1895 Landmark's History Book, Village of Fulton, Oswego County, NY  
1895 Landmark's of Oswego County, NY Book


Many thanks and appreciation to Natalie Runyan for her time and efforts in transcribing this history of the Village of Fulton. 
Fulton Village.--- This is the largest and most important village in the county. The immense water-power afforded by the Oswego River very early gave it a wide celebrity and attracted hither many settlers of means and enterprise, who interested themselves in the numerous valuable sites. In the distance from the head of Yelverton Island to the foot of Waterhouse Island the fall is, naturally, about forty-five feet, which is increased somewhat by the upper dam. Along most of this course lie many available mill privileges.

Originally the place consisted of the “Upper Landing” and the “Lower Landing”, so called, around which clustered quite considerable settlements and the usual business interests, as previously noted. It was also called Oswego Falls, a name first given to the post-office and the village proper prior to 1825. In 1812 it consisted of only twelve buildings exclusive of those at the two Landings, the first one being erected on Oneida street near the east end of the present Nelson mills. The business portion of Fulton properly dates from 1825, when the Legislature appropriated $160, 000 for the building of the canal. This act attracted the attention of several enterprising men to the center of what is now the village of Fulton.

In 1797 Broughton White surveyed and divided into farm lots the tract of 1,440 acres, adjacent to the falls, which had been granted to Gerret H. Van Wagenen before the patent to Scriba, and by him sold to William Harper, form whom it has since been known as “Harper’s Location”. The Oswego Falls State Reservation, containing about fifty acres, was situated on the river bank nearly in the center of this tract. The west part of Harper’s Location, including nearly all the river front, finally became the joint property of Ichabod Brackett, who owned an undivided half, and of Joshua Forman, and James Lyon, who owned the other half. In 1815 a partition was made between these owners under an order of the Supreme Court, the commissioners for this purpose being Benjamin Wright, Abram Camp, and Alvin Bronson, who surveyed and plotted the premises and divided the parts adjoining the portage into village lots, the lots being designated by the initials letters of those to whom they were assigned. This was apparently the first practical evidence of the anticipation that the site would eventually become a village. Steen’s Location was surveyed by Reuben Bristol and a few small parcels along the portage road were sold, but no general plan of a village settlement was then entertained. Norman Hubbard and George F. Falley purchased this tract in 1825 and surveyed a part of it adjacent to the North Bridge into village lots. It was afterward divided, and in 1828, when Mr. Hubbard died, his legal representative procured a more extended allotment of the north part of the location, which resulted in a map, bearing date June 10, 1829, of the westerly portion of the tract. Mr. Falley then owned the south half and concurred in the plan. In 1827 William Jerome was commissioned by the surveyor-general to procure a new survey of the State Reservation, which was accepted by the commissioners of the land office, and under which it was parceled out to purchasers. O. W. Jerome, in 1835, at the instigation of Asa Phillips, made a survey and map of the west part of Harper’s Location, including the Reservation, but his plan of village lots was finally abandoned. The eastern part of Steen’s Location was allotted in 1844 and a new map of the whole tract was made. In 1848, the south part of G. C. Newkerk’s Location was surveyed and mapped for M. L. Lee, and afterward the plan was extended over the north part of that tract for Anson Terry. The same year (1848) James L. Voorhees remodeled the plan of the lots owned by him; a new map was made and published, and became the basis of the village allotment. In 1854 a map of Fulton, including Newkerk’s ,Steen’s, and the west part of Harper’s Locations, the State Reservation, and a portion of lots 29 and 30 of the sixteenth township of Scriba’s Patent, was made, printed and published, and represents the basis of the allotments in the present village. All of these surveys and maps, except those of Bristol in 1815, of Lansing in 1823, and of O.W. Jerome in 1835, were made by Peter Schenck. The streets running parallel with the river are numbered, while those running east and west are named.

Much of the early history of Fulton village has already been given. It is only necessary to commence with the beginning of the second quarter of the present century, noticing such interests as are not previously mentioned, and confining our narrative to the village as it now exists.

The first merchant was Lewis Falley, who began business about 1825 in a building that occupied the site of the old Nelson coal office. The next establishment was that of Cady, Case & Co. John W. Wolcott, Oliver Burdick, Charles P. Tucker, the Tousey Brothers, Douglass & Comstock, Messrs Leonard and Whitaker, and perhaps a few others, became merchants during this year and 1826. On April 15, 1826, the commissioners of the land office were authorized to lease the State mills previously mentioned with sufficient ground, or sell them; the establishment was subsequently sold.

The Genesee mills were built by Henry and Oliver French in 1832. Later they passed into the possession of Case & Chesbro, were enlarged and in April, 1861, became the property of James A. Baker & Co., who rebuilt them after the fire in 1862. The latter firm was followed by Baker & Sibley, who were succeeded in 1867 by W. S. Nelson & Co., the present proprietors, who enlarged the mills as they now stand. Their daily capacity is 800 barrels of flour, and connected is a storage for 100, 000 bushels of grain. They have not been operated since shortly after the death of Jesse Hoyt, a member of the firm, about ten years ago. Oliver French, one of the original builders of these mills, subsequently had a blacksmith shop for many years on the site of the present Midland Railroad depot, which was erected in 1886. 

In 1834, there were two or three small grist mills in operation and about 600 inhabitants within the limits of what is now Fulton village. During the next four years the place experienced its most rapid growth. John C. Highriter had engaged in trade in 1831 as a member of the firm of Forsyth & Highriter, hatters, whom he afterward succeeded carrying on quite an extensive business in manufacturing gloves and mittens. He died in November, 1884, aged seventy-six. Charles G. Case, a former resident, returned from the eastern part of this State and purchased two lots on First street and a large tract of timber land in Granby. On these lots he built, during that year, a saw mill, store, and dwelling house, the store being the first brick structure in the village. He prosecuted a large business, and died December 10, 1875. Almon tucker, at one time a partner of Mr. Case, built, in 1834, a house on the site of the Universalist church on First street and engaged in merchandising with his brothers C. P. and J. C. In 1835 Oliver Burdick erected a block of brick stores on the corner of Canal and Oneida streets; in 1836 George F. and Lewis Falley built a similar structure on First street; and in 1837 James Whitaker put up another brick block on Oneida street. About this time many other find buildings were either finished or in course of erection.

Meanwhile, April 29, 1835, the village was incorporated, the charter describing the boundaries as follows: 
Beginning at the southwest corner of the State Reservation at Oswego Falls; thence along the south and east sides thereof to State street; thence along the public highway northeasterly to the four corners of the eastern boundary of Steen’s Location; thence along the line of said location to the north line thereof; thence west to the center of the Oswego River; thence along the center of said river to the place of beginning. 
The first village meeting was held at the Fulton House on the first Tuesday in June of the same year and Aaron G. Fish was chosen president. On April 13, 1837, the boundaries were extended so as to include “subdivision lots thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen, and the remainder of lots sixteen and seventeen, of the Harper Location, as surveyed by Broughton White in 1797.”

From this time (1837) until 1851 the business interests of the village moved along steadily and prosperously. Harvey N. Sabin opened a grocery store in 1839 on the corner of Second and Oneida streets, and the same year J. W. and C. P. Tucker began a dry goods trade, a business to which Tucker & Hulett succeeded in 1859. Mr. Sabin died March 27, 1889, aged seventy-two. Edward Nettleton started a boot and shoe business in 1842. In 1844 De Witt Gardner opened a general store and in 1852 took in E. J. Carrington as a partner. The firm of Gardner & Carrington continued until 1855, when Mr. Gardner retired and L. C. Seymour became a member under the name of Carrington & Seymour. In 1845 the population was 1,380.

A volume entitled “Historical Collections of the State of New York,” thus describes the village in 1846: 
Fulton, incorporated in 1835, is a flourishing place at the Oswego Falls, ten miles from Oswego. It has four churches, an academy, about 200 dwellings, and 1,400 inhabitants. The center of the village is a half a mile below or north of the Oswego Falls, on the east bank of the Oswego River, at a point where a dam is constructed for the use of the Oswego Canal. The village limits extend above the falls, and include the State reservation, which has been laid out as a village and partly sold, called “Oswego Falls.” The water power is extensive and can be used on both sides of the river at the dam, and also at the natural falls. The fall is about twelve feet at each place. 

Henry C. Moody established a barrel manufactory in 1846. In 1848 Comstock & Keeville completed and place in operation a new flouring mill. June 9, 1849, Hiram Lodge, F. and A. M., was organized with Samuel Dean as master. In July, 1850, T. F. Cory became proprietor of the Fulton House. In 1850 a plaster mill was built near the upper bridge and was subsequently owned by E. P. Ross. At this time the village contained 370 dwellings and 2,350 inhabitants. In 1851 the boundaries of the village were extended and designated as follows: 
 Commencing at the northwest corner of G. C. Newkirk’s location, running thence easterly along the northerly line of said location to the northeast corner thereof; thence southerly along the easterly line of said location until said line intersects the stream of water known as Burdick Creek; thence up said creek along the center thereof until the same intersects the highway known as Fay Road; thence westerly along the center of said road to the easterly bounds of the village as fixed by the acts of 1835 and 1837; thence southerly and westerly along the last mentioned bounds to the center of the Oswego River; thence down the said river along the center to the place of beginning. 

Since then these bounds have been slightly altered by the addition of small tracts of land to the corporate limits.

August 17, 1851, nearly the entire business part of the place was burned. Every building of any value on block 26, and every structure on the opposite side of the street from the canal bridge to a point opposite the old Presbyterian church, was destroyed, leaving only two or three stores in the village. About fifty families and forty trading establishments, including the Fulton House, were burned out, entailing a loss of over $100, 000. With remarkable energy and enterprise the property owners immediately set to work and by December of that year almost every place of business had been rebuilt, and several fine brick blocks besides. A newspaper of July, 1853, enumerates the business of Fulton then in operation as follows: Ten or twelve establishments operating in dry goods, groceries and provisions, four large clothing stores, three drug stores, five or six provision stores, four hardware stores, four of five millinery shops, one crockery store, a glass and wooden and willow ware store, three boot and shoe stores, two bookstores, two jewelry stores, two cabinet ware stores, three large flouring mills and another about to go into operation, two large foundries and machine shops, a sash factory, two cabinet and chair factories, one large woolen factory, several lumber manufacturing establishments, one stave and barrel factory, a tannery, one plaster mill, an oil mill, and two carriage factories. The year before, in 1852, a company was organized for the purpose of building a temperance hotel, the result being the erection of the Case House, now the Lewis House.

In 1852 Henry Monroe and Charles G. Case erected a small paper mill on the site of the Victoria Mills, capable of turning out 2,000 pounds of paper daily. They were succeeded by R. H. Bullis, Beyam & Bullis, and Beyam & Waugh, in whose possession it burned in 1871. It was rebuilt by a Mr. Van Alstyne and finally passed to Waugh & Hammond, who were succeeded in 1880 by the Victoria Paper Mill Company, of which F. G. Weeks was president and E. R. Redhead secretary and treasurer. Soon afterward a new pulp mil was built and about 1889 a new paper mill was erected. In 1891 Mr. Weeks retired and E. R. Redhead became president, W. S. Royce treasurer, and J. H. Howe secretary, who constitute the present management. In 1893 the company added to its plant the mills operated by William Barber and later by the Cataract Paper Company, which were built about 1885 and 1892. The company is capitalized at $8,400, employs about 100 hands, and manufactures manilla and rope paper. The plant was partially burned August 26, 1882, and again March 13, 1884.

About 1852 Amos J. Thayer began the manufacture of woolen cloth and machinery, having a machine shop in connection with his woolen factory on First street between the canal and river. He still carries on a small wood-carding business.

By 1854 the milling interests of Fulton had assumed considerable magnitude, there being then in operation the Cayuga Mills of W. S. Nelson with five runs of stone; the Genesee Mills of Case & Chesbro with five runs; the Telegraph Mills of Clark & Pond with six runs; and the three custom mills of Timothy Pratt, W. S. Nelson, and J. L. Voorhees with three runs each, the whole having twenty five runs of stone. The Cayuga Mills were built in 1826; in 1860 they passed into the hands of Kenyons & Johnson as successors to Robert C. and Sands N. Kenyon. The Custom Mill of W. S. Nelson, erected in 1853, was sold to Gardner & Benedict in 1855. The Genesee Mills passed into the possession of J. A. Baker & Co., in April, 1861.

Among the merchants who started the business from 1850 to 1860 were Charles S. Eggleston (succeeded by F. W. Lasher), Andrew Hanna (succeeded by Hanna & Case in 1860), J. Cooley Tucker, Hiram Bradway, Nathan Cole, jr., Pond & Salmon (succeeded in 1861 by K. F. Salmon), Pettis Brothers (Aubrey and Charles O,; Aubrey died in January, 1890), Michael Farrell (tailor, died August 6, 1888), and Benjamin J. Dyer (died January 16, 1886).

In 1856 the Riverside Mills, then known as the Oswego River Mills, were built on the site of Quartus Rust’s blacksmith shop by H. H. & H. N. Gilbert, who were succeeded in 1857 by Van Wagenen & Gilbert. They were burned in 1861 and rebuilt by H. H. Gilbert, who named them the Empire Mills. Afterward they were owned in part by H. N. Gilbert, Rufus Downs, and I. A. Graves, and in 1869 became the property of William G. Gage and D. M. Perine, who were succeeded in 1871 by W. G. and F. A. Gage and E. J. Carrington as Gage, Carrington & Co., who rebuilt them. In 1874 the firm of W. G. Gage & Co., composed of W. G. and F. A. Gage and Orrin Henderson, was formed and became the proprietors, and the name was changed to the Riverside Mills. W. G. Gage died July 5, 1893, but the firm style remains unchanged. This was on e of the first flouring mills in the county to discard the old stones and adopt the roller process for grinding. They grind 500 barrels per day, and have an elevator with a storing capacity of 70,000 bushels of grain. William G. Gage formed a partnership with Chauncey B. Hancock in 1857 and engaged in grocery business on Oneida street.

In 1858 H.N. Gilbert, John J. Wolcott and John Van Buren erected the old Volney Mill on the site of the Victoria pulp mill. It had four runs of stone, was subsequently abandoned, and was finally destroyed by fire.
Between 1860 and 1870 a number of manufacturing and other enterprises went into operation. The Fulton Gas and Light Company was organized in June, 1860, with a capital of $15,900, and continued in existence until 1892, when it was absorbed by the Fulton Electric Light & Power Company. The gas plant and buildings occupied the site of T. D. Lewis’s coal yard. Among those identified with the company were L. C. Seymour, G. M. Case, F. D. Rice, Reuben Bradshaw, A. L. Lee, Samuel Case, J. J. Wolcott, D. W. Gardner, A. G. Hull, G. G. Chauncey, and J. C. Highriter. About 1860 Charles Mosher embarked in business and continued until his death in 1888. October 4, 1862, a disastrous fire consumed about $250,000 worth of property in the business part of the place, but with the same energy characterized the inhabitants in 1851, the burned district was soon rebuilt. In 1863 John E. Dutton, Dewitt C. Cummings (who died in December, 1894), R. K. Sanford, Sidney M. Smith, and J. G. Benedict established a foundry and machine shop at the upper bridge. The next year Mr. Dutton disposed of his interests to Sanford & Benedict, and in 1865 Mr. Sanford and W. R. Wasson became sole owners, the firm being Sanford & Wasson. In 1868 the Fulton Manufacturing Company was incorporated with a capital of $150,000, and with E. P. Ross as president, W. C. Ruger, secretary, and R. K. Sanford superintendent. The latter was soon succeeded by William Wasson, and finally the entire concern passed into the hands of E. P. Ross & Co. The establishment was started for the manufacture of the Cummings straw cutter, which was invented by Mr. Cummings, who had originally entered the shop of John E. Dutton & Co. as a machinist. The business was finally abandoned, and in 1885 the buildings were occupied by the Howe Ventilation Stove Works, which were sold to the Cortland Howe Ventilation Stove Company in August, 1887. This firm soon removed, and in 1889 the plant was leased to the Dexter Manufacturing Company for the manufacture of newspaper supplies, presses, etc. They also removed and the premises passed to the Miller-Tooley Knife Company, subsequently noticed.

In 1864 the present establishment of Taylor Bros, & Co. was founded for the manufacture of planing and moulding knives, etc, the partners being William E. and F. S. Taylor and J. G. Benedict, who continued until 1867, when F. S. Taylor disposed of his interest to Messrs. Benedict and W. E. Taylor, with whom H. L. Taylor became associated in 1872. After the death of William E. Taylor and J. G. Benedict the business passed into the possession of H. L. Taylor and C. C. Benedict, the present proprietors.

In 1865 the plaster mill of Gage, Porter & Co was started, and is now the only concern of the kind in town. It finally passed from a Mr. Terry to Gage, Garlock & Co., to Gage, Sheridan & Co., to W. G. Gage & Co., and to Gage, Porter & Co., the present owners. The daily output is thirty tons of plaster and forty-five tons of cement.
In August, 1866, fire destroyed the Empire, Sabin, and Patterson blocks, Pool’s hotel, etc., causing a loss of $15,000. In this year the Fulton mills were built by Horace N. Gilbert for the firm of Gilbert, Smith & Wright, who were succeeded by Gilbert & Wright. In 1871 they came into possession of Perine & Wright, who were followed by Nathan M. Smith and D. M. Perine. In 1886 they passed to Arthur G. Gilbert and Henry E. Nichols (Gilbert & Nichols), the present owners, who substituted the roller process for stones. The capacity, aside from the custom department, is 100 barrels of wheat flour and 150 barrels of buckwheat flour per day.

The Fulton Woodenware Works were started in 1866 by D. E. Mason, the present proprietor. He has had various partners, employs about twelve hands, and manufactures butter packages, pork barrels, etc. 
The St. Louis Mills were built by D. W. Gardner and L. C. Seymour in 1867, and since then have been twice enlarged. In 1890 the firm name was changed to Gardner, Seymour & Co. by the admission of A. M. Seymour, the master miller, to a partnership interest. The capacity is 300 barrels of flour daily. In 1855 Mr. Gardner purchased of Jackson Fish a small mill just west of the present establishment, which burned about 1864, and was never rebuilt.

In this year (1867) Frank Dilts and James McDonough established the present Dilts foundry and machine shop, and in 1870 Mr. Dilts became the sole proprietor, continuing as such until his death a short time ago. Since then it has been conducted by his estate. In 1881 and again on March 31, 1887, the establishment was burned out, but each time it was rebuilt. Another manufactory of about 1867 was the tub and pail factory of Mason & Co., which was burned in 1871, and which was followed by a similar concern together with a planing mill. This firm was succeeded by George J. Emeny.

The Farmers’ Mills were built by R. N. Hoff & Co., in 1870. On this site there was originally an axe factory and later the stone carding mill of A. J. Thayer, the latter building being enlarged and converted into a grist mill. R. N. Hoff & Co. were succeeded by Conger & Hoff, who were followed in 1880 by R. N. Hoff, the present proprietor. These mills employ the old fashioned stone system in grinding and do custom work exclusively, the daily capacity being from 300 to 400 bushels of grain.

The Oswego River mills were originally built by John J. Wolcott as a warehouse. About 1850, when the canal was enlarged, it was rebuilt and extended for forwarding purposes, and finally passed into the possession of H. N. Gilbert, N. H. Gilbert, A. G. Gilbert, and R. B. True, of whom Horace N. Gilbert came to Fulton in 1855. They converted it into a small flouring mill, and in 1886 sold it to R. B., G. E. and C. H. True, the present proprietors, the firm name being True Brothers. They enlarged the mill as it now stands and fitted it throughout with the roller process. The capacity is 200 barrels of flour per day.

In 1870 a machine shop was erected just above the lower bridge, which in 1875 was converted into a planing mill and bedstead factory by A. T. and J. H. Loomis. It subsequently passed into the hands of L. E. Loomis and was operated by James F. Herrick. At one time the buildings were occupied by Henry S. Condé as a knitting factory, and very early a gang saw mill was carried on here by Farwell & Co. The site is now occupied by the box factory of the Standard Oil Company. 

Among the merchants not previously mentioned who formerly conducted business in Fulton may be noted the names of Hon. G. M. Case, Almon, Wilson, and Churchill Tucker, Anson Nibloe, John J. Wolcott, James Cole (still in business), R. T. Jones, Horace P. Pond, Reuben Bradshaw, Hannah & Lasher, R. C. Kenyon, S. N. Kenyon, William B. and Isaac Shaw, the Palmenter sisters (milliners), Ward Gasper, John Wooden (succeeded by Snow & Loomis in 1885), Henry J. Case (grocer and contractor, who died January 11, 1889, aged fifty-nine), Pliny Conger, Charles R. Nichols, M. A. & Isaac Shumway, George Salmon, N. E. Burdick, George F. Falley, Charles G. Case (a noted abolitionist, whose widow resides in the village in her ninetieth year), Thomas Keeler, G. C. Lathrop, Charles M. Case, Jonathan Case, James Whitaker, Charles Phillips (afterward an M. E. preacher), Wood & Spicer, J. D. Stephens (father of William G. and Melvin F.), William Schenck, Cyrus Phillips, Robert E. Phillips, H. G. Colgrove, William H. Pruyne (died September 22, 1888), and Roberts & Mistler (marble dealers on the corner of First and Cayuga streets; Morgan Roberts died in September, 1890, aged seventy-nine.) 
The village charter has been amended several times, notably on March 17, 1862, on April 26, 1873, and on March 24 and May 28, 1881, the last time authorizing the election of a president, six trustees, on police justice, three assessors, a treasurer, collector, and street commissioner, and the appointment of a clerk, surveyor, jailor, and one or more policemen, under which plan the municipal government is now conducted. The ordinances of the village now in force were passed July 28, 1880.

The sewerage question was agitated in December, 1881, and on April 24, 1886, and act was passed by the Legislature authorizing the construction of an adequate system. In 1889 a contract for the work was let for $20,240 and the trustees decided to raise by tax $25,000 for the purpose, but both were abandoned. In the fall of 1894 another plan was projected which is now (January, 1895) under consideration. The Board of Sewer Commissioners consists of George E. True, president; Arvin Rice, clerk; Francis Stiles, Prentice Youmans, Edwin R. Redhead and Thomas Hunter 2d.

The new Clark House was opened December 29, 1881, with James Clark as proprietor, and on November 28, 1882, the Stephens Opera House, which was built by Dr. John J. Stephens, of Washington, D.C., was formally opened for public entertainments. In April, 1883, the Cole block was burned.

In January, 1884, the Fulton Water Works Company was organized with H. E. Nichols, president; J. W. Pratt, vice-president; Giles S. Piper, secretary; and F. A. Emerick, treasurer. The plant was not put in operation, however, until November, 1885. The water supply is derived from the famous Great Bear Springs near the river, south of the village. Mr. Emerick has been continually connected with the company and is now its principal manager. During this year (1884) a rink was built which was burned in August, 1885.

On January 27, 1885 a fire destroyed J. J. Wright’s and Sheridan Brothers & Co.’s, hardware stores and other establishments on Oneida streets, entailing a loss of $40,000. About this time James Pearman started his present foundry and machine shop and J. M Campbell built a new foundry on First street.

The Fulton and Oswego Falls Street Railroad Company was organized July 16, 1885, with the following officers: Arvin Rice, president; F. A. Gage, vice-president; John Hadcock, secretary; Reuben Bradshaw, William Waugh, D. C. Hadcock, W. A. Hall, Frank Marsh, and C. H. Dexter, directors. The work of construction was commenced in August of that year and the road was completed and formally opened August 17, 1886, at which time Charles Lyman was secretary. It extends from the railroad on Cayuga street to First street and along First street to Broadway, where it crosses the river and runs thence to the D., L. & W. Railroad depot in Oswego Falls.

In August, 1886, the Fulton Schuyler Electric Light Company was incorporated with a capital of $33,000 and a plant was placed in operation before the close of that year. Soon after this a similar company was formed, and in October, 1887, the first named corporation was reorganized under the style of the Citizen’s Electric Company. In April, 1889 the two concerns consolidated under the title of the Thompson-Houston Company. On April 1, 1891, the Fulton Electric Light and Power Company was incorporated with a capital of $80,000, and succeeded to the property and vested rights of all the foregoing concerns as well as those of the Fulton Gas Light Company previously noticed. The first officers were C. S. Haley, president; F. A. Emerick, vice-president; and G. G. Chauncey, secretary. The present president is W. A. Carey; the others hold their respective positions.

The Oswego Falls Pulp and Paper Company was incorporated in February, 1886, with a capital of $30,000. Their pulp mill was erected in 1888 and doubled in size in 1889, the capacity being twenty tons of dry pulp daily. On or near this site there was formerly a grist mill, a saw mill, and a plaster mill. The hydraulic raceway which furnishes water to propel these mills was constructed in 1887-8 at a cost of about $40,000. From thirty to thirty-five men are employed. The officers are F. G. Weeks, president; H. L. Paddock, treasurer; and George P. Wells, superintendent.

The Hunter Arms Company was started here in 1889 as the Hunter-Comstock Arms Company, making the Comstock gun. In 1890 the L. C. Smith gun was purchased in Syracuse and the firm adopted its present designation. As many as 175 mechanics are employed. The capital is $400,000, and the officers are John Hunter, of Sterling Valley, N.Y., president; Hon. Thomas Hunter, of Sterling, N.Y., vice-president; John Hunter , jr., secretary; Thomas Hunter 2d, treasurer and manager; William Hunter, assistant manager.
The Tuerk Water Meter Company and the Acme Burnisher Company were moved to Fulton in 1890. The officers of both concerns are John Hunter, president, and J. C. Hunter, secretary, treasurer, and manager. The first named company manufactures the F. W. Tuerk water meters and motors, ventilating fans, etc., while the other makes picture burnishers.

The Fulton Excelsior Company was started by Charles M. Allen, the present proprietor, in 1890, and employs about twenty men. The butter tub business connected with this concern was established in 1888. 
The Pure Water Supply Company was organized in July, 1890, by F. A. Emerick, H. E. Nichols, Arthur Gilbert, and John H. Case. The business consists of bottling the water taken from the Great Bear Spring and shipping it, principally to Syracuse.

The Fulton Machine Company was incorporated in November, 1890, with a capital of $35,000, and with these officers: F.E. Bacon, president; George J. Emeny, vice-president; C. C. Benedict, secretary and treasurer. The present officers are the same except the vice-president, who is Abram Emerick. Mr. Emeny was manufacturing an ensilage cutter in a small way, to which business the company succeeded, occupying the building formerly used by R. H. Harris & Son as a carriage factory. From thirty to thirty-five hands are employed.

The Fulton Board of Trade was organized December 9, 1890, with the following trustees: F. E. Bacon, A. Bristol, L. C. Seymour, F. A. Emerick, A. J. Snow, H. E. Nichols, G. S. Piper, C. C. Benedict, Thomas Hunter 2d, S. F. Merry, E. R. Redhead, A. Rosenbloom, and George E. True. George Kellogg was chosen treasurer.
The Miller Tooley Knife Company was established in the spring of 1891, by L. T. Miller and A. J. Tooley, and began business that year in the old Ross foundry. They employ about fifteen men.

The Fulton Pleasure Boat Company was incorporated March 25, 1891, with E. T. Shepard, president; D. J. Freeman, vice-president; and William C. Stephens, secretary and treasurer. The capital was $10,000. The company builds all kinds of small pleasure boats, does a general moulding and planing business, and employs from ten to twenty men. E. T. Shepard is president; Dr. C. M. Lee, vice-president; and I. M. Gere, secretary and treasurer. The Diamond Excelsior Works were started by George E. Mason in 1892 and employs four hands. The Empire State Pulley and Press Company was incorporated January 1, 1895, by George Ehrhard, president; J. E. Sheridan, secretary; Francis Stiles, treasurer. The capital is $20, 000 and wood split pulleys, cider machinery, etc., are manufactured. The business was originally started by M. P. Schenck about 1876, making cider machinery. In 1881 he was joined by J. E. Sheridan, who became sole owner in 1884. In 1891 the manufacture of pulleys was added.

During the various periods of growth and development just noted several other public institutions were established in the village which had an important influence upon its business, social, and moral life. These are detailed separately.

The post-office was originally established in the fall of 1810, under the name of Oswego Falls, with Noah A. Whitney as postmaster, and his first return to the post office department, made January 1, 1811, was for eight cents. On April 1, 1815, he was succeeded by James Lyon, who held the position until the office was discontinued February 14, 1829. He kept the office at the Upper Landing, and when the village proper became so thickly populated as to necessitate postal conveniences at is center, he refused to move it. Fulton post-office was therefore established May 29, 1826, with Lewis Falley as postmaster. His successors have been as follows: 

M. Lindley Lee, appointed June 22, 1841; Hiram Bradway, October 20, 1844; George Mitchell, June 23, 1849; Albert Taylor, April 9, 1853. The office was made a presidential one February 21, 1856, and Albert Taylor was re-appointed; William B. Shaw was appointed July 27, 1857; Allan C. Livingtson, April 17, 1861; Thomas W. Chesbro, March 13, 1871; Charles T. Bennett, April 22, 1875; Mrs. C. T. Bennett, in 1878; N. H. Gilbert, in 1883; S. B. Whitaker, in 1887; Fred Bennett, in 1890; and A. J. Aubrey, April 14, 1894, incumbent. 
The first banking institution in Fulton was the Citizen’s Bank, which was established here in 1852 with a capital of $100, 000 and with the following board of directors: Charles G. Case, Samuel Hart, Willard Johnson, R. C. Kenyon, S. N. Kenyon, H. H. Coats, George Grosvenor, George Salmon, T.W. Chesbro, J. J. Wolcott, J.W. Pratt, J. H. Reynolds, and Edwin Rockwell. George Grosvenor, of Rome, was cashier and manager of the bank, and occupied that position until 1857, when Amos H. Bradley was elected. In 1862 the capital was increased to $166, 100, and has since remained unchanged. At the same time Samuel F. Case was elected president. In May, 1865, it was reorganized and became the Citizens’ National Bank of Fulton, which name it still retains. On April 1, 1867, Charles G. Case and Samuel F. Case were elected respectively president and cashier, positions they held until their deaths. The latter died in July, 1869, and was succeeded by George M. Case, who was followed on January 11, 1881, by Solon F. Case, the present cashier. Charles G. Case died in December, 1875, and was succeeded by Thomas W. Chesbro, who served till his death January 11, 1881, when George M. Case was elected president and still holds that position. The vice-president is Jonathan H. Case. The directors for 1895 are George M. Case, George Kellogg, E. E. Hart, C. M. Lee, C. R. Lee, S. F. Case, and J. H. Case.
On October, 6, 1855, the Oswego River Bank was organized with a capital of $114, 500 and with John J. Wolcott, president; George Salmon, vice-president; Dewitt Gardner, cashier; and Lewis E. Loomis, W. B. Shaw, John E. Dutton, John A. Livingston, Alfred Mix, Elisha Leavenworth, Charles Benedict, Justice Townsend, and B. N. Hinman, directors. January 19, 1865, it was reorganized into the First National Bank of Fulton (a name it has since borne), with a capital of $115, 000. M. Lindley Lee was chosen president in 1870 and served until his death in May, 1876. The office then remained vacant until January 9, 1877, when R. H. Tyler was elected. He was succeeded January 13, 1880, by De Witt Gardner, the present president. Mr. Gardner had served as cashier until the last named date, when the assistant cashier, Amos Youmans, was elected and still holds the position. F. E. Bacon is vice-president. The directors for 1895 are D. W. Gardner, F. E. Bacon, Abram Emerick, L. C. Seymour, H. C. Gardner, Thomas Hunter 2d, and William Waugh. On June 21, 1877, the capital was reduced to $57,500.

The Fulton Savings Bank was incorporated March 29, 1871, by Sands N. Kenyon, president; Benjamin J. Dyer, H. H. Merriam, and Ira Carrier, vice-presidents; Abraham Howe, secretary; Dr. Charles g. Bacon, treasurer; George M. Case, John Harroun, John W. Pratt, Willis S. Nelson, William D. Patterson, Calvin Osgood, Morris S. Kimball, Willard Johnson, Stephen Pardee, John C. Wells, Amos Dean, Henry N. Somers, Hiram Bradway, William Dexter, and James H. Townsend. Dr. Bacon soon resigned as treasurer and Sands N. Kenyon was elected to the vacancy, holding also the office of president. He resigned January 10, 1887, and Abraham Howe was chosen his successor. In October, 1888, the bank was moved into its present building. The officers for 1895 are as follows: President and treasurer, Abraham Howe; first vice-president, Abram Emerick; second vice-president, Arvin Rice; third vice-president, Willis S. Nelson; secretary, William J. Lovejoy; attorney, G. S. Piper; trustees, W. S. Nelson, Arvin Rice, J. W. Pratt, J. C. Wells, G. S. Piper, W. D. Patterson, E. S. Hogeland, W. J. Lovejoy, Dr. C. G. Bacon, George M. Case, Reuben Bradshaw, Abraham Howe, Abram Emerick, F. A. Emerick, and George P. Wells. There are about 3,400 depositors with deposits aggregating over $450, 000.
The first newspaper published in Fulton and the second in the county outside of Oswego was the Fulton Chronicle, which was started by Thomas Johnson in November, 1837. In 1840 he sold it to Isaac S. Clark and Edwin Thompson, who changed the name to the Ben Franklin, which proved unsuccessful and the paper died the next year. Its immediate successor was the weekly Dispatch, conducted by E. C. Haten which lived about twelve months. In 1841 N. B. Northrup started the Fulton Sun and on August 20, 1842, Daniel Ayer established the Fulton Mirror; very soon afterward the two papers were consolidated under the name of the Fulton Sun and Mirror and published until 1844, when it was sold to Spencer Munroe and a little later was discontinued.
The Fulton Patriot was started by M. C. Hough in 1846, who transferred it to John A. Place in 1848. In 1854 it was sold to Thaddeus S. Brigham (who died in Union Village August 8, 1890), and in 1858 Hon. R. K. Sanford became the proprietor. In 1853 George E. Williams started the Oswego County Gazette, which he sold in 1858 to Mr. Sanford, who consolidated the two papers in November of that year under the title of the Fulton Patriot and Gazette. In 1861 it became the property of Rodney L. Adams, who was succeeded in 1865 by the Bennett Brothers. They continued as editors and proprietors until the death of Charles T. Bennett on August 14, 1877, when Fred Bennett assumed charge. He sold out to Frank M. Cornell, the present editor, December 1, 1892. The latter dropped the name, Gazette, and changed it to eight pages of six columns. It is Republican in politics, is issued every Friday, and ably represents the best interests of the village. Mr. Cornell was born in Skaneateles, N.Y., July 4, 1852, learned his trade in the Democrat office in that place, and in 1867 removed to Rochester, Minn., where he became local editor of the Post. In 1881 he went to Tower City, N.D., and started the Herald, which he moved to Valley City, N.D., in 1889, consolidating it with the Times-Record. In September, 1892, he sold out and came to Fulton. He is W. P. of Elizabeth Chapter, order of the Eastern Star, and secretary of Fulton Chapter R. A. M.

In 1860 the Democratic Union was published for a few months in Fulton. In June, 1868, George E. and J. M. Williams established the Fulton Times, which finally passed to E. D. Deming. September 21, 1881, Warner C. Wheeler purchased an interest. December 21 the paper was enlarged, and March 29, 1882, W. C. Wheeler & Co. became publishers. They were succeeded September 19, 1883, by Mrs. Mary L. Wheeler, with F. C. Bullock as editor. The latter died in June, 1884, and was followed by John A. McKay, and November 5 of that year the firm of J. A. McKay & Co. became the proprietors. In 1885 the paper passed to F. D. Van Wagenen with James R. Fairgrieve as editor, who remained in charge until August 27, 1890. Soon afterward Richard Carr purchased the establishment and changed the paper from a folio to eight pages, and on January 15, 1894, was succeeded by William E. Hughes, the present editor and proprietor. The Times is independent in politics, makes a specialty of local and neighborhood news, and has secured a wide and growing patronage. Mr. Hughes was born in the north of Ireland October 5, 1853, came to America with his parents in 1864, and learned his trade in New York city, where he became assistant ship news editor on the Journal of Commerce, a position he held thirteen years. He owned and edited the Orange Life and Evening Record in Orange, N. J., and in January, 1894, removed to Fulton.

The Fulton fire department was organized April 16, 1857, with Dixon Van Valkenburgh, Abial T. Loomis, James Peyden, Thomas Reeves, Abial W. Lewis, and John W. Knox as fire wardens. It still works on the volunteer basis and now consists of Steamer Company No. 1, Fred Gardner, president, and William Hoff, foreman; Steamer Company No. 2, and Johnson Hose Company No. 2, James Briggs, president, and George Sheridan, foreman; Protection Hook and Ladder Company No. 1, Thomas Hunter 2d, president, and James Keeler, foreman; Sharp Hose Company No. 3, Charles Mitchell, foreman; and Hose Company No. 4, E. E. Hart, president, and Elmer Taylor, foreman. The fire board consists of G. C. Hewes, chief; M. M. Williams, first assistant; Jesse R. Waugh, secretary; and Frederick P. Keeler, treasurer. 

The presidents of Fulton have been as follows:

Aaron G. Fish, 1835; George F. Falley, 1836; Samuel Dean, 1837; Oliver French, 1838; Joseph P. Whitney, 1839; John J. Wolcott, 1840, 1851, 1857; John Worlock, 1841; Hiram H. Coats, 1842; Lovwell Johnson, 1843, 1846-7; Jonathan Case, 1844; Sands N. Kenyon, 1845, 1854 (O. O. Shumway resigned); Robert C. Kenyon, 1848; Elliott Harroun, 1849; Amos G. Hall, 1850; Quartus Rust, 1852; Gardner Wood, 1853; S.F. Case 1855; Willis S. Nelson, 1856, 1863-4, 1874; Lucius A. Hovey, 1858; Willard Johnson, 1859, 1872; John C. Highriter, 1860; Lewis E. Loomis, 1861-2; Charles I. De Graw, 1865; R. T. Jones, 1866; William G. Gage, 1867; William C. Stephens, 1868-9; William D. Patterson, 1870; Daniel Pardee, 1871; Hiram Bradway, 1873; Rensselaer R. Dodge, 1875; Willam Waugh, 1876, 1884-5, 1887, 1892-3; John H. Woodin, 1877; Joel S. Palmer, 1878; Henry S. Gardner, 1879; Charles R. Nichols, 1880; Francis M. Wilson, 1881-2, 1889-90; James F. Herrick, 1883; John N. Sharp, 1886; George E. True, 1888; J. H. Merton, 1891; Thomas D. Lewis, 1894; G. P. Wells, 1895.

The village officers for 1894-5 were:

Thomas D. Lewis, president; Charles W. Washburn, George G. Emeny, Willard Johnson (resigned January 16, 1895 , and George P. Wells elected), C. Wellington Hastings, John M. Foster, and Clarence W. Streeter, trustees; William P. Hillick, clerk; James R. Loomis, treasurer; Seymour Van Buren, collector; Thomas B. Reynolds, Seymour Parmelee, and James F. Cooper, assessors; Anson J. Osborne, street commissioner; John N. Sharp, police justice; Job Bennett, Morgan Van Buren, and Daniel Morfa, excise commissioners; Clarence C. Hewes, Napolean Gorman, and Willard Curtis, Board of Health; Dr. H. L. Lake, health officer. 
A brief history of the earlier schools of Fulton has been given in previous pages of this chapter. As the village increased in population a number of select schools came into existence, the first one of which there is any record being in 1828 at the upper landing, kept by a Mr. Brockway. Others followed, and in 1833 Miss Gardner, who had taught the district school at the upper landing in 1830-31, opened a select school on the corner of Third and Oneida streets, which was attended by over seventy pupils. She was a lady of great energy and fine attainments, was eminently successful, and in 1834 went to India as a missionary, being the first one to depart from this county for foreign lands. At this time Rev. John Eastman was supplying the pulpit of the Presbyterian church here, and the success which had attended Miss Gardner’s enterprise was undoubtedly instrumental in prompting him to attempt the establishing of a seminary for the education of young ladies. In September, 1834 he opened a school in the building then recently vacated by her, which led to the incorporation of the Fulton Female Seminary, May 25, 1836, with Rev. John Eastman, Aaron G. Fish, Thomas R. Brayton, John E. Dutton, George Salmon, M. Lindley Lee, Israel P. Knox, Chauncey Betts, Henry Westfall, Henry Pearson, Samuel Merry, and Lemuel Dada as trustees, who were authorized to hold stock not to exceed $12, 000. Mr. Fish was chosen president, Mr. Dutton secretary, and Mr. Salmon treasurer. In 1839 the school was placed in charge of the Regents of the State University, and on April 11, 1842, its title was changed to the Fulton Academy, and youth of both sexes were admitted to its classes. Hon. George F. Falley, who died in June, 1847, had been a liberal contributor to the school, and in 1849 his widow, Mrs. Mehitable E. Falley, donated $4, 000 more, in recognition of which the name was changed by the Legislature on April 11, 1849, to the Falley Seminary of the Black River Conference. In this year the erection of a brick building was commenced on a lot donated for the purpose by Col. James L. Voorhees. It cost about $20, 000 and was dedicated December 5, 1850. A large debt hung over the institution which a few years later seriously embarrassed it. In 1856 Prof. John P. Griffin assumed charge and expended much of his private means in reducing the indebtedness. In 1869 he was succeeded by Rev. James Gilmour1, who became sole owner of the seminary property and conducted it until about two years before his death. The seminary was closed with the fall term of 1883, and since then the building has been occupied as a residence by Professor Gilmour and his widow. The principals of Falley Seminary were:
Miss Maria Clara Maynard (afterward Mrs. George Salmon, died May 6, 1861), 1836-41; Amos G. Hull, M.A., 1842; Rev. Edmund E. E. Bragdon, 1842-44 and 1848-53; Rev. Benjamin H. Caldwell, M.A., 1844-46; Theodore S. Parson, A.B., 1847-48; J.R. French, 1853-4; Rev. John W. Armstrong, M.A., 1854-55; Rev. J. Henry Mansfield, A.B., 1855-56; John P. Griffin, M.A., 1856-69; Rev. James Gilmour, 1869-83. 
Down to 1877 the public schools of Fulton were under the district school system. November 16 of that year they were organized into a union free school district by the election of the following Board of Education: S. N. Dada, president; Amos Youmans, secretary; Abram Emerick, William D. Patterson, F. E. Bacon, S.B. Whittaker and L.C. Seymour. August 20, 1888, districts 1 and 2 were consolidated into Union Free School District No. 1, which also comprised old district No. 14. Two buildings are used for school purposes, one on State street, and another on Fourth street built in 1868-69. A brick addition was added to the latter in 1889 at a cost of $15, 000. The board also owns a school building on Rochester street in old district 14, which is occupied by the janitor as a residence. The value of the school buildings and sites is estimated at $52, 500. The Board of Education for 1894-95 consists of Giles Piper, president; C. H. David, F.A. Gage, S.B. Whittaker, E.E. Hart, A.J. Snow, Wesley McCully, G.J. Emeny, H.S. Gardner, and Amos Youmans, clerk. The presidents have been S.N. Dada, F.E. Bacon, and G.S. Piper. Mr. Youmans has been officially identified with the schools of Fulton since 1875 and Mr. Whittaker since 1877. Prof. B.G. Clapp is principal and Caroline F. Barnes is preceptress, the two being assisted by twenty teachers. The schools are efficiently maintained, and reflect great credit upon the village of Fulton and its inhabitants.

Fulton village, as shown by the preceding narrative, has enjoyed a steady growth, a prestige that has been carefully developed and maintained, and a position not only in the county but in the State of which it may well be proud. Its future appears as brilliant as at any period of its past. The population in 1890 was 4, 214, and increase of 273 since 1880.

Volney, or Volney Center, is a post village of about 125 inhabitants. Elisha Candee opened here in 1816 the first store in the town outside of Fulton. Seth Tibballs erected a brick store in 1826 and soon afterwards sold to Samuel Griswold, who con- 
1Rev. James Gilmour, M.A., was born in Paisley, Scotland, and came to America at the age of nineteen. He was graduated from Union College, was ordained a Presbyterian minister, and died December 18, 1885, aged sixty three.

tinued in business for more than thirty years. Other merchants there were Mr. Humeston, Almon Tucker, H.N. Gaylord, Nathan Bailey, S.H. Merritt, Charles Coe, Levi Chapel and Arba W. Simons. Gideon Seymour opened a tavern as early as 1809; he died in 1817 and was succeeded by his widow. About 1830 John Gasper became a tavern keeper there and continued until 1836, when he was succeeded by Jeremiah Hull, from whom the place received its name of Hull’s Corners, and who was followed by George S. Babcock, George Briggs, William W. Rockafellow, C.B. Russ and others. This hotel was burned about 1870. George Briggs also had a tavern there in later years. The post-office was established December 13, 1825, with John Bristol as postmaster. His successors have been:

Samuel Griswold appointed April 22, 1830; Horace N. Gaylord, April 25, 1835; Jeremiah Hull, January 29, 1841; Samuel Griswold, July 3, 1841; Stephen Pardee, July 19, 1845; Samuel Griswold, June 6, 1849; Jacob Piper, September 15, 1853; George S. Babcock, January 3, 1859; Samuel Griswold, October 7, 1861; R. George Bassett, October 21, 1862; Dr. R.C. Baldwin, 1875 Arba W. Simons, 1876, incumbent. 
North Volney is a postal hamlet in the north part of the town. The first store was opened there in 1858 by John Campbell, who was succeeded by a Mr. O’Hara, Levi Johnson, R.P. Hall, F.W. Squires, Henry Bowen, Josiah Derby, William Sherman, A.O. Davis, A.P. Davis and others. Campbell & Stevens had a tavern there for a short time about 1850. The post-office was established in February 1859, with John Campbell as postmaster, the first mail leaving the office on February 19. The successive incumbents have been F.W. Squires, appointed August 29, 1861; Frank C. Squires (his son), May 22, 1880; A.P. Davis, April 1882; H.L. Bowen, June 1884; and Thomas E. Ingersoll, 1893. This place is locally known as Druce’s Corners. 

Randy’s Crossing is a postal hamlet and flag station on the Midland Railroad northwest of Fulton. A store called the “Six Mile Grocery” was kept there for several years and finally passed into the possession of Edward B. McCullock, who was appointed the first postmaster when the post-office was established in 1871. His successors were Angeline McCullock in 1880, Cyrus Surdam in 1886, Charles Decker in 1890, and Miss Sayles in 1894.

Ingell’s Crossing is a post-office and station on the Midland Railroad near the town line southeast of Fulton. The office was established March 25, 1870, with Willam F. Ingell as postmaster. He was succeeded by W.W. Loomis in 1890.

Mount Pleasant post-office, locally known as Hubbard’s Corners, was established about 1872 with Joel Wright as postmaster. It was discontinued in 1876 and re-established in 1890, when John Wilmer was appointed postmaster. He was followed by Isaac Hale in 1894, and the latter Mrs. L.P.A. Bishop in January 1895. A store was opened there about 1867 by Josiah Derby, succeeded by Joel Wright in 1870, and closed in 1877.
Seneca Hill is a little hamlet on the river opposite Minetto. At one time George Briggs and others had a tavern there, and in earlier days, as late as 1858, it had a post-office, which was long since discontinued. 
Morse was formerly a post-office near Bristol Hill four miles east of Fulton; it was discontinued in January 1894 at which time James Jones was postmaster. 

Churches.---Strange as it may seem the first religious organization in town was effected in the neighborhood of Volney Center in June, 1812, about two years before the pioneer society of Fulton came into existence. This was the first Congregation church of Volney, the original members were Gideon Candee, John Kendall, Manda Kendall, Jos. Morgan, Eunice Morgan, Enoch Bristol, Sarah Bristol, William Dean and Anna Dean. The first deacons were Gideon Candee and Stephen Blake. The chorister was John Kendall. John Dunlap and David R. Dixon were the first preachers. Rev. Oliver Leavitt became pastor in 1819 and remained until 1827, being followed by Revs. Abel Caldwell, Oliver Eastman, Truman Baldwin, Martin Powell, Heman S. Cotton, B. Pond, M. Stowe, Julias Doane, Lemuel Dada, Russell Whiting, Seth Williston, Salmon Strong, Jeremiah Petrie, J.R. Bradnack, Mr. Noye, P.W. Emens, David Henderson, Frank N. Greeley, W.W. Warner, and others. Their first edifice was erected on Bristol Hill in 1833 at a cost of about $2, 500. A Sunday school was organized there by Mrs. Eunice Leavitt in 1820, which was the first one in town outside of Fulton. Charles Atwood is now acting as pastor. This was the fifth church organized in Oswego county.

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Fulton had its beginning in circuit preaching that was conducted here by Rev. Mr. Tuller of Cortland, as early as 1809. The first class was organized in June, 1813, with Daniel Falley as leader. Meetings occurred at the houses of Daniel Falley, Judge Mooney, and Noah A. Whitney, and among the early preachers were Revs. Mr. Bishop, James, Hazen, Enoch Barnes, and Nathaniel Reeder. Under the latter in 1818-19 and extensive revival occurred, the converts numbering 400. On April 26, 1826, the “First Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Volney” was organized with George F. Falley, John Schenck, James Whitaker, John Waterhouse, Jacob C. Thompson, Daniel Falley, Joseph Easton, Julius Montague, and James Doolittle as trustees. The society worshipped in the school-house and in store-houses at the Upper and Lower Landings until 1828 when a brick edifice was erected on a lot donated for the purpose by Norman Hubbard. It was completed in 1830, and is generally said to have been the first church built by this denomination in Oswego county. It was twice remodeled and enlarged. On August 15, 1829, Fulton became the separate charge and Rev. William W. Rundell was appointed pastor. The pastors since then have been:

Revs. Jonathan Worthing, 1832; David H. Kingsley, 1833; M.H. Gaylord, 1834; William S. Bowdish, 1835-6, Luther Lee, 1837-8; C.W. Leet, 1839-40; Isaac Stone, 1841-2; Gardner Baker, 1843-4; Arza J. Phelps, 1845-6; Charles L. Dunning, 1847-8; John T. Hewitt, 1849-50; Harvey B. Chapin, 1851; Charles H. Austin (supply), 1851; James Erwin, 1852-3. 
In 1853 the church was divided. A second society of 112 members was formed which erected a small building on the east side of Fourth street, and their first pastor in 1854 was Rev. O.M. Legate, his successors were:
Revs. Isaac L. Hunt, 1855-6; and William X. Nind, 1857. The pastors of the first church were Revs. M.D. Gillett, 1854-5; J.H. Lambras, 1856; and A. Nichols, 1857-8. In June, 1857, the two societies united. The subsequent pastors have been Revs. Jackson C. Vandercook, 1859-60; Richard Redhead 1861-2; John D. Adams, 1863-5; O.C. Cole, 1866-7; R.C. Houghton, 1867-70; T.J. Bissell, 1870; Theron Cooper, 1871-2; Albert L. York, 1873-4; H.M. Danforth1875-7; H.W. Bennett 1878-80; E.C. Bruce, 1881-2; W.F. Markham, 1883-5; W.D. Chase, 1886-91; C. H. Guile, 1891-3; and Stephen T. Dibble since April 1893. 

In April, 1883, the society purchased for $2, 800 a house of Henry E. Nichols on the corner of Third and Cayuga streets for parsonage, which they subsequently exchanged for the corner lot on which the church now stands. In 1894 a new brick edifice was erected on the site of and adjoining the old structure at a cost of about $31, 000. It was dedicated December 11, 1894, by Bishop Willard F. Mallalieu and presiding elder T.B. Shepard. The society has about 575 members, with Dr. D.E. Lake, F.E. Bacon, F.E. Goodjon, John Porter, and M.V. Connell as trustees. Mr. Bacon is superintendent of the Sunday school, which as some 425 scholars.
The Baptist church of Fulton was first organized at the house of Richard Falley in the autumn of 1817, with these members: Richard Falley and wife, Bradford Dart and wife, Thomas Spencer and wife, David Johnson and wife, Hannah Fish, and Margaret Falley. The first persons to unite by baptism were Rufus Crain and Zivia Falley (afterward Mrs. Sanford), and soon the membership numbered twenty. Rev. Enoch Ferris and others ministered to the little band, which finally became so weak that its place of worship was removed to Palermo, where a majority of the remaining members resided. In May, 1827, another church was formed at the house of Dea. Timothy Wetmore, about three miles east of the village, composed of Timothy Wetmore, Hannah Wetmore, Sanford Smith, Aaron G. Fish, Mrs. Lucy Ann Fish, Josiah Smith, Polly Smith, Zadock Thomas, Chloe Thomas, Zeriah Sanford, Martha Baxter, and Betsey Gates. For several years they were without a settled pastor, but occasional meetings were held in the Sixteenth school house. In 1832 Rev. Asa Caldwell became the pastor and was followed by Rev. Charles Merritt and Elder Camp. Under the latter, in February, 1837, the meetings were transferred to the “old red school house” on the corner of Second and Cayuga streets in Fulton; about five years later they were held in the old Universalist church, now standing on Second street near Cayuga, and used as a paint shop. The “First Baptist society of Fulton” was incorporated at the district school house on July 2, 1838, with the following trustees: Kingsford E. Sanford, Timothy Barnes, Joseph Sanford, James W. Tucker, M. Newell, J. C. Whitman, and Ephraim Beardsley. Rev. Peter Woodin became pastor in 1839 and remained six years, and during his ministry, in 1841 a church edifice was built at a cost of $2, 300. He closed his pastorate in the spring of 1845 and among his successors were Revs. L. Ranstead, C. B. Post, J. B. Simmons (six years), S. W. Titus (eight years), G.R. Pierce, E.J. Harrison, R. H. Ketcham, George Baptiste, William Ostler J.C. Breaker, B.R. Dow, and Robert J. Holmes. The society has about 200 members, property valued at $7, 500, and a Sunday school of some eighty scholars with C.W. Streeter as superintendent. N.R. Cole is church clerk.

The First Presbyterian church of Fulton and Granby---June 13, 1818, a preliminary meeting was held at the house of Widow Perry near the Cascade, by the Rev. John Dunlap, and Elders Elijah Mann and James Crosby, for the purpose of forming a Presbyterian church. The organization, styled the Presbyterian church of Oswego Falls, was effected on June 14, in the storehouse at the upper landing with these members: 

Margaret Falley, Anna Crosby, Mary Perry, Lucretia Perry, Margaret M. Tarbox, Harriet Fay, Jared Crosby, Job M. Perry, Militia French, Lucinda Robinson, May Schenck, Gitty Walradt, Lovissa Wilson, Sarah Bassett, Cyril Wilson, Dorcas Perry. 
Within a month twelve children were baptized by Rev. D.D. Field, a missionary. On March 19, 1820, James Crosby was received into the church as a member and ruling elder, being the first to occupy the latter position and officiating solely in that capacity until January 13, 1828, when Nathan Rowlee and Theodore Foster were ordained. The society was legally organized at a school house in Granby on July 16, 1827, with the following trustees: Artemus Leonard, Bushnell Carey, Freeman Hancock, N.B. Northrop, Theodore F. Romeyn, and Charles Comstock. It was “Resolved, that this church and society be hereafter styled the Presbyterian church and society of Fulton and Granby.” For a time meetings were held in Oswego Falls. On April 30, 1832, the church was reorganized, under the name of “The First Presbyterian Society of Fulton and Granby,” with Peter Schenck, George Salmon, jr., Elijah Mann, Edward Baxter, Freeman Hancock, and Moses L. Lee as trustees. In 1833 their first house of worship was built of wood on the corner of Oneida and Second streets, and was dedicated November 8 of that year by Rev. R.W. Condit. The first settled pastor was Rev. John Eastman, the founder of Falley Seminary, who commenced his labors January 26, 1834, was installed September 10, following, and remained until October 5, 1837. The subsequent pastors have been Revs. William Fuller, from April 24, 1839, to April 20, 1841; T.R. Townsend from 1842 to 1851; Edward Lord, from February 10, 1852 to 1865 (absent as chaplain in the army one year); C.J. Hutchins, from June 17, 1870, to 1879; James S. Riggs, from September 1, 1880, to June 1, 1884; Charles H. Smith, from April 1, 1885, to July 4, 1886; and Joseph H. Odell, incumbent, since January 30, 1894. During many of these intervening periods the church was supplied by various clergymen, including Revs. Carl H. Stone, Frederick Palmer, and D.W. Rankin. During the pastorate of Rev Mr. Townsend the society erected a new edifice, which was dedicated January 2, 1845. This structure was burned January 10, 1882. During that year the present handsome brick and stone church on the corner of Cayuga and Third streets was built at a cost, including the lot and furnishings, of $31, 843.99. It was dedicated June 14, 1883, by Rev. A.J. Upson, of Auburn. The society has about 300 communicants and owns a brick parsonage on the corner of Third and Utica streets. The elders are Arvin Rice (clerk), Almon Bristol, Andrew Hanna, and C.C. Benedict; and the trustees are George M. Case, president; George E. True, Lucien C. Seymour, Francis Stiles, Thomas Hunter 2d, I.C. Curtis, with George C. Webb, clerk.

The Methodist Episcopal churches of North Volney and Hubbard’s Corners.—A little before the year 1820 Methodist meetings were held at the house of “Father” Arnold, and down to about 1843 they were held in various localities in the north and east part of town. About this time a class was formed at North Volney with Russell Druce as leader, and in 1859 a church edifice was built there. The first trustees were G.D. Sayles, F.W. Squires, Francis Flowers, J.M. Annis, Sanford Patrick, Ira Campbell, and V.R. Griswold. The first Sunday school there was organized with Peter Wise as superintendent in 1854. In 1870 another M.E. Church was erected in Hubbard’s Corners (Mount Pleasant). The two societies have about 150 members, own property valued at $3,000 and are in charge of Rev. B.G. Sanford.

The Universalist Church of Fulton was organized in 1832. Prior to this, in 1828, Rev. S.R. Smith, a Universalist minister, came here from Clinton, N.Y., under the auspices of Alfred Sabin, and preached in the school house on the “flats”. In 1831 Rev. Matthew Bullard held similar services in the village. The first pastor of the church was Rev. O. Whiston, who held meetings in the school house at the upper landing. He was succeeded by Rev. John. French, who preached in the “old red school house”, and who was followed by Rev. T.C. Eaton, under whom, in 1836, a church was built on the west side of Second street, near Cayuga. He remained until 1841. Then came Rev. Mr. Taylor, and on October 11, 1841, a legal organization was effected under the name of the First Universalist Church of Fulton, the trustees being John Worlock, Andrew B. Simons and Peter H. Keller. The subsequent pastors were Revs. R.O. Williams, William Sias, L.M. Hawes, Nelson Brown, J.R. Tuttle, G.W. Skinner, J.M. Bailey and Royal H. Pullman, a brother of George M. Pullman, the palace car magnate. He remained about eight years, or until May, 1867, and during his pastorate the brick edifice (Church of the Restoration) on First street was built, the corner stone of which was laid July 13, 1864. The pastors since the Rev. Mr. Pullman have been Revs. C.B. Lombard, E.K. Sanborn, L.M. Rice, O.K. Crosby, E. Jacobs, Allen P. Folsom, A.J. Aubrey, and others, together with several supplies. Rev. Mr. Aubrey, now postmaster of Fulton, served from March, 1891, to July, 1894. The pulpit at present is temporarily vacant. The trustees are A.J. Snow and A.L. Warner.

Zion Church (Protestant Episcopal), of Fulton, was organized June 22, 1835, by Rev. John McCarty, of Oswego, with the following wardens and vestry: Anson Sackett and Zachariah Eddy, wardens; John C. Highriter, Robert Hubbell, Hiram D. Wheat, Norman Kellogg, Richard D. Hubbard, Elbert Holmes, John O’Neil and David H. Highriter, vestrymen. On August 6, 1836, the corner stone of their church edifice was laid by Rev. Mr. McCarty, and the building was consecrated August 4, 1843, by Bishop De Lancy. The structure was improved in 1855 at a cost $600, and in 1862 a lot in the rear was purchased for $300. In 1866 a rectory was built at an expense of $800, which received $500 in repairs in 1872. The first missionary was Rev. George B. Engle, who came in 1838. In 1842 Rev. A.C. Treadway took charge, and three years later was succeeded by Rev. O.P. Holcomb, who was followed in 1848 by Rev. George S. Potter. Rev. Theodore M. Bishop was rector from April 26, 1849 to 1857, and from August, 1861 to 1868. Other rectors have been Revs. William Atwell, L.E. Ferguson (during whose ministry St. Luke’s Mission at West Granby was consolidated with Zion Church), Nathan F. Whiting, D.D., Edward Moyses (from May 1, 1872, to May 25, 1883), I.B.C. Beaubien, Horace Goodyear, and Mr. Cresser. The present rector is Rev. H. M. Clarke. Hiram Bradway, who died September 6, 1881, was for forty five years junior warden of this church. The present officers are Willis S. Nelson and George Ehrhart, wardens; Giles S. Piper, James H. Brooks, Alfred Cockshott, George G. Chauncey and Hugh McKinnan (clerk) vestrymen.

The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Fulton was organized April 24, 1843, with eight members: William Wright, Sylvester Bennett, Isaac Schenck, Thomas W. Chesbro, Henry C. Moody, Charles G. Case, James Parker, jr., and John W. Arnold. Thomas W. Chesbro was appointed first steward, and Rev. P.R. Sawyer became the first pastor; and at a meeting of the society held at the “white school house,” it was resolved that “the church formed April 22d be considered the ‘true Wesleyan church in Fulton’” The church was legally organized April 6, 1844, with the following trustees: Sylvester Bennett, Thomas W. Chesbro, Charles G. Case, H.C. Moody, James Parker, jr., and William Wright. In 1844 a frame church was built on the corner of Second and Rochester streets. The society finally disbanded, and the old building, is used for a storehouse.

The Church of the Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholic) of Fulton had its beginning in the services which Father Kelley, of Oswego, instituted here about 1850. In January 1854, Rev. James Smith was appointed resident priest. The congregation increased in numbers, and the premises formerly occupied by the Fulton Female Seminary, on the corner of Third and Rochester streets, were purchased, the old building was fitted up for a house of worship, and about 1858 it was regularly consecrated by Bishop McCloskey. It was afterward enlarged and improved. Father Smith died here September 15, 1881. The present priest, Rev. P.J. Kearney, took charge September 29, 1879. Under his pastorate a magnificent brick and stone church has just been erected. The corner stone was laid September, 1889, and the imposing edifice was appropriately dedicated March 10, 1895. The lot on which it stands and the artistically carved altar were bequeathed to the parish by Father Smith. The structure is built in the Gothic style of architecture, contains twelve memorial windows, and cost about $50, 000.

The Free Methodist church of Fulton was organized as a class on the Chittenango camp-ground June 15, 1869, with five members, and with Alexander Wise as leader. The old school house at the upper landing was purchased and on July 4, of that year was dedicated as a place of worship, at which time the church was legally organized. On July 9 Rev. C.H. Southworth became their first pastor. September 16, 1869, the society was incorporated as the “Free Methodist Church of Fulton” with William Jenkins, Alexander Wise, and William W. Hill as trustees. On the night of July 3, 1870, the church building was destroyed by fire. A new chapel was dedicated January 5, 1871. Rev. H.A. Webster is the present pastor.

The Methodist Protestant chapel on Broadway in Fulton was built by the Baptists. It was changed to its present denomination and dedicated June 2, 1889.

Grace Mission chapel on the “flats” between the canal and river in Fulton was dedicated May 12, 1889. It is in charge of Samuel Green. 

The State Street Methodist chapel in Fulton was built and opened as an undenominational mission in the fall of 1894, the prime mover being E.R. Redhead.

There is also a small Methodist Protestant church in Bundy’s Crossing, which was built several years ago, and a Seventh-Day Adventist church in Fulton, which was instituted more recently.

The Young Men’s Christian Association of Fulton was organized May 21, 1888, with F.E. Bacon, president; Arvin Rice, vice-president; C.C. Benedict, secretary; and C.W. Streeter, treasurer. Rooms were leased in the Gardner block on Oneida street and the association has continued an active existence. 

Source:  Landmarks of Oswego County New York, edited by John C. Churchill, L.L.D., assisted by H. Perry Smith & W. Stanley Child, Syracuse, N.Y., D. Mason & Company Publishers, 1895. 

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Copyright © June 2005 Natalie Runyan, Transcriber
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