In our family of James McFarland’s sons and sons-in-law, the
men who could possibly serve in 1861 were:
A. Jackson McFarland: 43 yrs. old
Howard Etheridge: 46 yrs. old – husband of Anna McFarland
Elijah Sebastian: 37 yrs. old – husband of Sarah Jane McFarland – died
June 12, 1863
Albert McFarland: 36 yrs. old – died April 13, 1862
George Wilkerson: - 32 yrs. old -2nd husband of Rebecca McFarland
Jasper McFarland: 32 yrs. old
James Collin Tucker: 35 yrs. old – husband of Cynthia Anne McFarland
James McFarland: 28 yrs. old – died coming home 1865
L. T. Cunningham: 22 yrs. old – 3rd husband of Mary Jane
Newton McFarland: 22 yrs. old
Arthur Rodney McFarland: 16 yrs. old
James Franklin McFarland: 13 yrs. old - he signs up before the end of
Other McFarland families in Fannin County in 1860 were:
1. Yelverton (?), age 20, and his brother Joseph, age 16, both born
in Texas, sons of Samuel McFarland, age 46, born in Ireland.
2. Thomas, age 15, born in Tennessee, son of Robert McFarland, 48, born
in North Carolina.
3. James O. McFarland, 34, born in Tennessee.
Of those men the records researched so far show:
A. Jackson – served in the Texas State Troops
Howard Etheridge, Albert and James and Arthur joined the 22nd
L.T. Cunningham was in the 34th Cavalry,
Jasper and Newton and Arthur (again) served in the 31st Cavalry,
James Franklin did brief duty guarding prisoners in Bonham at the very
end of the war.
In Orangeville, the Orangeville Independent Home Guard was organized
on May 25, 1861 and James O. McFarland, and a John McFarland joined up.
This James is not directly related to the Ladonia group and there is a
S. McFarland from Ireland, age 46, in the 1960 census in Orangeville, who
is Samuel, so I am not sure who this John refers to. James O. goes on to
be a member, and Sergeant, in Co. A, of the 22nd Cavalry.
On July 6, 1861, many men of the Ladonia, Honey Grove, and Wolfe
City area signed up to be a part of the Texas State Brigade, 14th
Regiment of the Texas State Troops, Beat #4. This brigade was centered
in Fannin and Hunt counties. As far as I can tell, this regiment was never
activated, but the men went on to become part of the regular CSA and other
Texas State Troops in 1862.
E. Sebastin (I think this would be Elijah Sebastian-it is the only reference
I have to his service during this war, although he dies during the war.)
J. McFarland, age 43 ( A. J. McFarland in the 1860 census- Andrew Jackson)
J. R. McFarland, age 31 (James Robert, I believe)
The lists above came from transcriptions completed by Patricia Armstrong
Newhouse in her Fannin County, Texas: Enlistees in the War Between
the States. Bonham Public Library
On December 14, 1861 our Fannin County McFarland men (along with
many of their friends and neighbors) enrolled at Honey Grove, and then
rode to Ft. Washita, across the Red River about 50 miles away, (near Durant
Oklahoma) and were mustered in on December 27, 1861 (National Archives).
Ft. Washita had been in existence since 1842 as an outpost next to Indian
Territory, built to protect the area’s Chickasaw and Choctaw against Comanche
raids and serve as a base for the U.S. Indian Agency. On April 16, 1861
it had been abandoned by the Union Army after the capture of Ft. Sumter,
and Confederate forces from Jefferson, Texas moved in the next day. During
the war, the fort was mostly used as a supply depot for Confederate troops
in the Indian Territory (Ft. Washita History).
There is some archeological evidence at the fort that suggests they
were under attack at least once, although no official battles are recorded.
There is also a graveyard on the grounds with over 200 unmarked graves
of Confederate soldiers.
Below are photographs taken by the author in 2004. This fort never had
a walled perimeter, it was open to the surrounding plains. The entrance
today was built during renovation when the fort became property of the
Oklahoma Historical Society in 1962. In the background of this photo you
can see the rebuilt barracks on the left.
There are ruins of original structures in place at the fort as well.
These ruins are the West Barracks, built in 1856 of limestone. Before they
burned in 1917, they were the residence of the Colbert family, who lived
here after the fort was abandoned in 1870.
General Douglas Cooper, who served as the Chickasaw/Choctaw Indian Agent,
then as Colonel of the Chickasaw/Choctaw Regiment and Brigadier General
in the C.S.A. lived in this log cabin until his death in 1879. He is buried
on the grounds.
There are several cemeteries on the grounds, but at this location are
the unmarked graves dating for the Confederate occupation of the fort.
Map of Texas, Indian Territory, Arkansas, Louisiana Camps and Battle
For the 22nd, 31st, and 34th Texas
Our Fannin County men were part of Robert H. Taylor’s Regiment of Texas
Mounted Rifles when they gathered at Ft. Washita in December. On January
16, 1862, the 22nd Regiment Texas Cavalry was organized
and our men were members of Company C. They were called the 1st
Indian Regiment Texas Cavalry at this time. The members of this regiment
were largely from Fannin, Collin, and Grayson counties and Taylor was a
lawyer in Bonham, a former company commander in the Texas Rangers during
the Mexican War, and a member of the Texas legislature, both before and
after the war. He, like many of his North Texas neighbors, had also opposed
secession until the war began. The original orders were for a 12 month
enlistment to “serve between Kansas and Texas” (Barr 2).
Albert, J.R., Arthur McFarland, and Howard Ethrage (Etheridge)
enlisted in Co. C, 22nd Texas Cavalry on Feb. 25, 1862
and were enrolled by J. W. Piner (National Archives).
Albert Pike, a journalist and lawyer living in Arkansas, had been commissioned
by the Confederate government to enlist the Indian tribes to their cause.
Although the tribes would have preferred to stay out of this conflict,
they also had monetary interests in this war, and some were slave owners
as well. The tribes were divided in their loyalties, not knowing who would
honor the millions of dollars still owed them for the sale of their lands
in the East (when they were removed in 1832 as part of the Indian Removal
Act). Early Confederate victories helped sway many toward the Southern
cause. The southernmost Choctaw and the Chickasaw Nations signed with the
Confederacy first. Then other tribes signed treaties with Pike, who assured
them they would not be called upon to fight unless their territory was
invaded by the Union. When Pike took the signed treaties to the Confederate
capital in Richmond, Virginia, he was named Brigadier General of the Indian
Territory with Col. Douglas Cooper in charge of the 1st Regiment
of Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, stationed at Ft. Washita. Cooper
was assisted by Col. James Bourland, a well-known military leader and business
man from Lamar and Cooke counties in North Texas (Cottrell 13-25).
In February and March, 1862, the 22nd Cavalry moved
to camp at the North Fork of the Canadian River because the forage was
better, and the presence of white troops might deter the threatened civil
war within the Cherokee Nation as tribes within that Nation had different
feelings about taking sides in this war (Cottrell).
Before much training could take place in the Texas and Indian cavalries,
a force of 12,000 Union soldiers were moving to secure Missouri. Maj. Gen.
Earl Van Dorn, commander of the Trans-Mississippi District sent word to
Gen. Pike to lead his Indian troops out of Indian Territory to join other
Confederates in Missouri. The Indian regiments would not go into battle
until certain monies had been paid. They then rode to Arkansas and fought
at Pea Ridge on March 6, 7. Reports indicate some of the Cherokee
celebrated a little early and took a few scalps—a move that enraged Union
troops, and surely embarrassed Gen. Pike. Early appearances at success
turned, and after the Confederate defeat at Pea Ridge and retreat, Pike
led them back into Indian Territory and the 22nd joined
him, moving southwest (Cottrell 37-40).
On April 13, 1862, Albert McFarland died. No cause of death is
mentioned in his documents; however, there was a raging measles epidemic
that spread through troops that were moving with Gen. Pike. This was reported
in a letter home by one of the afflicted soldiers that survived. Many of
these soldiers are buried at the camp at Middle Boggy (Atoka, OK - today
in the grounds of the Confederate Memorial Museum and Cemetery).
Taylor’s Regiment was joined by the 34th Texas Cavalry
under Col Almerine M. Alexander, a merchant in Bonham and Sherman. On April
17, 1862 the 34th Texas Cavalry Regiment was created
at Ft. Washita. Several Fannin County men joined Co. I. This cavalry was
composed of companies mostly from the North Texas area, and like the 22nd,
were not that enamored with the war. The men were from counties that were
either divided or against secession. They had scant influence in state
politics compared to south and central Texas, and they were not big slaveholders.
They had joined this movement once war had actually started, with the idea
that their home territory might be invaded. They also had been promised
during recruitment that they would not be fighting away from their homes
In May, 1862 a report on troop strength in the Indian Territory shows
that Col. Alexander’s (the 34th), and Col. Taylor’s (22nd)
regiments were at Ft. McCulloch. Gen. Pike had ordered an earthen works
fort to be built and named to honor Gen. Ben McCulloch, a Texan hero who
had died at Pea Ridge. Pike was convinced there would soon be a Union invasion,
yet Gen. Van Dorn had been ordered to transfer his troops east beyond the
Mississippi. This left the Western sector with few provisions or troops
(Cottrell 42). Present at the roll call at Ft. McCulloch were a mere 829
men, half of the 1,679 on the rolls. Various reasons exist for this: sickness,
furloughs to farmers to bring in their crops, and absences caused by anger
at the violation of the original recruitment promises that they would not
be sent beyond the frontier at Ft. Washita and Ft. Arbuckle (Barr 3-4).
On June 28, due to the conscription act, reorganization took place.
James G. Stevens replaced Taylor as Colonel of the 22nd.
McFarland, and Howard Etheridge were discharged on July 16, 1862 from
the 22nd by orders of Albert Pike, in compliance with
the Conscription Act.* Arthur was not yet 18, and Howard
was over 35, both outside the age requirements for service (National Archives).
On July 12, Gen. Pike was ordered to go to Ft. Smith, Arkansas to join
the new army being organized for the invasion of Missouri. He refused the
order because it violated the promises made to Indian recruits and Texans
to not move beyond defense of their immediate homelands, and he then resigned.
Although his arrest was ordered by Gen. Hindman, who considered this treasonous,
and Pike peacefully complied, nothing came of it because the Confederate
headquarters accepted his resignation. (Cottrell, p. 52) Pike, probably
justifying his decision to resign, wrote a letter to President Jefferson
Davis on July 31, 1862 referring to his Texas cavalries as “even more worthless
and troublesome together than I supposed” (Barr 4). Col. Cooper, however,
did comply with Gen. Hindman’s request for troops, and the 22nd
and 34th began moving north toward Ft. Gibson.
In the meantime the 31st Texas Cavalry, organized
in Dallas County in May, 1862, and led by Col. Trezevant C. Hawpe, a Dallas
businessman, started moving north. It is at Ft. Washita that on August
9, Jasper, Newton, and Arthur McFarland join the ranks of Co.
I.Arthur, who had been discharged a month earlier from the 22nd
, was mere days away from being 18, so now was allowed to rejoin—this time
with his other brothers (National Archives).
All three regiments were in the area of northeastern Oklahoma (Ft. Gibson)
on the eastern border with Arkansas (Ft. Smith) in July and August. It
seems the 31st was sick and going through that early
adjustment period every new group goes through while their immunities build
up to the rigors of camp life. In early August, the 34th,
on a reconnaissance mission out of Ft. Gibson, participated in a skirmish
at Park Hill with Pin Indians who had sided with the Union. In late August,
the brigade stopped at Camp Osage, while the measles epidemic raged through
the troops and put 88 men in the hospital (Barr 6).
In early September, the 22nd and 34th
Cavalries moved to Camp Caudle near Bentonville, Arkansas, five miles from
the Missouri state line and joined Cooper’s Indian Brigade. There was a
typhoid outbreak also at this time at Camp Myrick near McDonald, Missouri.
Part of the 34th and the 31st rode
north to attack the main camp of the 2nd Indian Home Guard (Union-
composed of Osage warriors with a fierce reputation). The Confederates
captured wagons and cattle and killed between 60 and 120 men, according
to one report.
They continued to move toward Newtonia, Missouri, where the 22nd
performed picket guard duty nearby. On Sept. 27, Col. Cooper sent the 31st
and an Indian battalion to Newtonia as an advanced post. The 22nd
was ordered to Granby and the 34th marched for Granby
to relieve the 22nd on the morning of Sept. 30, the day
of the battle of Newtonia. The Union troops withdrew from
Newtonia and the 31st was put in charge of securing Newtonia.
All three regiments ended up fighting at Newtonia, mostly dismounted. Although
the Confederates did well at Newtonia, on October 4th they were
forced to withdraw when more Union troops arrived. This was the last of
Confederate troops in Missouri for the war (Barr 7-8).
In October, the 22nd and 34th Texas
Cavalries were detached from Cooper’s Indian Brigade, and were reorganized
into a new Texas brigade under Col. Thomas Coke Bass. This was very short-lived,
and soon Col. William R. Bradfute was put in charge of the brigade, which
was to resist the Union advance into Indian Territory and Arkansas. Confusion
caused by the change of commands and the retreat led to even more confusion.
Col. Bradfute fell ill and turned over command to Col. Jesse L. Craven
without reporting it to Gen. Hindman. On Nov. 1, General Hindman, who felt
the Texas regiments were “worthless as cavalry,” ordered them dismounted,
and their horses sent to Texas (Barr 8-9). On Nov. 21, Col. Hawpe resigned
and returned to Dallas. He then began hauling supplies to these forces
until he was killed in a quarrel in Dallas on Aug. 14, 1863. (Harper).
On Dec. 7, a clash occurred at Prairie Grove, Arkansas as Gen.
Hindman attempted to retake this part of Arkansas for the Confederacy.
During the battle, the Texas regiments helped repulse three different Union
attacks and followed them with counterattacks of their own. Lt. Col. Guess
of the 31st wrote home to his wife:
Our Brig(ade) was posted on the extreme left wing of the army and was
not called into prominent action but a short time, but not a boy or man
of them showed any disposition to flinch. The cannon balls and shells flew
and burst around them and the Minnie(sic) ball whistled about their ears,
but they stood calm and determined to die or win the victory. (Barr 10)
Although they held their ground, the lack of ammunition forced Hindeman
to withdraw. According to historian, Alwyn Barr “morale fell to a new low
and numerous desertions followed a near mutiny in the 31st
Texas when Bradfute ordered a man punished by bucking**” (11).
On Dec. 31, the 22nd and 34th were
at Camp Roan, 4 miles southeast of Ft. Smith, Arkansas. However, the McFarlands
were not present at the muster. According to records for the 22nd,
McFarland had been absent without leave since Dec. 28, 1862. In the
Cavalry, J.M. and J.H. (?) were also shown as absent without leave
since Nov. 28, 1862 when the Jan. & Feb. muster occurs. J. McFarland
shown as absent since Dec. 31, 1862, when the March and April muster occurs.
is absent since Dec. 28, 1862 in the Jan. & Feb. muster (National Archives).
It seems that the problems with these regiments were felt by many, and
our McFarland family members decided to go home, whether temporarily or
permanently, only they knew. On January 7, 1863 the three dismounted cavalries,
the 22nd, 31st, and 34th, along
with the 15th Texas Infantry and the 20th
Dismounted Cavalry, were put under the command of Col. Joseph Warren Speight,
the commander of the 15th Infantry from Waco, Texas. The brigade
spent January and February wintering in Indian Territory under terrible
conditions (although is looks like our McFarlands had wisely gone home
for the winter.) A letter home from Alfred T. Howell of the 34th
described what they were missing:
…lived for three weeks on cold flour (parched corn, ground to meal)
and water. No tents, no blankets, hardly anything to leek life and soul
together….Men died every day. They laid themselves down. They would not
move and they died. …From Ft. Smith to the Mouth of the Kiamichi (River)
where we camped, our trail was a long graveyard. (Barr 15-16)
Considering home was only 50 plus miles away, one can see why they came
home. As spring arrived, however, new marching orders began. Alexander
and Speight were faced with trying to round up their missing troops, and
judging from the McFarland archival records, everyone began showing back
up. Newton and Arthur in the 31st were present for the
muster roll for March and April, 1863, although Jasper was still absent.
J. R., (James) of the 22nd is also back for that
muster roll. Many were hoping to be sent East to the center of the major
battles and were not looking forward to continued service in Indian Territory.
Their luck changed with a change in command at the top.
In late April, Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, the new commander of the
Trans-Mississippi Department, ordered the Texas brigade to join the army
of Major General Richard Taylor in Louisiana. Union forces under Gen. Nathaniel
Banks were advancing and possibly threatening Shreveport, the location
of department headquarters on the Red River (Barr 18).
Col. Guess and Col. Alexander had to advertise and send officers to
Texas counties to forward the missing soldiers to Alexandria in Louisiana.
Col. Alexander resigned this month due to poor health. The men began arriving
by foot or even steamers from East Texas. The brigade numbered around 1600
men, one-third of them unarmed.When Kirby Smith inspected his reinforcements,
he decided that the 15th and the 31st
were acceptable, but the 22ndand the 34th
needed to remain in camp and be disciplined and drilled as infantry (Barr
18-19). George W. Merrick, who began his career as a fellow private of
Co. C of the 22nd Texas Cavalry had risen up the ranks
and was promoted to Major by Lt. Gen. Kirby Smith at Camp Allston in June.
He probably was the officer responsible for returning to Fannin County
and rounding up the missing men (National Archives).
It seems that accepting their new role as foot soldiers was hard to
bear for many of the proud cavalrymen. The next few months seem devoted
to marching all over Louisiana, getting sick in camp, an occasional skirmish
here and there, and brigade reorganizations.
Newton was one of the many who fell sick. His records show him as being
“sick at Kiametia, May 2, 1863. This continued into the last muster roll
for him in February, 1864, where he was still listed as sick at Kiametia
(National Archives). Kiametia was near the Red River close to Ft. Towson,
Indian Territory (today this is just north of Paris, Texas). Newton never
did fully recover his health, and died in 1872 at the age of 33. Sometime
during this period he must have gone home to wife Sarah because she gave
birth to a son, James Robert, in March, 1864. L. T. Cunningham was listed
as AWOL since April 5 (National Archives).
On July 4, 1863, after a 48 day siege, Vicksburg, on the Mississippi
River, surrendered to the inevitable, and five days later, the Confederates
at Port Hudson, above Baton Rouge also surrendered after a six week siege.
The Mississippi was now in Union hands and the Western Confederate states
were cut off. The Red River Campaign could begin in earnest.
The next battle of any note for our brigade was at Stirling’s Plantation
near the Mississippi River, which had become a Federal Command Post. On
September 29, a surprise attack was launched by the 15th Texas
Infantry, the 11th Texas Battalion and the 31st Dismounted
Cavalry, led by Major Frederick Malone. It was a huge success, the Union
men had 453 captured of the total 854 men present. Of the total of 121
Confederate casualties, the brigade under Speight had 104 (Barr 27).
A new brigade had been formed and put under the command of Camille Armand
Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac, son of the last prime minister of Charles
X of France. In fact the father, Prince de Polignac was known for his arch-conservative
views in support of nobility and authoritarian monarchy. Polignac’s views
were so conservative that it prompted the revolution of 1830 that led to
King Charles X’s resignation and exile. Camille was a professional soldier
who had fought in the Crimean War, was in Central America when the Civil
War began, and offered his services to the Confederacy.In his new post,
Polignac was faced with the task of raising morale and discipline in the
and the 34th Dismounted Cavalries. John H. Caudle was
now in command of the 34th and Robert D. Stone replaced
Stevens who had resigned because of his inept handling of the regiment.
In October, Polignac’s command was merged with Speight’s command, joining
Taylor’s army. Speight went home due to ill health, so now Polignac was
commanding the 15th Texas Infantry, the 22nd,
31st, and 34th Texas Dismounted Cavalries, and
the 11thTexas Battalion, and the 17th
Texas Consolidated Dismounted Cavalry. The next several months were relatively
quite, filled mostly with moving from camp to camp, and little or no fighting
On January 1, 1964 the brigade was camped in the slave quarters of the
Richardson Plantation, east of Monroe, about 80 miles due east of Shreveport.
(Barr 35) They moved to Harrisonburg and made camp near the Ouachita River
for January and February. In February, Polignac led his men on a raid against
Vidalia on the Mississippi River across from Natchez. This was their first
experience with their new brigade leader, so it was very important for
him that it go well. The purpose was to collect horses and mules from the
Union garrison located there. They accomplished their goal and returned
to camp with almost 400 head of cattle, horses, and mules, and a new respect
for the commander they called “Polecat” (Barr 37).
The Union Army was continuing to make a slow thrust up the Red River
Valley. This became known as the Red River Campaign. The goal was to take
Shreveport, and from there move into Texas. Union gunboats were moving
up river and shelling the towns as they came. At one point Harrisonburg
was shelled on March 2 before being driven out by the
Cavalry. On March 8, the entire brigade was ordered out of Harrisonberg
to move west to meet the Union advance.
The showdown took place near Mansfield, about 30 miles south
of Shreveport. The Texas troops, along with Louisiana brigades, charged
the Union lines on April 8, and pushed them into a rout. This was followed
by more charges on the April 9 that ended in a stalemate, but the Union
army retreated even further. The total casualties for the Texas brigade
were 213. The 22nd lost four men, the 31st
lost three, and the 34th lost seven, the 15th
lost two, and the 17th had 23 dead - obviously the regiment
that bore the brunt of the battle (Barr 41).
Polignac was promoted to Major General over the division, and Wilburn
Hill King, former colonel of the 18th Texas was promoted to
Brigadier General and put in charge of the Texas brigade. King, however,
was wounded, so the actual command went to the senior colonel, Robert D.
Stone of the 22nd Texas Dismounted Cavalry. The next
month, the Texas troops were moving, following the retreating Union gunboats
and ironclads. On May 14 at Bayou de Glaise, a battle was fought against
Union forces, 18,000 strong. During the battle, Col. Robert Stone, brigade
commander, was killed while he was reporting to General Wharton. Two hundred
and eight men from the Texas brigade were killed or wounded, including
18 officers. The men later questioned whether this battle had even been
necessary, given that the Union was retreating anyway (Barr 44-46). On
May 18, Major George W. Merrick, leader of Co. C of the 22nd
was promoted to Lt. Colonel over the battalion, and was called Merrick’s
battalion till the end of the war. (National Archives)
With the conclusion of the Red River Campaign, Confederate leaders in
Shreveport began considering what to do next.Gen. Bragg in Georgia wanted
Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor to lead Polignac’s and Major General John G. Walker’s
infantry divisions across the Mississippi. This was not a popular decision
with the north Texas men who felt going that far was beyond the defense
of their homeland and began deserting. Polignac’s division lost two hundred
men, and Kirby Smith decided to rescind that idea because of morale issues
and the Mississippi being controlled by Federal gunboats (Barr 48-49).
The Texas division was then sent north into Arkansas in September. Long
marches, shortages of blankets and tents, and increasing sickness led to
smaller numbers. Polignac’s division now only numbered 1,132 privates in
October. Gen. Kirby Smith decided however to not winter in Arkansas where
supplies were short and weather more extreme. He ordered the division to
return to Louisiana to camp, where they spent time working on the road
out of Shreveport. Occasionally a deserter or two would be shot. There
seemed to be little attempt at keeping muster rolls during these last months
of the war. The last muster roll for the Fannin county McFarlands was in
the summer of 1863. They do not appear as absent or present on any documents,
so their whereabouts cannot be confirmed.
In January in Louisiana, the decision to dismount nine cavalry regiments,
due to lack of forage, led to a split in the Texas brigade. Kirby Smith
wanted experienced infantry to be the core of two brigades, one led by
King and the other by newly promoted James E. Harrison, who had risen from
the ranks of the 15th Texas Infantry. On January
20, the new Texas brigade led by Harrison, was ordered to return to Texas,
much to the delight of the Texas men I am sure. The 34thhowever,
was to stay behind with King’s brigade (Barr 53).
It is hard to know if the McFarlands were still with their units or
not. Lee (L.T.) Cunningham, husband of Mary Jane McFarland Cunningham,
certainly went home around February, 1865, because Lee and Mary Jane have
a son named James who is born in October, 1865.
By March, Harrison’s brigade had reached Hempstead, Texas in Waller
County, just northwest of Houston. Polignac had left for France to try
to drum up support for the Confederates and the divisions were being reorganized
and retrained as infantry. Harrison’s brigade was split and Major General
Sam B. Maxey was to lead a new infantry division with the 22nd
and the 31st being part of the 2nd Brigade.
On April 5, the 34th also arrived in Hempstead, made
camp and began to drill. News of the collapse and surrender of the armies
of Lee at Appomattox on April 9 and the assassination of Lincoln on April
15, must have sent shock waves through the Texas troops. However, the men
continued to drill, and on April 24th a meeting of the 15th,
17th, 22nd, and 31st, wrote and approved
a resolution of loyalty to the Confederate cause and condemned desertion
as treason. However, the tide had turned, and on May 24 Harrison issued
his final order with the approval of district headquarters, commanding
the regimental officers to march their troops home and discharge them.
This was in acknowledgement of the reality, because many units had already
gone home. Thus, there was never a formal mass surrender and laying down
arms, as had happened in the Southeast. Instead there was just a quite
trek home (Barr 54-56).