Set in Stone - Time capsules in South Canterbury, N.Z. - have they been found?

Set in stone - time capsules in South Canterbury, N.Z.

Near this spot the residents of Cave and environs celebrated the Millennium 1999-2000. A time capsule is buried here to be opened in the year 2100.

Today's custom of burying time capsules is in part a of Masonic tradition connected to cornerstone-laying ceremonies.

Foundation stone  - Any of the stones composing the foundation of a building. A cornerstone. Origin: 1645–55.  “It is customary at the erecting of all stately and superb edifices to lay the first or foundation stone at the North east corner of the building”
Quion - A stone at the corner of a building uniting two intersecting walls; a quoin. Such a stone, often inscribed, laid at a ceremony marking the origin of a building.
Time capsule - A receptacle containing documents or objects typical of the current period, placed in the earth or in a cornerstone for discovery in the future. Origin 1937. Created and buried during celebrations such as an opening of a new church or school, Masonic Hall, local government building, family reunion, cornerstone laying for a building, or at other events.

Time capsules usually are lost due to secrecy or poor planning, thievery, and poor memory (forgetting the spot) (not remembering).

Timaru Herald's were buried around South Canterbury behind cornerstones.  
24 July 1868 St. Mary's Timaru
30 Aug. 1866 Freemason's Hall, Timaru
15 Dec. 1873 Timaru School
12 Jan. 1874 Primitive Methodist Church, western side of Barnard street
21 June 1875 Jewish Synagogue, opposite the Methodist Church in Bank St. 49 years later became a blacksmith shop
13 Jan. 1876 Presbyterian Church
14 Mar. 1876 Caledonian Lodge, Bank St. Timaru 
 1 Mar. 1877 Borough Council Chambers, Timaru
15 Nov.	1879 Roman Catholic Church, at Temuka
 9 Sep. 1880 St. Mary's, Timaru
24 Mar. 1881 Mechanics' Institute
12 July 1886 Orange Lodge, Pleasant Point
22 Sep. 1886 Drill shed, Temuka
27 Aug 	1891 St. Saviours, Anglican Sunday School Temuka
    May 1911 St. Monica, Cave
August 1924 & Sept. 1927 Knox Church, Waimate
11 Dec. 1926 St. Paul's Presbyterian Church, Highfield

Most on the list above have disappeared but these buildings probably still stand in 2009.
1879 Roman Catholic Church, Temuka
1880 St. Mary's, Timaru (unable to find foundation stone)
1891 St. Saviours, Anglican Sunday School, Temuka

Images from online. All newspapers are searchable.

Timaru Herald, 1 September 1866, Page 2
On Thursday, 30th ult, the laying of the foundation stone for a Freemasons' Hall for the use of the members of the Lodge of St John, Timaru, was performed with full Masonic ceremony ; by the Acting District Grand Master, Dr Donald. The day was a lovely on, which no doubt, a great measure accounted for the ιclat with which the ceremony passed off. A general holiday was observed, all the places of business, and the Bank being closed ; and the inhabitants generally gave themselves up to the holiday making. Flags and banners were floating in various parts of the town, and the flagstaff's were gaily decorated with bunting. A large assemblage witnessed the ceremony, much larger than has ever been gathered to witness any previous public ceremony. During the holding of the Lodge a large crowd assembled near the Institute. A brass band, also made its appearance. At twelve o'clock the doors of the Mechanics Institute were thrown open and the procession made its appearance. The members were in full Masonic costume with white gloves; and the officers were all dressed with regalia according to their offices. The two most conspicuous members were the Acting District Grand Master, and the Chaplain (the Rev L. L. Brown, Geraldine.) The Acting District Grand Master wore a most resplendent apron, and was decorated with a golden collar of the Grand Master, besides many jewels on his breast. The Chaplain who was arrayed in his sacerdotal robes besides his Masonic insignia, with the cap of a Knight Templar, carried in front of him upon a cushion slung from his shoulders, a handsomely-bound Bible The sword bearers, who carried drawn swords, and three masters with corn, wine, and oil, in silver vessels, were also conspicuous. The Secretary also carried in front of him, upon a cushion, the Book of Constitutions. As soon as the procession had left the Institution the band struck up " Partant pour la Syrie," and the procession moved slowly along the South Road towards the site for the new hall The Master of the Ceremonies (Brother Younghusband) attended to the order of the procession, which was as follows :—. ..The Secretary was then called upon, and read the following document : —
     "This statement sets forth that this building, of which the corner stone is laid this day by the Bight Worshipful Brother William Donald, M.D. Acting District Grand Master of the Province of Canterbury, is being erected for the use of the members of the Lodge of St. John, Timaru, N.Z. under the constitution of the Most Worshipful the Grand Lodge of England. That the brethren of this town were formed info a Lodge on the 9th March, Anno Luc-is 5565, by the Right Worshipful Brother William Donald, M. L.. Deputy Provincial Grand Master, acting under a. dispensation front the Eight Worshipful Brother, the Hon. John Charles Watts Russell, Provincial Grand Master of Canterbury, in the British colony of New Zealand, under which dispensation the Lodge is still held, pending the arrival of the Warrant from the Most Worshipful the Earl of Zetland, Grand Master of England That the first officers of the Lodge were Brothers
W. Mansfield, W. M.
R. Taylor, S. W
C. Jacobs, J.W.
R. Scott, Secretary;
John Beswick, Treasurer
J. Anderson S.D.
I. Shrimpton, J.D.
J. Overmeyer, J.G.
C. Scivie, Tyler;
the number of members 10. Also, that the present officers are Brothers
W. Mansfield, Worshipful Master
R. Scott, S.W.
P. W. Fendall, J.W.
J. King, Secretary
P. W. Stubbs, Treasurer
J Ellis, J.D.
J. Overmeyer, J.G.
K. H. Wilson, Tyler; and the number of members 43. That the Architect of this building is Brother W. Williamson ; the contractors Brothers J. Overmeyer, for the stone, and W. Upton for the wood- work ; and the cost about £1000 when completed. This statement also sets forth the extreme liberality of Robert Heaton Rhodes Esq., in his granting to this Lodge a lease of the section upon which this Lodge is built at the nominal rent of one shilling per annum." " Amen, so mote it be. "Dated in Timaru, in the Province of Canterbury and British Colony of New Zealand, this thirtieth day of August, Anno Lucis 5865."
    The Treasurer then came forward with a phial wherein was deposited the statement read by the Secretary, with a copy of the Timaru Herald, the Lyttelton Times, the Press, and the Oamaru Times ; together with the current coin of the realm. The phial was then handed to Dr Donald, who was also presented with a silver trowel of a most recherche description, by the Worshipful Master. The stone was then laid, Dr Donald handling the trowel in a most workmanlike manner, and he declared it to be " well squared, level, and upright, and to be properly laid."
    At this stage of the proceedings the vessels containing the corn, wine, and oil, were handed to the Acting District Grand Master, who poured libations from each upon the stone, and invoked the following blessing :... — "May the all bounteous Author of Nature bless the inhabitants of this place, with all the necessaries, conveniences, and comforts of this life ; assist in the erection and completion of this building; protect the workmen against every accident, and long preserve this structure from decay, and grant to us all a supply of the Corn of nourishment, the Wine of refreshment, and the Oil of joy." On the side of the stone facing to the north, was a circle formed by the inscription of the words "Lodge of St. John, Timaru," with the square and compass in the centre. On the eastern side was "A.L. 5866," with "A.D. 1866" underneath.

Some oil and wine was sprinkled on the stone from silver vessels.
"Grant to us all a supply of the Corn of nourishment, the Wine of refreshment, and the Oil of joy."

Timaru Herald,  25 July 1868, Page 2
Enlargement of St. Mary's, Timaru
The above statement, with photographic views of Timaru and the church, the current coin of the realm, and a copy of the Timaru Herald, were placed in a bottle and deposited in the stone. The superintending Architect (Mr Williamson) then presented, on behalf of the Building Committee, a silver trowel to the Acting Deputy District Grand Master, who proceeded to lay the stone with it. After the stone had been lowered and declared to be laid according to Masonic Custom, vessels of silver containing corn, wine, and oil, were banded to the Acting Deputy District Grand Master, who poured libations from each upon the stone, and invoked a blessing.
    Silver Trowel. — A beautifully executed silver trowel was presented to Captain Crawford on the occasion of the laying of the foundation-stone of St. Mary's Church, by the Building Committee of the Church. The trowel is about seven inches in length, with a totara handle. The trowel is elegantly engraved, and bears the following inscription :— " Presented by the Building Committee of the new church of St. Mary's, Timaru, N.Z., to James Field Crawford, W.M. of the Lodge of St. John, on the occasion of his laying the foundation-stone, 22nd of July." The trowel was manufactured by Messrs Coates and Co., of Christchurch, and reflects great credit upon their establishment. Old St. Mary's

Timaru Herald, 1 January 1870, Page 2
New Year's Day.— To-day will be observed as a holiday by the banks and principal places of business. It will have been noticed from our advertising columns that the Foresters of Timaru have issued an attractive programme for to-day in the shape of a gala at the grounds of Captain Cain, and a banquet at the Royal Assembly Rooms in the evening. The members of the society will meet at the Royal Assembly Rooms at ten o'clock, and will then proceed, headed by the Timaru brass band, to the new Hall, in course of erection, where the ceremony of laying the corner stone will be performed. At the fete various sports will be provided, and should the weather prove propitious no doubt there will be a large gathering.
    Church of England at Temuka.— To-day has been set apart or the purpose of laying the foundation stone of a Church for the members of the Church of England, at Temuka. Should the weather prove favorable we believe the ceremony is to be performed by Dr Butler, the W.M. of the Masonic Lodge, Timaru, assisted by the members of the lodge. The members are to meet at their Hall at 10 o'clock this morning, and then to proceed to Temuka. The Timaru Volunteer Artillery Corps are also to assist at the ceremony, and the big gun is to be taken to Temuka for the purpose of adding to the imposing nature of the proceeding. In the afternoon a friendly rifle match between the volunteers of Timaru and Temuka will be fired. A silver trowel has been manufactured for the purpose of laying the foundation stone by Messrs Coates and Co., of Christchurch. The blade of the trowel is of polished silver, with appropriate inscriptions round the edge, the prong being chased and frosted, and the handle of New Zealand wood, terminating with a bunch of oak leaves and acorns is frosted silver.

Timaru Herald, 17 December 1873, Page 4
An ordinary meeting of the Committee of the Timaru School was held on Monday evening last. Present — Messrs Chisholm (chairman), Pavilt, Sutter, Jackson, Tate, and Cliff. Mr Cliff one of the Building Committee, explained that the now school building was progressing satisfactorily but slowly ; and said that Mr Wilson, the contractor has agreed to make all arrangements for laying the foundation stone, and provide the trowel for the sum of £15.

Timaru Herald, 19 December 1873, Page 6
The 16th Dec. was the day set apart for laying the foundation stone of the new public school. Mr Belfield then came in front of the platform, and said that the first business was to lay the stone; that over he would with their permission, say a few words on the occasion. A bottle in the cavity beneath, contained copies of The Timaru Herald and South Canterbury Times of Monday's date, together with a sovereign, a half sovereign," a crown, half crown, florin, shilling, sixpence, threepennybit, a penny, and a-half penny. It was also to contain a parchment scroll drawn up by Mr Hunt, the Head Mister of the school. The silver trowel is the work of a Dunedin firm, and bears the following inscription :  "Presented by the Timaru School Committee to H. Belfield, Esq., on the occasion of his laying the corner stone of Timaru Public School, 16th Dec., 1873."

Timaru Herald, 14 January 1874, Page 3
The ceremony of laying the corner stone of the new church for the Primitive Methodists, was performed on Monday by his Worship the Mayor, Mr G Cliff. The site of the church is on the western side of Barnard street, close to the Borough Council chamber, and is very centrally situated. The building will be of wood, forty feet in length, twenty six in width, with studs twelve feet high, and the foundations, which are now completed, are of stone. Mr Gibson, on behalf of the congregation, here presented Mr Cliff with a very elegant silver trowel, bearing the following inscription: — "Presented to George Cliff, Esq., Mayor of Timaru, on his laying the corner stone of the first Primitive Church in Timaru, January 12th, 1874" After the scroll, together with a copy of the Timaru Herald and South Canterbury Times of Monday's date, had been placed in the cavity, the stone was lowered.

Timaru Herald, 6 July 1874, Page 3
The Prisoner Bickell. The prisoner Bickell, who gained for himself a notoriety in this part of the Province as the man who abstracted the coins from the foundation stone of the Masonic Hall at Timaru, and afterwards stood his trial for attempted suicide, died on Monday last in Lyttelton gaol, where he was serving his sentence for the former offence. At the inquest which was held on the following day, the majority of the witnesses were prisoners, who all but one averred that the deceased had been very harshly treated by two warders —Neil and McDade. Walter Johnston, a prisoner, stated that on one occasion be heard what he I believed to be a kick given to deceased by Neil, and the latter groaning in consequence; also, that a man named White had seen one of the warders (he believed McDade), drag deceased out and thump his head against the steps leading into the yard. Alfred Jones, another prisoner, deposed that he had seen Neil make a kick at deceased because he would not get up, haul the blankets from off him and turn him off the bed on to the newly washed floor where he was left lying. Charles O. Thompson corroborated the statements of the previous witnesses and said he did not believe deceased was in his right mind. A prisoner named Smith said that he saw Neil kick deceased and hit him with his keys several times and altogether treat the man like a dog. After the evidence of Edwin White, a prisoner, had been taken, who deposed that, he had never known the warders to treat the man harshly, the warder Neil was examined. He slated that deceased had been a very refractory prisoner, that he had never taken any unnecessary measures with him, and although ho admitted having pulled the bed from under him denied that he had ever ill-used him. Dr Donald, who made a post mortem examination of deceased's body, said that there were no external marks of violence but that the state of the heart and spleen was sufficient to cause death, also that although deceased appeared to be in robust health he always complained that he was dying. After a consultation of twenty minutes the jury returned a verdict of Death from natural causes, adding as a rider that they were of opinion the deceased was of unsound mind.

"I declare this stone to be truly and properly laid, plumb level and square"

Timaru Herald, 14 January 1876, Page 6
The ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the new Presbyterian church, Timaru, was performed by the Hon. E. W. Stafford, M.H.R., Wednesday afternoon; Dec. 29, in the presence of a considerable number of people, including the clergymen of most of the different denominations in Timaru. A full description of the  church appeared in a former issue of the Herald. The weather during the forepart of the afternoon had been anything but encouraging, but shortly before the proceedings commenced it cleared up and continued comparatively line afterwards. The ceremony was opened by singing the 100th psalm, Mr Bilton presiding at the of harmonium. The Rev. Mr Gillies, minister of the church, then engaged in a prayer sui able to the occasion, after which he made a few remarks to the following effect. The Rev. gentleman said the occasion of the gathering was to carry out a time-honored ceremony, namely, the laying of a foundation stone. They had chosen a position for the stone which had been the thought the most convenient one, namely, the left hand corner of the principal entrance, above the ground line. It was a serious undertaking they had entered upon, but having faith in the future of Timaru and the general prosperity of its inhabitants, the had determined to erect a building which would, be worthy of the town itself and of the congregation. In doing so, they had had to follow the example of the Government of the country to a certain extent, and erect it for a considerable part on borrowed money. Though it was to be a denominational church, they would rise above all party feelings and welcome all to it. They had, therefore, invited members of all denominations to the  present ceremony. He would now call upon Mr Chisholm, who acted as Chancellor of Exchequer to the building, to furnish them with fuller particulars. Mr Chisholm, on coming forward, read the following paper, which he said was to be placed in the foundation stone "Timaru, 29th December, 1875. This building was erected as a place of worship by the Presbyterian congregation under the pastoral care of the Rev Wm. Gillies. The foundation stone was laid by the Hon. E. W. Stafford, Member of the House of Representatives for Timaru. The architect for the building is E. A. Lawson, Esq., Dunedin, and the contractor Mr John Alves, also of Dunedin. Clerk of Works, Mr Philip Dale. The contract price is £3293 the contract was signed on the 19th November, 1875. The time within which the building is to be finished extends to let May, 1876. Building Committee Rev. Wm. Gillies, Chairman, Messrs John Hutchison Sutter (Mayor of Timaru), Andrew Hart, John Hamilton, T. W. Fyfe, John Ogilvie, Frederick Cullman, George Small, John Petrie, John Elder, Andrew Blair, Wm. Annand, James Granger, Robert A. Chisholm, Secretary and Treasurer." As regarded the cost of erecting the building, he said the total amount required for the purpose was £4000, of which £2000 was raised by mortgage, £1000 by the members of the church, the remaining £1000 they hoped to be able to get by general Subscription. The Presbyterians had made very few demands hitherto on the  public, while during the last ten years they had gone on helping others. The assistance now given to the Presbyterians would be returned whenever required. They had tried to do honor to their representative that day, and were very glad to see him present.
    The Rev Mr Gillies said that the following articles were to be placed in the foundation stone in addition to the document read by Mr Chisholm. A copy of Holy Scriptures, which was the  foundation of their church; the different coins of the realm, as a token of loyalty to their Queen; and copies of the last issues of the local papers, the Timaru Herald and South Canterbury Times. They felt very grateful to the Hon. Mr Stafford for conferring the honor upon them of laying the stone. His presence there on that occasion might be almost looked upon as a friendly union of the  Church and the State, which he thought no one could object to.
    The  Rev Gentleman then called upon Mr Stafford to lay the block. Mr Stafford, after having duly, performed the ceremony, said be felt very highly the compliment paid him in asking his presence on that occasion. He must however, say with reference to the clergyman's allusion to his presence being a combining of the Church with the State, that he did not claim to represent the State. He hoped that in a Colony like New Zealand, where they were all voluntary members of different Churches with no superior claims over one another, it was only an amusing remark of the Rev Gentleman's. The zeal and energy which had actuated the Congregation in building such a handsome Church, was typical of the patient hope faith and assurance, which the; Presbyterians had shown ever since taking a place in history. No other Church had taken and occupied such an important place in English history, as the Scotch. He need not call to mind how it had withstood the fierce opposition raised against it day by day, by both the court and the aristocracy, and in the face of all had asserted its influence. Neither was there any occasion to bring to their recollections the persecutions of the Covenanters at a later period, when they braved every hardship rather than turn their backs upon their belief. He sincerely hoped there would never be such things in this country of our adoption or elsewhere again.

Timaru Herald, 4 April 1876, Page 7
March 14 was a great day among the members of the Caledonian Lodge, Timaru. On that day they laid the foundation stone of their new lodge room in Bank street. "Presented to Bro. Thomas Edward Price, P.M. Right Worshipful Master of the Caledonian Lodge, No. 534, Timaru, as a token of fraternal regard, March 14, 1876. The R.W.M. then directed the Secretary to lace the bottle containing a parchment scroll, two newspapers, and some coins of the realm. The newspapers were a copy of the Timaru Herald of March 14, a copy of the S.C. times of the same date and the coins were as follows a sovereign, a half crown, a florin, a shilling, a sixpence, a threepenny piece and a penny. After the bottle had been placed in the cavity the stone was lowered and laid in the orthodox fashion. Some oil and wine was sprinkled on the stone.

Timaru Herald, 29 February 1876, Page 3 Caledonian Lodge
The members of the Caledonian Lodge, Timaru, have resolved, to build a hall for their own use. The building is to be composed chiefly of brick, and the site is a piece of ground in Bank-street, adjoining the premises of the Jewish Synagogue, on the south side. In accordance with ancient custom, the members of the Caledonian Lodge have decided to hold a Masonic demonstration in connection with the laying of the corner stone of the new building. Tuesday the l4th of March is the day fixed for the demonstration, and arrangements are now in preparation for the event. The members have decided to invite the members of St. John's Lodge: to be present, also the members of other Lodges in South Canterbury and those from Lodges in Christchurch and Oamaru. On the morning of the 14th the members will assemble at the temporary hall of the Caledonian Lodge in Barnard-street, march in procession to the site of the new building, and return from thence to the lodge-room after the ceremony of laying the corner stone is finished, processional order. Immediately upon their return a luncheon will he held, and in the evening an emergency meeting will take place. The building will be 22 feet wide 41 feet deep, and the height of the front elevation from the bottom of the plinth to the top of the pediment will be 19 feet. The main entrance will be in the centre of the front of the building, and there will be a window on each side of it. The doorway and windows will be circular headed. The plinth, pilasters, cornice, pediment, exterior rim of ventilator, sills, and architraves of windows and doors in the front elevation will be worked in white cement. Inside the building there will be an entrance, lobby 5ft by 4ft and an ante-room ; on either side of it 9ft by 8 ft. Access to the Lodge room will be gained from the one of the ante-rooms. The Lodge room will be 30ft by 21 ft, and lighted by two windows in the north wall. There will be a fire place between the two windows, and there will be three ventilators in the ceiling fixed in plastered mouldings. A wooden wainscoting 4ft high, will extend, around the room, and all the walls of the building and the ceiling will be plastered. Mr J.F. Wilson is the architect, and Mr. Machin the contractor

The Masonic Calendar.  The Ancient Craft Masons commence their era with the creation of the world, calling Anno Lucis (A L) "in the year of light." Add 4000 years to the common era thus, 1925 plus 4000 is A.L..5925.
Bank St. - built in A.L. 5928 [1928 ] Freemasons Lodge at 20 Bank St. was designed by architect Herbert H Hall, who also designed the Chateau at Tongariro, Timaru's Hydro Grand, and St David's Church in Cave. To meet the Freemasons' wish for secrecy, the building was to be seen but not obtrusive. But it became a landmark with its high walls and aesthetic style. In 2009, the Orange Lodge, built in 1875, at the north end of Bank St was demolished, and the site is now a car park. 
photos of other Lodges

Timaru Herald, 6 March 1877, Page 6
In compliance with the wish of several of the burgesses of Timaru his Worship the Mayor. Mr George Cliff, publicly laid the foundation stone of the Borough Council Chambers, the ceremony taking place yesterday afternoon at 5 o'clock. The ceremony was evidently not the result of the unanimous wish of the ratepayers. Shortly after this hour, the Mayor having arrived, Mr Henry Green said that at the request of the ratepayers of Timaru, he had very great pleasure in presenting to his Worship a mallet and silver trowel with which to perform the ceremony they were met together to witness. He then read the inscription on the trowel as follows: — " Presented to hit Worship, G. Cliff, Esq., Mayor of Timaru, by the ratepayers, for the purpose of laying the foundation stone of the Borough Council Chambers, March 1st, 1877." He would now read the writing on the scroll to be placed in the cavity of the stone :— " The foundation stone of the Timaru Municipal Council Chambers was, at the request of the ratepayers, laid this day by his Worship the Mayor, George Cliff, Esq. The plans and specifications of the building were prepared by Francis John Wilson, Esq. architect, of Timaru, and the contract was taken for the sum of £1369 by Mr Henry Thornton, contractor. Timaru, 1st. March, 1877 " He then alluded to the fact that the silver trowel had been manufactured by a local artist, and said that it did him credit, and that the establishment of a silver worker in their midst was another gratifying sign of the increase in the varieties of industries in the place. He then presented the trowel and mallet to his Worship. His Worship proceeded to lay the stone, which we should here remark bore the inscription, "G. Cliff, Mayor, 1877." The scroll was placed in a bottle, and with it a Timaru Herald of yesterday's date, and S. C. Times, also several coins of the realm. The bottle was placed in the cavity, and the stone lowered. His Worship then said : " I declare this stone to be truly and properly laid, plumb level and square, and I trust that many of us here to-day will live to see the new building; too small to conduct the business of the Council. Ten years ago the people thought they were doing a great work when they built their old Council Chamber, which only measured 20 feet by 15. It has, however, grown to small, or rather the town has grown so much that it became altogether inadequate for. ..
We feel called upon to make some special remarks with reference to the trowel. In the first place it is the only work of the kind that has ever been manufactured in Timaru, the artist being Mr Partridge, who has recently opened an establishment here. The work reflects the greatest credit on the artist, and it demonstrates pretty clearly that there it no necessity for having work of a like nature done outside the district. The town if fortunate in finding him settled down here, for he is evidently a man well up in his profession.
    We feel called upon to make some special remarks with reference to the trowel. In the first place it is the only work of the kind that has ever been manufactured in Timaru, the artist being Mr Partridge, who has recently opened an establishment here. The work reflects the greatest credit on the artist, and it demonstrates pretty clearly that there it no necessity for having work of a like nature done outside the district. The town if fortunate in finding him settled down here, for he is evidently a man well up m his profession. As one proof of this we need only refer to the fact that he was selected to manufacture a trowel that was presented to the Duke of Edinburgh on the occasion of his lying the foundation stone of the Orphan Asylum at Devon port, a photograph of which is before us. The trowel, which was presented to the Mayor yesterday, is ornamented elegantly with diaper pattern, and the inscription is a representation of a scroll mounted on rollers, and the date is on an ashlar. The handle of the trowel is of polished totars, and so also is the mallet, both of these being turned and finished by Mr Edderwick.

Timaru Herald, 17 November 1879, Page 2
The ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the new Roman Catholic Church, at Temuka, was performed yesterday by Right Rev. Dr. Redwood of Wellington. The ceremony of laying the stone was then performed. After blessing the stone, the Bishop, with a silver trowel, made a cross on each side of it, and dedicated it to Our Lord Jesus Christ. Copies of the Timaru Herald, the New Zealand Tablet and the Temuka Leader, having been put in the cavity beneath the stone, it was lowered, made firm in its proper position, and the following prayer offered up ..

Timaru Herald, 10 September 1880, Page 2
The ceremony of laying the foundation stone of St. Mary's Church took place yesterday afternoon. The document was then placed in a glass bottle, hermetically coaled, and together with a similar bottle containing a copy of the Timaru Herald, Geraldine County Chronicle, S. C. Times, and Evening Telegraph, was deposited in the cavity under the stone by the builder. The stone was then placed in position, and while being lowered, Mr Clayton, the Clerk of Works, on behalf of Mr Armson, the architect of the building, presented the Dean with a handsome silver trowel and a mallet. The former bore the following inscription : — " Presented to the Right Reverend Henry John Chitty Harper, D.D., Bishop of Christchurch, and Primate of New Zealand, on the occasion of laying the foundation stone of St. Mary's Church, Timaru, New Zealand." The mallet, the bead of which was made of matapo wood and the handle of kowhai, had a small silver plate let in in the head and was inscribed, " St. Mary's Church, Timaru, New Zealand, September 9th, 1880. A.D." Both articles were of excellent workmanship, and were executed by Mr Partridge of this town. The builder having laid the level and square on the stone the Dean declared it laid, saying,.. "

Laying the foundation stone of St. Mary's Church, July 14 1907. On the platform built especially for the occasion is the Choir, the Building Committee, the Vestryman, the Church wardens and the Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Bishop of Christchurch the Venerable Archdeacon Harper who laid the well dressed half ton foundation stone which had a cavity in the base containing a large glass jar enclosing documents and current coins of the realm.

Sept. 2009: The caretaker at St. Mary's Timaru said they cannot find the foundation stones. Apparently the workmen have been underneath the church and looked everywhere as the 150th anniversary is coming up. There was one laid in 9 September 1880 when the nave was began and that took six years to build and another foundation stone was laid in 1907 when the chancel, chapel, vestries and tower were added, that took two years.

Timaru Herald, 25 March 1881, Page 3
The visit of His Excellency the Governor to this town was taken advantage of by the Committee of the Mechanics' Institute to have the foundation stone of their new Institute laid by His Excellency. His Excellency then proceeded to the stone, which had been obtained from the blue stone quarries in the neighborhood of Timaru. It was neatly chiselled, and bore in front the inscription, " A.D. 1881," and on the side the name of the architect. A tin case containing copies of the Timaru Herald of yesterday's date, the South Canterbury Times of the previous evening, a copy of the address which had been presented to His Excellency by the President of the Institute, a parchment scroll containing the names of the office-bearers and Committee of the Institute, and of the architect and contractor, having been placed in the cavity prepared for its reception, Mr M. de H. Duval, the architect of the building, presented His Excellency with the trowel and mullet to be used in laying the stone. The trowel presented by Mr Duval was of solid silver, the blade being exquisitely engraved with a border of acanthus end fern leaves, the centre containing the following inscription : — " Presented to His Excellency the Hon. Sir Arthur H. Gordon, G.C.M.G., Governor of New Zealand, on the occasion of his laying the foundation stone of the Mechanics' Institute at Timaru, March 24th, 1881. M. De H. Duval, Architect." The handle of the trowel was of goa wood, mounted in silver. The handle of the mallet was of totara, and the top kauri. The trowel was from the establishment of
    Mr J. T. Partridge, manufacturing jeweller, of this town, and reflected the greatest credit on the skill displayed by him in its manufacture. Mr Duval in making the presentation said: — May it please your Excellency — allow me as architect, of this building, to present your Excellency with this trowel and may I he permitted to express the hope that when the whole of the intended building is completed your Excellency may grace its opening with your presence. The stone was then lowered and declared by His Excellency to be well and truly laid.

Timaru Herald, 6 September 1882, Page 3
The Baptist congregation in Timaru, which was organised about two years ago. The foundation stone of a chapel was laid yesterday afternoon by His Honor Judge Ward. The building will be ready in three months. The site is in E street near the public school. The building will be of wood, with iron roof, standing on a concrete foundation. It is designed to seat 280 people. The pastor is Rev. G. Johnston, designed the building and Messrs Bowkett and Gracie are the contractors for its erection. The stone was then put into its place in the foundation wall. Into a cavity in the block was first placed a bottle containing papers showing the history and present condition of the congregation, &c. copies of the local newspapers. The trowel presented to His Honor is a very well-finished implement of silver, with detachable handle of ivory. It bore the inscription, very neatly engraved by a local workman "Presented to His Honor Judge Ward on the occasion of his laying the foundation stone of the Timaru Baptist Church, September 5th, 1882." In the evening a tea-meeting was held in the Barnard street Hall. The gathering was not a large one.

 Markers mark, Duty mark 1838 -1890, Standard mark, City mark, Date letter
Hilliard & Thomason, Duty paid, Lion Passant Sterling assay, Birmingham, 1881

The original handle was detachable and made from ivory.

"The real MacKay"
"It is "The real McCoy" is a corruption of the Scots "The real MacKay", "the real thing" or "the genuine article."

Star 10 November 1890, Page 3 Fire at Timaru. Baptist Church Destroyed.
A fire, at 2 a.m., destroyed the Baptist Church — which was built of timber six or seven years ago at a cost of £650 — and gutted the adjoining cottage owned and occupied by Mr B. Munro, bootmaker. The church was insured for £450, and Munro's for £100 in the Equitable Insurance Office. The fire commenced in the church, but how is a mystery. The congregation owed more than the insurance, and being a small body, the loss is a heavy blow. 

Timaru Herald, 14 July 1886, Page 3
Pleasant Point on Monday by the Purple Heroes Loyal Orange Lodge, No. 42. At three o'clock the W.M. Bro James Cartwright, the D.M. Bro W. Simpson, the treasurer, Bro R. Beach, and the secretary, Bro Greig, with about twenty-five of the brethren of the lodge, and the W.M. Bro W. Armstrong, the secretary, Bro J. Satterthwaite of L O.L. No. 13 Timaru, and treasurer, Adam Mahan, of L.O.L. No. 35, Timaru, and some twenty brethren of the Timaru lodges, formed in procession at the schoolhouse, wearing their brilliant regalia, and headed by the splendid purple and gold banner of the Timaru lodge No. 13. Thence they marched in procession to the site of the proposed new hall, where the foundation stone was slung ready for laying. The brethren having formed in a circle round the stone, Bro S.B. Nelson of Ashburton, Grand Master L.0.L., M.L.N.Z., adjusted it, and the customary bottle containing the TIMARU HERALD of the day and sundry coins was placed in the cavity prepared for it.

Timaru Herald, 23 September 1886, Page 3
Yesterday was a gala day for the Volunteers of Temuka, their long wished for new drillshed taking definite form from that date. At half-past three the Rifles, to the numbers of 45 non-commissioned officers and men under Captain Hayhurst and Lieutenant Findlay and White, and the Cadets, 40 rank and file, under Captain Bryars and Lieutenant Cross, paraded with the Band. Major Hamersley and Young, and Adjutant Newall and Serjeant-Major Jones were also on parade. The two companies were marched to Mr Storey's paddock, and there were put through battalion drill by Adjutant Newall. Re-forming, they were marched book to the site of the new drillshed, where they were formed into a half square. The foundation stone being in position and the customary coins and copy of the TIMARU HERALD being placed underneath it. September 22nd, 1886. Mr G.J. Mason then handed Mrs Hayhurst a very handsome silver trowel, bearing the following inscription :— " V.R., Temuka Drill Volunteers. Presented to Mrs J. T. M. Hayhurst on the occasion of her laying the foundation atone of their new drillshed. Sept. 22nd, 1886." Mrs Hayhurst having received the address and the trowel replied.
The Company then marched to the drillshed, where a cold collation was laid, at which Captain Hayhurst presided. After this had been done full justice to, the customary loyal and other toasts, were proposed and duly honoured. Short speeches were made by Mrs Hayhurst, the Rev. T. A. Hamilton, the Hori. W. Rolleston, M.H.R., Majors Uamerslcy, Young, and Kewall, Captains Hayhurst and Bryars, Lieutenants Findlay, White, and Cross, Dr Campbell, Mr K. F. Gray, Mr A. W. Gaze, Mr J. Talbor, Mr Clinch, and Mr Lloyd.

Timaru Herald, 22 June 1887, Page 3 THE FOUNTAIN. - The Jubilee Jar Papers Past

Timaru Herald, 31 August 1891, Page 4 ST. SAVIOUR'S, TEMUKA
The foundation stone of the new Church of England Sunday schoolroom at Temuka was laid on Thursday afternoon by Mr H. K. Webb, of Christchurch, synodsman for the parish, in the presence of a number of parishioners and of the teachers and children of the school. He then placed the foundation stone (which was inscribed "Ad Gloriam Dei, August 27th, 1891 ") in position in the name of the Trinity. In a cavity beneath the stone was placed a sealed bottle containing copies of the Timaru Herald, Press, Lyttelton Times, Temuka Leader, and Church News, together with a document bearing the following : — " This building was erected in the year of our Lord, 1891, during the term of office of the following : Robert Pinckney, parishioners' churchwarden. Ernest C. Dann, clergyman's churchwarden. John Talbot, J. T. M. Hayhurst. E. Pilbrow, A. Nicholas, E. Chapman, E. Whitehead, J. H. Walker, G. Mason, J. Langridge, B. Comer, vestrymen ; and in the ninth year of the incumbency of the Rev. Thomas A. Hamilton. Architect — D. West, Timaru. Contractors — Comer and Larcombe, Temuka. The foundation stone was laid on the 27th August 1891 by Mr H. B Webb, synodsman for the parish, and the building will be opened, D.V., by the Right Rev. the Bishop of Christchurch, on December 7th, 1891."

Timaru Herald, 17 July 1895, Page 3
The foundation of the new English Church at Fairlie was laid on Monday afternoon last by His Lordship Bishop Julius. Although there was snow on the ground, the afternoon was fine. A bottle was laid in the cavity of the stone containing a parchment, with the following inscription : " This stone being the foundation stone of the Church of St. Stephen, Fairlie, was laid to the greater glory of God and for the service of His Holy Church, on the 15th day of July, in the year of our Lord, 1895, by the Right Rev. Churchill Julius, D.D., Bishop of Christchurch ; (signed) Stanley Hinson, James Turnbull, architect, D. Gillingham, secretary building fund."

Timaru Herald, 9 September 1898, Page 3
The foundation stone of the new ball s now m course of erection for the St. George's Masonic Lodge, Temuka, was a laid yesterday afternoon. The site of the new hall is m Wilkin street, Arowhenua, in the neighbourhood of the public school and the Roman Catholic Church. A short address descriptive of the objects of Freemasonry was. given by the Deputy Grand Master, after the hymn "Hail ! Masonry Divine " had been sung. The stone was then raised and prayer was offered up by the R.W. Bro. Rev. W. Ronaldson, Grand Sec, as Grand Chaplain. The inscription on the stone—" St. George's Lodge, No. 29. Sept. 8th, A. L. 5898," was read and it was lowered 9in, the brethren singing "Great Fabric Still Arise," The Grand Treasurer, R.W. Bro. G.A C Hardy, P.G.W., P.B.G.P., deposited beneath the stone coins and records in connection with the lodge. W.M.W. Bro. J. Findlay then presented the Deputy Grand Master with a silver trowel, which was accepted and acknowledged in due form. The stone was then lowered 9 inches while the hymn, " Hiram, the Architect," was sung, after which the cement was spread by the D.G.M., and the stone lowered into its place. Photographs of the members were taken by Mr Meddings and by Mr Butterfield prior to an adjournment being made to the Oddfellows' Hall, where, the Lodge was closed. Mr Butterfield also took photographs of the St. George's Lodge and members, and of the Grand Lodge officers.

An Edwardian silver and ivory presentation trowel.
Presented by the Trustees to John Jackson Esq. J.P. on the Occasion of his Laying the Foundation Stone of the Jackson Memorial Methodist Sunday School, Timaru 14th March 1907, engraved, carved plain ivory handle with acanthus leaf and bead detail. Birmingham 1902 by Hilliard & Thomason. Length 300mm.

 Timaru Herald, 15 March 1907, Page 7
The ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the new Wesleyan Sunday School in Church street took place yesterday afternoon in the presence of a good concourse of people and under, very favourable weather conditions. A temporary platform had been erected just within the walls (which are now approaching their full height), to accommodate the speakers and the choir, who with the aid of an organ sang four hymns in the course of the proceedings. The foundation, stone occupies a position central in the street end of the building. It is a block of selected bluestone, very neatly dressed and lettered in gold by Mr Hall, the inscription being: ''Jackson Memorial Methodist- Sunday School. This stone was laid by John Jackson,. Esq., in memory of his late Wife; March 14th, 1907."
    Mr S.J. Serpell read a dedicatory document, which, together with copies of contemporary journals, Bible, the Methodist Rule of Faith, and coins of the realm, was enclosed in a sealed glass jar, and placed in a cavity of the stone: The document sets forth that the stone was laid by Mr John Jackson, J.P, in memory of his late wife, Martha Jackson, through the bequest of 1000 and the generous giving of the 'people had been enabled to commence the erection of the school. The section had been bought for 500 and the sum of 500 was also given to the building fund by Mr Jackson. Mr Serpell paid a compliment to the architect, Mr J.S. Turnbull, and the builders, Mr Baird and Son. He then introduced Mr T.H. Race, Canadian commissioner to the Exhibition and a member of the Methodist Church of America.
    Mr. Race, said "You have a beautiful country," and one of the most charming spots in it." This was not the first time he had seen Timaru, as he attended the agricultural show last spring, and was impressed with the beauty of the country and with the magnificent livestock; but above all be was impressed with the people. Fruitfulness of soil or magnificence of scenery did not measure the greatness of a country but the manhood and womanhood reared there. The boys and girls of to day were the men and women of tomorrow, and the character stamped upon them was the character of the people of the future. Mr Race quoted a remark by Colonel Robert Ingersoll, the famous infidel, on his attention being drawn to a landscape in which five church spires were visible at once, to the effect that as an influence for order, peace, happiness and the betterment of humanity, those five spires were equal to a hundred times their number of an armed police force. The churches, had played as important part in the civilisation of the world. And what would the churches be without the Sunday Schools? New Zealanders were fond of speaking of their beautiful land, as God's own country, unless they were worthy of it by being God's own people.  

New Zealand Tablet, 11 December 1902, Page 20 New Catholic Church at St. Andrews.
His Lordship Bishop Grimes arrived from Christchurch on Saturday last, accompanied by the Rev. Father O'Connell His Lordship celebrated the nine o'clock Mass on Sunday and in the evening preached an eloquent sermon on The Immaculate Conception to a crowded congregation. In the afternoon the Bishop, accompanied by the Rev. Fathers Tubman and O'Connell and Mr Tunbull, architect, drove to St. Andrews for the purpose of laying the foundation stone of the new church. Rev. Father Regnault (Waimate) and Rev. Father Taylor (Timaru) were also present at the ceremony. The concourse of people present to witness the ceremony made the day a memorable one in St. Andrews. His Lordship and the priests robed in one of the cottages and, preceded by the choir, went in procession to the site. The foundation stone, a cube of bluestone, into which is let a marble panel bearing the date 1902 was then laid. Beneath the stone was placed a bottle containing copies of the New Zealand Tablet, of local newspapers, coins of the realm, and a dedicatory document in Latin, of which the following is the translation : To the greater glory of God, this stone was blessed and laid December 7 1902, by the Right Rev. J. J. Grimes, S M., D.D , Bishop of Christchurch ; the reigning sovereign being his Majesty Edward VII. ; his Excellency Lord Ranfurly, Governor of New Zealand ; the Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, Premier ; the Very Rev J Tubman S.M., Rector ; Revs. P. Regnault, O'Connell, Taylor, and Kerley, SM.;s, and a large concourse of the faithful being present: Mr. J.S Turnbull being the architect ; and Messrs E. Hall and P. Foster the builders.' Mr John O'Connor read and presented the following address which was in pamphlet form, with a very pretty illuminated cover. ... Mr J. Cassidy for resenting the well-prepared foundation stone...

The church is being erected on a site a little south-west of the business part of the township, and nearly opposite the west end of the Presbyterian Church, a road or street separating the sites. The walls are 16ift high, of Makikihi bricks, hollow, and 16 inches thick, on concrete foundations, and stiffened by buttresses. The main building measures 50 by 30 inside ; at the western end is the sanctuary, 18ft wide and 15ft deep, and off this on the north side a sacristy, with an outer door. The ridge of the iron roof will be 34ft above ground. The whole of the exterior wall will be cemented, making a white building of it. Tue collection amounted to close on £150. This sum is augmented by the proceeds of a very successful bazaar recently held which realised considerably over £200. The greatest enthusiasm was shown by the St. Andrews congregation in making the bazaar a success. The Timaru Choir drove out on several evenings to give entertainments at the bazaar, and Very Rev. Father Tubman as treasurer, and the various stallholders had altogether a busy time of it The new church will be a great boon to the residents and will supply a much felt want in the district.

Poverty Bay Herald, 23 July 1906, Page 4
In a South Canterbury township recently (says the Timaru Herald), the laying of the foundation stone of a new hotel was made the occasion of a Thursday afternoon function of a semi-public character, and befitting the occasion and the building. A number of coins and some bottles containing wine, which, when the structure in years to come was demolished would have reached an enviable maturity and mellowness, were duly embedded beneath, the stone. On the Friday morning, however, the particular stone bore a disturbed appearance, and investigation showed that, during the night, apparently thirsty individuals had removed it, that coins and liquids had disappeared, and that not even the empty bottle was left.

Trowel in hand. Laying of a foundation stone in 1883, N.Z.
Imagine discovering a time capsule from 19th century? 

Whiskey tradition set in stone at Mount Cook 3 Oct. 2007

Staff at The Hermitage, with help from the project team working on the construction of the Sir Edmund Hillary Alpine Centre, Mt Cook, sealed into the stone wall the whisky along with a time capsule containing items that represent life as it is now at The Hermitage. According to the Scottish tradition, when a stone wall was built, a bottle of Glenlivet whisky was left inside the wall for the stonemason who would presumably have to repair it 100 years later. Both whisky and time capsule have been carefully vacuum-sealed. It was important to The Hermitage to maintain traditions and to preserve as far as possible details of life at Aoraki Mt Cook for future generations. Hermitage staff added to the tradition by including a time capsule containing:
• A Timaru Herald dated 9 October 2007
• A weather forecast and photo of the day’s weather
• Current room rates, Arrivals list, Daily Report from the night before
• A Panorama Room Restaurant menu and Hermitage brochure
• Hermitage and Sir Edmund Hillary Alpine Centre photos
• A Staff Handbook 2007/2008, employee list and Hermitage / contractor business cards
• Various hotel items such as a Mount Cook stamp, soap, postcard.


In 1999 the war memorial at Fairlie was commissioned and was built of Oamaru stone and with the existing plaques installed. A block of the old Cenotaph and a record of its history was placed as a time capsule at the base of the new Cenotaph, buried under concrete by Mick Carlton. Includes photographs of the old war memorial and Alan Hand demolishing it. and the first page of the Timaru Herald published in 2000, a couple of poppies, RSA magazines and a plan of the Main Street upgrade and a NZ flag.

There is also another time capsule placed in the plinth of the sundial on the Main street, on 5 April 2000. Has photos of the Main street, a copy of the Timaru Herald and photographs of staff of all the business premises on the Main Street in 2000


A time capsule boulder. 1999-2000, photo at top of page. Near this spot the residents of Cave and its environs celebrated the millennium 1999-2000. A time capsule is buried here to be opened in the year 2100.


South School time capsule was planted 15 June 2005 and will be unearthed in 10 years to see how much progress has been made in the smoke free arena.

Scott Base

Saturday January 20 2007
Sir Edmund Hillary returned to Antarctica half a century after helping set up the Antarctic research facility, Scott Base. On Saturday Hillary joined others, including Prime Minister Helen Clark, for the base's 50th anniversary celebrations. Tributes were also paid to those New Zealanders who have died on the ice. The toll stands at 291 lives, including those who died in the Mt. Erebus disaster. Pupils from four New Zealand schools also contributed to the 50th anniversary by donating drawings, maps and photos that have gone into a time capsule along with newspaper clippings and memorabilia. That time capsule will be opened in another 50 years, exactly one century after the establishment of Scott Base.

 Many buried time capsules are lost, as interest in them fades and the exact location is forgotten or are destroyed within a few years by groundwater.

Choose an "archivist" or director
Remember to put something metal in it so a metal detector can locate it.
Do not bury it. Find a secure indoor location.
If buried do not bury it near a road as roads widen over the years.
Note the GPS coordinators.
Don't forget the location or its existence. Don't do it in secrecy. A group may be helpful in remembering its existence and location.
Select a retrieval date.
Have a solemn "sealing ceremony".
Don't place junk in a time capsule. Items which describe the daily lives of the people who created them, such as personal notes, pictures, and documents, would greatly increase the value of the time capsule to future historians. e.g. lunchbox for work.

Many time capsules today contain only artefacts of limited value to future historians.

One time capsule was recovered in Wellington recently and the piece of parchment was shriveled and faded to such an extent that the writing is undecipherable. The cavity in the stone had been too small originally causing the breaking of the glass in the bottle, and the consequent damage of the parchment by damp.

Time capsules can be classified into two types: intentional and unintentional.

South Canterbury's Pharmaceutical History Unearthed
6 September 2000 Timaru Herald
Neil Savage is uncovering his own pharmaceutical time capsule. He's sorting through 70 years of assorted "junk" - and taking some pharmaceutical history lessons at the same time, as he prepares to move Central Pharmacy into its new main street location. Recipes for foot rot, glass phial injections, and substances so potentially explosive the dangerous goods inspector had to be called in, are all lurking among the items previous pharmacists have put in storage over the past 70 years. Prescription books dating back to 1923 reveal the copperplate script of the era. Every ingredient in the ointment, powder, or tonic, was painstakingly recorded, along with the name and address of the recipient, and the cost of the prescription. The Stafford Street site is the longest serving pharmacy site in Timaru, going back to the mid-1930s. Mr Savage suspects former Timaru mayor and pharmacist A.E.S. Hanan, moved to the shop possibly from a previous dispensing site in the Royal Arcade. It seems likely the pharmacy was operating under the UFS banner back in the 1920s, as one of the documents found in the clean-up was a booklet belonging to Masonic Lodge member K.C. Jefferson. He was obviously a healthy individual as the pages which should have recorded his prescriptions were blank. UFS pharmacies were originally set up by the lodge to assist both its members and the general public. The poisons register dating from April 1, 1935, has also turned up. From its contents it's obvious the pharmacist wasn't dealing solely with a human clientele. Among its clients back in the 1930s was Mr Hogan, a horse trainer of Washdyke. He purchased the interestingly named nux vomica for his horse tonic. It turns out the berries from the Indian nux vomica tree were used as a heart stimulant. Then there was the arsenic which was used for sheep, and a variety of concoctions which found their way into household cleaners. One book he had never seen before was the New Zealand Formulary, a guide to prescribing in the Second World War. Its introduction warns against waste during war time, even in the packaging of prescriptions. Tablets were a rarity at that time with only 30 types being listed. The old cash books give an indication of the expenses a pharmacy of 60 years ago faced - one shilling and 11 pence for Preens to launder the white coats, and 10 shillings for clock repairs. The pharmacy was open six days a week, with the weekly takings being between #90 and #100. An assortment of jars, pill bottles, and rubber and chrome contraptions which were the predecessors of today's asthma inhalers, have also come to light. The dangerous goods man has paid the upstairs shelves a visit in the last year - to get rid the jar of picric acid. It was used in burn cream because of its antiseptic properties, but was also highly explosive. Recognising the interest there could be in some of the old books and publications, Mr Savage has offered them to the South Canterbury Museum. As for the more interesting bottles and contraptions, they are likely to go on display in the new shop.

As of Sept. 2009. The South Canterbury Museum does not have any recovered time capsules.
In 2018 the museum received a ceremonial silver trowel presented to local MP Thomas Burnett in 1926 at the laying of the Temuka Public Library foundation stone. 
The South Canterbury Museum has a time capsule on display. It is waiting until 2027 to be reopened (it was opened and then refilled in 2000).

South Canterbury NZGenWeb Project