McLeod's Diary - The Dardanelles under fire. 9th Battalion A.I.F. beside the N.Z. boys.

John Duncan McLeod was born in Fairlie, N.Z. Moved over to Queensland. He worked as a survey hand before enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force at age 28 and served with the 9 Infantry Battalion - 1 to 9 Reinforcements, was a signaller, in the 4th of the 9th Btn, 1st Contg.  JD starts his diary with details on his enlistment at Rockhampton on 4 Jan. 1915. He also includes his thoughts on the men enlisting and meditates on how "many of us, no doubt, not coming back". Embarked 8 Apr. 1915 from Brisbane on HMAT Star of England A15. McLeod gives detailed accounts of his voyage to Suez, fighting at Gallipoli, 25th April 1915 -Nov. 1915, over six months in the trenches, back to the Suez then over to France June 1916 and then wounded to an English hospital then back in France. After the war he settled in Enfield, 13km NW of Oamaru, N.Z. where he was granted land as part of the soldier's settlement ballot and here JD kept a farm diary. His service records are online - embarkation roll.

I wonder when we next shall stand
On those far hills of Maoriland.


The Burkes Pass Hotel.

Sig. J.D. McLeod. No. 1813.
4th Rein. of the 9th Btn. 1st Contg. A.I.F.
Address 79 Theodosia St. Timaru, New Zealand. 

First World War diary - a record in prose and poetry.

150 pages. Images online. Original fragile.
Ref: MS-Papers-1382. Presented to the Alexander Turnbull Library by Mrs I.M. McLeod on 23 July 1975 and his four campaign medals.
Two blogs online: ATL and granddaughter's blog with photo. rsl site.
McLeod, John Duncan, 1887-1938
NOK: mother: Mrs Johnina McLeod, 79 Theodosia Street, Timaru.
Regimental number: 1813 AIF
Place of birth: Fairlie, New Zealand
Religion: Presbyterian
Level of education: TBHS. Studied law in Christchurch.
Served 2 years in Timaru City Rifles.

At least four letters home to his mother were published in the Timaru Herald with additional details. [Ctlr F letter home]
20 Aug. 1915 pg 11
22 Oct. 1915 pg  2
18 Nov. 1915 pg 4
11 Oct. 1916 pg  5

In many of the letters home the soldiers do censor themselves.

McLeod, J D (Sergeant), fl 1915-1917. McLeod, John Duncan, 1887-1938 : First World War diary. Ref: MS-Papers-1382. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22847648 panel

JD went through this diary in December 1915 when back in Egypt with a darker pencil and edited it. He scratched out some comments, added the first name of some men and squared off those who died. JD died in 1945 and his wife donated the fragile diary to the ATL in Wellington in 1975. Now one hundred years later the Alexander Turnbull Library staff have scanned in this diary and placed the images online. This dairy has everything to make it a good read. It evokes empathy, discussion, it educates, is interesting, it is fluent and it provides a connection to the past. It will be a classic piece of literature. No matter how dull a book cover is or how old, what really matters is what's inside.

Front matters Image 7 Some addresses

Joe Keefe         missing Aug 28th
Alex Hall         3rd Rein 1st N.Z. Con.
Nat Williams      Wounded N.Z. M.R. Helmieh
Bob Anderson      Cairo 3rd Rein 
Andrew McGregor   Wellington Engn'ers. 3rd 3rd Rein 
Phil McGregor     Died. C. Coy. Canterbury Inf. 3rd Rein 

N.Z. Main forces
C. Cowan 	8th (S.C.) N.Z. Mounted wounded
Tom Caskey 	Sadder Hqrs 8th N.Z. Mounted
Robin Caskey 	2nd NZ Infantry Wounded
C. West 	Zeitoun Camp Wounded
J. Trotter	wounded
J. Dines 	Wounded
Felix Siegert 	NZMR Helmieh
Bill Nixon 	Transport Helmieh
Tom Burnett 	killed at Shrapnel Gully
W. McConnell 	Mounted wounded by shrapnel
D. W. Donald

W. Wilson 	Fire Control Officer H.M.S. Zealandia
Dan Keating 	7th Middlesex (Territorial's)
J.P. Wilson 	4th Reinf. N.Z.L.H.
B. Jamieson 	5th L.H. Machine Gun Section
Briggs		Wellington Mounted

Front matter Image 8
newspaper clipping map Thiepval - Courcelette, Poziers, la Boiselle area

Front matters Image 9
2 photos Zietoun Sig. School April 1916. Gay 50th, Brougham 49th, Gander 49th, Collins, Danwood
Newspaper clipping: A portrait of Ringin Ballantyne


McLeod's diary and medals are on display at the ATL in 2015. Diary opened at pages 96 and 97. Image numbers correspond with the page numbers. Mrs Isobel McLeod donated four medals to the Alexander Turnbull Library. The 1914-15 Star is missing but the blue - white - red ribbon goes with the 1914/15 Star. The rainbow coloured ribbon should be above the Victory medal on the far right.  Medal gallery (opens in another window).

If you are going to read a WWI diary, this writer is good, after the impact of a few words you will be hooked. 

PAGES Image 1.
1915. Jany 4th Signed attestation paper and passed Doctor at Rockhampton, Queensland
Jany. 5th Enlisted at Rockhampton
Feby. 13th left Engera for Broadmeadows Sig School
March 13th. Arrived back in Brisbane. Allotted to 4th Reinf of 9th Batn.
Luggage sent to F.C. Henderson "Fernleigh" Meadowbank, Sydney. No key for suit case. Policy lapsed.
25th. Allotted 3/6 per day to Commonwealth Savings Bank. Bank Book No. 72457. 1/- day deferred by Govt.
Easter Sunday. Leaving about middle of week. Many of us, no doubt, not coming back. A queer mixture of men. There is the adventurous element that could not resist the allurement of a fight. There is the men getting on to middle life, mild failures in their own calling, who recognise this ...


The photograph appears on p. 23 of The Queenslander Pictorial, supplement to The Queenslander, 20 February, 1915. 
OneSearch keywords soldier Queenslander Pictorial.  There is no regimental badges in any of the photos. 

Image 2 April 4th 1915
... as their supreme chance to make good. There are husbands tried of married life; husky young fellows tried of the monotony of home looking forward to the trip' shirkers "on the make"; genteel clerks and the like, who find it very trying to associate with the "working clan," but who joined up for very shame's sake; many grey platoons of Australian Workers, out of work, in the game because it means a steady job and steady pay. Brown skinned, and clear-eyed, reckless yet shrewd, these will be the backbone of our army.

They find it hard as yet to knuckle down to discipline; but wait and see them in the Real Thing. They are sure to make good.

April 25th. They did make good.

Image 3
Horizon. What we see of the Wiltshire.
The outstanding mistakes in the Administration of this camp are:
I. It was wrong and wasteful to enlist many hundreds of Light Horse, feed them, clothe them, and train them for many weeks (up to 14) and then reject 60% in an artificial riding test. Men born to the saddle, who earned their living by their horsemanship were thrown out because they did not keep their "distance." The test should be gone through as soon as a man enlists.
II The same applies to medical examination. Men thrown out at the last moment by doctors, after undergoing many months knowing.
III The "boy scout" element is too pronounced among the N.C.Os. These young fellows might know their drill but mature men will demand leaders in when they can place confidence. It will take a big "smashup" to rectify this weakness.

Image 4

April 8th Boarded Transport A15. Star of England at Pinkenba
400 horses. 100 LH. 300 Inf.
A long dreary wait on the wharf.
April 12th Arrived Melbourne, no leave, 4 horses dead. Poor class of horse. More will die. To Tassie & J_____ also some Reservists.
13th. Victorian Reinf. embarked on A18, Wiltshire. Anchored in stream for night. Reviewed by Gov. General Sir R. Munro Ferguson. Route march.
14th. Completed coaling and left with Wiltshire. Passed Port Phillip heads at 9 P.M.. "Good - night" Australia.
16th Rough weather in the Bight. 6 dead horses
17th Felt seedy. Ship dips a good deal but does not roll.
19th Sighted land near Albany.
20th Last glimpse of Australia. Weather good.
28th. paid 10/-. Father Neptune boarded boat on line and super - intended afternoon fun. Was lathered with grease and soapy flour, shaved with wooden razor and ducked 3 times in tub.

Image 5
Socota through the haze.
May 1st. Excitement to get War News.
Arrived Colombo daylight. Coaling all day. Bought coins. Silk kerchiefs, posted mail. No leave. Many broke it.
May 2nd Left Wiltshire at 6 am. Reservists transferred to Wiltshire.
Passed Light house on Island S. of India that night. Steaming steady 10½ knots on Japanese coal. Poor quality.
May 5th. Money refunded to nurses that was levied by storekeeper. "Paying for your own food." Full rations from mess. The O.C. displayed promptness in this matter.
May 7th. Paid 10 /-. Passed Island of Socotra of Rocky hilly and barren appearance. Was awake very early. Must have "smelt" the land.
9th Sighted mainland of Arabia.
Red Sea tomorrow. Church parade in uniform.
Demands cornet and organ. Wireless re loss of Lusitania
10th 4 am Passed Aden lights in distance. Some hours later passed Perim Island fortified barren looking, blotched with mountain country to right. In afternoon passed British Patrol sloop. About sundown saw Arabian City of ...

Image 6
 [sketch]  [line under picture ]- Cliff – Part of Perim Island from South]
... 8th Mocha some miles away. Lovely sun shining on its brown walls: looked very interesting.
11th By Budget? of War News by Wireless from Empress of Asia. Right on track of commerce news, many boats sighted today. Passed "Twelve Apostles", a group of islands, this morning. Weather warm. Some more dead horses. Some thieves on board. I am missing, hat cap, and towels. Some cases of measles on board. May be quarantined in Port Said. One bad case before reaching Colombo but kept secret. Health of troops generally good, but some had cough among them. Spent much time in the bow of the boat getting the breeze and watching porpoises & flying fish disporting themselves. Sight an occasional Arab Scow with peculiar long sail. Had some practice traversing and map-making. Made Protractor by cutting out its _______ of one in Manual and pasting ____ on cardboard [faded]

Image 7
13th Sighted mainland of Africa. Lecture by Chaplain Maxwell on Red Sea & Egypt. Red Sea 1300 miles long, Gulf of Suez 170, Canal from sea to sea 87, canal proper 66. Yesterday passed vicinity of Jeddah, port of Mecca, 50 miles inland. Also Suakin, where Kitchener disembarked for Khartoum Campaign.
17th Disembarked at Suez. Many Indian troops there 6 hours train journey to Cairo 2 mile tramp to Helmieh Camp Zeitoun
18th Saw Joe Keefe, Alec Hall, Bob Anderson, Nat Williams, F. Siegert, C. West and young Ballantyne. Heard that 'Heliopolis'  9th had 800 causalities (?) T Burnett reported killed, also Bert Swallow (incorrect)
19th Sights of Cairo. Posted home curios. Inspected by General. Death of Len Bridges.
21st Packed kit bag ready for shifting
22nd Trained to Alexandria (100 of us) Lieut. Arrell in command. Boarded Derfflinger. (2500 onboard). Heard Wiltshire torpedoed - (incorrect)

Image 8
Had a few hours in Alexandria. Dined at French Buffet, oysters at 2 pesetas a plate.
23rd May Left Alexandra. Next day man overboard. The wounded we speak to are all eager to get back into it again. (I don't think) Six months later -some of them not back yet. Many of them have been knocked out shortly after going into action.
25th Arrived at island of Lemnos, about 2500 on board - of different units. Heard Jack Dalgeish wounded in shoulder. Fine harbour here over 60 steamers, 12 warships. Heard Triumph torpedoed. Australians took big hill.
26th 4 torpedo destroyers came alongside to transfer us to Dardanelles, 4 hours journey. Trip unsafe for Derfflinger as 3 German submarines out, Australians lost 900 taking big hill. Living on dry rations -biscuits, bully beef, jam, since leaving Alexandria. We'll be glad to get bit of bread again. Saw survivors from Triumph brought in by destroyers.

Gallipoli places map

Image 9
On the Gallipoli Peninsula
Thursday 27th. Landed from Destroyer Grampus yesterday evening at spot Australians stormed on 25th April. We were shelled by enemy's hidden battery with shrapnel. One Destroyer but (not ours) and 4 killed with 10 wounded among troops. Hard luck to be knocked out before landing. Saw shells bursting on hillside and some killed among dugouts. This position is a series of steep ridges rising straight from the beach partly covered with scrubby bush, partly bare clay and sandstone cliffs. Marvellous how Australians landing party gained a footing on these ridges. Every foot of ground was accurately mapped by Turks with distances marked. Small plots of clear slopes had been cleared of cover to decoy attackers, and then play
hidden machine guns on them. Whole hillside is now a network of ...

Image 10
... dugouts, appearing like a gigantic rabbit warren. Fairly safe from shellfire except lucky shots. Ninth Btn is entrenched on top of ridge about 1½ miles from landing beach at headquarters. Trenches are well built with over head protection and sand bag loop holes for lookouts. Entanglements in front. Heard of big night attack by Turks in force last Wednesday night. They came on in droves with white robed priests leading shouting their eternal "Allah, allah." Our line reserved its fire till they reached the entanglements and then poured in rapid fire mowing them down in heaps. Turks asked for armistice later and 3000 dead were buried in front of our trenches the other day.

Image 11
ON SENTRY
The rain is trickling down me back
That wind has got a bite
There's not a smoke left in me pack
God help the TURK I see tonight!

They admitted their losses were over 7000. They still hold a very strong fort to the south, between us and the British who are working their way across from the point of the Peninsula. The 9th and 12th hold the Right of the Australian position with flank resting on beach. Left is held by N.Z. forces base is 1½ miles back by tortuous track up ridges and down steep gullies. Rather dangerous in day-time, casualties being frequent. All rations and cans of water are brought up by donkeys after dark. Daily allowance of water - one pint, which must be boiled owing to risk of dysentery and cholera; which is prevalent among Turks. Most of the water came from wells. A limited supply comes ashore in sealed cans from the shipping.

Image 12
Ration is biscuit, tinned beef, jam and a little bacon. Lined up at Ninth Hqrs to be alloted to companies.
Am in D Coy 15th platoon with Foster and Gillanders. Detailed for rations fatigue party. Met Tommy Reardon, Tarker?, Con O'Connor, May, who we knew in Enoggera. They tell us Bert Swallow was not killed but is here somewhere. Camped in dugout for the night, and enlarged it this morning, rigging water proof sheet for overhead cover. Am glad I brought two blankets. Advised by OC to drink only boiled water, be careful about sanitation, and economise ammunition. In the trenches a company takes two days on two days off. Firing is done chiefly at night. During day it ...

Image 13
The Same Old Jam
I wonder why, when rations come
Though we see apple, strawberry, plum
Of all the different kinds they've got
For us its ALWAYS Apricot!

... is only sniper who fires. Battleships down at entrance to Dardanelles are heavily engaged this morning. Heard the Majestic is torpedoed. Submarine fired torpedo at one of the destroyers we were on yesterday. 600 saved from Triumph. Saw some of the crew in Lemnos. Under fire some of our chaps looked a bit nervous. I do not mind the whizzing of bullets, but the shrapnel makes us all duck.
Sunday 25th April Will always be a red letter day in Australia. The 9th did great things that Sunday. Destroyers are circling round the bay looking for the elusive submarine. There is an occasional shrapnel from the Turkish positions. One just now scattered the bathers on the beach. A French aeroplane has dropped two bombs on a concealed position with what ...

From Connie Rayne's book - Sherwood Downs and Beyond.
Ernie Slow had a real passion for raspberry jam, as in his shearing days on a visit to town, he would always bring back a big pot of this jam and put it on his fellow worker's table with the words "General Godley used to say "Keep the jam up to the troops."

Image 14
effect we do not know. Last night slept fully clothed, with 200 rounds of ammo in carriers, equipment ready and rifle handy. Some fellows have not had their boots off at night for three weeks. As for washing you never wash and chance the "grey backs".
This is the real thing.
Friday 28th. Was detailed last night to ration party for Battalion an sent for Indians with pack mules bringing up stores from the beach. Filled water bottle at beach with ship's water, which is superior to the well water here. Many graves along shore. Shells burst in A.S.C. depot yesterday scattering stores and killing many. Seven wounded by sniper at Casualty Corners? near Shrapnel Gully. This sniper is causing trouble. He is in a well concealed "possie" is a good marksman and probably has a silencer fitted to his rifle.

Image 15
tea ration - 1 pint per meal very little water issued.

More Australian landed. Heard that 4 were killed on gunboat by that shell the day we came in. 6 a.m. today drew company's rations, a little Fresh beef, cheese, jam, a strip of bacon, 2 potatoes, 2 onions, 6 biscuits per man. Made Irish stew which went high. Very quiet night (moonlight) in trenches. Abdul must be preparing for something.  A few prisoners are coming in - giving themselves up as they are sick of it. Deserters are being encouraged to come in as they sometimes give information. 
    Artillery busy today. After dinner yarning to Black when shrapnel whistled past and struck ridge 40 yards behind us, very close to concealed battery. Immediately another rooted into our rubbish heap - too close to be pleasant. Several dropped in the trenches, breaking down a communication trench. Saw one wounded. 2 of the 9th killed by shell fire. This flank misses the protection the old Triumph gave us before the submarine got her.

Image 16
One chap said he almost cried when he saw her going down it was like losing an old friend. Today destroyers are patrolling very close to point 3 miles north of us, but without drawing their fire. Enemy is now trying to rake punts taking wounded out to hospital ship.
Saturday 29th. Yesterday evening shipped along to N.Z. lines on left flank. Deep communication trench cut round trench. Trench follow edge on high ground -very clifty in places. Saw Robin Caskey - very fat and looking well. He told me Tom was all right also young Denis. J. Trotter, W. M'Connell. Tom Burnett, was killed on the first Sunday at head of gully also C. Stevenson. Saw young Harold of Timaru (at Cape Helles). Two Frasers here also Roy Priest. "Flannel" Dunsford posted as missing. 23rd (Timaru) Regt. lost 140 in landing. Saw N.Z. boy bring down a sniper. At dusk big body of N.Z. infantry moved out to make attack on flank. 

From Connie Rayne's book - Sherwood Downs and Beyond.
On March 14, 1917, Robert Caskey (known as Robin) under the Land Settlements Act of 1908 was allocated Three Rivers, opposite the Sherwood Downs, homestead entrance. Robin was the son of the well-known Caskey family of Fairlie, and a returned soldier from the 1st NZEF. Although Robin was inflicted with serious war injuries which necessitated the amputation of his leg, he farmed the holding for seventeen years. The first dwelling was a small hut for the first six years being replaced by a home upon his marriage in 1923. His daughter was Christine Caskey - afternoon supervisor for years at the Timaru Public Hospital.

Image 17
Last night & Sepoy on the Tramp
Thought of a jam tin bomb was a Lamp
So he lighted the fuse
And in this morning's news
A Hindoo is missing in Camp.

After dark came back with donkeys to 9th lines. Our precious potatoes burst out of bags and spilt down hillside. Short ration of spuds today, 2 little ones each man. At 9 pm destroyers came close inshore and shelled enemy on small bluff near our left. 50 men of D Coy 9th volunteered to capture trench which they did without losing a man: bayoneted a few Turks and brought one in alive. Serg. Kenyon, a good man, led them. Our chaps expected to get machine guns in this outpost but they had been shifted. At 3 a.m. Abdul commenced to drop shells on our gully among the possies. One struck alongside dugout next to ours, peppering waterproof sheets and sending a shrapnel through Corp. Cameron's boot. Next shell killed a poor chap coming into his possie with water. Trenches also knocked about. The 9th lost altogether ...

Image 18
... by sunrise 4 killed. Gilmore, Corp. Prendergast, Jones and Wrigley and 5 wounded including Jack O'Donnell of our Reinforcement. He was struck in shoulder in the trenches and is sent to base hospital. I have his mess tin (1828), blanket and sheet. One chap received razor blade in the head and another was struck by heel-plate of rifle so it seems Abdul is short of shrapnel bullets and is charging his shells with odds and ends.
    Further the gunboats nor our batteries seen to be able to silence the guns that are causing so much trouble. Since the submarine scare big cruisers do not come near us, and we miss the protection of their big guns. The Germans are fine marksmen. They have all the ranges to nicety. While raking the beach one day last week a single shell killed 28 mules. In spite of ...

Image 19
Ad in local paper - "The Dunkum Oil"
To Let. For the Duration of the War, a fine Dugout, healthy position, good shooting. Owner leaving for Field Hospital

... this continual danger men persist in bathing in the most dangerous and exposed spots. Life seems very cheap here. Even the authorities seem very causal and do not take reasonable precautions to avoid unnecessary losses. This morning down to Anzac Cove for fresh water which is supplied by shipping. Heard of Turks mining a trench on the left last night. 19 of our chaps smothered underneath. Trench afterwards retaken (forced back) with the bayonet and one of the enemy's with it. Many casualties. Saw 6 poor fellows laid out for burial on the roof of the hospital - wrapped up in their overcoats -boots and all. Six humble privates and yet they have done more for their country than the most generals plutocrat. They gave their lives - what more could they give!
Posted letters (more to be censored) and "Service" P.C.s.

Image 20
Noticed Sergt. Gorch get a Timaru Herald in the mail. Will borrow it from him first. Pathetic to see the little heaps of mail for men who will never receive it as some missing, many dead. Major Gen Bridges died at Alexandra on May 19th. Wounded in leg which mortified. Buried with privates by same party. French aeroplane busy bomb dropping daily. The big fort sends up round after round of shrapnel after the Frenchman who eludes it with ease. The shells explode high up and the puffs of white smoke hang in the clear air like silky balloons.
Sunday 30th. Awakened at 3-30a.m. by cheering and "whoo-hoos" which puzzled me. Thought it came from the water but heard later it was a ruse to draw the Turks fire, making...

Image 21
... restless alert they harass the enemy's flanks and keep his outposts in check with enfilading fire. Tonight is dark with spitting rain. For some time a crackle of rifle fire along centre which died down when moon rose.
Monday 31st. Fine sunny morning, glassy sea, hospital ship and supply boats lying close to the beach, not a shot in the air, any sign whatever of Abdul. Quite a calm peaceful scene and at a moment's notice the air may be crowded with screaming shells. The clatter of machine guns, the din of artillery booming and musketry rattling in such fits and starts is the action carried on. Spoke to Doctor at 6 a.m. for touch of dysentery. Treated with table spoon of castor oil and some tablets and light diet of meal. Medical men very careful with this complaint, fearing serious outbreak. Our M.O. Capt. "Gertie" Butler awarded D.S.O. The yarn goes that in the landing, after bandages ran out he tore up his shirt and puttees for the injured?.

 "He had a cheery word for all." Captain Arthur Graham 'Gertie' Butler was born 25 May 1872, Medical Practitioner. Appointed the 9th Battilon medical officer at Camp Enoggera. He was the first medical officer to land at Anzac on April 25, 1915 at 4.30 am, where he received the D.S.O. He was just stepping from his boat when a British seaman who was in the act of handling him his medical satchel fell back, shot through the head. Served with the Battalion the seven months it was at Gallipoli then on to France. Served five years. Died 27 Feb. 1949 aged 76. Note in the photo - In Egypt the slouch hat were worn with the brim down all round.

Image 22
them believe we were charging. Was in N.Z. lines again. Saw Tom Caskey at headquarters looking well also W. Johnson. Heard Harold Hay [7/62 William Harold Hayes Wai-iti Road] killed by N.Z. pickets at night while burying dead; they thought he was an enemy as he had his head muffled and did not answer at once in reply to the sentry's challenge. Poor unfortunate chap.
At noon today A Coy of 2nd Bat. captured a trench in the centre. Enemy bombarded heavily for two hours but failed to dislodge them. Causalities - about 150.
Binst, of 4th, 9th, wounded in leg while sleeping in his possie. Sharpened bullet through my cap which was on book beside me. Heard the rattle of musketry to the south last night very plainly; the Tommies are getting closer. The warships also are creeping up the coast. We could see the shells from their guns bursting along the shoulder of the big fort. The battle destroyers in the bay are doing great work for us. Always on the mark.

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In ancient days, no History says
Men had cave-dwelling habits
And now once more, on this steep shore
We live in holes like rabbits. 

On the top of some of the pages are notes, poems or drawings.

Some officers with the object no doubt of inspiring confidence and keeping up the spirits of the men make a practice of circulating reports that the Tommies will be here tomorrow, that the (Achi Baba) the big fort had been captured, that the Turks are cut off, that we have only a day or two more to hang on to this position, that we will then advance and so forth. Such statements are mistaken and childish. The men know the real facts and are prepared as hang on grimly at all costs. They resent any attempt to bury up their spirits by inaccurate reports. They are Australians and even this trying ordeal cannot suppress the Australian temperament. All along the line pranks are played on the nervy Turkish conscripts. Some outposts have a number of empty tins string together, which they throw out after dark and then pull back with a sudden rattle, which throws the "Terrible Turk" in a terrible funk causing him to waste no end of ammunition.

Image 24
Tuesday 1st June Capt. Campbell appointed Bat. Quartermaster. Yesterday aeroplane dropped bomb near submarine and destroyers, buzzed round for hours afterwards, without any success. Heard 1 submarine caught in nets at Lemnos. Issued with 2 pkts cigarettes, 1 tin tobacco, box matches, which I gave to mates as the end of the week approaches matches become rare and valuable.
   In attack on centre Friday night when 15th had trench blown in. Turks lost heavily, artillery firing into their columns at known ranges demoralised them and they fired on their own men. Hand grenades were used on both sides, also rifles on stands filled with periscopes. Reported Turkish loss 1500. Had narrow escape on beach this afternoon while carrying ammo from A.S.C. Shell-case ricochetted across road right in front of me, kicking up the dust. Howitzers and Jap bomb throwers busy in centre Hughes battery posted ...

Image 25
... among 9th Battalion trenches, very quiet lately. When in action these guns draw Abdul’s fire and invariably some of our fellows are hit on their possies. Big guns should not be posted so close to the firing line. Heard there is to be an advance very shortly. Our flank it to act as pivot to general movement. Snipers on Gaba Tepe still annoy beach travellers.
Wednesday, 2nd June.
Another rather quiet night on our flank, but centre heavily shelled, with shrapnel, high explosive and bombs. 15th Btn are now only 360 strong, reinforcements included, and have been withdrawn to the beach. Some hundreds of Turks were mown down at Courtney’s and Quinn’s posts Friday night by machine guns. The bright moonlight assisting our gunners to pour belt after belt into the bee-like stream of attackers.

Image 26
This morning enemy's guns sounded uncomfortably close, Our artillery seemed unable to keep them in check and rarely replies to Abdul's raking fire. There is incompetence somewhere. The cheeky little destroyers, with cool impatience, draw the enemy's fire daily, and are of great assistance on our flank. At dinnertime today the enemy committed a gross crime in deliberately firing on a newly arrived hospital ship. She is painted white, with green bands, and red cross conspicuous, and was well away from the rest of the shipping, so there can be absolutely no doubt about the intention of the gunnels. In all from shrapnel were fired at the boat one bursting right above her, with what effect we do not yet know.[Surprising incident, as the Turk fights fair as a mule?]
It is reported that a destroyer has rammed a submarine but not yet confirmed. Took off puttees and boots ...

Image 27
... for a while this evening - quite a luxury, but dressed again before turning in. Heavy rifle fire again in centre after dark, with muffled explosives.
Thursday 3rd June. “Alphabetical” Davies, a slummocky dull-witted fellow, missing this morning. Heard later he is under guard in the trenches - arrested in a gun pit waving his arms in suspicious manner. There is some one in our lines giving information about gun positions but, “Alphabetical” has not the wit for that game. An Artillery officer has been caught signalling morse through a loop-hole with a glowing cigarette lighter. In the heavy fighting in their trenches lately the 15th lost a Major, and Captain Hughie Quinn, a fine man. Heard Serg Kenyon has been awarded D.C.M; Dr Butler D.S.O. 500 Reinforcements landed early yesterday including 15th. German “Taube” dropped bombs on us yesterday. This ‘dove’ lays high explosive eggs weighing 100 lb. More experience of whizzing shrapnel this morning ...

Image 28
... on the beach, scattering the bathers. At sunset every evening the sea frontage at hqrs is like a popular bathing resort so crowded with swimmers in it.
Watched as shells dropped round supply ship the hovefth? scored a hit her stern.
This evening cruiser is sending in broadside after broadside to the north, flames leaping from her gun turrets, wonderful how the roar of these heavy guns cheers us up. Heard graphic yarn from 2nd L.H. of the hand to hand fighting round Quinns post. Bombs and hand-grenades used freely. L.H. lost 25 killed 70 wounded in charge two nights ago. Trenches only 10 yards apart in places. Turks scrawl messages in English and throw them into our trenches. One ran like this "If the Australians do not surrender tomorrow we will declare war!" Another asked if it was true the infantry ate their prisoners. The infantry replied "No, ...

Image 29
officers wounded by by premature burst. The Major, Capt Melbourne, Mr Wilder, Mr Williams

... it's the Light Horse who do that."
This evening very unfortunate accident to 9th,. From some as yet unexplained cause a gun of 9th Bty 9 (Tassies) fired a charge that burst short striking ridge among our possies 3 killed 14 injured including some officers at Hqrs. Ernie Booth who arrived only yesterday killed outright also Bird (both legs blown off). Another of the Divisional signalers Hammond chest and arm, Hansen chest and leg Lit in 4th 9th. Booth was my tent mate at Broadmeadows, also came across on same boat to Egypt. Alarm at 9 pm heavy fire in centre all support ordered to stand to but attack slackened off by 10 pm. One man who was in ration fatigue earlier in the evening pulled out of the trenches in drunken condition -evidently stealing rum, robbing his mates of their ration. A signaller who was talking "Borthy" round the telephone connections when the shell caught them, lost one of his limbs. Good bye, left leg, he said as they lifted him on the stretcher.

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Heard that the result of the evening bombardment was the blowing up of a new battery the Turks were putting in position. One Turkish shell picked up contained beach pebbles - evidence of shortage of ammunition. Turkish numerals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 __-
Friday 4th June. Booth Bull buried this morning. Booth pierced by shell. His mate Corporal Knight who lost his leg, bearing up well. Serg Braithwaite compound fracture of arm, Capt Melbourne- shattered hand, Hawker - Heamorrhage of lungs (since dead).
Increased rumble of heavy guns down the coast since 10.30 am. Big bombardment in progress. Slackening off in afternoon. Up Sharpnell Gully for water. Big attack on tonight.
Saturday 5th Attack on Turkish enfilading trenches resulted in this being captured, lost and recaptured. Losses, I fear rather severe. Another narrow escape this evening at A.S.C. depot. Heard shell screaming along beach ...

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... so fell flat on the sand. Just in time debris scattering over us. One of the 11th had a great gap torn in his side. Several shells have burst over this spot today. 3 killed while bathing, several wounded. Even with the warming of dead mules in front of their eyes, some men are not to be deterred from swimming in this place. They seem absolutely callous and indifferent to danger. 31 Turks captured at Quinn's Post.
Sunday 6th Very quiet night. On N.Z. flank saw J. Trotter, C. Cowan, young Dines. Turks have very strong position in centre, thus -They have 5 consecutive rows of trenches enabling them to fire over the heads of those in front.


 on hill   Our trench     Gully      The Turks.

Some men are cutting short the time fuse on hand bombs to prevent enemy throwing them back. Noticed artillery pulling big 6 inch howitzers up the hill 40 men hauling on the rope.
"ANZAC" cove- derived from Australian New Zealand Army Corps
Five more men but on the beach by shrapnel this evening. Our guns seem quite helpless to silence this battery in Olive Grove. 450 Turks captured by British in southern Zone.

Letter home. Published in Timaru Herald 20 August 1915

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Monday 7th. During night 5th L.H. patrol lying in outpost along beach came under fire officers killed, his body still lying out there. Surprised to meet Alex Jameson, who is in the 5th LH machine gun section. He joined from Proserpine. LH officers name was Hanley; wife and 3 young children. Patrol found more Turks in outpost than they bargained for and had to beat a retreat. One trooper had jaw shattered. Turks get most of their water for trench use from Boghali. The periscope rifle they consider a terrible weapon. Prisoners state they are tired of the war and wish to return to their families. If they retreat their officers shoot them. If they advance to our lines with rifles, our men shoot them; if they come forward without rifles, their comrades shoot them.
Tuesday 8th. Met C. McDougall, of Timaru just over with N.Z. Reinf. McONect only wounded. Capt. Hoblikey not dead. I saw him in Rest Gully.

It was dangerous to poke your head above the top of a trench and the problem was overcome by periscope rifles. Invented by L/Corp. Wm. Beech, 2nd Batn. AIF, a former builder's foreman, in May 1915. Mirrors were used for sighting and a string to pull the trigger. A workshop was started on the beach at ANZAC Cove. The rifle was especially useful where the trenches were very close together like Quinn's Post.


From Masefield's "Gallipoli"

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To (long) absent mates
As week by week old Abdul sends
Big shells along to us stuck here
How oft we think of you, dear friends,
In Cairo drinking Beer.

Heard result of big bombardment last Friday after fleet and massed batteries had shelled Turkish line, British and French charged, capturing all trenches except extreme left where shell fire had not destroyed entanglements, as a result of this Ghurkas were enfiladed and forced to retire from their captured positions. In centre British Territorial's and Naval Div. made advance of 500 yards along double line of trenches, extending 3 miles; on Right French captured "Haricot" redoubt which they still hold. L.H. went out again last night to try and bring in Lieut. Hanley's body from the twin trench but it had been shifted by the Turks
Wednesday 9th. Abdul fired not one shot a long beach yesterday. Must be husbanding his arm. Quinn's post is still lively every night. Our btn likely to get a turn out there soon. Shrapnel burst among our possies this evening coming from new direction. Many shells dropped harmless into sea.
Thursday 10th. Wrote letters home - no envelopes, posted it in "Wild Woodbine" packet. Shifted into new possie. Discovered some "greybacks" [a louse] on shirt & spent pleasant half hour in the sport of "chaffing" a very popular here.

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Friday 11th Another heavy cannonade and attack in centre last night. "Scotty", an Engineer, struck by spent bullet while sleeping in possie next to mine. Flesh wound 4 inches deep. Scotty thought someone threw a stone at him. "Head-acher" a gun with noisy bark posted on ridge behind us, demolished a new gun pit over near Olive Ridge.
Saturday 12th. Today is notable for two events -
1. I have received a letter from home (with photo enclosed) the first news since leaving Enoggera.
2. We are getting an issue of bread to-night for the first time. We should get a fair share of bread now, as the A.S.C. has been established a field bakery at Lemnos. This evening had a lovely half-hour in possie. Many shells burst within a few yards of us, the shrapnel plugging into our sand bag barricade. The "headacher" replied warmly and every time she fired the hill-side shook, and showers of gravel and sand rolled down into our possie.

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Sunday 13th. Awakened by the cheerful sound of big guns from a battleship and crusiers lying off Gala Tepe and enfilading the Sari Bair and Bukoli trenches with high explosive, which sent clouds of dust high in air, like Rotoura geysers after two hours engagement squadron with escort of eight scurrying destroyers made back to Imbros base. The navy is very careful with the big boats in these waters since the Triumph and others battleships were torpedoed. In afternoon went round to left flank. Saw W. McConnell and other of the N.Z. boys. Robin Caskey wounded by splinter from periscope. Turks again occupy No. 3 outpost and snipe along beach. Saw six dead mules, result of well -aimed shell.
Monday 14th. Shrapnel caught one of our own water party last night. Posted P.C. (a piece of cardboard) home to Molly, and letter in "sugar" from ration packet to F.C.H.. Envelopes very scare here.

Image 36
Destroyers again shell Gala Tepe from close in shore. Abdul dare not show his nose now but another long range gun from the other side (Gallipoli) still whistles first thing every morning.
Tuesday 5th. Signaller reorganised but still have to do duty in trenches like the rest. 24 hours in trenches in firing line. All night the rattle of incessant musketry came up on the wind from Achi Baba. The Tommies must be attacking again. Had short sleep from 4 to 6 (or in the new naval time from 0400 to 0600) when Abdul’s reveille came along in the shape of a 10Mll shrapnel shell which fell in our trench but failed to explode. My mate on observation post is one of returned wounded – not fit for duty for weeks yet, wound only partially healed, but declared “cured” by some incompetent doctor in the base hospital. Wounded men who can use their hands have to hobble about and act as orderlies for their sick mates- 13 in a tent in hospital this chap was in. They must be short of staff.

Image 37
A Wind Fall For The Thirsty Souls
When the rum came ashore from the wreck all the hard cases collected every dixie and tin they could lay hands on. But one officer was ahead of them, and he staved in the tops of the barrels.

Heard one case were stitching broke loose through want of attention, and patient bled to death. Another lost a foot through wound being left undressed for days, till mortification set in.
Wednesday 16th. Spell from the trenches – 24 hours resting, then a day sapping, a day in the supports and trenches again. This routine is monotonous but we must put up with this trench work till the time for advance comes. Strong winds and high seas yesterday which threw up on the beach a number of casks of wine and rum from some wreck. Then news spread like wild fire, and men risked their lives broaching the liquor, 2 killed, 3 wounded by shrapnel while staving in one cask.

Image 38
100th ANNIVERSAY OF WATERLOO
Thursday 17th. In support of trenches “Stand to” from 3 am till daybreak. In afternoon many shrapnel burst among our possies, narrow escapes, plentiful but not a man hit.
Friday 18th. Heard we are to shift from this position tomorrow. Volunteered for party going out tonight to attack trenches on Gala Tepe. Notice that most wounded men who return are “nervy” - officers included. Today is 100th Anniversary of Waterloo. At this instant one of own shells has burst prematurely hailing fragments of metal right amongst us. The same gun slaughtered some of the 9th a fortnight ago.
Saturday 19th. 9th relieved by 5th L.H. Shifted round into another gully to “spell” for a week. First days spelling consisted in digging galleries and possies for the whole battalion, clearing scrub, sapping in the trenches and shifting dead bodies from the trenches we have to sleep on. One of our boys was reburied decently on the top of the hill.

Image 39
He had red and white signalling flags (8th Btn) numbered 10'81. 5 casualties today in 9th from Shrapnel. Also saw two men killed near Hqrs on beach. My lip cut by flying stone.
Sunday 20th. More “spelling” in the shape of digging and sapping - “what a rest was are having!” Reported on sick list for poisoned lip caused by flying bit of gravel from shell burst. Treated with Carbolic Formentation. Mate and self had secured a lovely room-for-two possies with good head cover, sloping back and cooking convenience, not to mention fine view of beach and shipping, but when lots were drawn today we had to make room for another platoon and shift back to the galleries adjacent to the dead Turks. Issue with ration of beans today which are more acceptable that the dried vegetables we have been getting – and throwing away on account of the time it takes to cook them, and the scarcity of firewood. Saw some cases of dried figs and dates at A.S.C. depot, but we have not got out share yet. These little extras have to run the gauntlet of many quarter masters.

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26/6/15 McGuinness rolled over and over down the hill like a shot rabbit. They carried him away on a stretcher. His head wobbled and blood trickled from his open mouth. Death is not always beautiful.
........................................................................................................................................
Monday 21st Rather bad night with very swollen face, severe headache. Off duty again today. At 18.30 last night (2230 new time) 11th Btn and NZ sent up blue and white flares and rockets, which drew an outburst of fire and bombs from the Turkish trenches lasting ½ hour. Steady bombardment at south end of Peninsula attain this morning, big attack on down there. 295 Divs. did well. Great chase in scrub here after young rabbit. Five men wounded in our “safe” galleries from shrapnel.
Tuesday 22nd 5th Reinf of 9th arrived. Saw big Jim McConnell with them. Tommies have made another advance of a few hundred yards. Mail day. Got 'Workers' but no letters. A few Canteen stores that were allotted to our Btn, sold out in very few minutes. Secured tin of marmalade. Sold my issue of cigarettes to “raise the wind.” Reinforcements think I must have an awful wound with such a quantity of bandages round my face.
Wednesday 23rd Quiet night. Reinforcements put to musketry drill BY NUMBERS
Incredible that such things – the very A B C of drill should be done in the firing line. Saw Dalzell, Carter, Hartley ...

Image 41
An old Turk sleeps with our Platoon
Each night beneath the silent moon
He’s DEAD, you see – but pray don’t swoon
He’s well tucked in with sand bags.

… and Curly Evans of Sigs Reinf. Heard J Mann died in Suez on 26th May, buried same day, Military funeral.
Thursday 24th. Shifted once more to another possie, right alongside dead Turk. No smell, as he is built in with sand-bags. More shrapnel among our possies this morning just when roll was being called and men were crowded together. [Mc Guinness] of D Coy killed outright. Serg. Dibble wounded in arm. Bugles Tommy White in mouth, and 2 more in leg and neck. Very safe position we occupy – I don’t think. The Major forgot his dignity and ducked as nimbly as the next man into shelter. All parades cancelled for the morning. 15 killed on beach altogether today - a big tally. The toll of casualties behind the firing line here is far too heavy. E. Galway sent to hospital ship with appendicitis, also Hogg. Sinclair court was jailed for being absent from …

Image 42
Down at Anzac, In the night-time
When we go out patrolling
Down at Anzac In this moon-time
You can hear those jam-tins rolling [popular Trench Song]

…duty from May 2nd till 26th. He was discovered living in dugout down on beach. Sentenced to two years hard labor. Officially announced that on Tuesday the French succeeded in capturing 600 yds of trenches, including “Haricot’ redoubt.
Friday 26th. Some Glascow Artillery landed with howitzers. Balloon steamer observing this afternoon. Battleship with 5 destroyers bombarded some object over Olive Grove. Dense column of smoke (said to be Maidos in flames) rising in East this evening. Capt Campbell got slight wound in foot yesterday.
Saturday 26th. Last night changed papers [means swapped the Timaru Herald] with young Gabites, of Timaru, who is on gallery below me, in C Cy 9th. He was on same station in Q as “Pop” Gunn and joined original 9th. More shrapnel today from above Grove (5500 yds) and high explosive from howitzer on Gaba Tepe. English officer of Indian Mountain Battery …

Image 43
And old Abdul’s rifles rattle,
you can hear his bullets crackle
Down at Anzac.

Chorus
Rollalong Beachy Billy,
Roll along
But you’ll miss us,
In the night-time.”|[a joyful song in the trenches]

… on hill top above us killed by one shell. No mail for me today! It makes me envious to see other fellows getting letters. However, Gabites has a Timaru Herald. I think the work is wearing him out – he looks ill.
Sunday 27th. City of Glascow Arty one half battery (4 guns, 5 inch howitzer, 50 lb shell, 12oz cordite) put in position. Did good execution.
Monday 28th. Big bombardment on Achi Baba at 12.15 pm B and C coy 9th Bn supplied firing party to join in attack on Turkish trenches. We came back at 4 pm. Casualties not yet known, but saw many wounded. Glennie badly wounded, young Gabites missing. Men are dissatisfied with the operation, as no one was told what to do. The thing seems to have been bungled. D Coy was standing to in support. Poor old Corporal Joe Woodsby (the finest non-com in the 4th Reinf.) was killed early in the action. Also Taranel, Sergt. Rainsberry? hit in back. Volunteered for party, to go out and bring in wounded – hope we are allowed to go.

[Private Eric Briggs Gabites, No. 622, 9th Battalion (Infantry), A.I.F.: NOK: Arthur & Margaret Gabites, Le Cren St., Timaru. Died 28th June 1915, Gallipoli, Turkey; killed in action. Shell Green Cemetery, grave No. 22.]

Image 44
[At top of page] Heard this corporal’s evidence at enquiry. When he left the position his section had taken up he was the only one able to get back. All the rest were either dead or wounded.

Crawley wounded, but heard he got in after dark, having include 2 more?. Sg. Hepburn killed, Major Welsh wounded, Lieu Jordain and many others. Casualties total over 140 in B and C Coys. Mon. 4th Reinf. killed Collier, McDonald, Glennie (died of wounds). Wounded - Serg. Warner, Comalleth, big “Bung”. Heard from Corporal Brown of C. Coy that he saw Gabites lying badly wounded with foot shot off in firing line. He spoke to him when company retired, but he did not answer. Volunteer search party was not allowed to go out by Brigadier. Hepburn, Hamilton, Sullivan Quartermaster Harvey killed.
Tuesday 29th. Heard 5th L.H. lost heavily in morning in yesterday’s action. They took “Twin Trenches”, but retired during night. Our artillery got onto some Turkish Reinf. coming up from Olive Grove. Many of our dead are to be seen lying up against enemy’s trenches, stripped of equipment and clothes. Saw burial of 17 men, Capt Le Treve and 3 officers of 11th Battalion. Some bodies were brought in during night. Impossible to get those on far ridge. British made good advance yesterday capturing a hill and 3 lines of trenches. Steady bombardment again today.

Image 45
Saw trench on left of 11th being blown up. Turks cross-cut under sap of 1st Btn Engineer and 2 men were killed. Many carried away suffering from fumes. Although the officers were told of the danger the sap was in and were thought to hear the tapping of the Turks’ digging tools, they remained inactive and did nothing to counter the enemy’s move. Some of our “heads” are mighty incompetent.
Wednesday 30th. 1st Bn left for Lemnos last night to re-organise and spell. High wind and dust storm after dark started heavy rifle fire from both sides. Search party from 11th trenches got on a few bodies. General Birdwood complimented 9th on Monday’s action. The object of the attack which was delivered by a squadron of 5th L. H. 2 troops, 7th L. H., 9th and 11th Btns, was to prevent Turkish Reinf. at Eski Kaio from going down to Achi Baba against Anglo French, who were assembling trenches here. Our Artillery … 

Image 46
…fired 1400 rounds in 3 hours, and got onto several bodies of the enemy coming into the open. The 9th attacked across the razor-back ridge in the direction of the Lonesome Pine and Johnston's Jolly. L.H. took twin trenches, lower down Poppy valley.
Thursday July 1st. 9th relieved 10th Btn in their line of trenches. 13th Platoon in firing line. Viewed ridges in front through periscope as snipers busy. Counted nine bodies of our boys lying on slope in a small space. Boots and tunics, equipment etc. stripped off them. On Monday some of them got right up to the Turks trench, and are lying out there still just as they fell. The trench can be enfiladed from Gala Tepe, so if we are bombarded things will be lively in here. One of C. Coy wounded by shrapnel already. Large numbers of NZ wounded on beach last night. Heard that many Turks captured at Quinns Post. All Jettys except the new Pier washed away by high wind and sea.

 Johnston's Jolly was a name given to a sector at Gallipoli where the Australian Force was based. View the Anzac Walk, site 9.

Image 47
[At top of page] 
Inscription on a grave on Shrapnel Green:-
Reflect, old friend, as you pass by,
As you are now, so once was I,
As I am now, so you shall be,
Prepare you then to follow me.

Saw Pearcy of C Coy brought out of firing line with trigger finger blown off – accidentally (?). Reported that Turks lost 1500 killed on Achi Baba last night.
Friday July 2nd. Two of D Coy hit by shrapnel, one hake, broken arm. More heavy firing on Achi Baba. Shower at night, “Stand to” at 3am. On duty all day.
Saturday July 3rd. Four hours sapping then in firing line all night. Miserable night as there was not sufficient room to lie down and sleep is impossible. Heavy shower of rain. Turkish sniper knocked sandbag out of loophole and also nearly hit periscope. Heard patrol dogs barking and the cry of Turks wounded by some lycidid? the destroyers poured in.
Sunday July 4th. Resting all day. A big mail but nothing for me. Cruiser shelled some objective in direction of Chunuk early this morning. Two mines exploded on crest….

Image 48
(At top of page)  bucra (m) bucree (f) – Goat (Hin dus lavi)

At top of page) Monday 5th (12). 11 inch shells came from Turkish battleship in Straits. One lobbed near Indians in Shrapnel Gully

... of Achi Baba at noon. How constantly and wistfully we watch the top of that ridge waiting for the Tommies to come over. Trenches along this Brigade much battered about by shellfire today. Two of ours wounded. Saw one killed around corner, part of 11th Btn.
Monday 5th. 4 hours sapping in ‘B’ tunnel which is a drive down into ‘Allah’ Gully to form outpost for observation and bomb throwers, and will be link with firing line on next ridge when completed. New howitzer brought up by enemy throwing eleven inch shell. Fired 4 rounds into Shrapnel gully, but not yet located by our Artillery. Had a great win tonight. Discovered parcel of tinned stuff for sale on beach, and bought the lot – pineapple and salmon 2/- a tin, jam 1/-. Hurried back to the trenches and we had a feast right away. Maori contingent landed, a fine body of men. Searched up Walkers gully searching for Gabities brothers among NZ boys without success. Seddul-babr heavily bombarded from Anako? and Kilthia Baba …?… followed by attack which cost Turks 500 killed.

Image 49
 issued with a few dates – 6 per man

Tuesday July 6th. In support trenches. Letter from Mary dated 16th April. More shelling this evening. Some of the “Glesca” Territorials belonging to the Howitzer battery hit. 10th Btn leaving for Imbros tonight to spell. 16th left yesterday. Said that monitor silenced big howitzer (11 inch) this morning early, 10th Btn, who are spelling in the galleries, we left on Sunday, had 1 killed, 20 wounded by shrapnel this evening, narrow escape myself. Shell cap went “plunk” over my shoulder. Allen of 15th Platoon had finger cut off by sniper bullet while holding periscope. Flynn issued with loaded rifle blew off finger of left hand (another “accident”?)
Wednesday July 7th. Attack with heavy rifle fire at night in centre. Round at L.H. [Light Horse] inquiring if Scotty McLean killed in attack on Gaba Tepe. 5th L.H. lost 22 killed some by shell from monitor on that day.
Thursday July 8th. On duty 0800 to 1600. Some shelling from Beachy Bill and howitzer in centre. Dug another possé. Much discontent….

Image 50
….among Non-Coms and men since Capt Campbell took charge of Coy. Some lost their stripes last week, another reverted to ranks today. Heard there was armistice on Southern Front. Turk lost 5000 between June 28th and July 2nd. 1st Bat returned after 8 days spell at Imbros. They had Fresh meat, veges, bread, no drill, plenty of sea bathing, no shrapnel to worry them – a complete change from trench life.
Friday July 9th. Parcel from home containing knitted belt – rather warm for this weather, but will be appreciated later on. Sharp rattle of machine-gun, rather like noisy motor bikes - about nine o’clock. On duty 1600 – 2400.
Saturday July 10th. Round to NZ flank. Saw C Cowan, Ernie Snushall, T Horgan. Heard Punch Houblan had hand blown off by bomb. W Wall, Stan Robinson killed on Southern Front. 2nd Aus Bde lost 1600 that day.

Added in below two scribbled-out lines and in blue pencil….trenches here closer than on our flank

Image 51
Dead Turks lying right up to trench, which is crawling with maggots. Stench awful. Such is war. Cruiser bombarding this evening. Heard from Sig Crawford of 15th that Nugget Trevena was wounded in chest by shrapnel on beach

Sunday July 11th Young Galway shot sniper (I observed for him. Turk thrown right out of his hole by explosion) in tunnel under Turk's trench. Shot caused small explosion - probably bomb. W Foster firing in evening through same loop hole, had finger of left hand almost severed by explosive bullet. Down on beach bathing, got some packets of cocoa from patrol boats crew. Cruiser bombarding again today aided by captive balloon and aeroplane. Strips of canvas laid on ground in shape of various letters used to communicate with observer. Last night took message round to 11th Btn, down through long sap Pitch dark had to feel my way along sides of trench, very steep and narrow. New firing line not …

Image 52
I could not find their officer. He was out in front with patrol. I groped about for some time along the gully before I came up to them. One sentry nearly pushed his bayonet into me.

... yet completed, so 11th lie out in front of their trenches at night. This evening shrapnel caught some of the 10th Reinf. 1 killed shot through heart. Turk blew up two of our trenches.
Monday July 12th A big move expected shortly. 10th are back from Imbros, also other Batns. Demonstration at 8am by 12th Batn Supported by our rifle and machine gun fire. Big assault in progress on Achi Baba continuous roar of artillery and dust is rising along the ridge in heavy clouds. Mail for me, a letter from Effie announcing death of Uncle Angus McMaster on May 19th. Another rally tonight along centre. Intermittent outbreak of firing.

Image 53
Tuesday July 13th Fatigue party is bringing up Naval Long Tom (4.7) should shake up “Beachy Bill” when placed in position. Reported that Ghurkas are on summit of Achi Baba but no visible sign of them. Another uneasy night - jerky rattle of rifle fire all night, reserves standing to. Did 12 hours duty all day.
Wednesday July 14th big parcel post -tasted piece of cake - what a novelty! Btn being inoculated against cholera. Abdul sent over a late shell at dusk. Was standing on wharf down at beach when it whistled just over my head and struck a barge behind. The whole beach front was crowded with swimmers who all stampeded for safety. When the stretcher bearer brought off the wounded we saw only four had been hit. One poor devil had both legs hanging by shreds of skin and muscle - a terrible sight. Said to be Dr Campbell of 8th L.H. Another had foot blown off. Others were not hit. Shell was high explosive - it was a fluke shot for if it had …

Image 54
15th paid 10/- in English Paper money
… struck the water instead of the barge it would have been harmless. Saw Lieut Doug Fraser tonight on beach
Thursday July 15th Snipers busy again. Caught by Darky Goddard this morning – rather severe wound in jaw and arm. Bullet came through loop hole. Squad with Lieut Benson left in Imbros as body guard for Gen Hamilton, a soft job. Payday today and the nap schools are in full swing buying up the 10/- notes. “Backsheesh” issue of cigarettes, a gift from Vicars – London. Loose shell on beach – the toll of the beach is mounting up. Serg.t Dewar back.
Friday July 16th Olive Grove battery which has accounted for 600 men along beach in 12 weeks, is being well peppered this afternoon by Monitor. Great clouds of dust rising from their position. Shrapnel dropping over Indiana Mountain. Battery is annoying us again. So far today 3 wounded from this direction. Mate scored a tin of Ideal milk from Serg Dewar – what a luxury

Image 55
Although I need a decent feed
And feel damn weak and funny
The beach is “dry” there’s naught to buy
So what’s the use of money?

Inoculated once more against Cholera. Two more hit on road in last half hour - one seriously. There are more casualties (on the average day) behind the firing line than there are in the trenches. It seems rotten policy to have men drilling and working in exposed places just as dangerous on account of shrapnel as the front trenches are from snipers. Deasley – who said they would never get him – hit by sniper while carrying clay. Lieut. Kerr, who is one of the just returned wounded, hit in stomach by shrapnel. Died 11pm
Saturday July 17th Water problem is still serious. Tramped down to beach and up Shrapnel Gully without success; came back with empty bottles. German aeroplane dropped two bombs early this morning - one on shrapnel green (this one failed to explode) the other on the beach. During “Tommies” attacks on Achi Baba and Kerivies Dere [Kereves Dere] 12th to 14th inst. a Scotch Battalion, after taking a trench 300 yds long in centre, advanced over crest and was seen ...... 

Image 56
... no more. Turks re-occupying first trench. First night another battalion went forward and also disappeared over the hill after retaking the trench. Within an hour Johnny Turk was again manning the trench, and communication was again cut off. British staff bewildered by this disappearance of two regiments, but mystery cleared up following night when detachments came fighting their way back – an astonishing performance, like Jonah issuing from the Whale’s belly. Ration issue of rice.
Sunday July 18th. Heavy guns engaged early this morning down on Southern front. Aeroplane “spotting” for our howitzers over Quinns Post and Walker’s Ridge. Gen Birchwood and staff  “inspected” our lines this morning. Sight 8 inch howitzers belonging to 4th Kent R.F.A. being placed into position in gully below us. Naval siege gun is mounted in stout little sandbag fort and will soon be ready for action now. My rifle, 7266,...

Image 57
... which was issued to me at Enoggera struck by piece of shrapnel which shattered wood work. In exchange from Armourer I have a battered old rifle, rusty, gritty and stiff in the bolt. Shell-fire from centre is bursting over I.M.B. and enfilading our lines again this evening. Two men hit.
Monday July 19th. Colonel Lee Back again. Promotion in 9th - Sgts. Carson, Koch, Findley, Perries to be Lieuts. More bombarding “down South”.
Tuesday 20th. The “Leads” not satisfied with progress of sapping. Reckon rate of 1 foot per hour in cut 2 feet 6 each by 6 feet should be maintained. But how can men work on this tucker and with broken rest. One engineer Lance-jack said his team at Quinn’s post drove in seven feet per shift. Liar! Quick of D Co hit in back by shrapnel on road.
Wednesday 21st. Rumoured that Turks have brought their strength up to 100000 by Reinf. Mostly raw recruits. German general ...

Image 58
... on Southern Front superceded by Turkish. This morning Paddy (Granville) Grenfield of D Coy, got tired of life and blew the top of his head off. Irrational thing to do here, for there is sudden death to be had from Johnny Turk for the asking.
Thursday 22nd. The gallant Colonel leaves us again after a very short visit. One of D coys blows his finger off. (This kind of accident is getting very frequent.) One of C Coy blows off a thumb.
Friday 23rd. We are now supplied with new kind of respirator – a flannel helmet saturated with chemical, and with sheet of mica to see through which fits over head and neck. Enemy supposed to be putting gas generators in position. On duty last night, attack expected but did not materialise. Kentish howitzers plugging away at intervals all night. Jerky rifle fire rising and falling spasmodically. The genuine attack rises in one loud rolling roar of rifle fire like a hail storm on iron roofs.

Image 59
Unwonted Lunries
Myself and Gil went down the hill
and bought two tins of peaches.
We ate one fill, but I got ill
And Gilly had dry reaches!

Sleep can only be matched for minutes at a time in the trenches, what with “stand tos”, false alarms, and changing watch. To a drowsy ear the trench noises resemble the banging of doors, rattling of windows, and crackling of whips in a windy, rickety old house. Bought some curry roots from a cook of the Indian Mountain Battery. He pounded it up for me in his mortar – an unexploded shrapnel shell. Curry and rice for supper – fit for a king. Turks shelled and attacked Tommies this afternoon, on Left flank – repulsed with loss of 40 killed.
Saturday 24th. Inoculated again. Tin of milk for 2/-. Navel 4.7 siege gun is being shifted to new pit – without firing a shot, and enemy know her exact locality, and have dropped shells on position. Turks have sapped to within 20 yds of Tasmania post and during last night broke sap in and sand-bagged it up. There will be something doing here directly. 12th are going out tonight to capture it. Sinclair [looked up – his name Ewan Sinclair] MacLagan, Brigade Colonel promoted to Brigadier General.
Sunday 25th. On duty all day. Usual routine. No sign of the expected attack yet, which we are eagerly awaiting!

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Monday 26th. Grumpy Addis hit by sniper in hand and close to eye – a narrow escape. Many sick parade daily. Average of 4 per day serious cases sent away from Batn. High explosive howitzers are lobbing very close to position of Kentish and Glascow batteries in gully beneath us. One shell dropped among group of 12 men on beach today. Two killed outright, one had both legs blown off, the remainder wounded. Surely there is some arrangement possible that would reduce these losses on the beach. Daily fatigue parties of men are sent down there by the Q.M.Ss of Battalions on trifling errands that could be easily performed after dark. A heavy toll is taken along the sea frontage among these beach parties. Legitimate losses in the actual firing line are surely heavy enough without exposing men to this unnecessary danger.
Tuesday 27th. 11th Battn. who have been resting, relieved 12th. One of the nearby 

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promoted officers, Findley of B Coy, a capable Gt. imperial man, had the hard luck to be hit this morning. A bad shrapnel wound in the back. Young Galway, returns, also J. O'Donnell.
Wednesday 28th. More bombs and howitzers during night. This morning before daylight at "stand to" time heard Turkish trumpet sound call immediately followed by heavy rifle fire in centre maintained for half hour. We awaited attack but nothing happened at our end in spite of this being the "Feast of  Ramagan" [Ramadan] a national Turkish festival. Bomb fell near our possie sending down dirt and riddling some equipment with holes. Total British causalities on Gallipoli to end of May 37000, officers killed 500, men killed 7000. (from "News of the World", official figures)
DCM's awarded to 9th Batn -"Darky" Kenyon, Geo. Robey, S.S.M. Steel, Lieut. Benson, Lieut. Finley wounded yesterday is NOT dead (reported dead). Went through seven campaigns.
13 more caught by shell on the beach. A sapper of A Coy killed by sniper. Several more hit on road today, one at latrines.

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Thursday 29th Howitzers of Kentish Battery make it too hot for Turks in trench on “draught board”. They had to fall back 100 yards, filling in trench.
Two nights ago Gen. Birdwood's aide-de-camp killed by shrapnel while asleep in his dugout.
Friday 30th Awakened by sharp blow on arm at 3am caused by flying piece of stone from bomb which burst down the gully. Drew tin of milk in lottery. Sale of milk etc. now prohibited, as some of the ASC have been “pinching” tinned stuff belonging to the army. Olive Grove and Achi Bada bombarded.
Saturday 31st More heavy artillery duels. Rum issue. Preparations are on foot to storm a forward trench opposite Tasman Post tonight. One platoon of D Coy. Lieut. Chambers, Serg. Kenyon taking part. We lay out in what field protecting flank of attacking party.
Sunday 1st Aug. Trench successfully carried out at moonrise after blowing up saps.
11th Bat. lost about 110 men. 31 killed 2nd L H Colonel (Colonel Hubert Harris) killed. Firing line supported with heavy rifle fire. McSpadden (one of 4th-9th) struck in jaw. Heavy fire from Turkish batteries for some hours. (2 days later 11th were bombed out of part of “Lean's” trench. Every man on watch there was killed. In ...

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retaking it many casualties were incurred. Men had bombs but nothing to light them with! Altogether 11th casualties in this sector have been 220.

... 11th men were mostly scattered by shrapnel from Gun Ridge, which got on to them very lively. Many were killed in the trenches and Aratonga Sap. More rum.
Monday, 2nd Aug. Dead of 11th buried today, also 4 Turks which looked very famished and down-at-heel in appearance. Their low condition indicates a shortage of rations. The skin of one little fellow was stretched across his ribs like parchment paper. They belonged to 48th Regt. Some of the dead were headless. One clutched a torn half of a bible in either hand. Thirty-one good Australians for the sake of a few chains of trenches. Went round to NZ Rest camp. Saw R Caskey, Phil McGregor, Smallridge, Gibson of Timaru, also Capt. Foulker, who was reported killed but was only badly wounded. Steel darts dropped there yesterday by Taube. More rum.
Tuesday 3rd Aug. More hammering away by Navy at Achi Baba. Rum issue three days running.

As Sir Ian Hamilton has put it, "the navy was our father and our mother."

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11th Bn lost Leans Trench.
Wednesday 4th Aug. Sixth Reinf. arrived this morning. A likely looking lot. Large number of fresh troops reported landed during night. A big move on shortly, Went through test in signalling by Headquarters. More rum.
Thursday 5th. 8000 Tommies landed during night, East, West, South, North Lancashires, Welsh regiments of the Kings Own, and Kitcheners Army. Incendiary shell set fire to wireless station today. Issued with white square of linen for back and armlets for sleeves to be used as distinguishing badge in coming night attack. More rum.
Friday 6th Aug. Naval artillery observer killed by sniper last night at dusk. He groaned as they lifted him up so they carried him out to the Aid Post in an oil-sheet, but one look at his pale face satisfied the doctor. At daybreak this morning Abdul was surprised to see some transports and ...

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[At top of page] Something big must be coming off as we are getting rum issue every day instead of once in a blue moon.

... a large number of smaller craft plying to and fro, so he commenced a vigorous rifle and shell fire which he is still keeping up. Many fresh troops are in the gully below us. The more the merrier - We will want them all to-night. Orders are out to put blanket and sheet in pack and hand them in, so that looks like business. Who is to try for the first line of trenches we do not yet know. Gun Ridge is the main objective on this flank but there are several smaller ridges, all entrenched that must be taken first. Issued with iron rations. No tea or water for 24 hours. At noon bombardment commenced and first Bge captured 3 lines of trenches at 5.30 towards Lone Pine. 2nd Bge charged at midnight but were not so successful. Indian Mountain Battery left us to support Ghurkas. Getting issue of tin of milk per day. Also a little rice. Desperate trench fighting all night on Lonesome Pine. 1st Bge had frightful losses.

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N.Z. div. and 4 Aus Bge made night march from Fisherman's Hut and No. 2 outpost capturing No.3 Outpost, Banchop’s Hill and Big and Little Tabletops. At dawn Indians had reached the farm, and N.Z. Inf was on Rhododendron Ridge.

Saturday 7th Aug. During night large body of troops landed on both sides of Anafarla Bay. Whole Northern sector is crowded with shipping, many transports, destroyers, 5” cruisers, 100 other craft. Big engagement proceeding, Turkish shrapnel bursting over landing parties. Turks counter attacked on 2nd Bge during night bombing them out of some trenches. At dawn on 8th N.Z. column gained S.W. Slope of main Peak of Chunak Bair.
Sunday 8th [Lancaster] of our platoon killed in bomb tunnel. Big 10 inch howitzer shells dropping near us. One took leg off. Signallers lying in his bivouac. 5th Batn Connaught Rangers supporting us. Heard that fine advance has been made by new landing party. “Bluey” Blake wounded,
Monday 9th. 12th Btn supporting 2nd and 1st Bge on Lone Pine getting rather a rough time. 42 of them cut off in a sap. Saw many dead brought out of 2nd Btn trenches, over 1000 in 4 days. Constant rifle fire all day, more troops being landed. Rumoured that transport “Royal Edward” torpedoed off Lemnos with loss of 1200 Tommies.

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[At top of page] Final assault on Chunak Bair. Today – preceded by heavy bombardment. Gurkhas reached summit on neck between Hill 971 and Hill Q, but were driven back. Exhausted N.Z. boys relieved at night, after hanging on all day. At dawn on 10th Turks drove the Tommies down the hill.

Tuesday 10th Round to left flank witnessing bombardment by Navy in Anafarla bay; Heard later target was Turkish Div, advancing in Mass. Saw Turks shelling our advanced positions on the plain 5 miles inland, also observation balloon Village of Anafarla in flames. Red Cross depot on shore near old N.Z. “No. 2” outpost. Constant stream of wounded coming from the hills. Very severe fighting on the high ridges. Hill 971 proving a tough proposition. Saw 30 Turkish wounded, an evil-looking lot of ragamuffins, mostly Greek mostly types, big middle-aged Fmen. Said that 60000 troops have landed on this flank, including cavalry. Received parcel of knitted socks from home, which are very acceptable, considering I have been wearing my present pair for 3 weeks.
Wednesday 11th Hill 971 still untaken. Smell of dead bodies getting almost unbearable in our front trenches. Gift of Tobacco from overseas Club. Rumoured that we are to relieve 1st Bge which is reduced ...

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... to 700 strong by recent fighting, 2nd Btn suffering particularly heavy. Their dead lie on heaps on the Turkish parapets on Pine Ridge. Today petroleum bombs are being thrown with the object of setting fire to the dead bodies lying out in front.
Thursday 12th. Serg. Dewar promoted 2nd Lieut. C. Coy. Fighting still proceeding on left. General position is uncertain, we have made a good advance, but not accomplished all that was hoped. Casualties said to be 10000. 15th, 16th Batn A.I.F. suffered, also N.Z boys and East Lancs. Tobacco gift from Over Seas Club.
Friday 13th. Bombardment at Achi Baba. Rumoured another attempt to take Hill 971 to be made tonight,
Saturday 14th. Issue of TWO figs per man, 1 egg, 1/8 tin of milk, handful of rice, 10 sultanas! Hill 971 is surrounded by our boys on three sides. Nobody can live on the top, as it is swept by Artillery of both forces. Many casualties here.

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red and black (what btn?) 7th

Sunday 15th. Notice new 6 inch howitzer up gully behind 2nd Btn trenches. Great piles of captured equipment there – also Turkish rifles and bayonets, trenching forks etc. indicating the heavy losses of last week. Dead are still being brought out – saw 15 this morning, some in canvas boarded jackets and limed. Many bodies charred. Daily rum issue still continues. Heard R.Q.M.S was arrested for being tight. Some wounded returned, a few from England, singing praises for the good time they had. Marquerson, W. Cooper, Hughes sent away sick.
Monday 16th. More sick (14) sent away. Two Sharps Ward T. Reardon, Butler of 6th Ninth. The doctors of each Battalion signed declaration that Brigade is unfit for duty on account of sickness. Round to left near Turkish prisoners camp viewing shrapnel bursting over Anafarla, W. Ridges and range beyond. “Jack Johnsons” bursting on Sandy flat was No 2 Outpost searching for a howitzer battery there. Gen. Birdwood

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congratulated the “boys” of Aust. & NZ division on their fine night march and subsequent work last Saturday. 15th came under M.G. fire while advancing in single file and was cut up badly. Wellington Hundred’s bore the brunt of N.Z. losses. Rumour of torpedoing of transport “Royal Edward” on 14th inst. confirmed over 1000 Tommies drowned. Rumoured cut out.
Tuesday 17th. Capt Campbell went away sick. Kempshill, Corp Bell, Peingeir with old bullet wound
Wednesday 18th. Ninth Btn moved along into Tasmania Post. Lieut Chambers O.C. D Coy.
Thursday 19th. Howitzers from this flank being shifted to Left, another big move on the cards there. Saw 30 of 11th sent away sick in one batch. 3rd Bdge is run down with hard work. Kirkwood (sig.) sent away sick
Friday 20th. Change of weather. Cold snap. 6 hospital ships in anchorage this morning. Some small 3 pounder shells whisked over us very close to our home. One struck upon ...

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[At top of page] C.M.R. (N.Z.) casualties on Aug 21st.
Wounded C. Cowan (Thigh), C. West, W. Gray.

... chap in 11th Btn further on. Saw him with one leg right off, the other mashed, morphia was injected and he seemed to be bearing up well, but died on way out to hospital ship. Issued with 1½ egg per man.
Saturday 21st Sick sent away increasing daily - Serg. Hannah, Len Dewar today.
Have splendid possie here with cooking, dug-out shelves etc., up to dick. Battleships bombarding up at Anafarta Bay this evening.
Big attack on "Burnt Hill: (Hill 70) which was captured but lost in night.
L.H. (red and white) went to relieve 2 Batn in trenches captured from Turks on Lone Pine Ridge. The Turks know how to dig trenches and also how to build them. Some parts of the captured ones are model of safety and comfort, fine bomb-proof shelter and excellent sniper look outs. Many dead are still unburied up the gully. Some saps are full of bodies and are simply filled in - nothing else can be done with them. The Doctor is now showing consideration to the ones who have stuck to their jobs ...

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[At top of page] Dismounted English Yeomanry joined in attack on Burnt Hill advance across Salt Lake, Inscription on Turkish Shells- Death to my enemies.

... here right from the start, and he is sending many of them away for a spell.
Sunday 22nd. More "sick" sent away - Corp. Sizer (Corp Todd came back) Serg Smith (orderly room) Buckley. WENT Round to our left flank and over Walker's Ridge into Monash Gully, then up Pope's hill on left of Quinn's Post, down Shrapnel gully through sap to Dawkins Point then up Victoria Gully home- A good walk right round the central positions. The  Anafarla country seems quiet; today no heed the fire still burning. Yesterday's action resulted on the capture of an important well but main object failed. More developments expected tonight. There is to be a demonstration and artillery fire on our front. Saw some of 19th and 20th Btns. on beach. Landed last night. 17th and 18th said to be in firing line today. Leicesters on Walker's Ridge. NZ boys are on the left. Saw some Turkish prisoners, better conditioned and of more military appearance then the last lot.
Monday 23rd. Quiet day. High wind from N-E quarter rather cold.

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Tuesday 24th. Five letters for me in the mail left home 2nd July in answer to Egypt letters. Serg Garvin away sick. Unscrewed unexploded shell (explosive) which contained 65 grams of "Trotyl"
5th Brigage (17th to 20th) call themselves the "Dinkum" Australians. Those they left in Ausy are dubbed "the hard thinkers"
Wednesday 25th. Constant sound of heavy gun fire from behind Kibid Barhi throughout the night and during today. No 2 gun of the 7th Battery supporting us. Spoke for the first time the other evening, but enemy got onto it right away, killing and wounding many of the gun crew. Rumoured that Gharkas took four of trenches on Left and were then shelled by Navy in mistake. Issue of Golden Syrup. Corp Hume Mitchell of 18th Platoon away sick also Capt. Dongall.
Thursday 26th. Transferred to Hdgrs Battalion Signallers. Issue of backsheech extras provided by Canteen funds 1/5 lb "Peln and Fuaks" biscuit, ½ tin paste ...

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26th Alec Hall (back & arm) & Dines (chest) (C.MR. NZ) wounded this day. Lieut. Koch away sick.

... 8 packets of cigarettes 3 boxes matches, sheet of paper, ¼ tin oxford sausage, ¼ tin salmon, packet lemonade, stick chocolate, spoonful of vinegar, sauce and pickles.
Very acceptable and we enjoyed a good feed; but noticed that the tinned fruit and choicest dainties found their way to the officers possies and QM stores. RSM Windibank went away with sick this morning Doc Marsh wounded last week. Bolton, of 4th 9th hit last night while putting iron loop holes in fire-trench. The muscle of his arm was torn right away and knee-cap smashed. A nasty wound. Threatening rain again this evening
Friday 27th. Drizzling rain last night but no downpour. Several heavy burts of fire on left. The morning's draft of sick back to the base include Serg Steche (2nd time), Corps Wilse, Elliot, Frank Day, Gordon, Rumomult. We leave here in fornight's time and go to Imarliah, on Suez canal for the winter (I don't think!)

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Trench life on Walker's Ridge is awful. Since the gallant charge made by 8th and 9th L.H. their dead have lain where they fell between the trenches, and the stench is sickening. Looking through a periscope from the bomb throwers saps, one can see dead bodies thick as sheaves on a harvest field. Incendiary bombs, petrol and lime, have been freely used to destroy the bodies and remains of accoutrements, uniforms and rifles can be seen slowly smoldering among portions of dead bodies. Occasionally a clip of cartridges will explode in the fire like a packet of Chinese crackers.
Undisturbed bodies after a few weeks seem to sink down into little heaps looking like huddled up bundles of old clothes.
These brave chaps never hesitated to clamber over the parapet and face certain death, for it was a forlorn hope, and not a man reached the Turkish trenches.

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Very few got back, and they were wounded. 2 L.H. Colonels lie out there in front with their squadrons -so some of our officers have grit -they don't all cling to the safety of their dug outs. It is sights and smells, like this that sicken one off war and its glory.
This afternoon they are at it again. Away on the left the Field Artillery is barking nosily and little while cotton balls of smoke are hanging over the Turkish ridges. The howitzers and "heavies" are whining and whistling overhead and the battleships are hammering away from Anafarla Bay. Up on Walker's Ridge we can hear the popple of irregular rifle fire and pit-a-pat of maxims. Occasionally a vicious little 3 pounder bangs at our Loop-holes at almost point blank range. At the moment ...

Auckland Weekly News newspaper clipping portrait of Ringin (mis-spelt 'Riggin') Ballantyne, labelled as 'Missing 25th August", pasted in the diary, front matters image 9

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[At top of page] NZ casualties at Hill 60 (28th) J. Trotter wounded. Missing. Riggin Ballantyne, L. Calvert, Edgar Keefe, D. Middlemiss, Lieut. Hayter.

Timaru Herald, 2 October 1915, Page 2 MACKENZIE COUNTY COUNCIL.
The monthly meeting of the Mackenzie County Council was held yesterday. The chairman expressed sympathy with relatives of those killed and wounded in action recently, especially referring to Lieutenant C. Hayter, Drivers Sanders and McVey; also to J. Trotter and Robin Caskey, wounded. 

... the artillery has ceased firing, and a roar of musketry comes down on the wind from the left. Our boys are charging. Good Luck to 'em!
Saturday28th. On duty all night. Heard from phone operator that 5th Brigade attained there object, and held position of Hill 971 against counter attacks. Heavy firing on left throughout the night.
“Bluey” Blake back -an example for others, wounded who keep away for months after they are cured. Richmond of 4th 9th hit in the back by shrapnel yesterday, rather serious. Somers away sick. Reported sick -got castor oil Bismuth diet.
Sunday 29th At Brigade HQRS. This evening Tasmania Post is being shelled by "75's", the harsh strident sound of the exploding shell, which bursts overhead with a sudden clap, with no warning while is peculiar to the "75's"
Fossie of 4th 9th hit in A coy. He ...

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[At top of page] 

A Coy. O.C.  	Lien? Welder 		John Willie under a cloud
B 		Capt Ross
C 		Major Walsh
D 		Lieu Chambers
12th L.H. came up to Right Flank

... got it through the head, and is in a bad way, moaning and crying out unconsciously. Heard he died later. Three more of 9th wounded - one in stomach, one shattered arm.
Monday 30th. Fine warm weather again. Cooper away sick. Heard Crowley has lost one eye and other is in danger. Beachy Bill sent over some shells long after dark - with the hope of catching troops landing at Hqrs. Two doses Bismuth.
Tuesday 31st. Heard Beachy got 4 on landing jetty last night. 9th L.H. are holding top of Hill 60. 3 doses of quinine and strychnine for dysentery.
Wednesday 1st September Emptied a clip of cartilages into Turkish loop hole on Sniper's ridge from A Coy's firing line. If he was there I got him. But he might not have been there. Down to Bridges Road, Shrapnel Gully for some Reinf. One of them calls himself a Russian and has a ... 

Letter home published in the Timaru Herald 22nd Oct. 1915

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... Russia name but looks more like a full blooded Jap than a Caucasian.
Thursday 2nd Sept. 2 hrs digging a possie for new Telephone Box round at new Hqrs in Oratunga Gap. Bad smell, as dead bodies had to be removed from their spot - one of our boys, and some Turks. The cornfields this gap was through is a regular grave yard. While emptying bags an exposed place, got a shock by shell landing nearby. Covered in dirt and dust, but no harm done. Howitzer shells are going overhead onto the beach again with the 'wussh wussh wussh" a particular "corkscrew" sound. Just after "stand to" this morning, two Turks jumped into 10th Batn trench, crying "Turkey feenish" and gave themselves up. They indicated that more would have come across but were afraid of their own machine gun opening up on them. All night down at Brigade Hqrs.

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In Poppy Gully
The Turkish had their Armistice
And would grant us one in a trice
But we're too proud to ask
Our mates lie stark, a sad reproach
But guns are near to bar approach:
To weave their shroud is nature's task.
As fondly as a lover
Rank weeds and flowers cover
The dead that lie unburied
In silent ranks and served
Out there in Poppy Gully.

Friday 3rd Sept. Batn Hqrs being shifted into Oraburga Gap, near Tasmania Post. Hartley Corp Page of Sigs and “Tipperary”  McGoverner away sick. I note down these names because every time a man leaves the Company I have the satisfaction of saying to myself "Well, I stuck it longer than he anyhow." Rumoured that Italian staff officers are on the beach. Heared another Transport has been torpedoed, but she got safely back to Lemnos.
Saturday 4th of the 9th 1915. Serg. Mitchell, Barry Madden away sick. On phone duty at night round at new Hqrs. Dysentery still bad. A. Coy heard Traction Engine on “Caterpillar”  moving heavy guns behind Gun Ridge. Two more Turkish deserters came into 12th Btn on 27th at 4 pm, part of Hill 60 now captured by 250 rifles from 5th Bn Connaught Rangers, 400 from NZ Mounted and 350 from 13th 14th and 18th Btns A.I.F.

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Connaughts did well in charge on left, also NZ boys in centre, but Right was not so successful. That night Connaughts were bombed out of their position. Following morning at 1 o'clock 9th L.H. failed to retake lost trench. On next night (28th-29th) 10th L.H. took top of hill and positions of horses? now occupied by NZ boys, 10th LH and 13th A.I.F. Gain of country 400 acres with commanding view of gully running north. Our casualties 1000. Turks estimated at 5000 (?). Captured includes 300 rifles, 3 machine guns (two of which were immediately turned on the enemy) some trench mortars, 500 bombs and 46 prisoners.
Sunday 5th Part of 6th Bge A.I.F. landed this morning. 23rd Bn on the Beach. Rumoured that 21st Bn was on boat torpedoed near Lemnos (said to be Derflinger) and some jumped overboard and were ...

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[At top of page] Tarker? back also Cooper

... drowned. Sent back to Alexandrina to refit. Persistent rumours that our long - promised spell is coming shortly. General Birdwood told 9th today that we will get away shortly. "Beachy Bill" silent all day. Transports at daybreak were lying quite close in - a liberty they have not taken for many weeks. Q.M.S. Cameron wounded by shrapnel, rather badly, I hear. When taking despatches to Divisional Hqrs (General Walker) I notice that a few dead Turks are still being brought out of 2nd Bns trenches. Heard ugly yarn of one enormous Turk, a member of a bombing party, who jumped over our parapet and gave himself up. (?)
-... .- -.-- --- -. . - . -.. ..-. -... .- -.-. -.- [BAYONETED IN BACK]
-.. -. - - -.-. --- .-- .- .-. -.. [BY COWARDLY]
.-.. -.-- ... . .-. --. . .- -. -  [SERGEANT]


Monday 6th Lieut. Swayne away sick. 8 wounded returned from England. Lieu Benson back. Torpedoing of Royal Edward confirmed. Shell struck 11th Q.M. store on Artillery Road. Touched nobody.

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Tuesday 7th. Bancroft, D Coy hit in body by shrapnel this morning. Corp Hobson, Douglas, old Grey of 4th 9th away sick. Fresh meat again. Big mail in. Round through 7th Bn Rest Camp in Shrapnel Gully onto Walker's Ridge. Noticed 23rd -24th Btns in position to relieve 1st Bge. Was surprised to see that Turkish snipers are still on the very ridge of the cliff at Quinn's Post and so can command many parts of the gully below. 20th Bn in trenches on Walker's Ridge where NZ boys used to be. 20th have been there only fornight and reckons they want a spell to reorganise and rest!!
9th LH thought they earned a trip when they were relieved up here. They were taken down to the beach, had two hours off for a swim, two hours later were back in the firing line, and at midnight were over & charge, and they are in the thick of it yet.

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[At top of page] Heard 54th Div lost 8000 in action of month ago. Commandant broke down.

Notice tram line being laid from new wharves oKaikohen beach. Portable sails, double.
Wednesday 8th. Sick all day, violent headache, vomiting.
Thursday 9th. Still ill, can't eat anything
Friday 10th. A little better. Kept down some Porridge in the morning and soup at night. Giddy sensation. 12th are out of their trenches. Heard 1st Bge gone away. Colonel Robertson away ill. Sigs shifted to new possie.
Saturday 11th Cold wind & still feeling falling seedy. Shifted to fresh possie behind A Coy. L.C. Knowles away sick -
Saturday 12th Cold night feeling better. Heard 25th Bn landed and are to relieve 4th Bge in trenches tomorrow. Issued with pair of socks, singlet, muffler, cholera belt: first issue since leaving Aus.
Btn Adjutant away: new Adj. Mr Wilder. Rev. Robertson away sick, going back to Aus. Brother (Major S.B.) killed first day on Walker's Ridge. On duty again. Cold night. Lively bombardment at Achi Baba. Letter from Jess.
Monday 13th. Shower of rain but weather cleared. Alec Jamieson, of LH  M.G.S. away sick some six weeks ago, I learn on going round to see him.

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Tuesday 14th dull and cloudy. Sharp artillery engagement on. On Quinine again. "Beachy Bill" got 15 today a long beach.
Wednesday 15th. Heavy rain early morning. Cleared later. Basking in the warm sun all morning drying clothes and blankets. Aeroplane high in air above the drifting clouds. Abdul sent up a trail of shrapnel in her wake, a lone of puffy white rings of smoke. 25 men of 12th Bn left for Imbros as guard for Prisoners. Rum issue (1½ spoonfuls) and 1 egg per man.
Thursday 16th. More showery weather. Big howitzer shells coming from Lonesome Pine direction killed some 4th L.H. Some dropped around "Queensland Villas." Paid 10/- in Treasury note. Lieu Acklie died in Malta.
Friday 17th. McDonald wounded 28th June in leg, buried. Told me that Crowley (lost one eye) and Serg P Warner (body hit in back) returned to Australia. Comalaffi also going. "Bulgarian"? convalescent wounded at Heliopolis well treated. Many Canadians in Egypt. Our "gallant" Colonel Lee is recuperating in Florence, Italy. Two poor beggars hit on Artillery Road near Aid Post just now, one bleeding very freely from leg and side. Captain in 11th Bn killed by shell this morning. Heard (Serg Bray promoted Capt at Enoggera) died at Sydney.

Letter home. Published in Timaru Herald 18 Nov. 1915

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Saturday 18th. On beach yesterday saw 5th Ghurkas [Gurkhas] and some big Sikhs Ghurkas and sturdy nimble little men, with broad foreheads and narrow eyes, features of Mongolian cast, different type altogether from Hindoos. Very keen soldiers, take great pride in their rifles and “Ghurkris” or curved knives. Two notable events today. 1. Feed of apricots (3/-a tin)
2. letter from Mary dated 26th July, the first from home indicating that my letter from here have reached them.
Sunday 19th. Forgot it was Sunday till I heard the singing at evening Church parade. Two more letters and some papers. Henderson of 6th 9th hit by bullet in Turkish demonstration this afternoon.
Monday 20th. Shrapnel caught two of 9th this morning. Some of the new arrivals (6th brigade) fooling with bombs, when one exploded prematurely, killing 3, wounding 12. Capt Dongall returned.
Tuesday 21st. Issued with extra blanket, cold weather coming in.
Wednesday 22nd. Lieut. Cecil C. Oliver next of kin E. Oliver of Nelson St. Petone, N.Z. killed this afternoon 5 PM by snipers' bullet as he was firing through loophole. Went to his funeral at 9th Bn Cemetery same ...

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To my pants
My dirty lousy ragged breeks
In every kind of weather
I've worn you five-and-twenty weeks
And shall you hang together!

... evening 2030, conducted by padre Deaker of 5th Bn A.I.F. Borders and crosses of beach pebbles on the graves glistened strangely white in the moon light. McCullough of Hqrs sigs, died of appendicitis.
Thursday 23rd Strong cold NE wind sharp long-range gun engagement in Suvla Bay. Warships had to shift position.
Friday 24th. Bental away sick. Shrapnel worrying us. Several hit. Corporal Sinclair of B. Co. killed by shrapnel.
Saturday 25th. Shunt on last night. Heavy fire for 20 min. Les Fraser away sick -appendicitis.
Sunday 26th. Heavy bombardment up north at daybreak.
Monday 27th. Serg. Hannah enfilading sharpnel. Round to lines of 25th Bn under Hill 971 near Big and Little Tabletop and Canterbury Slope, on top of which are 28th Bn trenches, rather exposed to enfilling shell-fire. Saw Serg. Young and O'Connor at Hqs. Saw one N.Z. Inf. Martin O'Brien's brother on way up. He told me the M.R. Brigade and Inf. are spelling at Lemons, much cut about. Vic Duncan dead, also Hagerty, one of the Fitzgerald's. Robin Caskey wounded. Bought small Dutch cheese at new canteen at A.S.C. near Motor Lorries. cost 6/-. Nat Williams here some where.
Tuesday 28th. Adjutant says we will be relieved in fortnight. Enemy aeroplanes very active lately. At 0500 this morning during my night shift one flew over us very low down so close I could see the sparks from exhaust pipe of engine.

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[At top of page] Mr Wilder now Capt.
Wednesday 29th. Big guns down Achi Baba very active lately. Abdul gave us a hot half-hour this evening. Two L.H. killed outright. 5 wounded. Quinn away in Malta with abscess on jaw.
Thursday 30th. 2 eggs more. Mild warm weather again. Good news from France. Posted letter to Lairdy. Gift issue pair socks.
Friday 1st October. 150 Reinf (7th of 1st Bn) came into our Bn last night. Smith, of B Coy killed yesterday by sniper. Taylor, A Coy, broken leg this morning, sniper.
Saturday 2nd. Bde - Maj Ross slightly wounded. Chaplain Robertson finally away sick. Plenty rice on issue.
Sunday 3rd Big mail in. Paid £2.
Monday 4th. Violent bombardment of our trenches since 9.30. Heavy artillery fire down south. Shrapnel dropping into my Possie. Under covers of artillery fire Turks filled in Trench on Lone Pine and retired. Saw body of one of 11th killed, heard of another in 10th.
Tuesday 5th. Warm day. paid 3/- for 4 cakes of Fry's Chocolate.
Wednesday 6th. Letters from Mother. Also school magazine.
Thursday 7th. Said to be attack on Lone Pine this evening.
Friday 8th. demonstration last night. Our parachute flares and rockets. Capt. Jack Milne back. Dr Butler now Major. Capt. Chambers _____ _____ [faded] ...

Image 89
When winds do blow and it doth snow
And wet wild nights have come
How many quids would we not give
For an officer's share of RUM!

... drew heavy fire from Turks for half-an-hour. Some of the new chums in "E Coy" got up on the parapet and blazed away. Helped one out to aid - post, only scalp-wound. One of the 11th killed.
Saturday 9th. Heavy rain last night, driving S-W wind. My possie rather damp. Small issue of comforts -stick of chocolate, few figs. Artillery firing down south again today. Eating as much as rice a Chinaman lately.
Sunday 10th Brigade staff back at Hqrs. Big mail none for me.
Monday 11th. Heavy showers today. Party of Gurkhas with officers shown through our lines. Cold night.
Tuesday 12th More mail today nothing for me except "Worker"
Wednesday 13th. One of A Coy. hit by shrapnel in wrist. New man in E Coy shot himself through fore-arm accidently (?). Cold day. Few boxes of backsheesh comforts issued. My share- 1 preserved plum, 2 tinned carrots, issued with "Australia" Tunic
Thursday 14th Servia and Bulgaria at war
Friday 15th Parcel from home, securely packed in soldered tin -just as well, as it is much battered about. Chocolates and tinned stuff in good order but Bermaline bread is mouldy and sweets are melted into lump. Rumour of big "stunt" coming off soon.

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Saturday 16th Big demonstration 4 am this morning right along line. Some mines blown up on Holly Ridge. 2 causalities in 9th. 1 L.H. killed. This evening one of 12th Bn accidently killed by mate's rifle. Bullet passed through hand of one more man and head of the other. Ian Hamilton's farewell message to troops.
Sunday 17th. More rain last night. Dull day. Late at night gunners with horse team pulled peculiar shaped bell-mouthed affair (base of anti-aircraft gun) up Artillery Road. Accident going back as the word came up for "Stretcher-bearers."
Monday 18th. Rainy night and morning. Two of 9th killed during night - one in A Coy bomb tunnel (J. Wain) other in B Coy lookout possie. One of "E" Coy shot thro' hand, one poor chap, big strapping man, lived in possie alongside me.
Tuesday 19th Cold day 4.7 naval gun behind us had premature burst. 3 of 12th Bn wounded.
Wednesday 20th Two letters from home for me (Aug 20th). Bleak cold day.
Thursday 21st Very cold wind. Capt "Jack" Milne now major.
Friday 22nd Another cold windy day. Demonstration by L.H. this morning
Saturday 23rd Wet night. 11th and 12th Bn's changed places. Heard British landed at Salonika. A. Miller of C. Coy killed today in trenches.
Sunday 24th Cold and showery. 3rd brigade disappointed to hear that on relief has been postponed indifferently. Lieut. Dewar back in A Coy.

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Monday 25th 6 months today since landing took place. Special issue of rum. A fine day at last. Good chance to dry out blankets etc. 2nd Bde returned last night also some returned wounded etc. for this Bde majority sent to reinf. camp in "Rest" Gully, while the "OVERS" get yon?
Tuesday 26th. Warning message came through Lone Pine during night that Turks had new troops in the trenches and an attack was expected but it proved a false alarm. "Backsheesh" Rum from Adj. Jack Crossan away to base (teeth). Roy O'More back. Cold day again.
Wednesday 27th Col. Walsh and Capt. Dougall away sick, Major Milne now OC. QMS. Aggilt made Lieut. Heavy sea and wind from S-W. Lively half hour from new batteries of Krupp guns. Some of 9th hit.
Thursday 28th. Wind changed to warm southerly. Sigs practising some reading daily under Lieut. Williams. Some more salvoes from the new Krupp guns.
Friday 29th. Letter from Ef. dated 15th Aug. Corp? away sick. Heavy firing down south again.
Saturday 30th Saw Turkish prisoners brought in by L.H.
1st Bge landed last night (1100 strong) shifted to D Coys old lines. Chalton, Bently (D Coy) away sick. Kempshill back.

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Sunday 31st 1st Bde (Gen Smythe) manned Tasman Post.
Monday 1st Nov. Letters from Nell. Tot? McM E.H. Cooked plum duff and pork what oh' for __
Tuesday 23rd Sleepless night in Telephone Possie - worried by red jumping fleas. At 2000 last night bomb sailed out from Sniper's ridge, exploding close to Gillandars in Observ'n post, concussion, knocking him over. Bomb had long thin wooden stake 7ft long (christened broom "stick" bomb) L.H. threw some catapult bombs into "Turkish Despot" position this afternoon which is drawing artillery reply. A shell on Artillery Road killed Corp Bluey Blake D Coy -a good man, who was wounded twice previously and then came back to his fate. Last of 4 others -one went down in A1 (Aust. Submarine) Second captured in A2, 3rd killed on the Left line.
Wednesday 3rd Shifted once more back to D Coy's old lines. Met Sig.'n (N.S.W.) in 3rd Bn (chocolate & green) that I knew in Melbourne. Six of them killed at Lone Pine. Shelling from Turks today accounted for 9 in one go.
Thursday 4th Showery day. Letter from Mother (Sept. 10th) telling me of death of Phil McGregor in hospital.
Friday 5th. Last night Turks attacked 2nd L.H. Bde in newly built trench connection Tasman Post with next ridge. Repulsed with loss. L.H. had 2 killed, 14 wounded.

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Placard on Cairo Restaurant

      SQUARE DINKUM TUCKER
Eggs-a Cook 	½ piastre for each
Steak and Egg 	4 paistres
Tomats, Bred, pepper. Saut,
Very Nice 	Very clean

Saturday 6th On sick parade for Dysentery. Corps Morton back. Heard L. Corp Vowles died at Lemnos of pneumonia.
Sunday 7th Still sick. Splendid chicken broth at Aid Post. Lovely parcel from home in good order.
Monday 8th. Inoculated with "Ematine" L.H. stormed position of Turkish Trench on Harris Ridge last night, holding it successful (near Chatham's Post)
Tuesday 9th Instruction by Col. Dudgeon A.M.C. Arnell Benson, now Captain.
Wednesday 10th still on sick parade eyes swollen and puffed legs.
Thursday 11th Ordered away to Field Ambulance.
Kempshill shot away part of back of left hand accidently while loading rifle. Early relief of 3rd Bde again rumoured.
Friday 12th Evacuated to 2nd L.H. Field Ambulance then with Blue Ticket (oedema and anaemia) to 1st Aust. Clearing Hosp. Fine supper of braised beef. Stretchers case alongside me delirious.
Dr. - "What are you making a noise for? I'm not hurting you yet" patient "No, but you're going to,"
Saturday 13th Got finally away on Red Cross barge to Hospital Ship Syria (P and O)
Norman and two others of 9th with me. Long restless night. Delirious man kept me awake.

Gallipoli and disease. JD McM. had beri beri, a thiamine deficiency (vitamin B1 deficiency). It is due to a dietary problem (eating lots of white rice) and not a variety of foods. Can cause heart failure and trouble walking. Admitted to A & N.Z. Gen. Hosp. Helouan, Egypt, 20 miles from Cairo, a convalescent hospital 5 Dec. 1915 and discharged on 22nd Dec. 1915. Apparently there were twenty six cases reported from Gallipoli.

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What a relief to shed dirty venomous clothes, plunge into hot bath, and then slip into sweet clean new outfit of shirt, pyjames, socks, slippers, A haircut now, and I will feel civilised again. Old clothes bundles up, labelled and taken away to be sterlised. A very orderly clean ship, with attentive RAMC and Indian orderlies and five Sisters. Boat's first trip to Anzac. Has been on run Suez to Aden and Boulouque to Portsmouth. Hot beef tea waiting for us on board.
Sunday 14th Squally southerly blowing, boat ran across to Imbros (15 miles) for shelter. Anchored among monitors inside boom. Renewed acquaintance with butter, cabbage, apples ("pinched" for me by friendly butcher.)
Monday 15th Dull wintery day. Some complaints about food this morning. Some fellows get sick after about a week's service, and then expect to be pampered up as heroes. They forget "hard times" in the trenches very quickly. For myself, I am thankful to be lying at my ease in a soft cot to be wearing clean clothes, and enjoying a jolly good rest ...

Image 95
[At top of page] 

Good night Dardanelles
25th May -18th November

... with no worries of "stand to," "next for duty" or Abdul's shrapnel. One "sick" man this morning, when he did not get milk with his porridge, said he wished he were back in the trenches. he will find plenty willing to exchange places and chance the milk.
Tuesday 16th Weather moderated and boat came back to Anzac to complete loading. Monguide, Manila, Havelock, Imbros - two 14 in guns, shallow draught, very powerful boat. Another load of sick and wounded making 450. Heard 9th are relieved at last. McDonald J.R. hit in 13 places by bomb likely to die. Sharp artillery engagement at sundown and along line to Quinn's Post.
Wednesday 17th Boat arrived from Mudros 8 A.M. Funeral at daybreak - the Colonel (M.O.) wearing his sword, the first I have seen on the Peninsula.
Thursday 18th Boat shifted closer in. Lighter alongside for 50 walking cases. Living in suspense to hear my fate. I don't want to be marooned here. 5 p.m. At Last. Safe outside the harbour full steam for Alexandria. Passed transports (one the Argylishire) full of fresh Australians, who "carrying on" with the job now, while we old hands leave. 

Image 96
Someone said "I wonder if the lads in their graves along the Dere will hear us creeping away, deserting them. I hope they are asleep."

20th Reached Alexandria
21st Heliopolis No. 2 Aus.
27th Cable home "Sick in Hospital, not serious"
Dec 4th Out of bed - pleasant hours in Heliopolis
Dec 6th Saw A. Hall, C. West, I Siegert? [Sizemore?] at Zietoun
Dec 10th Transferred to Helouan
Dec 22nd Left Helouan "A' class to overseas base
24th Withdrawal from ANZAC announced
27th Left Gezna overseas base with 500 of 1st Division for Teb-el-Kebrir
Sent home 2 silk scarves value 90 piastres
1916
Jan 5th 2 Letters from mother (Nov 18th) Mary (Nov 12th)
Rejoined Batn which arrived last night.
No tents for them to sleep in. Weather cold and wet
3 parcels one from Lena McM. ½ sov? in letter from Jess
Jan 20th After breaking leave for one day in Cairo put under open arrest and fined one
day's pay at Bder & Roona? 18th made Lance-Cpl
transferred to B Coy.
26th Shifted to Serapeum, on Suez Canal near Ismailia. Bivouacked in the rain. Pontoon bridge
27th marched 10 miles across desert to outpost at Gebel Habeila
Full pack up, also Helio
29th Another shift to No2 Post

Image 97
Below the hill, along the Dere.
The boys are soundly sleeping
O steal away, don’t wake them, pray
Leave ANZAC in their keeping.

Monday 31st Jan Hot day. Short allowance of water, Ration, 1 slice bacon, slice cheese, 1 tin bully beef, 6 biscuits, 1 bottle of water per day.
Aeroplane scouting. Indian Lancer patrol out every day also Camel Corps. Water lean.
Wednesday 2nd Feb. Gil returned from Hospital.
4 letters for me dated 29th Sept.
14th Feb. Letter from Mater? (Jan 2nd) first letters form Hospital ship reached home. Last week got parcel – singlet milk soup tablets. Writing wallet from F.C.H.
Few canteen stores for sale now. Railway (light gauge) is up to foothills now, also line of water pipes from Canal. Camel transport is still not sufficient and troops as a result are sometimes short of rations. Gen Birdwood inspected redoubts and lines 12th inst. Some positions we hear condemned. Detachments of Bikaner Camel Corps, Indian M. Battery, Bengal Lancers NZ mounted on patrol duty. Nothing much doing here, Turks supposed to be many miles away yet. Notice gunboats and monitors in the Bitter Cakes. Some artillery fire last Friday.

Image 98
Feb 22nd Squadron NZMR (Wellington may Spragg OC)
Bikaner Camel Corps. Went out on long reconnaissance. Out all day, past Sugar Loaf. Shot one camel, Arab escaped. Aeroplanes give ample warning of approach of raiding parties. One dropped message was Hdqs in Red White & blue bag last week. Patrols report presence of prowling dogs at might but they may be desert jackals whose barking is sometimes heard. Saw death adder that was rooted out of sand mound. Some Arab spies are slipping through our lines. One was captured on the Canal: seized with cramps while swimming across. He had done 100 miles across the desert to Ismailia, and was working his way back to the Turks. Had  £15 in money on him. Paid £2 but nowhere to spend it. Had coffee and milk for supper, the last of my parcel stuff except some soup tablets.
Feb 23rd Capt Bodse gone to Div. Capt Young Major.
Lieu. Hinton Capt also Lawrence. Two Sgt's Paeger?, Lieuts. Gray, Agget, Weynard 1st Lieuts.

Image 99
Egyptian street Arab selling Papers:
“Gypshun Mail tomorra. half piaske
Very good news. Oskalian Troopship sunk
Orright cobber. You buy very nice paper”

Feb 24th Our M.O. Major Bulter left Bn to take up Divisional position as D.A.D.M.S. The boys cheered him as he rode off. “Backsheesh” issue of cigarettes sweets etc. from V.R.C Melbourne.
Feb 26th Half ninth left Habeita to form nucleus of new 49th Bn. Farewell by Brig-Gen. MacLagen said in course of address that many of the 3rd Bde had been knocked over by Brother Turk, some including himself by ‘Fray Bentos’ marched to railhead and bivouacked. Passed our relief 25th Bn reinf. They have their BAND with them
Feb 27th Train to canal, crossed by pontoon bridge, enjoyed swim and train to Tel-el-Kebis. Tents ready for us. Also tea – a new experience on marching into a strange camp.
Feb 28th Capt. Chapman ‘H’ Capt Arrell ‘B’ Capt Lee ‘C’ Capt Plant ‘D’
Feb 29th Sections split up. Serg how S.M. (temp) old hands have to take their chance of promotions with Reinf ??
March 12th Letter from F.C.H first since joining 49th. Church parade for 13th Bde Col. Glascow Brigadier March past to salute General of 4th Division. Old hands have to take their chance of promotion with Reinf. non-coms.
Last week posted parcel to Gil. New Y.M.C.A hut being built for our Bde, also canteens, mess sheds etc. I suppose when we are just ...

Image 100
... getting nicely settled down. They will move us on. Squad and platoon drill the order of the day – 9 to 12 AM & 3 to 5 PM. Will we ever get to anything more practical than this eternal drilling? The ‘heads’ must place some value on the experience of active service some of us have had; and yet here we are going through the same monotonous routine that the rawest recruits in Australia are undergoing. Practical work is at a discount. All they seem to think of is Ceremonial; and non-coms who were doing this bit in the trenches while other men were in schools of Instruction, have to complete on the parade ground against these fellows who never got near to the trenches than Egypt, but have ‘examination’ certificates for ceremonial – to their credit. It is not a fair deal. Perhaps they will be glad to fall back on the old hands when there is ‘something doing’. Some cases of meningitis among us – one death so far (Clarke). Saw Sgt. ‘Skinny’ Heaton D.C.M. down here last week.

Image 101
Cairo Street Calls
Donkey - boy :- “you ride–a–donkey, Veree nice Donk”
Boot - black :- “clean boots Kiwi  veree good Kiwi”
Fruit - hawker :-“ two-for-a-half   veree sweet orangees”
Soft drinks :- “veree cool seerup  off the snow”

March 14th Big draft from Bn to form new Artillery units – Butler, Henderson of 4th Ninth, Clements
March 16th Another draft to Pioneer Bn – Serg Low, McGielvery, P Morgan, Hunt among them. New promotions: L/C Sharp, Sargood, Corp. Hobson – Sgts. Simson, Richardson – Corps. on the whole, old hands got a fair deal. Inoculated again. Some mail from home dated Jan 19th and 24th Bn of Lancashire Fusiliers arrived here, straight from England.
March 17th Inoculated. Into Cairo to send cable. ½ sov ?rescued.
March 19th On Brigade telephone. Capt. Plantaway to 6th Bde as Bde Major to Col. Jellybraid?
March 20th Bde sig. School commenced. Helmets and puggerees being issued.
March 21st Bn inspection by Gen Cox, who said we are for France in 6 weeks
March 22nd Saw Prince of Wales, who inspected camp and rode through lines at dinner time. Got a good welcome. Looked boyish and rather nervous. Hear advance guard is leaving tomorrow, so there is another shift on.
March 23rd Serg Grith given Commission, also Stewart, Smith and some others from the L.H
March 29th All Inf. Bdes have now left here ...

Image 102
... except 13th and 15th. Some have been leaving daily during the week for Serapeum per boat. Camel transport and barges on canal used for baggage, as next formations had no horse transport.
49th Bn leaving tomorrow. Some long route marches during the week to get fit.
March 31st To Cairo for School of Instruction.
April 2nd Drew draft of £10 (less 70 piastres) at Anglo Egyptian Bank. bought camera.
April 10th Parcel in mail for home value £4. Rumoured that some of the 1st Division were torpedoed in Mediterranean, also that 2nd Div. had big casualties in France. Also that one Bde got lost on road to Serapeum, and several died from thirst and heat.
Good Friday. Visited Virginos? Well at Inatarieh.
April 22nd  Back in Unit at Serapeum. Saw C.S.M Jacka VC 14th Bn.
April 24th Easter Monday - lost 10/-. Bombs dropped at Kantara
April 25th Anzac Day. Good dinner - Swimming sports. Snapped Prince of Wales.
April 27th Heavy firing to north near Ismailia.
April 28th Divisional Field Day at Railhead
May 7th Shifted to Railhead

Image 103
May 11th Parcel from home cont. 9 soup tablets, tin milk, meat extract, sweets. Sent March 22nd. Route marches every day lately. Many falling out
May 16th Into canal yesterday for swimming Parade, today marching out to trenches. Very hot today and many fell out on the road. Tea provided half way as In afternoon “A” and “B” Companies suffered a good deal from shortage of water. Camels did not turn up till 8pm. Men had to go on outpost at night. Nearly crazy with thirst but cooks made welcome drink of tea as soon as ?fantassies of water were unloaded. Several men carried into camp in state of collapse. The track to “A” Coy’s post is strewn with equipments packs and rifles. Our O.C. worked hard for the sick men. Heard many are delirious and out of control at ”A” Co.
May 17th Another hot day, temp reaching 124°. Some stragglers are still turning up from yesterday. Made pea soup from tablets in parcel.

Image 104
Over 30 men have collapsed from heat. Repaired telephone wire this evening
May 18th wind changed to north and cool day followed – a godsend after the trying time we have had. Repaired “A” Co’s lateral line. Good meal of meat tonight
May 19th Repaired “C” Coy’s lateral line. In touch with all Coys now. Over at Hdqrs helping linesmen with their gear. Another cool wind today
May 21st Building sandbag possie for ‘phone. All sick men out of hospital now. Cool wind daily
May 24th Backsheesh issue of gift tobacco, milk and fruit. 25th Pay - day
May 26th Anniversary of 9th Reinf landing at Dardanelles. Relieved today by part of 50th Bn. Marched to Railhead in cool of the evening, arriving at 9 o’clock. Came in at good pace, very few dropping out.
May 28th Mr ?Adsect now Captain. To canal on Train for swim.
May 29th March to Canal for swim. Bn of Hants inf. relieving us. Review of 4th and 12th Bdes

Image 105
Sun 4
Mon 5
Tues 6
Wed 7
The sign of an early move look promising this time. Bde Staff Captain has already gone, also Divisional details, and we hear 12th and 4th Bdes are beginning to embark, so we should be on the way by the end of the week. Handed in blankets to be fumigated yesterday. Shortages of clothing to be made up. Persistent rumours that England is our destination. Handed in goggles that were issued for sand. Casualties among 9th in France confirmed. Serg, Pretorius reduced for being absent without leave.
May 31st Fumigated clothing at canal. Late march back. No meal till 10pm.
June 4th Early morning church parade and march past for Brigade. Tents struck and part of Bn moved out at 12.00: remainder at 16.30. Hot hazy day, with sand storm in afternoon, which made us glad to be leaving the plaques ...

Image 106
... Egypt behind us. Did the six miles to railway in two hours. Main camp at Serapeum deserted. Entrained at 9 o’clock at night, arrived Alexandria 4.30 next morning and embarked immediately on H.M.T. Arcardian 50th Bn and Bde Hqrs and details with us, in all 2700 on boat. Other transports for Brigade Celesian, Japanese Prince and another.
Tuesday 6th June. Left Alexandria 8 A.M. escorted by destroyer and patrol boats. Ship overcrowded and food poor, but it is good to rest the eyes from the glare of the desert and to enjoy the fresh salty breezes of the Mediterranean instead of the hot khamseen we endured at Serapeum. All hands wearing life-jackets continuously and ship steering erratic zig-zag course to avoid submarines.
7th June. Land in sight 0900, patrol boat signaling to us. Food very short this morning. Good canteen, beer 6d a bottle but very hard to get near it on account of the crowd.
9th. Passed Malta
10th. Passed Corsica.

Image 107
11th. Arrived Marseilles 4 P.M. Last day strong north wind with swell, otherwise good trip.
12th. Disembarked and marched to Aix Hindoo convalescent camp. General leave till 9 P.M. Good time in city on 5 francs – fresh cherries, bock and vin.
13th. Trained for Flanders at 9 a.m. Through hilly chalky formation. Many long tunnels for some miles to Miramas. Then past rolling downs with olives and vines and across rich irrigated plain country, with ripening crops and green meadow land and orchards. 1330. Town of Asles – railway workshop. Saw lady at work – Red Cross nurses.
Terascon 1400 – Casques – steel helmets;
Avignon 1500 - high church spire – old. Castles on hills, high mountains to the North-East Gorgues. At Orange to tea, stopped 2 hours. Mondragon 1830. Big River (Rhone). At dusk to West. Lovely wooded hills and green valley. All day we passed through a well-filled country-side peopled by industrious, hospitable folk who welcomed us all along the line.

Image 108
Wednesday 14th.
Lyons at daybreak. Breakfast 0630. 50th Bn caught us. River on Right now. At 0705 Pont de Vaux Fleurville. 0725 Tournus – much meadowland and hay-making. Crops later and heavier than yesterday. Fields full of red poppies. 0800 Chalon-sur-Saone, 0915 Chagny, 1000 Beaune, Nuits-St-George. Vougeot – many vine yards. Boys spraying vines, girls driving hay rake. Many women and old men working in the fields - Givry – Chambery – dull and cloudy. Dijon ancient town – talk with Alpine  Chasseur. Passe de vin Blanc from his water bottle. Rain a Railway Junction to Avalon and Venarey - les-Laumes?. Stop for tea. 267 kilo Paris, Montbard later. Hilly country from Dijon. Seem to be crossing range. Hazy. Tonnerre 1615. Florentin-Verqiguy 1730. Yonne (railway engine depot) on river turning west. Joigny St Julien-du Sault Villeneuve-nur-Yonne. Montereau for tea 80 kilos to Paris. Exchanged souvenirs with Noumea Marine

Page 109
Thursday 15th. Corbeil-Essonnes 12 PM. At daybreak woke at Versailles. Sisters of Mercy were running out to train with steaming jugs of hot coffee, when train moved on leaving the good sisters lamenting and us disappointed. St Cyr 0425, St Germain. Heard cuckoo in woods. Grand - Conflans-Fin-d’Oise. At sunrise crossed Seine north of Paris. Eragny-Neuville Junction, breakfast at Chevonval – lovely big strawberries. Crossed river Oise. At 0830 Creil, big railway centre and iron works. Lancourt, Clermont 0910 St Just. Passed Paris Express Breteuil. First trench at Ailly-sur-Noye - Ordance Depot. Boves – muddy roads, pastoral country – yellow flowers in fields. Saw first body of troops on march – first armoured train - first motor Transport train – first dispatch rider. Not far from Soissons firing line here - Longueau at 1200 first battalion of English Tommies. Amiens – big railway centre for tea. Belgium.

Image 110
Daylight Saving begins this morning

Chasseurs de pieds on train exchanged souvenirs - stationed at Dinmude. Just had “six jours” permission à Paris. Abbeville – more tea. Saw first Red Cross train with wounded from Arras. Boulogne – English Base – Calais – big store depots. St Omes at dark. Flat swampy country, many canals and wind mills. 11 PM detrained at Caestre marched out to billet in farm house and enjoyed good sleep after 62 hours in the train.
Friday 16th. Dull cold day, good possie in loft of barn on straw floor. Germans were here in early days, killed cattle and commandeered horses. Shot Priest and mutilated a child in the next farm. Not much fighting, small skirmish with French and then retired.
Sunday 18th. Church Parade YMCA. Much firing yesterday. Aeroplanes active. When asked about food by Gen Cor yesterday, one man of B Coy said we were Well Fed. The B----- Letter from Gil. Mail home. Paid 40 francs.

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Monday 19th Left Strazeele per foot for Estaires via road near Sorgue and Merville. Closer up to trenches now, in 1st Div A.I.F area. Hard cobble stones on road jarred our feet. Bought milk and beer (2 pints for 6 sous) for dinner. Arrived at billet 4.30 P.M
Wednesday 21st Several of 9th in raiding party training near Sailly. Heard Capt. Warren killed on patrol. Ninth casualties so far 250 – dead include Middlemiss, Kent, Serg. Phipps, Coller, Lieut. Carroll wounded jaw. – Sergs Carroll and Bailey “B” Coy Ninth Bn.
Saturday 24th A Coy left for supports __ last night. Raining today. Gas helmets issued, and gas alarm other night.
Sunday C Coy shifted. Sgrt. Brownie, Luke, Dunn, Young, Perritt.
Tuesday 27th Hdqrs shifted last night – us tonight. Heard Paddy Francis of 4th/9th killed by bomb. Damp weather. Heavy bombardment to South. Letter from home dated 25th Feby. Mail posted, souvenirs.
30th June 3 letters from home (April 28th) Electric Bell fitted up into O’C’s billet – cost 20 francs. Shell dropped close to possie night before last. One casualty in B Coy working party. One in A Coy shot his foot (accident?) Showery weather. Saw dead Australian officer – Watson, also grave of Capt Bates 10th Bn at Sailly

Image 112
Sunday July 2nd Last night 9th Bn Raiding party delivered surprise attack through 52nd Bn’s trenches between Laventie and Fromcux. Solid bombardment for some time. Heard that 21 prisoners brought in and some machine guns. Prisoners look well fed and have new clothing and equipment. Sergs Caroll, Barry missing, and “Dad” Hume killed. Also Capt Benson, Capt Wilder Neligon badly hurt.”Darky” Kenyon distinguished himself. Motor ambulances busy on road today. Shells in “A” Co’s billet, Rouge-de-bout last night – but all hands had taken shelter in dugouts.
First day of big advance along front from Peronne to Arras. Great bombardment.
July3rd Many aeroplanes out. Two of ours brought down by Germans. Another raid by 11th Bn. One by shellfire – other by Fokkes. Pay day.
July 4th Rain today.Walked to Estaires. Some home mail.
July 5th 51st Bn shelled.15 killed in one group.
July 7th Visited firing line via Two tree farm and V.C. Avenue. Saw graves of Paddy Francis (June 22nd) Middlemiss, Sandow, Kelly, White, Serg Caroll, Capt Benson and Warren and many more of old 9th Bn.
July 10th Sunday afternoon in Levantie. Church in ...

[RUE-DU-BOIS MILITARY CEMETERY, FLEURBAIX,  5 kilometres south-west of Armentieres ]
Captain BENSON, CLAUDE ELMHURST
Date of Death: 02/07/1916 Age: 26
Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Awards: D C M
Grave Reference: I. B. 8.

Captain WARREN, ARTHUR
Date of Death: 18/06/1916
Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Grave Reference: I. B. 13.
Son of John and Arabella Warren, of Madagan, Queensland.
Sergeant CARROLL, WILLIAM HUDSON No: 986
Date of Death: 02/07/1916 Age: 32
Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Date of Death: 02/07/1916
Grave Reference: I. B. 5.

Lance Corporal KELLY, PETER No: 868
Date of Death: 01/06/1916
Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Grave Reference: I. E. 24.
Son of Mrs. Ann Kelly, of 351, Main St., Orange, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Private FRANCIS, PATRICK No:1758
Date of Death: 30/05/1916
Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Grave Reference: I. E. 25.

Private MIDDLEMISS, KENNETH McGREGOR No: 978
Date of Death: 22/05/1916 Age: 23
Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Grave Reference: I. E. 27.
Cemetery: RUE-DU-BOIS MILITARY CEMETERY, FLEURBAIX
Private SANDOW, MAXWELL JARMAN No: 75
Date of Death: 29/05/1916
Age: 23
Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Grave Reference: I. B. 20.

Private WHITE, JOHN THOMAS No:1019
Date of Death: 01/06/1916
Regiment/Service: Australian Infantry, A.I.F. 9th Bn.
Grave Reference: I. B. 17.

Image 113
[At top of page]  On July 17 – 19 much fighting took place at Fromelles just a week or so after we went down to Somme 5th Div A.I.F cut up here

... ruins and many houses destroyed by shell - fire. Last night heavy shelling Right of Lavantie. Some village in flames. Heard we are moving back to Strazelle, and not going into the firing line after all. Received parcel containing fruit, cocoa, sardines, milk, sweets
July 11th 60th Bn (red and white) took over Rouge–de-Bout. Marched at dark through Sailly to Divisional Bomb School and bivouaced.
July 12th Issue of backsheesh tinned stuff - pork and beans – milk etc. Peculiar that we never see this gift stuff till there is a move on. It’s then issued on account of limited transport. Marched through Doulieu and Merris to old billets at Shazelle – Cache.
July 13th Old Buller brought in by two Tommies as “German Spy“ yesterday. Marched to Bon Cleone and entrained for Somme. Branched off at Hazebrouck to Bethune line. Arrived Douellins KPn.?
July 14th Night march to billets in Pernois through Candas and Canaples. Bn got lost and bivouaced on a hill near Canaples for breakfast.

Image 114
July 15th To Berteaucourt (big village) for a feed as our rations are very scanty. Good issue of Tea and Bully, but very little else. Saw J Mole in 47th Bn. All one Div'n seem to be round here. Said to be forming a mobile column. Dragoon Guards and Lancers escorting us.
July 16th Some mail from home. 3 for me. Church Parade and route march with full pack and blanket over the hills and back. This village 22 Kilos Amiens, 25 Kilos Albert (on the Somme)
July 24th A week of route marches and sig. training. Bread and fresh meat rations very short. Some days a loaf of bread to 10 men. Church parade and march past yesterday on hills behind Canaples near artillery. Beaucoup-de-vin et champagne ici. Route march for several hours ce matin. Some Reinf. for Bn arrived – also details left in Egypt.
July 26th March through Beauval, Damart, St Leger yesterday.
Parcel from home containing singlet, socks, sweets.
July 28th Saw Third Brigade returning from trenches where they were in 6 days at Pozieres and got it hot. Many old ...

Image 115 [At top of page] 18th Gilvear wounded,
18__ Richmond of 4th/ 9th missing 23rd July
C.S.M O’Brien killed


...hands killed including Serg.t Darky Kenyon (D.C.M). Lieut. Weynard and the Adjudant Mr Ruddle and Skinny Heaton (D.C.M). Saw Gillanders – now in Bde Observation Post, 9th Bn seemed to have more German helmets and other trophies than the other Bns
July 29th Marched from Pernois through Canaples, and near Talmar to Refaumprè. Hot day, many dropped out.
July 30th Church parade and speech from Gen. Cox, who indicated our task would be attack on either strong form Trouquet Farm to left of Pozieres or Martinpuich village on right. Probably going in there this coming week. Made parcel of films, diary etc; and will pack them securely, address home, and leave in pack – in case of accidents. Many men fell out on march yesterday with sore feet – and as punishment for not being fit they are getting more pack drill today : Who would not be a soldier! [Diary packed in parcel, left in pack]

Image 116
[At top of page]  [Sept 8th - In 3rd London Hospital, Wandsworth. Received Diary, photos and camera in parcel from France.]

After 4 days in Rebrammpré, night march through Warloy to Albert from wood near Carnoy where we had bivouacked few days. Arrived Albert 6th Aug. on 6th moved into support trenches on Tara Hill. First night 8 killed by long-range shell fire. Previous night Troy Manning, Capt. Plant (6th Bde) killed in this position.
12th Aug. Paid 20 francs. Ready to move in. Aeroplane brought down.
13th Aug. Moved up to trenches in Pozieres. Wounded in afternoon while bringing up gear. Pike killed by same shell. Lay some hours in sap. Stretchers - bearers -Murray -Jones, carried me over open ground to dressing station. Pelvin passed me here carrying his Lewis gun. He waved his hand and called "Cheerio!" I never saw him again. Rough passage to Contalmaison First Aid Post. Then in Horse Ambulance to Bihecourt Clearing Station. Fixed up here with splints and bandages. Very sore and bruised. Dying German in next stretcher. At dark left in motor for Warloy.

[Wounded in action in field 13 Sept. 1916, G.S.W. foot.] Letter home published in the Timaru Herald 11th Oct. 1916.

Image 117
Further stay here. Clothes cut off me. Then in another motor to base Hospital at Puchvillers.
14th All day at Puchvillers
15th On Hospital train through Candas?, Abbeville to Rouen, 14 hours in train.
17th On Hospital ship St. Patrick- Evening saw Isle of Wight.
18th. Landed Southampton. Train 12 o'clock. Passed Shawford, Winchester, Basingstoke, Farnborough, Woking, Surbiton, Wimbledon, - L.S.W. railway, got off Clapham Junction. Motor to hospital.
Sept. 1st Saw Sandy during week, just back from furlough in Scotland. Two cables home 24th Aug. 2nd Sept. Letter from firing line: promotions in Sigs 49th Bn. Serg. Colvin now Lieut. L/C Crossan. Sert. L/C Haydun? Full Corp. Among killed are Serg. Tom Hobson (4th /9th) and Corp. Ritchie, Pretorius (4th /9th) who was reduced in the ranks in Egypt for breaking leave, wins military medal.
My luck to be away again when promotions are flying round. Mais que voulez-vous. C'est la guerre!

flow-chart

Image 118
[At top of page]  Sept 3rd -4th - 49th Bn lost heavily at Mouquet Farm

Treatment in hospital very good. An illustrated paper published & photo of Lieut. Jacka V.C. A.I.F. and announced his death. He is very much alive in one of the wards of this hospital, and said it was very interesting to be dead, when they woke him up and told him the newspaper must be right. Weather for almost three weeks has been bad, rain and mist daily. The harvest must be doing a perish?. A few fine days now.
Sept. 9th Received parcel from France yesterday with camera and films. Great excitement last Saturday right when Lieut. Robinson (now V.C.) brought down one of the 13 Zeppers engaged in a raid on London. Tonight saw old Johnny Deakin (wounded back), Docherty (leg), Pennington (hand) of B Coy, all just across from Ronen. Heard from them that among killed are Lieut's Groves, (Killed), (Renniger) Wilkinson not killed. Gearie, Corp Thomas and many others in last Sunday's charge at Mouquet Farm.

Image 119
Sept 17th Further carnalities during the 4 nights 49th were in second stunt:- Mr. Stewart now among the killed also Nicholson, Serg Boswood, Craig, Nolby Clark. J. Clarke and V.C. Docherty missing. 19 wounded in 7 platoon. Only nine left, no N.C.Os. Connors McKechnie, Woods, Dixon, Callon, Gasson, Scott, Pennington's brother (15th Bn) died the other day in this hospital. Heard that battn is now back near Armentieres, where we were in June.
Sept. 21st Lieut Roy Colvin, across on furlough, came to see me. Lent me £1. He drew £5 for me from Commonwealth Bank, and posted it
24th. Another Zepp. Raid 2 bagged.
Sept. 27th. Letter from Pil - "somewhere in Belgium." Serg. Major Jim Saunders, of D. Coy 9th Bn, who had never one been away from the Bn from the day it was formed - killed on Somme front.
Oct. 2nd. Saw Zepp brought down in flames over north London.

Image 120
Nov 6th Transferred to 2nd Australia Auxiliary Hospital, Southall.
Nov. 9th Transferred to Worgret Camp, Wareham
Dec. 1st. Transferred to Monte Video Camp, Weymouth.
Dec. 3rd Transferred to Westham Camp, Weymouth
Dec. 6th Secured leave to visit Alex at Tidworth,
£5 from Commonwealth Bank
Dec. 7 -8th Saw Sandy at Sling Camp, Bulford. Next day returned to Weymouth.
Dec. 9th Telegram from Sandy saying he has left in M.R. draft for Egypt.
Dec. 12th Transferred to Monte Video
Dec. 14th Proceeded on furlough to Scotland. £10 Bank
Jan 1st. Returned off furlough.
Transferred to Salisbury. Heard Corp. "Blue" Hayden killed.
March 3rd. Transferred to Weymouth.
Classified C-1 -home service.
March 7th Proceeded on Sick leave -Aberdeen -Edinburgh -Wales - £10 Bank
March 21st Returned off leave. Classified A3.
March 28th Transferred to Perham Down.

Image 121
April 15th Fine Sunday after snow and sleet daily for fornight. Review by Gen Sir Newton Moore
April 16th 4th Div. A.I.F. at Laguecourt cut up Prussian Guard on their on barbed wire. £5 Commonwealth Book.
April 17th Review by the King of Australian Troops at Bulford.
April 21st Three parcels today at Tidworthl, one of 1487 Walpole T. 3rd T.M.B. a bad case. This man was given medicine and duty by the M.O. Two days later he paraded sick again but the M.O. refused to see him as he was not SHAVED. Next day the man died. His sister (a nurse in the A.I.F. at Harefield Hospital) and brother-in-law (a Major) were at funeral, and are taking the case up. An enquiry is being held. I went on sick parade to get steel plate for boot, but had to pay for it out of my own pocket.
April 23rd. Paraded to officer to get put on next draft as I am sick of this.
April 25th Anzac day - Sports - Derby race on mules. £5 draft remitted through Bank of NSW to Nina. 

Image 122
May 11th Some home mail including School magazine which I perused by the light of my electric torch till the battery was exhausted. £5 in French money from Cmwth Bank. Met Cpl. out of A Coy 69th (Short) who told me something of Bruce Pelvin's fate on Sept. 3rd. Saw him lying out in a shell hole, pretty far gone.
May 12th. Telegram signed J MacLeod inviting me to Winchester for week-end. Went "A.W.L." and when I got there found that telegram was from John MacLeod and not Jess as I had thought. Got safely back to camp Sunday night and was "severely reprimanded" next day.
May 21st. Put on next draft for France, leaving this week. Am packing this note book in parcel and posting it home. I wish I could follow it there.

Image 124-125 map of Peronne - Bray- - Corbie area.

Image 126 photo of nurses and men outside a hospital
A.G. Ward. Third London General Hospital Wandsworth, S.W. 22/9/1916

Image 127 The Gold Stripe -poem

That Gold Stripe
That gold stripe's a distinction for each wounded chap:
But what of our mates manning shell hole and sap.
Still "carrying on" and still bearing the brunt
Of the unending strafing out there at the Front!

They work and wonder, in trench or gun pit
How much more they'd go through before they are hit;
We sew on our stripes - and thank the almighty
For luck-bringing pellets that gave us a "Blighty."

-     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -     -    -

When I'm sent back again to stern Duty and France
And I meet the REAL heroes of this great Advance
My stripe will come down, for I won't have the Pluck
To flaunt in THEIR faces the Badge of Good Luck.

J. McL. 3rd L.G.H. October 1916

New Zealand Herald, 11 July 1916, Page 8
WOUNDED SOLDIERS. DISTINCTIVE STRIPE.
Australian and N.Z. Cable Association. Melbourne. July 10.
Mr. Pearce, acting-Prime Minister, has decided to fall in line with Britain in issuing a gold stripe to wounded men.


Star 4 September 1916, Page 4 THE GOLD STRIPE OF COURAGE
The British War Office has decided to issue a special badge to men discharged, after service with the
colours. The gold stripe is not to be worn with civilian clothes, and the badge for all discharged men, while it will save our heroes in mufti from such undeserved reproaches as they have suffered too frequently, leaves the man who has been wounded without recognition. The badge stands for the uniform; something is wanted to correspond to the stripe. A stripe will be given to mark each occasion on which a man is wounded not to mark each wound he receives. A man may receive a dozen shrapnel wounds simultaneously. He will not receive a stripe for every wound. Three or four stripes will have a deeper significance than three or four wounds. They will mean that, undaunted, the hero has gone back to the fray toot once but twice or thrice.

Image 129 newspaper photos of three men
Joe Keefe, missing
Tpr G. Erle Fraser, Wellington M.R. Died of wounds
Private A.C. Burgess, Canterbury Infantry Battalion, Died of dysentery 

Image 133

Image 137


The main body of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force disembarked from their ships at Alexandria in Egypt and went by train to Zeitoun, near Cairo.

Image 139
"Next of Kin: Mother" by Arthur H. Adams, N.S.W.

Image 140
B. Coy's Sigs.
Swan
Fawcett
Jones
Pike - killed in action Pozieres 13th August
Collins
Burgess
Kenny
Dillion

Image 144
The Bagman's Song
It's good to be a Roamer
And never give a Dam
For all the lure of city lights
And gliding city Tram

It's good to roll your little Swag
And know that you are free
To say "So long" -and stroll away
Into Infinity.

It's good to live in that broad land
That bushmen call Outback
To feel the glamour of the Bush
The freedom of the Track

To take each day and live it out
No trouble for the Rest
It's good to be a Roamer
Out in the Golden West.

JD McLeod 1913

Image 145
La Vie. Est Vaine - My Version

But life is Sweet:
So love, and fight
And hope, and dream
Until - Goodnight.


Here's To US!
JMcL to F.C.H. from Nap Nap 1913

When a pint of Ale you buy
And you sink it with a sig
Think of some one very dry
For along the Bushy Track

When your eyes are getting bleary
And your voice is getting beery
Have another, HAVE ANOTHER
For your Mate who's gone Outback 

Letter writing took on a significance for men isolated by war.

Images 146 -147. pasted into the last pages of the diary, snipped items from family letters.
you will do your best won't you. This is a hard ____ letter to write.

have had some dreams to see you off. But although we are so far away our thoughts are all-ways with you and I do hope you will take care of your self.

Mum took it pretty badly -when she heard you had enlisted so you'll take care of yourself for her sake won't you?

Image 149
old boy, I wish you good luck, & a speedy return, take care of your health &

I will remember you every night in my prayers,

our thoughts will all be with you &

Image 150
Reinf.
J.A. Dalgleish -missing
Punch Honligan -hand blown off
G. McDougall
Lieut. Doug Fraser killed in France
Jeff Fraser died of wounds

S.C.M.R.
Tom Horgan -wounded
Ernie Snushall - missing [7/125 Tpr. Henry Ernest Snushall died 21 August 1915. NOK Wm Snushall (father), Fairlie]
Priest -wounded
T. Harnett -gone back
L. Calvert - missing Aug. 28th [7/24, L./Cpl. (Robert Calvert, Otipua Rd, Timaru, NOK Mrs Annie Calvert (mother), Otipua Street, Timaru]
C. Cowan. Wounded St. Johns Hospital, London

Bruce Pelvin 5th Reinf of 9th Btn. killed Sept. 3rd Pozieres

Parcels from Home
July 9th Knitted belt.
Aug 10th. Knitted socks
Oct. 15th (Peninsula) Tin Bermoline sweets, ointment sensen
Nov. 7th Tin "Rusks" chocolate, milk coffee & milk, cheese, soup tablets, Cakes
Bovrd. ointment, cigarette tobacco. (received by Gil.)
Lemons Tin peas, paste, fruit, tongues, sausages
Jan. 5th (Tel-el-kabis) 1 Tin of Chocolate (L. McM) ½ sov in letter (Jess) 3 socks and 3 mittens, tinned tongues, milk, cocoa, coffee milk, prunes, sardines
Feb. 9th Woollen singlet, tin milk, soup tablets
Railhead Wallet from F.C.H.
May 11th Soup tablets, meat, extract, sweets, tin milk
July 9th (Sailly) milk, cocoa, fruit, sardines, sweets
July 26th (Permois) singlet, socks, toffee, raisins, chocolate

The family in Timaru knitted, wrote, sent parcels, read the Timaru Herald and prayed throughout the war. John snipped passages from their letters and pasted them into the diary.


A flag similar to the Australian flag in the background. Not J.D. McLeod. Holding a telescope and standing beside a cricket bat.


There have been at least three books written about the 9th:

N.K. Harvey, From Anzac To The Hindenburg Line - 9th Battalion AIF. WW1 (Brisbane: 9th Battalion A.I.F. Association, 1941)
C.M. Wrench, Campaigning with the fighting 9th (in and out of the line with the 9BN AIF) 1914-1919 (Brisbane, Boolarong Publications, 1985)
Chris Lowndes, Ordinary Men Extraordinary Service - 9th Battalion (Queensland) AIF. 2011 Boolarong Press, 2011

W. H. Downing, Digger Dialects, 1919, is a unique record of one of Australian English's most creative and crowded hours. Digger slang.

Read Malone. Lieutenant-Colonel William Malone (1859-1915)

Glossary

backsheesh - Alteration of baksheesh; slang (orig. Army). Something extra, free; an allowance above the usual amount, as extra rations. (Persian in origin: baksheesh) is a form of tipping in the Middle East
also buckshee a term that means something for nothing also can refer to a wound, a hospitalisation and a free trip to the UK.
Blighty - a wound severe enough to get one returned to Britain for hospitalization
Digger - An Australian soldier (strickly an infantry man)
Dinkum - genuine: reliable. The NZRB was known as "The Dinks."
Dinkums (The) - The 2nd Division. Also applied to the New Zealanders.
Soldiers lived in "dugouts", fired from "possies" (positions) 
‘stand-to’ - The half-light of dawn was one of the most favoured times for an attack. Soldiers in defensive positions were woken in the dark before dawn, so by the time first light crept across the battlefield they were awake, alert, and manning their weapons; this is still known as the ‘stand-to’ and this is why we have a dawn service.

Medical arrangements like logistics are central to the success or failure in war, we are unwise to ignore them. Gallipoli, the medical war, Michael Tyquin, 24 April 1993.


Gallipoli Uncovered.


Home for JD was Timaru.

  
Timaru Herald, 10 October 1919, Page 8
880 yards senior record 2 min 15 sec. - set by J.D. McLeod, 1905, was still standing in 1919.

JD McM. wrote home. He received letters from home. He mailed parcels home and sent telegrams home. Throughout the diary I recognised the names of his Fairlie mates. He probably attended school in Burkes Pass. I know his sister Jessie did and her classmates where Cowan, Keeffe, Hayter etc. Their father, Malcolm McLeod, ran a lively stable at the Tekapo Ferry stables in 1877 and was the proprietor of the Tekapo Ferry Accomadation House, was a small land holder.  He was a hotel keeper at The Pass and in 1885 he ran coaches from Fairlie Creek to Burkes Pass. He was involved in the local dog trails and the Mount Cook Road Board later the Mackenzie County Council. In 1900 he was chairman of the Burkes' Pass School committee and a John McLeod was a pupil teacher. John was at TBHS when Mr Simmers, the headmaster left in 1904, as the eldest boy gave the farewell address. He played football in Timaru and in 1907 he refereed a football game between Fairlie and Albury. In 1913 John McM. was best man at the wedding of Frank C. Henderson. Frank married Elise Owen, of Fernleigh, Meadownbank, Ryde, N.S.W. Looking for the wedding party photo. "Fernleigh" house and land (3 acres), Meadowbank, Ryde district, north Sydney was sold Nov. 1919 by auction.  The builder of "Fernleigh" house Edward Atkins and James Burne Owen was the second owner of the house. Fernleigh still stands in 2015 but I am not sure for how long as it was so much modified during the twentieth century that it lost its heritage value and is slated for demolition. In 1911 John was working for Mr Bain a contractor near Fairlie.

Timaru Herald 3 December 1885 MARRIAGE
McLEOD - BAIN - On the 4th November at the residence of the bride's parents, Highfield, Burkes Pass, by the Rev. George Barclay, Malcolm fourth son of Duncan McLeod, farmer, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland, to Johnina, second daughter of Mr Donald Bain. (Glasgow Herald and Rosshire Journal please copy.)

Johnina Bain married Malcolm McLeod in 1885
1887 McLeod John Duncan
1888 McLeod Donald Angus
1890 McLeod Malcolm Alexander  b. 24 Aug. d. 1891. Buried Burkes Pass.
1892 McLeod Jessie Isabel
1894 McLeod Malcolm Alexander
1898 McLeod Euphemia Ellen
1895 McLeod Mary Ann Bain

Malcolm Alexander McLeod, born 21 January, 1894, Timaru, enlisted 10 August 1916, NZEF 13506, 13th Reinforcements, C.M.R., for the duration of the war. Trooper. He was 22½ on enlistment, 5' 10", and 140lbs, a carpenter & joiner, living at 79 Theodosia Street, Timaru. Posted to NZFA, admitted dangerously wounded GSW to back in the field, 14 Nov. 1917 at Tig Tigh, Egypt. Discharged 23 August 1918 on account of wounds received in action, Egyptian campaign. After the war lived in Templer St., Geraldine. Died 5th Nov. 1957, aged 62. War pensioner. Wife was Barbara Mary Elizabeth McLeod nee Lysaght, married in 1943.

Timaru Herald Tuesday January 11 1887 Birth
McLEOD - On the 2nd inst., at Fairlie Creek, the wife of Malcolm McLeod, of a son.

Timaru Herald March 1888
McLEOD. On the 13th inst., at Fairlie Creek, the wife of Malcolm McLeod, of a son.

Timaru Herald  Death. January 1891
McLEOD - On the 6th inst., at Burkes' Pass, Malcolm Alexander, infant son of Malcolm and Johnina McLeod 

From the TBHS files
Entrance Register: John Duncan McLeod
Entered: 12/2/1900
Date of birth: 2/1/1887
From Burkes Pass School (standard 5, 1899), Junior Scholarship (3rd on list)
(other boys were noted as being up to 6th on the list)
Parent: Malcolm McLeod, Sheep dealer, Burkes Pass.
Annotation on database: Served in Australian Imperial Forces in WW1 (1915-17). Wounded and repatriated to England.

John married Isabel Margrete Marshall in 1928. John Duncan McLEOD died 26 Nov. 1942, aged 55 and is buried in Oamaru, headstone just off Perth St. His wife Isobel Margaret McLEOD died 13 Aug. 1992 aged 86.
Malcolm McLeod died 5 November 1928 aged 73 years. Johnina died 19 Feb. 1953, aged 92 years. "A dear mother."  Also buried in Oamaru.

In Australian English 'McLeod' would be pronounced as 'McLoud'. Mc ("Son of") and Leod ("Ugly" as in disposition). LEOD is pronounced in English as LOUD.

South Canterbury NZGenWeb Project  

Regimental War diaries - aren't the stories still amazingly powerful when we read them?