Telephones are now becoming museum pieces in South Canterbury, NZ.

Telephone Directories 

In 2020 most homes still have landlines in South Canterbury, NZ but there is a push to connect via fibre and discontinue the copper lines but if there is a power cut, the phone goes too, unlike the copper network. There is a slowly increasing number of homes with no landline number, generally younger households and always in areas with good cellular service. They will generally still be connected to the network but for broadband only, so called 'naked fibre connection'. Phone books are still put out yearly but notably thinner than even ten years ago and more people want to remain out of the directory.

The Fairlie Heritage Museum has a small collection of 16 phones, photo taken August 2020.  1910 "Commonwealth" Ericsson mounted wall telephone with the metal receiver. To the right a refurbished 1925 British Ericsson. During the 1930s Depression and during WW2 (1939 -45) supplies of phones were difficult to obtain so some phones were refurbished, many of these telephones have additional parts. Far upper right, a pre 1959s wall mounted black Bakelite wall mounted Telephone. Vintage rotary dial telephones, bottom. Extension Bell BOX with two bells. Black brass dial Bakelite Telephone and far right a black Bakelite Ericsson Magneto Telephone.


In1882 telephones for communication over short distances was facilitated in Timaru and a telephone exchange was established in Timaru in October 1885.  Old school calling.  Geraldine new automatic computer -controlled exchange cut over from the manual exchange [personal service and hardly private] occurred in 1984 after 140 km of new cable laid, new  phones installed, many homes had to be re-wired.

Gone is the operator's voice and inquiry – "Number, please?"

Towns Date exchange opened Subscribers 31 March 1908 Subscribers Dec. 1914
Timaru 16th Oct. 1885 448 696
Fairlie 12th June 1901   22     92 
Temuka 27th Aug. 1901   32  109
Waimate 1st June 1903   83  161
St. Andrew's 1st June 1903    15   17 
Studholme Junction 30th March 1904     8      9 
Geraldine 28th Jan. 1905 (35 subscribers)    83   78 
Albury 3rd Feb. 1913    -    22
Pleasant Point 14th June 1913    -   19 

The Fairlie Telephone & Telegraphic Exchange had commenced on 12th June 1901 with no subscribers. By March 1908 had 22 subscribers. By Dec. 1914 92 subscribers.

 South Canterbury Times 14 June 1901 Page 2
The Fairlie Telephone Exchange is now established, the necessary fittings having at last arrived. The officials had a busy time yesterday answering calls, all seemingly desirous of testing the new instruments which work very well.

Ashwick Flat telephone history - reference Janet Cotterell's book Beside the South Opuha.
1894 2nd Oct. Post Office was opened at Ashwick Flat School with the teacher. Donald Stuart Ross acting as Postmaster. There after other teachers filled this position.
1909 12th Feb. A telephone office was opened.
1910 1st March The post office was shifted to Alex Bain's house where his daughter Ella attended to both mail and telephone business
1910 Dec. The rural mail delivery from Timaru was established. The office at Bain's house was closed.
1911 January. The telephone bureau was shifted to Mr Allan's house where his daughter May acted as telephonisit until 1916.
1916 The telephone bureau was shifted to the school where it was looked after by the school teachers or members of their family until 1946.
1946 The telephone shifted back to it where it started, by now Mr Bain had sold out and Mrs Jones officiated at the bureau.
1946 9th Dec. the telephone bureau was closed permanently. A rural line telephone service had been granted from the Fairlie exchange to Ashwick Flat settlers.


Fairlie Heritage Museum, an old telephone switchboard.

Sherwood Downs telephone history - reference Connie Rayne's book Sherwood Downs & Beyond page 178
1912 18th Dec. "The Bureau," phone & telegraphic service was opened from the home of Thomas & Ethel Thornley (cnr Butlers & Clayton Rd) and also mail was sorted & collected their by the settlers.
1917 25 May The Thornley family moved out of the area. The Bureau moved to Jean Barron's home, Sherwood Downs Station homestead.
1922 24th April. Moved back to were it started the old Thornley home now owned by Robert Caswell
19301st June  The Bureau closed permanently. The party lines were then installed on Sherwood Downs.
1989 The remainder of the telephone poles were removed and replaced with underground cables giving subscribers long awaited private lines and totally eliminating any possible wind and snow damage.


Sometimes the service is not the best. The Ashwick Telephone Exchange was built in the 1970s.


The small local exchanges handle the telegrams - the Exchange Attendant would hand write out the messages and initial them, and have the telegram delivered.

The first telephone exchange for Timaru opened 16th October 1885.

Timaru

On October 16, 1885 Timaru became the ninth centre in New Zealand to gain a telephone service. There were 53 subscribers from a population of 4,449, making an average of 164 calls per day. The exchange was operated six days a week from 9am to 5pm, by an almost all female staff. It was located in the post office building which was opened five years earlier. The overhead lines for the exchange terminated on massive totara poles in King George Place at the front of the post office, and were led into the exchange by overhead cables attached to the clock tower once stood above the telegraph delivery entrance. In 1903 lightning struck the cables, disrupting the telephone service, and setting fire to the clock tower. Lightning arresters attached to the cable wires in the exchange were made of cast iron and mounted on wooden racks which occupied considerable space. Underground telephone cables were first installed in Timaru in 1908 and laid on totara planks in a trench, and were fed out from the exchange to the Bank of New Zealand corner, and to St Mary's Church. The original cables have remained in use since then, and have continued to give satisfactory service.


Strathallan St. A.A. Ware Co. Series.

The manual exchange was opened in July 1909. There were ten positions for operators to sit. Originally 600 subscribers were connected. The directory had 68 pages. An average day there were 1,500 outward toll calls made. Updates were made in 1915, 1925 and 1950 to cope with the increase in population. There were 2,235 subscribers in 1959. 


Timaru telephone exchange c.1958

Friday 25th Sept. 1959 at 9.30pm the old "crank and ask" telephone system was replaced with an automatic exchange with a capacity of 7,250 subscribers and the 111 emergency service was installed.  In 1985 there were sitting positions for 23 operators but there were 70 operators, the majority women. On an average day 8,100 calls were made. In 1986 computer controlled equipment was installed enabling subscribers to dial direct.

The 2009 Timaru district telephone directory had 68 pages; the early directories contained only a few pages. Some of the numbers allocated to the original subscribers were the Timaru City Council (3), Levels County Council (4), Grosvenor Hotel (70), Timaru Harbour Board (9), The Timaru Herald (11).   

Full NZ 111 coverage happened in 1988. The first coverage was in Masterton and Carterton in 1958. Before this there was no one number to call for an emergency, you would look up the front of the telephone directory and dial the number for the service you needed or speak to a telephone operator who would directed the call.


The Timaru Telephone Exchange 1976. Photo by T. Hann, National Archives of NZ. Note The Ear on the outside. Post Office to the lower left. The opening of Timaru's new automated telephone exchange, 7000sq ft building on Sophia St., 22nd September 1959, with 7500-plus subscribers, was cause for a full page of editorial in the Timaru Herald and an accompanying page of advertisements.

Timaru Herald 14 October 1885 Page 2
Timaru, although a little late in the field as compared with some other places, has made another step-in advance in having attained to the dignity of a town with a telephone exchange. For the next few days many worthy citizens, taken by the novelty of the idea, will probably waste a good deal of time in ringing each other up, in order to test the capability of the instruments, and until they have got into the knack of working the latter it is probable that the new invention will appear more in the light of an admirable test for the temper than in its real character of a saver of time and consequently of money. As soon as business men here become accustomed to the new institution, they will soon begin to wonder how they have previously managed to carry on their work without it, and so we confidently expect that here, as in other places, the list of subscribers will be constantly becoming larger and larger. It says much for the excellent system of management inaugurated by Dr Lemon, and so efficiently carried out by the officers of his department, that the telephone should have become so popular in New Zealand as it has done. Even in America, which is looked upon as the home of the telephone, it was not more rapidly adopted, nor is it even now so largely used in proportion to the population. This is partly due, no doubt, to the go-ahead spirit of New Zealand people which leads them to adopt everything that is of value in the shape of labor-saving machinery, but it is also very largely owing to the business-like basis on which the system was organised from the first and adapted from time to time to meet the wants of the public. Excellent as the system now is, we do not believe that it has reached its full pitch of perfection. There is room yet for a considerable development in what we may call the domestic use of the telephone, as distinguished from its employment by business firms. We hope that in time a further reduction in the cost will be made so that every householder may have the privilege of ringing up his grocer, his office, or his doctor in case of need. At Home people are beginning to realise the vast field that here lies open for telephonic enterprise, but as the patent is in the hands of companies hedged round by various restrictions, they have been unable to do much as yet in realising the possibilities which at present are only being talked about. Dr Lemon has already succeeded in placing New Zealand in the front rank of telephone-using countries. He will make his name immortal if he can see his way to tap what we may call the domestic stratum by making the system so cheap that in future a tenant would as soon think of going into a house without gas and water being laid on as of doing without a telephone.

 Timaru Herald 15 October 1885 Page 2
 A number of men, under the superintendence of Mr Clair of the Telegraph Department, have for a week or two past been erecting the necessary wires and connecting the various business places and private residences. The wires are so numerous over the main thoroughfares, and more particularly over the streets around the Telegraph Offices as to present quite a network. The exchange in Timaru has been started with 41 subscribers. Where practicable the wires hare been run direct from the top of the Government buildings to the business premises connected, some of the spans of wire being very long, notably that to Messrs Miles, Archer and Co.'s office which is stretched over the tops of all the buildings intervening without being connected with any one of them. These long spans of wire are found to transmit sound better than if the wire were attached to a number of insulators.

Temuka Leader 12 July 1888 Page 4 (in NZ)
Telephone subscribers number 2042, an increase of 112; last year the increase was 287.

Timaru Herald 11 May 1900 Page 3
Telephone subscribers now were 7150, against 2592.

Timaru Herald 30 July 1927 Page 21
The number of telephone subscribers in the Dominion was stated to be 109,000 who paid in subscriptions 923,000 pounds at an average rate of 8 pounds 10s.

  Temuka Leader 7 April 1925 Page 3
The Post and Telegraph Department wrote in regard to a proposed private telephone line at Gapes Valley, that they understood the Council was assuming responsibility for the line, the Department to undertake the work. They would be glad if the license be returned together with an application that it be issued to the County Council instead of to individuals.
    Mr Percy Barker wrote that the Gapes Valley telephone subscribers had decided to erect a line under the usual regulations, and not apply for a grant for a private line from the Council.

Telephone Exchanges in 1922

Albury ABY
Allandale ALD
Arundel ARD
Ashwick Flat AWF
Beautiful Valley BUV
Burkes Pass BUP
Cave CAV
Clandeboye CDB
Claremont CLT
Cooper's Creek CPK
Cricklewood CKW
Fairlie FK
Fairview FV
Geraldine GD
Glenavy G
Gleniti GLT
Glentanner GNT
Hermitage HMG
Hilton HIL
Hunter HTR
Ikawai IKI
Kakahu Bush KBH
Kerry Town KYN
Kimbell KBL
Lake Pukaki LP
Lake Tekapo LTK
Levels LLS
Makikihi MAK
Maungati MKP
Ma-waro MWR
Morven MRN
Orari OL
Orton ORT
Otaio OIO
Otipua OTU
Pareora PRR
Peel Forest PF
Pleasant Point PLP
Pleasant Valley PVL
Rangitata Island RGD
St. Andrews STA
Seadown SDW
Sherwood Downs SWD
Simon's Pass SPS
Studholme Junction STJ
Sutherland's SUT
Te Moana TMO

Temuka TK
Timaru TU
Tripp TL
Waddington WGN
Waihao Downs WOD
Waihao Forks WFS
Waihaorunga WHGA
Waimate WE
Washdyke WAY
Willowbridge WWB
Winchester WNC
Woodbury WRY

Old phones

Persons were allowed to construct their own lines to connect with the P & T Departmental system in NZ. Many farmers ran their own telephone line from the main road to their homestead up a shingle road, our line was just under two miles and we also ran another phone line from the house to the woolshed with two telephone poles across the paddock. It was quite a distance from the woolshed to the house so a phone was essential. The phone in the woolshed was similar to the wall mounted 1925 Ericsson Magneto phone with the black receiver and the phone at the other end in the bathroom in the house was an ancient wall mounted phone with a metal receiver and metal body. We would turn the handle a few times and the opposite phone bell would ring and if someone heard it would answer by picking up the receiver. That old phone was given to a P & T telephone man [Michael C.] & a collector of phones in Fairlie who later sold his collection due to storage issues. Some stations would hook up the cottage too and if the line passed the workshop would put a phone in their too. Again, these would have been very old wall mounted telephones like one with a mic on an arm and a separate hand piece on a cord which was hung up on a cradle when not in use. Later the phones would have been exchanged for a contemporary wood wall phone with a 'proper' handset and the houses and workshop a desktop magneto phone. Later on, when the property was sold and all the old phones remaining would have been sold at the clearing sale or removed and stored in some dusty out of the way spot out of sight in a shed and one day will become a "barn find."


Vintage rotary phones at a Op Shop in Temuka in 2020.

How to dial 485. Remove the receiver from the hook. Place finger in the hole over the figure 4 and rotate the dial until the finger touches the finger stop. Do this in turn with 8 and 5. When the dial has returned the line is connected, and the bell on that line begins ringing, as you can hear with the receiver at your ear. If you hear a distinctive intermittent buzz, this indicates that the line you are calling is engaged (busy).  

 

The South Canterbury Museum in September in 2020 had only five phones images on their website 1. grey plastic Ericophon telephone, circa 1950, 2. c1970 white phone that had been converted from rotary dial to push dial, 3. c1980 dark green Bakelite rotary phone, 4& 5 Two black turn handle phones and along with eight good photos of people on telephones.

Landlines and phone books soon will be a thing of the past.

Telephone Box - Payphones

In 1987 Telecom took over the country's telephone service including the red phone boxes from the Post Office. Telecom started replacing the red wooden and glass phone boxes with metal and Perspex unlit phone booths and sold the old red phone boxes to the public. Today in 2020 mobile phone are wiping out everyday use of public telephone boxes. Maybe some phone boxes can be turned into charging stations for mobile phones. Some of the external booths in Timaru are WiFi zones, look for the pink Spark graphics phone boxes, laptop users can access wireless high-speed internet up to 50 metres away from one of these Payphones. 

A slot machine: when the slot telephone was originally introduced in NZ 1910 there were no automatic exchanges.

   
An old Telecom box outside the Post office, Sophia St. Timaru in August 2008, gm photo
Old telephone box with
telecom but Sparks Graphics. Hilton Hwy, Washdyke, April 2012,  gm photo

"Public call offices" aka Payphones were first used in New Zealand in 1910. Phone boxes with coin operated phones and a telephone directory were installed at in places busy places such as outside Post Offices, railway stations, airports, hospitals, pubs, malls and camping grounds. In August 2012 there were 19 phone boxes with payphones around Timaru with a total of 45 in South Canterbury. There are few phones boxes about now in 2020. The one outside the Highfield Village Mall car park is pink and it is a Wi-Fi hotspot. The Fairlie phone box is still outside the top pub (Fairlie Hotel) in August 2020 and it is pink. Geraldine has one public phone on the footpath just south of the Police Station on Talbot St. and top side of the old Post office, it is pink. Majority are card phones. Credit Card phones were introduced to New Zealand in 1993. In NZ in 2020 only 10% of the phone booths accepted coins.

2012 phone boxes list in Timaru
6 Sophia St outside the Post Office

197 Hilton Hwy
outside the service station. This phone box has seen three changes in colour and three service stations in a decade.  From G maps. Shell Station (Telecom) in Dec. 2009, Z station (Telecom) June 2012,  Z station (Telecom with Spark white graphics) Aug. 2012, empty lot green Spark graphics June 2029, Mobil with green Spark graphics March 2020.

108 North St, Station Rd outside the Railway Station

124 Church St outside Countdown


Across Church St opposite the Old Bank Tavern

Chalmers St outside the Highfield Village Mall

Ritchie St outside the Seafarers Centre

43 Evans St outside Couplands

King St at the intersection of Queen St.


Ranui Ave Northtown Mall - didn't find it in 2020.

Evans St outside the former Caltex Station - didn't find it in 2020.

Caroline Bay, outside the tearooms

Beaconsfield Rd at Glenmark Motor Camp

334 Stafford St outside the Dominion Hotel, there in June 2012 gone by Sept. 2018\.197 Evans St outside BP, there in 2012 and gone by 2019

Theodosia St outside Z Caroline Bay - didn't find it.

14 Queen St at Timaru Hospital - didn't find it.

158 Selwyn St at the Top 10 Holiday Park - didn't find it, must be inside the campground.

Temuka

This red telephone box was located outside the old Temuka Post Office at the intersection of King St. and Waitohi Temuka Rd. There is a phone box still there in August 2020 but it is Perspex with a metal frame and green and white graphics.

Temuka, looking south.

Note the fire escape ladder has been removed. The Old Post Office is being looked after with a recent coat of grey paint and the phone box is still in the same location. A tree is growing where a power pole use to be. The flagstaff still there. Spark NZ was formerly known as Telecom New Zealand until it was rebranded with its current name in 2014. Telecom New Zealand was formed in 1987 from a division of the New Zealand Post Office, and privatised in 1990. There use to be a telephone box outside the BNZ building at the George St - Stafford St intersection in Timaru and was updated to a Plexiglas photo booth then removed.

 

Paper road maps will not go away quietly, like pay phones and phone books.

K2

August 2020 photos. This old current red cast iron British K2 phone box (K for kiosk) with a domed roof and pierced Tudor crown for ventilation is at 1A Post Office Square, Wellington. It delights the locals and cruise ship tourists alike and is classified as a NZ Heritage Category 2 item with its fittings and fixtures and the two metre space surrounding it. The original opaque glass TELEPHONE signs are missing and the booth has no door. Originally had a wooden framed door and a concrete base. It is a working phone and is used about 2.5 times a day. There are only four of these red phone boxes in public places in NZ and only two with working phones. The other working phone one is the K2 red phone box in Victoria Square, 774 Colombo St., Christchurch and is also a K2, also has no door. See the difference between a K2 and K6.

P.O. Square, Wellington

The modern phone box, is a French Telecom call box, is not a working phone but the majority of the people who need to use a phone try this modern phone box first them pop over to the old iconic red phone box. The modern clear glass phone box, with sounds from France, is mirrored in Ajaccio (Ay-ya-cho), the capital of Corsica with a New Zealand box, with sounds from New Zealand. Its mirrored floor and ceiling help the illusion that a tunnel has between drilled through the world between Wellington and Corsica. [Note: Alaejos, Spain is the actual antipode of Wellington, N.Z. not Ajaccio, Corsica. The distance from Wellington to Alaejos is about 20,000 kms.] Photos were taken August 2020. I flipped the mirror image horizontally and vertically. The Clarrie's Historic Newsagent and Museum, at the Post Office Square, Wellington was constructed out of Australian hardwood, and doubles as a dairy and information center was built in 1912 as a tram drivers' lunchroom and women's restroom, and converted to a shop in 1945. Photos of the old Post Office are displayed on the walls inside the dairy. Note the old red pillar post box. In the second photo you can see a sculpture that is best seen at night. Another red phone box is in the Rotoura's Government Gardens but does not have a working phone. 

 
Foundry plate on the, outside, lower back.
WALTER MACFARLANE & Co.
SARCEN FOUNDRY
GLASGOW

The Saracen Foundry, Glasgow company W. MacFarlane & Co. Ltd, was founded in 1849 and owned by Walter MacFarlane. MacFarlane's was the most important manufacturer of ornamental ironwork in Scotland. The MacFarlane company closed in 1965 and was one of five foundries casting Sir Giles Gilbert Scott's classic K6 Telephone box for Post Office Telephones but this phone box in Wellington, N.Z. is a K2 designed by Giles Gilbert Scott in 1924. A GPO Commission in England in 1923 stipulated that the kiosk should ideally be constructed from cast-iron with a per-unit price not exceeding 40 pounds. The problem with the K2 was its cost and size. The 1935 K6 was smaller and cheaper to produce. The K2 Telephone Box was placed tenth by the British public in a 2006 a competition to find Britain's favourite design icon since 1900.


2009 Nov. photo of phone booth outside the Christchurch Arts Center. It is still there in 2020, moved slightly, and now there is two phone boxes.

Telephone Poles


Telephone pole with six cross arms. Talbot St., Geraldine. Post Office to the right.


Telephone booth lower right. FGR postcards.


  Temuka insulators on a single cross arm at the top of a steel telephone pole, up country, in May 2018. The wires long gone. It is rare to see a wooden telephone pole today. Note the wildling pines and willow. Insulators were used on telegraph lines, telephone lines, power lines and electric fences and aerial lines etc. In the US poles are called utility poles and have a ground wire, guy wire, communication wire, secondary and primary electric wire and a neutral line. 

 

Timaru Herald 16 April 1901 Page 4
The Timaru Borough Council met last evening. Present—The Mayor, and Councillors Park, Hawkey, Sealey, Mills, McNab, Boothroyd, Macintosh, Gabites, Finch, Shepherd, Rothwell, Kernohan and Beckingham. Apologies were made for Councillors Kelly and Hogg. Councillor Rothwell mentioned that two telephone poles in North street were in the middle of the footpath. The Mayor said he had seen the postmaster about it, and the latter said they were put at the regulation distance, 10ft out. He (the Mayor) did not think the posts were 10ft out. The postmaster had done one good thing in painting them. The foreman would reports on the matter presently.  

Timaru Herald 4 March 1902 Page 3
The monthly meeting of the Mackenzie County Council was held yesterday, all the members being present. The Chief Postmaster, Timaru, asked for permission to erect two telephone poles on the supports of the Allandale bridge, as those erected in the riverbed were in danger of being carried. Granted. 

Temuka Leader 24 May 1906 Page 2
The Government telegraph line men are in Geraldine putting in a set of telephone posts. The posts originally erected are too short for the extra work put on them by- the increased number of connections made since the exchange was opened. The Geraldine people are thoroughly go-ahead in the matter of telephones. In fact Sir Joseph Ward was once heard to remark that "Geraldine people are perfect gourmands for telephones." The list now stands between 40 and 50, and it is expected that, with the addition of a few more, Geraldine will be entitled lo an extension of hours, and will have a substantial claim for a now post office. 

Temuka Leader 12 June 1906 Page 2
Country people driving into Geraldine from the north end on a dark night will do well to keep to the middle of the road. The telegraph line men have just erected a new set of telephone posts several feet from the saleyards on what should really be the line of a footpath, but as there is none on that side of the road, the posts are a positive danger to wheeled traffic. The Borough Council will doubtless have to form a footpath at once with kerbing to protect the public. 

Temuka Leader 28 July 1910 Page 2
A bolt that was exciting to the onlookers took place in Temuka yesterday. A horse attached to a spring dray, the property of Mr J. McInnes, was startled by something, and bolted along Denmark street towards the cemetery, it then turned south, and got into High street, knocking down one of the telephone poles. Here Master A. McInnes riding another horse, caught up to it and passed it, and leading the way to his father's residence the bolting horse followed. Unfortunately when entering the gateway a wheel struck one of the gateposts and the trap was capsized. No further damage was done, the trap and harness escaping without injury. Onlookers were quickly on the spot and secured the horse, and a moment or two afterwards the trap was righted and the horse was driven along the street as if nothing had happened.  

Timaru Herald 28 August 1913 Page 9 POINT TOWN BOARD. MONTHLY MEETING.
Present- Messrs Crawford (chairman), Chisholm, Halstead, Thomas, Saunders and Nelligan. It was agreed to, request the Postal Department to remove all telephone poles out of the water channel in Afghan Street as they block the surface water in time of heavy rain.  

Temuka Leader 13 August 1921 Page 2
Some four or five years ago a number of telephone posts were ordered from Australia for the Waimate district. They arrived on Monday and for the past couple of days men have been engaged unloading them and stacking them near the railway station. It appears that they have been lying for a couple of years on the Sydney wharfs. Times

Timaru Herald 6 October 1925 Page 5 MACKENZIE COUNTY.
MEETING OF COUNCIL. A meeting of the Mackenzie County Council was held at Fairlie yesterday. Present — Messrs C. J. Talbot (chairman), H. Manaton, J. Moffatt, H. N. Hope, A. F. Campbell, J. McCort, J. J. Page, and F. H. Buckley. Now that telephone lines had been erected on the Clayton and Cattle Valley roads these roads should be measured and mile plates fixed to telephone poles. 

 

NZI historyNew Zealand Insulators, Ltd. 1924 to present. Catalogue. See Temuka Pottery. Book Collecting Insulators in New Zealand. collector  photo. Overseas companies.

     
fuses NZI 1952 & 1967

   
NZI D

 
 Egg coloured & egg shaped for electric fencing. Low voltage "egg" type strain insulator to prevent any voltage on the guy caused by an electrical fault on the pole from reaching the lower sections accessible to the public. The cylindrical strain insulator is the type used on pole and antenna mast guys.

  


Near Fairlie, 1920s, R. Moore photo.

The Irishman Creek Roadman's Hut.

South Canterbury NZGenWeb