Descendants of Missionary Robert Poole
by Rev. Stephen E. Harris
Ancestors of BOSSIE WARDELL, SR. POOLE
2. REVEREND THOMAS HENRY POOLE, SR. was born on February 4, 1834 in Mulberry Island, Warwick County, VA. MULBERRY ISLAND WAS IN WARWICK COUNTY, A LITTLE OUTSIDE OF NEWPORT NEWS, VA He died on October 20, 1912 in Surry County, VA. Buried in the Old Church Cemetery on Hwy #10 about one mile NW of Bacon's Castle, VA.
He was married to HARRIET H. DUBREY WILSON on January 30, 1873 in Elizabeth City County, VA. Widower with one son, surnamed Wilson.
3. HARRIET H. DUBREY WILSON was born on February 9, 1848 in Elizabeth City County, VA. Harriet's ancestors originated from Charles City or James City (Native American descent) in the 17th and 18th century. The University Press of Charlottesville notes the name 'Jubrey' or Dubrey" are associated with the Algonquian tribe of the Chickahominy of James City County near Yorktown.
Birth information was taken from the death certificate #1675 of Norfolk, VA dated Jan 24, 1927. She was educated about 1868 in Hampton Normal and Agricultural School (Institute). She may have attended Hampton Normal and Agriculture School between 1867-1871. She died on January 22, 1927 in NORFOLK VA. Certificate of death #1656, of Norfolk, VA dated Jan 24, 1927. Physician of record W.A.Drake. Undertaker CERTIFICATE 1656 DTD JAN. 24, 1927; PHYSICIAN W.A.DRAKE, MD. HALE & CO., Undertaker. REVEREND THOMAS HENRY POOLE, SR. and HARRIET H. DUBREY WILSON had the following children:
|1 || i.|| BOSSIE WARDELL, SR POOLE.|
| || ii.|| THOMAS, Jr. POOLE was born about 1874 in SURRY CO, VIRGINIA. (FHL Film 1255392 National Archives Film T9-1392 Page 46C Interview with Edgar Brown, 13 Dec. 2003 at his home in Virginia Beach, VA.; FOURTEENTH US CENSUS--1920 VIRGINIA SURRY COUNTY COBHAM MAGISTERIAL DISTRICT.)|
| || iii.|| JAMES 1 POOLE was born about 1880 in Surry County, VA.. He died on March 23, 1974 in SPRINGFIELD, MA.|
| || iv.||ANDREW POOLE was born about 1878 in SURRY CO, VIRGINIA. (FHL Film 1255392 National Archives Film T9-1392 Page 46C)|
| || v.|| MAXWELL POOLE.|
| || vi.|| IRCY POOLE.|
| || vii.|| BESSIE POOLE was born about 1876 in SURRY CO, VIRGINIA. (FHL Film 1255392 National Archives Film T9-1392 Page 46C) She appeared on the census on January 5, 1920 in Los Angeles, California. Line 82, 83 Bessie Poole Head, Born in Virgina (?) Two daughters Bessie Mae, and Robbin. E.D. 838, Enumerator Allice A. Walton|
| || viii.|| PRECIOUS POOLE. |
| || ix.|| DAVID I POOLE.|
| || x.|| ELSIE POOLE was born about 1879 in SURRY CO, VIRGINIA. (FHL Film 1255392 National Archives Film T9-1392 Page 46C)|
4. MERIT POOLE was born in 1810 in Warrick Co. Mulberry Island, Virginia. ROFN, p. 207, #1087, MERIT alias MERIT POOL UPWARDS OF 40 YEARS OLD 22 JULY 1850.
He was married to A(I)VEY WILSON on April 13, 1839 in Surry County, VA. Page 140, AVEY POOL, wife of Merit Poolwas bornn free as pr. certificate of John Mallicote, is the daughter os Sally Wilson a free woman. of light complexion, thin visage long hair has a small scar on the wrist of her left hand is about 26 years old and is 4'11" high' The said Avey Pool is this day registered of the above description in the Office of the Clerk of the County Court of Surry.
5. A(I)VEY WILSON was born about 1813 in Surry County, VA. Poole Family Reunion, Newport News, VA, July 22, 1995. She 13 Apr 1839 registered #728 in Surry County Court House, Surry County, VA. Page 140, AVEY POOL, wife of Merit Poolwas bornn free as pr. certificate of John Mallicote, is the daughter os Sally Wilson a free woman. of light complexion, thin visage long hair has a small scar on the wrist of her left hand is about 26 years old and is 4'11 " high' The said Avey Pool is this day registered of the above description in the Office of the Clerk of the County Court of Surry. She 22 Sep 1852 registered #1269 in Surry County Court House, Surry County, VA. Page 249, reg #1269. William P. Underwood Clerk of the County of Surry County in the State of Virginia do hereby certify that AVEY alias AVEY POOL, a free negro of light complexion, has a scar on her left wrist aged 39 years old and is 4'11" high, and she was born free in the County of Surry as appears by a former certificate obtained from the Clerk of the Court [p.124] and now surrendered that she is is again
Page 140. AVEY POOL, wife of Merit Pool was born free as pr. certificate of John Mallicote, is the daughter of Sally Wilson a free woman of light complexion, thin visage long hair has a small scar on the wrist of her left hand is about 26 years old and is 4'11" high. The said Avey Pool is this day registered of the above description in the Office of the Clerk of the County Court of Surry.
MERIT POOLE and A(I)VEY WILSON had the following children:
|2 || i.||
REVEREND THOMAS HENRY POOLE, SR.|
| || ii.||
MERRITT POOLE was born on January 22, 1840 in Surry County, VA. (MOUNT RAY CEMETERY) He served in the military in HAMPTON, VA.
| || iii.||
JOHN N. POOLE was born about 1847 in UNKNOWN. He died in Surry County, VA.|
| || iv.||
WILLIAM POOLE was born about 1839 in UNKNOWN. He died UNKNOWN in Surry County, VA. He died in Surry County, VA.|
| || v.||
MARY A. POOLE was born about 1848 in SURRY CO, VIRGINIA.|
| || vi.||
ANTHONY POOLE was born about 1845 in SURRY CO, VIRGINIA.|
6. JAMES DUBREY was born about 1820 in JAMES CITY/WARWICK CO., VA. MEMBERS OF THE D(J)UBREY FAMILY LIVE ON THE CHICKAHOMINY RESERVATION
IN YORKTOWN, VA He was married to UNKNOWN about 1845 in Elizabeth City County, VA.
7. UNKNOWN was born in Elizabeth City County, VA.. JAMES DUBREY and UNKNOWN had the following children:
|3 || i.|| HARRIET H. DUBREY WILSON|
8. WILLIAM POOLE was born about 1785 in Warrwick County, Mulberry Island, Virginia. He appeared on the census in 1810 in Isle of Wight County, VIRGINIA.. He was bom about 1820 in UNKNOWN. He ABT 1850 ROFN page 205 reg #1028 in Surry County Court House, Surry County, VA. Page 205 BILLA Pool, father of ELIZA and SUSANAH, husband of ELIZABETH.
He was married to ELIZABETH UNKNOWN about 1815 in VIRGINIA.
9. ELIZABETH UNKNOWN was born about 1790 in UNKNOWN. [1001 Page 100, #451, MERIT alias MERIT POOL, son of William and Elizabeth his wife. The said Merit was born free as appears by a certificate from Thomas Sampson esquire, filed in this Office. Mother of MERIT POOL; wife of WILLIAM She 22 JUL 1850 REG #931 in Surry County Court House, Surry County, VA. Page 177, REBECCA alias REBECCA CHARITY. Reg #931. is the daughter of William and Elizabeth Pool (f n) as appears by certificate of William W. Bell. WILLIAM POOLE and ELIZABETH UNKNOWN had the following children:
|4 || i.||
| || ii.||
REBECCA CHARITY was born about 1821 in SURRY CO. VIRGINIA. Page 177, REBECCA alias REBECCA CHARITY. Reg #931. is the daughter of William and Elizabeth Pool (fn) as appears by certificate of William W. Bell She 23 aug 1847 reg. in Surry County Court House, Surry County, VA. Page 177, #931, Certificate of William W. Bell, Daughter of William and Elizabeth Pool. 26 year old, yellow Complexion, bushy or short hair. 23 AUG 1847 .|
| || iii.||
ELIZA POOL was born in 1865 in UNKNOWN. Page 98 Freedom Papers w/Appendixes ELIZA POOL cent. # 1078; daughter of ELIZABETH POOL and BILLA POOL was born free now living in the County of Surry. She is about 29 years old. |
| || iv.||
SUSANAH POOLE was born about 1828 in UNKNOWN. Page 98 of Freedom Papers of Surry County Virginia. ELIZA (#1078), and SUSANAH (#1079) are daughters of ELIZABETH and WILLIAM and BILLA POOL. |
10. UNKNOWN WILSON. He was married to SALLY UNKNOWN bef 1813 in UNKNOWN.
11. SALLY UNKNOWN was born about 1790 in UNKNOWN. Page 140, #728 AVEY POOL is the daughter of Sally Wilson. a free woman. UNKNOWN WILSON and SALLY UNKNOWN had the following children:
16. JOHN POOLE was born about 1760 in Mulberry Island Colony of Virginia.
17. UNKNOWN. JOHN POOLE and UNKNOWN had the following children:
32. THOMAS 3 POOLE was born about 1730 in Mulberry Island Colony of Virginia. He was married to UNKNOWN UNKNOWN in UNKNOWN.
33. UNKNOWN UNKNOWN. THOMAS 3 POOLE and UNKNOWN UNKNOWN had the following children:
64. WILLIAM 3 POOLE was born about 1700 in Mulberry Island Colony of Virginia. He was married to UNKNOWN UNKNOWN in VIRGINIA.
65. UNKNOWN was born in UNKNOWN. WILLIAM 3 POOLE and UNKNOWN had the following children:
128. THOMAS 2 POOLE Was born in 1665 in Mulberry Island Colony of Virginia. He signed a Will on November 18, 1694 in Elizabeth City Co., VA. Virginia County Records, VI. Elizabeth City County Wills; Name: Thomas Whitfield, Wife Ann executrix; sons John and Thomas; daughters Mary and Elizabeth: Witnesses Thomas Taylor, Peter Manson, Thomas Poole. He owned 474 acres in 1704 in Elizabeth City Co., VA. Virginia County Records, VI. Elizabeth City County Book #9, Original Source, Page Name: 610, Thomas Poole 1704. Comment: 474 acres. He Was married to UNKNOWN UNKNOWN in VIRGINIA.
129. UNKNOWN Was born UNKNOWN in UNKNOWN. THOMAS 2 POOLE and UNKNOWN had the following children:
256. WILLIAM JOHN POOLE Was born before 1622 in Colony of VIRGINIA. He owned appoximately 75 acres transferred from Capt, Christopher Wormley Chas Riv Co on January 27, 1638 in Chas Riv Co.. p.8. 16 peole recieved from transfer from Capt Christopher Wormety 1620 acres divided among 16 persons (p.607 Patent Book). He Was married to American Indian NONE UNKNOWN in VIRGINIA. It is unknown as to the father or mother of this female. It can only be assumed that she had no last name.
257. American Indian NONE. WILLIAM JOHN POOLE and American Indian NONE had the following children:
|128 || i.||
WILLIAM 1 POOLE was born about 1645 in COLONY OF VIRGINIA. He died 29 FEB 1687 in Christ Church Parish.|
| || ii.||
THOMAS 2 POOLE.|
| || iii.||
JOHN POOLE was born about 1675 in Elizabeth City County, VA.
512. INTERPRETER ROBERT POOLE
was born about 1596 in ENGLAND. Page 3-25, The Musters of the inhabitants in Virginia 20 January-7 February 1624/5. In the spring of 1622, following the massacre of 22 March 1621/2, George Sandys, Treasurer of the Virginia Colony, sent a letterr to London by the 'Seaflower' informing the authorities that 347 persons had been killed in the tragic uprising of the savages. Immediate action was taken by John Farrar on behalf of the Virginia Company of London by publishing the list of those slain. (R, Va Co, III p.554). This is a list of those inhabitants and how they came to be in Virginia, and what they brought with them (corn, 'peeces' [weapons], wives, children, etc.) He was an Interpreter/agent to the governor in 1619 in COLONY OF VIRGINIA. Page 306, Volume 1. In 1619 he was an interpreter for the colonists until 1627, he survived his father Mr. Robert, and his brother John, and was heir to his father's and brother's inheritance. Robert received from the King 'a patent' for 300 acres, east of the Parish Church in Mulberry Island.
Mulberry Island is a peninsula that is located on the US Government Reservation known as Fort Eustis, between Jamestown and Newport News (2003). He Employed on April 3, 1623 in James City, Colony of Virginia. Page 237; The messenger sent back with this answer that if they would send home our people they should quietly set their corn, within a week returned Mrs Boys (the chief of the prisoners) [she was either the wife of Cheyney Boyse, member of the House of Burgesses for Hog Island, 1629-32; or of Luke Boyse, Member of the House of Burgesses, 1623-4.], apparelled like one of their Queens. Robert Poole (was an interpreter as early as 1619, and lived in Warwick County in 1627. See this Magazine, 1, 195, 440 He Employed on May 2, 1625 in COLONY OF VIRGINIA. He owned 300 acres. S side of Warwick Island in 1627 in Mulberry Island, Warwick County, VA. As heir to his father and brother John he received a patent for 300 acres east of the church in Mulberry Island. Descendents (Pooles) lived on this 'Patent' as late as 1690.
513. NATIVE AMERICAN? Native American UNKNOWN was born about 1610 in Mulberry Island, area of Warwick County, Colony of Virginia. INTERPRETER ROBERT POOLE and NATIVE AMERICAN? Native American UNKNOWN had the following children:
|256 || i.||
WILLIAM JOHN POOLE.|
Colorism is a form of intragroup stratification generally associated with Black people in the United States but present among all peoples of color. Colorism subjectively ranks individuals according to the perceived color tones of their skin. People who "look white" receive preferential or prejudicial treatment both within and between races. Social status, marriage desirability, economic and educational attainment often have been historically related to light skin tones.
Colorism is a poisonous legacy of slavery and reflects the persistent Eurocentric bias in U.S. culture. Black people with lighter skin tones were born as a result of various forms of miscegenation since colonial times. They were the country's earliest multiracial inhabitants, along with children of Native American-white unions.
Tension sometimes occurs in Native American tribes with mixed-blood populations between the light-skinned mixed-bloods and "full-blood" Native people. They debate about whether one is really a tribal person if he or she is not "identifiably Native." Furthermore, Native people sometimes identify themselves by the degree of Indian blood they possess.
Contrary to popular myth, no evidence exists to support the notion that lighter-skinned slaves were chosen as house servants or concubines. They worked in the fields alongside their darker brothers and sisters, but they were given preferential emancipation from servitude-both indentureship and slavery. Freedom was often granted to the offspring of interracial unions after a specified term of servitude if the mother was white; some were manumitted by a white father.
European Americans attempted to recognize distinctions among Blacks by creating various census categories. In each census year from 1850 to 1920, except 1880 and 1900, efforts were made to differentiate Blacks and mulattos. Different states had different percentage rules to determine who was Black. Therefore methods for racial determination were imprecise, subjective, and primarily based on visual observation, which yielded an undercount of Black Americans.
Colorism has varied in intensity regionally and historically. Emphasis on light skin, straight hair, and sharp features allowed some individuals to attempt to distance themselves from the "typical" image of Blacks. Color consciousness manifested its most extreme form in urban areas, where elite groups called "blue vein" societies developed. Light skin was the primary qualification for membership, although education, sobriety, manners, dress, wealth, and proper elocution were also essential attributes. Thus the number of members was small and select.
Some of the historically Black colleges, such as Howard and Fisk Universities, became bastions for multiracial elites. Churches, literary clubs, and social organizations also reflected color preferences. During the Black consciousness movement of the 1960s as well as the 1970s' Black arts renaissance, Coorism was submerged. It reemerged strongly in the 1980s and 1990s in the media's images of light-skinned women in music videos, Black films, television shows, and commercials.
People who practiced Coorism were casualties of the deeper racial oppression embedded in U.S. society. By internalizing oppression, victims of racism themselves became perpetrators of a divisive and pernicious system. In 1983 author Alice Walker observed, "Unless the question of Colorism ... is addressed in our communities and definitely in our black 'sisterhoods,' we cannot, as a people, progress."
Shirlee Taylor Haizlip
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Sexual liaisons that cross the color line have been intertwined in American history with issues of gender, race, politics, and law from the colonial period onward. The word "miscegenation" was invented during the 1864 presidential campaign (from the Latin miscere, "to mix," and genus, race) when Democrats claimed that Lincoln's Republican Party advocated sex and marriage across the color line. Like "mulatto," probably derived from the concept of mules and hybridity, "miscegenation" was pejorative in its historical context.
Europeans and Africans reproduced together from the time of earliest contact in the colonial South, where white indentured servants and Black slaves lived and labored in the same households. White authorities wrote the first laws against such mixtures in the late seventeenth century; white women and Black men were threatened with the harshest consequences among the possible mixtures. Under the institution of racial slavery, such laws were intended to prevent the growth of a free African American population. One's legal status as slave or free was based on the mother's status as slave or free; thus when white women had children with Black men, those children would be free but of partial African ancestry, thereby threatening racial slavery. When Black women bore the children of white men, however, those children would be slaves and usually remain enslaved throughout their lives, thereby benefiting the institution of racial slavery.
Karen A. Getman, "Sexual Control in the Slaveholding South: The Implementation and Maintenance of a Racial Caste System," Harvard Women's Law Journal Vol. 7 (1984): 115-52.
Jacqueline Dowd Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women's Campaign Against Lynching (New York: Columbia University Press, rev. ed., 1993).
Nell Irvin Painter, "'Social Equality,' Miscegenation, Labor, and Power," The Evolution of Southern Culture, edited by Numan Bartley (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988).
- Martha Hodes
STEPHEN E. HARRIS
5381 STEWART DRIVE
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