1591-TreverbynCourteney Manor,rents




(from originals in Latin and English)
(J. Mosman, OPC)


The original documents are in the Public Record Office: E315/404; Augmentation office Miscellaneous Books; they comprise several surveys, and an index. This record is primarily a transcription of one dated 1591; the other, dated 1602, is taken from "West Country Farms". (1) The 1602 version contains, almost word for word, descriptions of the manor, as well as a list of freeholders, identical to those contained in the 1591 version. However, in the Description of Customary Tenants, the information varies widely. The 1602 version is shown following that of 1591, and shows [Fines], which were amounts written in the margins of the pages.

Treverbyn CourtneyManor (in St. Austell parish) was part of the estate of Henry Courtenay, Earl of Devon, which on his execution for treason was annexed to the Duchy in 1540. His son, Edward, had the tenure of Treverbyn Courtney in 1556, which must have been by lease from Queen Mary, in whose hands the Duchy was. In 1601 the manor was illegally sold to Lord Stanhope, Michael Stanhope, and John Molesworth; however, after 1603 the sales were rescinded, and the manors recovered, but not in time to be recorded in the 1606 Crown Surveys (conducted in part to potentially identify opportunities to raise money for James I, when Parliament denied him all the money he desired.).

The original survey is in two parts. The first gives the legal right by which the tenant holds the tenement and his obligations and rent. The second, in English, is descriptive of the tenement itself, its buildings and land. The two parts have been amalgamated for convenience.

Notes on the parish are here.


Survey of the manor of Treverbyn Courtney in Cornwall, taken the 29th day of March 44 Elizabeth (1591).

Commons of Treverbyn Courtney

The commons of the manor are bounded as follows, viz: from Carwallen to Bogeve Burrowe, from thence to Newton Bridge, from thence to the corner of Gunheath, from thence to a borrow on the west of Crowse Gellyn, from thence to Hensborrowe, from thence to Stenackladren well, from thence to a rock between Owen and Treverbyn Courtney, and from thence to Tregyans Lodge, and from thence to a thorne in Gwethen Bryny, and from thence to a well between Melynnys and Hallew, and from thence to Polpryn to Bilbery and so to Polpryn Bridge, and from thence to three stones and so to another stone by Lavaddon, and from thence to the ponyon of a house of Lavrean Vean, and from thence to a lodge and so to Innys, and to a stone at Restennys lane end, and to the end of Carracles, and from thence to a crosse and so to Carwallen.

Treverbyhn Courtney Manor - Free Tenants

Hugh TREVANYHON and the heirs of Pollerds hold one tenement called Kayrnamanyn containing 60 acres. Rent 2/7d.
Nicholas BOYER for one tenement called Trevenoth in Treverbyn Courtney containing one ferling, rent 1d.
John RESCORLA for one tenement in Hallas containing one ferling. Rent 4/-.
William LOWER, Esq., for one cottage with a garden and croft in the town of St. Austell, rent 19d.
Edward TRIPCONY for one tenement called Carwere with 3 closes, rent 2/6d.
Edwrd PENWARNE, Esq., for one tenement called Knightier containing 30 acres, rent 2/3d.
John TREHAUKE for one tenement called Russells containing 3 acres. Rent 4/-.
Christopher WOOLCOCKE for one tenement called Ewynheth containing 30 acres. Rent 2/8d.
Richard LAVREAN for one tenement in Knightier containing 30 acres. Rent 2/6d.
Richard TRETHOWELL for one tenement in Trethirgye. Rent 19 1/2d.
John STODDON and John CARLYON for one other tenement in Trethirgie, Rent 19 1/2d.
Thomas BERE for one tenement called Odgabere. Rent 5/8d.
Thomas DAVYE for one tenement in Knightier. Rent 19 1/2d.
Martin TRISTEANE for one tenement called Penhiers containing 9 acres. Rent 4/2d.

Sum of the free tenants 37/10 1/2 d.

Customary Tenants -
St. Austell Town

Matilda LYGHT widow holds there one tenement or cottage with its appurtenances in St. Austell, containing one acre, during her widowhood according to the customs of the manor. And on the reversion to it is granted, by copy bearing the date of 25 april 40 Elizabeth by demise from Robert PADDON, gent., steward of the manor by letters patent from the Queen, to Otto LYGHT and Lucas LYGHT, sons of the aforesaid Matilda, for the term of their lives and of the longer living of either of them in succession according the customs of the manor, for a rent of 7/- and other services formerly due etc. And they will pay a heriot when it falls due and will serve in the office of reeve. And they will give to the Queen for a fine 30/- under seal of the aforesaid Robert PADDON. And the aforesaid Matilda is aged 50 and the said Otto 20 and the said Lucas 15 years.

Maud LIGHT, widow, during her widowhood holdeth there one messuage containing a hall, a chamber at the upper end thereof, a kitchen, a curtilage, a backside, a garden worth by the year 20/-. A meadow containing an acre of land worth by the year 12/4d. in the hedge thereof ashes and elms to the value of 10/-. A little meadow before the dore containing a quarter acre and worth by the year 5/-, rent 7/-. Annual value 38/4d.

Henry NANCOLLYS and Elizabeth his daughter hold there by copy dated 5 September 7 Elizabeth the reversion of one cottage and two acres with appurtenances in St. Austell which Stephen COCKE holds from before. To have and hold the reversion and also the said cottage and all other the premises with appurtenances to the aforesaid Henry and Elizabeth his daughter by demise from John GREENFYLDE Esq., John HAYDON, Esq., Leonard LOVEIS, Esq., and John GILL, gent., for the term of their lives successively after the death of the said Stephen. Rent 6/8d. Fine 46/8d.
And the said Henry is aged 60 and his wife 50, and the said Elizabeth 38 years and they are surviving.

Henry NICOLLAS and Elizabeth his daughter hold there one messuage containing a hall, a chamber at the upper end thereof, a seller, a stable, a backside, a garden, worth by the year 20/-. One close of land and a little garden in the same p.a. 13/4d. Castell park containing one acre p.a. 10/-. Rent 6/8d. Annual value 43/4d.

(In the second part of the survey only - )

Henry LUFFITT [or Buffitt] holdeth there one messuage containing a hall, a chamber, a backside, a garden p.a. 13/4d. The meadow under the vicarage 2 (blank) p.a. 6/8d. A little garden by the same 2/6/d. Quarry park 1/2 acre 6/8d. Rock park 1/2 acre 6/8d. Long Park, quarter acre and 20 (blank) 5/-. A garden by the little lane 2/-. Rent 6/-. Annual value 42/10d.

John CARLYAN holdeth there (enquire by what right) two tenements containing a hall, [1602] a chamber over the same, a shop, a sellar and chambers over,] a stable, a backside or curtlage, worth by the year 20/-. A little close called the Kill park containing 30 perches 3/-. A close upon the playeing place quarter of an acre 3/4d. The garden under the town 10 perches 2/-. A close called parcel of Carvergh fields 1 1/2 acres 24/-. A little orchard 10 perches 2/6d. Quarry park 1/2 acres 6/8d. High crosse quarter acre 4/-. One other close called Mennageddell 6/8d. There are growing upon the tenement certain elms to the value of 20/-. Rent 8/6d. Annual value £3.12.2.

These tenements were surrendered in court but no copy thereof granted by the steward and therefore in the hands of the lord. (in 1602 "... therefore in the lord's mercy")

Careveigh alias Carvergh

John REYNOLDE holds there by demise from John GRENEFYLD Esq., John HAYDON Esq., Leonard LOVEYS, Esq., and John GYLL, gent., by copy dated 5 September 7 Elizabeth the reversion of one messuage and half an acre Cornish with its appurtenances in Carveigh alias Carvergh which John HARRYSON now holds there. To have and to hold the reversion and also the said messuage with its appurtenancves to the said John REYNOLD for the term of his life after the death of the said John HARRYSON shall happen according to the custom of the manor. Rent 15/3d. Fine (blank). And the said John is aged 66 and his wife 60 years.

[1602] JOHN REYNOLD by copies of court roll bearinge date the fyveth daie of Septembe in the seventh yere of the raigne of Quene Elizabeth that now is [1565], heldeth in Carveighe alias Carvergh one messuage contayning a hall, a chamber at the uppen end thereof, a kytchin, a deyhouse, a barne, an oxe house, a wayne house, a courtlidge, a bee garden, a mowhaye, a garden, an orchard worthe by the yere 30s; two closes of land called West Parkes contayneng 3 1/2 ac., worth by the yeere 40s; Parke Bawden, 1 1/4 ac., 16s8d; a moore under the same, 1/2 ac,. 5s; St. Austell Parke, 40 [perches?] 6s; the close behind the garden, 60 p., 4s; the Castell Close, 2 1/2ac., 25s; a close called Polpit, 3ac., 30s; close by the lane, 1/2 ac., 6s8d; the Down Close, 3 1/2ac., 16s; the Myddle Close, 3 1/2 ac., 17s6d; the Whomer Close, 3ac., 20s; a stitch of land called Polcatch, 1/4 ac., 2s.6d.

Annual rent 15s.3d. [Fine] £ 88 Annual value 10.19s.3d.

Treganhiso (1602 only)

Gregory ROWSE holdeth there a messuage and tenement containing a faire hall, a buttry, a kitchin, a milkehowse, a bakehouse, a barne, a stable, an oxen howse, a sheepe howse, a lenny house and other smale houses, a backside and a towneplace, per annum 33s.4d; a litle garden before the house, 10.. 2a; an orchard, 3/4 ac., 13s.4d; the litle meadow, 1/2ac, 6s.8d; a close called {Caroures?] 1/2 ac., 5s; the close above the house, 2 1/2 ac., 25s; close undr the Church Waie, 5ac., 50s; Polkear, 5 1/2ac., 44s; Great Close, 6 1/2ac., 3.11s.6d; Crosse Parke, 3 1/2ac., 35s; two Downe Closes, 20ac., 30s; Gwallen, 13ac., 26s.

Rent 15s.3d [Fine] £90 [Annual value] 17.1s.10d

Treganhiso (1602 only)

John TRELEVAN holdeth there a faire house, a kytchen, a buttry, a mylkehouse and certen chambers over them, a barne, a stable, a sheep house, a bakehouse, a mowhaye and thre gardens contayning 56 perches, per annum 40s.; 2 litle orchardes, 5s; one close called the Boveltowne, 3 ac., 36s; backside, 6p 12d; East Park, 3 1/2 ac., 35s; Litle Park, 3/4 ac., 8s; the close next the Churchtowne, 5ac., 40s; the Undertowne, 2ac., 26s8d; Furse Parke, 3ac, 20s; the Farther Close, 2 1/2ac., 16s8d; the Myddle Close, 4ac., 16s; the Homer Downe Close, 6ac., 20s; the Farther Downe Close 10ac., 25s.

[Rent]10s.2d [Fine] £80 [Annual Value] £14.14s.4d.

Treverbyn Courtney Manor

Nicholas SAWLE holdeth there in the right of Jane SAWLE widow a messuage and one close of land in the south part of the same containing 8 acres 32/-. And three other closes of very coarse down land containing 30 acres 45/-. Rent 6/4d. Annual value £3.17.0. (margin) £30.
[the 1602 version shows (margin) entries as Suggested Fines, or Fines]

Benalleck (1602 only)

John MENHEIRE holdeth there a tenement, Rovelles, contayning a close called the Furse Parke, 2ac., 5s; one other close by the same, 1 1/2 ac., 10s; a Broome Close, 9 ac., 36s; a litle peece of land by the old walls, 1/2 ac., 2s; a plott of furse land and a more therby near adjoyning, 4ac., 4s.

[Rent] 5s.2d. [Fine] £ 20 [Annual value] 53s.

Trethirgie (1602 only)

Agnes PENWITHECK, widow, holdeth there a quarter of one acre of land, worthe by the yere 2s.

[Rent] 4d.

Greyth (1602 only)

John JOSEP heldeth there a messuage and tenement containing a hall, a chamber, a kitchen, an oxen house, barne, a sheepe house, a towne place, per annum 25s; 2 closes called Barne Parke, 6ac., 36s; a medow behind the barne, 1ac., 6s8d; Stone Parke, 2 1/4ac., 11s; Furse Parke, 10ac., 25s; Laye Close, 4ac., 20s; 2 litle meadowes behind the house, 1ac., 6s.8d; the Hall Parke, 2 1/2 ac., 12s.6d; Corss Parke, 5ac., 15s; a close called Boscawen,11ac., 55s; Greythlond, 8ac., 40s. (Inquire if it is included in the copy or not; a severall common belonging to the same, 20s., and moore ful of old tynnepites, 5s.)

[Rent] 12s.4d [Fine] £90 [Annual value] £13.12s.4d.

Rescorla (1602 only)

John PENHALE holdeth there one messuage and tenement contayning a hall, a chamber at the end therof, a barne, a shepehouse, a backsyde and a mowhaye, a litle plot of ground called a meadowe, 20p. per annum 13s.4d; Parke above the lane, 1 ac., 5s; Litle Parke, 3/4 ac., 5s; New Parke, 3 1/2 ac., 23s.4d; the Bovetowne, 1 1/2 ac., 6s; Gwele Meors, 4 1/2 ac. 22s.6d; Gwele Nowa, 3 1/4 ac., 8s.8d; Furse Parke, 9 ac., 18s; Newe Parke, 5ac. 8s.8d; parke before the dore, 1 1/4 ac., 12s.6d; French Furze, 9 ac., 27s; the Carne [Carue?] l ac., 3s4d; the close before Reseyghan, 3 1/2 ac., 17s6d; the close before Tremoughe, 1 1/4 ac., 5s.

[Rent] 12s.8d [Fine] £50 [Annual value] £8.15s.4d.

Rescorla (1602 only)

Thomas ROSEVEOR holdeth there a tenement containing an olde peare of walls, a garden, a close called the Old Field, 1 1/4 ac., 6s.8d; the Voce Towne, 2 ac., 8s; the Long Close, 3 1/4 ac., 20s; the fourth parte of a Furse Close next Kerrowe, 3 1/4 ac., 6s.6d; the commons and furse belonging to this tenement, 20s.

[Rent] 3s.3d [Annual Value] £3.1s.2d.

Rescorla (1602 only)

Thomas ROSEVEOR, in the right of his sometime wife, Guinivore, holdeth there a messuage and tenement wheron there is a hall, a buttry, a mylk howse, a kytchin, an oxen howse, a shepe house, a dry house, certen old walls, a mowhaye, worth by the yere 20s; a litle close called the Will parke, 1 1/4 ac., 8s.4d; Newe Parke, 2 1/4 ac., 9s; a litle stich above the hosue and a hempe haye, 1/4 ac. 18d; Gwell Meor, 3 ac., 20s; Higher Croft, 2 ac., 8s; Gwell Nowth, 4 1/2 ac., 18s; Furse Prke next Kerrowe, 10 ac., 20s; the close before Resigham, 4 ac., 32s; the Croft, 2 ac., 13s4d; Great Parke, 3 1/4 ac., 26s; the moore under the towne, 11 ac., 16s6d; a close called the Haye and a litle plot at the upper end therof, 1 ac., 50..; certen commons and furse in the same20s..

[Rent] 9s9d [Fine] £80 [Annual Value] £9.15s.2d.

Ther is belonging unto this village of Rescorla a certen severall common bordering uppon the west and south west parte therof called White Myne Downes alias Hengengever and Blacke Poole, contayning one hundred acres and more and are worth by the yeare [blank] whereof there belongeth unto the Mannor of Treverbyn Courtney seven partes and the eight parte therof to John RESCORLA and so of the whole village accordinlye.

Higher Rosoga (1602 only)

John KILLIOWE, esquier, holdeth there by lettres patentes from Her Majestie which he showed not, a house, a garden, a plott of land about the same, worth by the yere 6s.8d.; 4 closes next Hallas Blackpoole 20 ac., £3; the Bovetown, 3 ac., 9s; a litle close next the same, 2 ac., 8s; 2 closes above the land and a little moore therin, 5ac., 15s; 2 Furse Closes against Rescorla, 4ac., 16s; a litle close under the watering, 1 1/2 ac., 7s.6d; 3 other closes under the water that runneth to the house, 13 ac., £4. The third parte of all this tenement belongeth unto Mr. Trevanyon. and hath a common in a moore on both sides the land, viz., the east and west parts, worth by the yere, 10s.

[Rent] 5s.3d. [Fine]£26.13s. [Annual Value] £ 6.19s.1d.

Rosoga (1602 only)

John VYVIAN holdeth there a faire house, a kytchin, a barne, a wayne house, a sheephouse, a Jenny, three litle gardens, a mowhaie, per annum 20s. 2 closes under the towne, 3 1/2 ac., 21s; the Croft, 1 1/2 ac., 7s.6d; a litle medow, 60 ... 4s.7d; Parke Enhall, 3 1/2 ac., 35s; Parke Ensouth, 5 1/2 ac., £3.6s; Gwele Hunse, 1 1/4 ac., 8s4d; Newe Parke, 1 1/4 ac., 8s4d; parke by the lane, 1 ac., 5s; Longestone, 60 ... 5s.

[Rent] 6s [Annual Value] £9.8d.

Penivithecke (1602 only)

John PHELIP (PHILIP) holdeth there a house, a litle garden worth 5s; a litle meadowe, 1/2 ac., 5s; the Lower Parke, 5 ac., 16s.8d; parke before the dore, 7 ac., 23s.4d; parke behind the house, 3ac., 7s6d; the Litle Downe Parke, 3 ac., 6s; the Great Downe Parke, 10ac., 15s; Penivitecke Ball, 15 ac., 15s; Longstone Parke, 1 ac., 18d.

{Rent] 6s [Annual Value] £4

Ther is uppon the southwest parte of this tenement a severall common of 7 ac., wherin are divers old tynnworkes, worthe by the yere [blank].


John TONKYN holds the aforesaid tenement, in right of Margery his wife, by letters patent from the Queen dated 17th February 19 Elizabeth to the said Margery, John CARNE and Thomas CARNE, sons of the said Margery, in remainder for a rent of 4/3d. paid to the bailiff and receiver for the time being. Fine 17/-. Re-entry if the rent be in arrears by the space of 40 days after the feasts of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin and Michaelmas, by warrant of the commissioners.

Margery TONKIN holdeth there a little meadow containing an acre 8/-. Two other closes containing 9 acres 45/-. (Enquire by what grant because she does not show the deed.) Rent 4/3d. Annual value 53/-. (margin) £20.

[1602] There is also a common there called Hensborrow Common, contayning about foure hundred acres, wherof Mr. TREVANON doth clayme the one halfe, and an other common called Caroles which was lately leased by her Majestie as it is supposed for certen yeres, which should seme to be belonging wholy to the Quenes Manner of Treverbyn Courtney, which doth contayne 200ac. or nere theraboutes, in which ther is a very good tynworke, called by that name. Ther are also in all these commons tynneworkes, the toll tynne wherof is worth most commonly £20 by the yere, of which toll tynne Trevanyon hath alwayes the half. All the severall land and commons within the Mannor are likely for tynne, and the toll tynne is devided equally, as well in the severall as common, betwene the Quene and Mr. Trevanyon, and the farm tynne of the severall land to the lord of the same wholye.

Treverbyn Myll

There is also the half of a grist mill in the tenure of Richard KENDALL, gent., at the rent of 7/- p.a. grannted by letters patent from her Majesty about 32 of her reign [1589-90] to one Richard SAWLE for certain years yet enduring which was not shewed and is worth by the year £3. (margin) £30.

Knockynge Myll

Nicholas SAWLE, Esq., holdeth the knocking mill by the same supposed grant and payeth for the same yearly 3/10d., which mill is now converted to a tucking mill. (in Latin)

There is also a knocking mill for tin which is supposed to be granted unto the said Sawle by the same demyse, the rent therof 3/10d. and is now converted to a tucking myll worth by the year 20/-. (in English)

(Second part only) Sum of the conventionary rents £7.6.2.

To be improved £120.1.1 before the tin and profits of the commons and all perquisites of court which may be very well worth £20.

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(1) "West Country Farms; House-and-Estate Surveys, 1598-1764" Nat Alcock, Cary Carson, Oxbow Books, Oxford, U.K. 2007

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Notes on the manor of Treverbyn:
The manor existed in what is now the parish of Treverbyn; it was not constituted as one unitary piece of land, but was a collection of small holdings spread throughout the area. The whole manor was a "vast common", with islands of enclosed lands. Only a small part of these belonged outright to Treverbyn Courtenay; there were, notably, 14 freeholdings of the manor and the land of Treverbyn Trevanion. Some of the holdings lay outside the manor boundary, in St. Austell town, and Treganhiso (Tregonissey), as well as Carveigh; they had been purchased at some time, and were included for convenience.

Most tenure was by copyhold, with a few leaseholders as well. The 1602 survey was very thorough, including descriptions of woods - a valuable resource - and deliniating clear boundaries, indicating it was professionally done. At the time the survey was conducted it had become fairly common practice for professional surveys to be commissioned, as a method of assessing valuation, etc. (It also signaled a change in how these arrangements were determined; fees and penalties increased, new charges for administration were arranged, etc. following the surveys.)

Alcock and Carson felt the enormous commons must have made pastoral farming far more important than arable husbandry, although enough grain was grown on enclosed fields to supply the farmers needs. At the time of the survey, the 48 tin mines on the Common brought in a toll of £10 per year to the manor, and tin mining supplemented the incomes of the farmers, as discussed in the History section..

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