to Burlington, in 1856, and now does a business of about $15,000.00 per year.

      William SMITH & Co.'s carriage shop, located in the rear 153 Pearl street, was established by S. M. POPE, in 1867, since which time, with various changes of partners, Mr. SMITH has been constantly connected with the business, the members of the firm now being SMITH, TUTTLE and DEITTE. They employ three men.

      Charles B. GRAY's carriage manufactory, located on Champlain street, was established in 1830. He now employs ten men in the manufacture of light and heavy carriages and wagons, and also deals in Eastern and Western carriages, etc., doing an annual business of $15,000.00.

      Charles H. SAGER, manufacturer and repairer of furniture, located at 10 North Winooski ave., commenced business here in 1879, and now employs seven men.

      George L. LEE's carpenter and joiner shops, located on North street, were established in 1865. He employs thirty men.

      John W. ROBERTS's carpenter and building shops are located on North Willard street. Mr. ROBERTS commenced business here in 1879, and now employs seven men.

      Homer C. DREW, carpenter and builder, located on South Winooski ave., commenced business here about fourteen years ago, and now employs twenty men.

      C. A. HIBBARD's boot and shoe manufactory, located at 52 and 54 College street, was established at Troy, Vt., in 1865. In 1870, Mr. HIBBARD removed to Essex junction, and from there to Burlington, in 1874. He manufactures none but hand made goods, turning out from 1,200 to 1,700 cases per year, giving employment to fifty workmen. His whole trade, consisting of the sale of his own and other manufactured goods, amounts to 150,000.00 annually.

      George W HOLMES & Co.'s glove and mitten manufactory, located at 181 College street, was established by J. H. WHITTEN, in 1874, by whom the business was conducted until his death, in 1877, since which time it has been managed by G. W. HOLMES, who became a partner in 1880 The firm employs fifteen persons at their manufactory and salesrooms, though a large portion of their hand work is done outside of the factory.

      The Burlington & Lamoille R. R. Machine Shops, located at 33 Maple street, are under the management of Mr. F. G. BROWNELL. The rolling stock, locomotives, etc., for this road are manufactured here, giving employment to twelve men.

      Queen City Soap Works, DODDS & STEPHENS, proprietors, located on First street, were established in a modest way in 1876, and have since steadily increased in business, until they now have an extensive manufactory, employing several men.

      L. G. BURNHAM C Co., photographers and manufacturers of gilt and black walnut moldings, picture frames, easels, etc., are now doing an extensive business, which was established by Mr. BURNHAM in 1877, employing twelve women. 

      ARBUCKLE & Co. -- In 1870, this firm succeeded to the business of D. A. VANNAMEE in the manufacture of candy, to which was subsequently added the manufacture of cigars. In the line of confections they are the largest manufacturers in the State, and employ thirty operatives. Their sales are principally in this State, Northern and Eastern New York, and New Hampshire.

      Franklin WOODWORTH's Pottery. -- About the year 1830, E. L. FARRAR built a pottery on the south side of Pearl street, between St Paul and Church streets. It was afterwards enlarged by BALLARD Brothers, and retained by them until 1874, when it was purchased by Mr. WOODWORTH, who now does an extensive business, employing fifteen men.

      WING &  SMITH. -- In July, 1852, H. R. WING and James A. SMITH came to this city, from Niagara Falls, N. Y., and started the manufacture of lasts, boot trees, crimps, etc., in a building known as the "Foundry Building" on the corner of Main and Battery streets. Mr. G. F. WING having previously opened a store and sales room at 57 1/2 Frankfort street. New York, a large share of the goods manufactured were sent to that place. After running two years in the old "Foundry Building," it was destroyed by fire, the firm losing their stock, machinery, and books. With the proceeds of their small insurance they commenced to refund their machinery, and in six months had it in operation, in the old Pioneer Shop. They continued business there until the property was destroyed by fire, a small insurance being all that was left them. Everything including books, was lost. From the ruins they proceeded to Winooski, and in ninety days had the goods in market again. When the Pioneer Shops were rebuilt the business was removed to them, where it is still continued. G. F. WING and James A. SMITH having been removed by death, leaving H. R. WING the surviving active partner, Mrs. J. A. SMITH retaining an interest in the firm, the name has not been changed. They employ fifteen men at Burlington, and five men at New York city, their sales amounting to from twenty-five to thirty thousand dollars per year.


      The first saw mill in the vicinity was built at Winooski Falls, by Ira ALLEN, in 1786. Mr. ALLEN, in connection with his brother, Levi, who was then engaged in trade at St. Johns, C. E., opened a trade with Quebec, and among the articles sent was the lumber manufactured at this mill The first raft of oak timber taken to Quebec was owned by Stephen MALLETT, of Colchester, in 1794. The first raft of Norway pine was taken by John THORP, of Charlotte, in 1796. From this a great trade soon sprang up, of whom the most actively engaged were Ira ALLEN, Stephen MALLETT, Benjamin BOARDMAN, Henry BOARDMAN, Amos BOARDMAN, Ebenezer ALLEN, William B. WOODS, Samuel HOLGATE, Judson LAMSON, Joseph CLARK, Thaddeus TUTTLE, Mr. CATLIN, Ezra MEECH, of Shelburne, Daniel HURLBURT, Nathaniel BLOOD, of Essex, William MUNSON, William HINE, Jacob ROLFE, Allen HACKETT, David BEAN, Heman ALLEN, of Colchester, James MINER, Samuel HOLGATE, Jr., of Milton, Major Lyman KING, and Roswell BUTLER. After the opening of the Champlain canal, however, in 1820, the course of trade began to take an eastern route, and New York was the lumber market. But erelong the immense forests of oak and pine became exhausted -- transferred from the soil to be planted in a floating home, to form another forest -- a forest of tall, tapering masts throughout the various great shipping marts of the world. The depletion of the forests, however, extinguished the lumber trade only for a time. It again sprang up, with increased proportions, but with a beat change. The current of its tide had been reversed, so that now the lumberman receives his lumber from Canada, instead of shipping it there.

      The first cargo of lumber that arrived here from the Canadas, for the Eastern markets, was brought by L. G. BIGELOW, in 1850. He associated with him in the business Enos PETERSON, and they continued in trade until 1855. Messrs. C. BLODGETT & Son, then of Waterbury, next commenced trade here. The St. Maurice Lumber Company shipped their lumber here during the three years that their mills were in operation. In 1855, the Hunterstown Lumber Company located their sales depot at this place, and in 1856, Mr. Lawrence BARNES opened a yard here for the purchase and sale of lumber. From this time trade rapidly increased and reached mammoth proportions, which it retains today, though not to the extent it has done. Still, about 100,000,000 feet of lumber per year are shipped here now, amounting to a trade of over two million dollars. In addition to the firms already mentioned on a previous page, the following are extensively engaged in the business:

      SKILLINGS, WHITNEY & BARNES. -- This company, though formed as it now exists as late as 1878, is in reality the business established by Mr. Lawrence BARNES in 1856, which has thus come down through various changes. In addition to their yards at Burlington, they have goods at Ogdensburg, and at Boston, where their general office is located, at No. 5 Kilby street. They employ at this point 100 men, and at all their yards 500 The aggregate annual amount of lumber handled by them is 90,000,000 feet.

      SHEPARD & MORSE Lumber Co. have their principal office at No. 1 Liberty street, Boston, and in addition to their large yards here have others situated in Canada, Michigan, and Tonawanda, N. Y., together with a manufactory at East Saginaw. They employ in all about 300 men and handle 80,000,000 feet of lumber per annum.

      BRONSONS, WESTON, DUNHAM & Co. -- This firm deals largely in lumber, and is also extensively engaged in its manufacture at their mills on Pine street. The mills are an outgrowth of others started at Albany, by J. W. DUNHAM & Co., and were first located here in 1872. They contain eleven planing machines, two circular re saws, and an upright re sawing machine, in addition to numerous other machines, all driven by an immense double engine of 175 horse power. They employ from sixty to one hundred men, their mill having the capacity for turning Out 20,000,000 feet of lumber per year.

      PIERCE & LINSLEY, located at 38 College street, and who have also a branch office at 7 Doane street, Boston, and another office and yard at East Saginaw, Mich., were organized as a firm January 1, 1880. They give constant employment to a numerous corps of laborers, and though comparatively young in the business, handle about 6,000,000 feet of lumber per year.


      As the early settlement at "Burlington Bay" gradually increased in size by the addition of pioneers, it soon became necessary to have a merchant established among them, which want was filled by Grant. Others soon followed his example, among whom, as the earliest, were the following: Stephen KEYS, Zaccheus PEASLEE, Thaddeus TUTTLE, F. T. ENGLESBY, William F. PELL & Co., HERRING & FITCH, NEWELL & RUSSELL; Moses JEWETT, saddler; Nehemiah HOTCHKISS, tailor; J. STORRS, painter; Justus WARNER, cabinet maker; William BRYANT, shoemaker; and Daniel WILDER, joiner. In the footsteps of these worthy men followed others, whose energy and business capacity have made Burlington what it is, the metropolis of the State, with its long blocks of business houses and many wholesale concerns. There are at present one hundred traveling salesmen resident in the city, seventy five of whom are engaged by Burlington houses. Among the wholesale enterprises of to day are the following:

      WELLS, RICHARDSON & Co., wholesale dealers and manufacturers of drugs and medicines. -- This firm commenced business in 1872, as successors to the old house of HENRY & Co., so long known in Burlington, with Edward WELLS, A E. RICHARDSON, and W. J. VAN PATTEN, forming the partnership. They immediately commenced pushing the wholesale drug trade, in all its branches, with such vigor that they soon supplied the whole trade of Vermont, Northern New York, and New Hampshire, with their goods. In 1873, Mr. Henry WELLS was admitted as a partner, and in 1874, their handsome, commodious store was erected, a building whose facilities for and adaptability to the drug business, are excelled by none. In January, 1881, Mr. F. H. WELLS became one of the firm, which is thus made up of young men whose whole business training has been in the wholesale drug trade and specialties connected therewith, and who are, withal, thorough business men in every sense, and deserve well the high position they have attained in business circles.

      WELLS, RICHARDSON & Co. began their extended system of advertising in 1877, expending during that year about $4,000.00 in making known the merits of their Butter Color. Their drug business at that time amounted to about $200,000.00 per year. In 1879, they began to extensively advertise their now familiar, but then little known remedy, "Kidney-Wort," expending during the first year about $75,000.00. This expenditure proved to be so profitable increasing their business more than fifty per cent. -- that their investment in printer's ink the following year, 1880, was increased to $125,000.00 The business at once began to show the effect of this large outlay, and that year amounted to a round $400,000.00. In 1881, their advertising cost them $150,000.00, and they did a business of over half a million. This year the outlay for advertising will be much larger, and the business thus far shows an increase of twenty five per cent. over that of 1881.

      About $200,000.00 of their business continues to be from the general wholesale drug trade, while the balance is from the sale of their proprietary articles, Kidney Wort, Improved Butter Color, and Diamond Dyes. These articles have an almost world wide reputation. Of Kidney Wort, about 4,000 gross, 576,000 bottles, equal to 2,250 barrels, are shipped in the course of a year, a large proportion of which is used in the different States of the Union, though much is sent to other parts of North America, and some to South America, while arrangements are now pending for introducing the remedy into Europe and Australia. About 200 gross of Diamond Dyes are shipped during the same period, or, in all, 132,000 dozen packages of goods in a year. Surely, a business of great magnitude for a Vermont Yankee firm! In transacting this great business they employ at their store sixty persons, forty others indirectly, and send out four traveling salesmen

      SAFFORD, WETHERBY & Co. -- This firm, wholesale jobbers of fancy goods, notions, hosiery, overalls, shirts, etc., first commenced business at Montpelier, in 1870, under the title of E. S. FULLAM & Co., and in September of that year removed to Burlington, locating at their present site. About four years subsequent to this Mr. C. C. CHADWICK was admitted to the business, and the firm name changed to FULLAM, SAFFORD & CHADWICK, and so remained until 1875, when, owing to failing health, Mr. FULLAM sold his interest to Messrs. SAFFORD & CHADWICK, and during the same season Mr. HUMPHREY became a partner, and the firm was known as SAFFORD, CHADWICK & Co.; but in the early part of 1876, Mr. CHADWICK died, and Messrs. SAFFORD & HUMPHREY having purchased his interest, the business continued in their name until 1881, when Mr. Henry L. WETHERBY was admitted, and the title changed to the one it has since borne. Still, although Mr. HUMPHREY is yet a member of the firm, his time is given to conducting a retail trade in Winooski village, which is owned by SAFFORD, HUMPHREY & Co. During these years the business has steadily increased, so that they now employ three traveling salesmen and a full corps of clerks at their store, their annual sales amounting to about $200,000.00

      HENRY, JOHNSON & LORD. -- This enterprising firm, located on College street, commenced business at Waterbury, Vt., in 1855, under the firm name of J. M. HENRY & Sons. Under various changes the firm continued in Waterbury until March, 1867, when they removed the business to Burlington. After this removal, the addition of the wholesale drug business was made to their manufacture of proprietary medicines. In 1870, the firm divided, the present firm of WELLS, RICHARDSON & Co. taking the wholesale department under the firm title of HENRY & Co., and HENRY & JOHNSON retaining the proprietary medicine department, which they still continue, with the addition, in 1879, of L. B. LORD to the company, making the firm as at present The specialties which they manufacture are N. H. Downs' Elixir, Baxter's Mandrake Bitters, and Arnica and Oil Liniment, besides a large line of toilet articles, extracts, essences, and other proprietary medicines. They have traveling salesmen in all New England and the Middle States, while their sales extend to all parts of the Union.

      The stores known as the Lyman block, Nos. 179-183 College street, and Nos. 119,120 122 Church street were erected by John and Cornelius WICKWARE, on the site purchased by them of Col. Henry THOMAS, January 15, 1829. It was built in the summer of 1829, for their dry goods trade, and was the second store erected on Church street, now the principal business street of the city. Mr. Sion E. HOWARD's store on the block north, the site of the present Howard Opera House, being the first. The block was sold to Jonathan WICKWARE, August 22, 1834, and by him to Samuel HICKOK, Feb. 24, 1835. It was purchased by Capt. Gideon LATHROP, May 15, 1838, and was successively occupied by Messrs. D. W. INGERSOL & Co., John S. POTWIN & Co., and Joseph WAIT, for dry goods and general country trade. Mr. Elias LYMAN, who had received his early mercantile education in the house of Justin and Elias LYMAN (his father), then extensive merchants and jobbers at Hartford, Vt., purchased the block in 1844 for his dry goods business. In 1847, Mr. LYMAN formed a partnership with his cousin, Edward LYMAN, now the senior partner of the wholesale and retail dry goods house of LYMAN & ALLEN. The firm of E. & E. LYMAN continued till 1851, when Mr. Elias LYMAN retired, Mr. Edward LYMAN succeeding to the business, in the same store, till 1868. From that date till 1878, the store was occupied by L. W. PAGE, and subsequently by Messrs A. B. SIMONDS & Co., dry goods merchants. Since September, 1878, it has been occupied by A. N. PERCY, manager of the Burlington Clothing Co.

      LYMAN & ALLEN, wholesale dealers in dry and fancy goods. -- This firm, located on Church and Bank streets, was established in 1868, as a continuation of the business commenced by Mr. Edward LYMAN, the senior member of the firm, in 1848. Their store is large and commodious, 74x46 feet, and employs sixteen persons, while two salesmen are kept upon the road. The business done by the firm amounts to $200,000.00 annually.

      VAN SICKLEN, SEYMOUR & Co. -- In 1856, the firm of VAN SICKLEN & WALKER was organized for the wholesale trade of general groceries and provisions. In 1878, the firm was changed as it now is, being the oldest in this line in the city, and still does business at the old "stone stores," South Wharf. They give employment to ten men.

Gazetteer and Business Directory of 
Chittenden County, Vt. For 1882-83
Compiled and Published by Hamilton Child
Printed At The Journal Office, Syracuse, N. Y, 
August, 1882.
Pages 94-113.

Transcribed by Karima Allison ~ 2004