Hammond's 1872 History of Madison County, Cazenovia, pages 197-243
Hammond's 1872 History of Madison
Cazenovia (chapter IV)
Daniel H. Weiskotten
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Hammond, Luna M, 1872, History
of Madison County. Truair, Smith & Co. Syracuse, NY
Hammond's history was not
the first detailed county-wide history text for Madison County, (see Evans
1852) but it is by far the most influential. It was written after
several years of exhaustive research, and by using thousands of primary
documents, and hundreds of personal interviews,. Mrs. Hammond was
correct in observing that "A few years hence nothing further than has been
written of the earliest days, can be obtained, except by uncertain tradition."
This work is the basis for
almost all of the 19th century history texts that followed. The two
other major Madison County History books, by James H. Smith (1880, with
Chenango County) and John E. Smith (1899) draw large portions of their
material virtually unchanged from Hammond's work, often only supplementing
it with updated information. This is primarily due to the immense
scope of Hammond's work, but also that there were no similar works before
The text is not without
its flaws and it made more concrete many of the fallacies which today plague
our local history, but there are thousands of bits of information that
cannot be found in any other sources and her work will continue to be a
premier source for local history and genealogy. It also makes good
Here I present Chapter IV
(4) of Hammond's work, the section describing the history and events of
early Cazenovia, in its entirety with footnotes and supplementary notes.
I made very few changes, except spelling corrections and changing names
to their proper form (Bunnell = Burnell, Foreman = Forman). I have
also retained the original format of the text and all illustrations.
Links are provided to footnotes and to other sources that are referenced.
I hope to soon have Hammond's
sections on Fenner and Nelson, as well as biographies.
Linked sections include:
Cazenovia Village, Manufacturers,
Central New York Conference Seminary, Prominent
Men (see the Biographies list), New Woodstock, Churches,
Biographies of: Theophile Cazenove, John
Lincklaen, Samuel S. Forman, Jonathan
Forman, Ledyard Lincklaen, and Lucy
Footnotes & Notes
Formation of the town. - Boundaries. - Geographical features.
- Treaties of 1788. - The Road Township purchased of the Indians. - Indian
occupation of this land. - The Holland Company. - John Lincklaen's Explorations.
- Discovery of Lake Owahgena. - The Holland Purchase. - The Pioneer's Journey.
- Names of Pioneer. - Rapid settlement. - Division of Road Township into
four towns. - Laying out and naming of the village of Cazenovia. - Adventures
with bears. - Early settlers. - First Town officers. - Division of the
town in 1798. - Cazenovia village in 1803. - Incorporation of Cazenovia
village. - Enterprise and progress. - Manufactures and Business firms.
- C.N.Y.C. Seminary. - Biographical Sketches and Notices of Prominent Men.
- New Woodstock. - Churches. - Newspapers.
Cazenovia was formed from Paris
and Whitestown, Herkimer County, March 5th, 1795. DeRuyter was taken
off in 1798, Sullivan in 1803, Smithfield and Nelson in 1807, and a part
of Fenner in 1823. It is the center town on the western border of
the county, and is bounded on the north by Sullivan, east by Fenner and
Nelson, south by DeRuyter, and west by Onondaga County. The surface
of this town is a rolling upland, broken by the deep valleys of the Chittenango
and Limestone Creeks. The summits of the hills are 200
to 500 feet above the valleys. Cazenovia Lake (called Owahgena,
meaning "the lake where the yellow fish swim," or "yellow perch lake,")
a beautiful sheet of water about four miles long, lies in the <:198>
northern part. Its shores slope gently back from the water 5 edge,
where handsome farms, unrivaled for richness by any in the county, are
now spread out to view.
The lake lies at a great
elevation above tide water, and Chittenango Creek which bears away its
waters, is a feeder of the Erie Canal. This stream has in its course
a fall of several hundred feet, affording a great number of mill sites.
At Chittenango Fall, about
three miles from Cazenovia village, the water plunges in a beautiful cascade,
perpendicularly, over a ledge of limestone rock, 136 feet in height.
There is no scenery in this part of the State more charming than along
the course of this creek from the village to the Falls. The road
is excellently graded and macadamized, and winds with the stream between
the mountainous bights, which, a part of the distance, rise on either side,
while the river flows swiftly down the descent, rushing over rocks, eddying
around huge boulders, which everywhere lie in the stream - seeming to be
detached fragments from distant mountains, sent hither by some powerful
effort of nature, and burled with terrible impetus into the waters.
It is a singularly romantic, wild and awe inspiring spot, at the foot of
the fall, as one stands in the deep shadows of overhanging rocks, perpendicular
hills and thick forest, the gloom increased by rising spray, the changing
and uncertain lights and shades glancing on the falling, foaming torrent,
the rush, the roar, the boiling, trembling basin, the quivering earth with
its apparently unstable footing (Footnote
The DeRuyter and Oneida
Plank Road, which was built in 1848, in passing this route, found its most
difficult obstacles in the gorge near the falls, where an elevation of
800 feet was overcome by a gradual ascent, which in no place exceeds six
feet in one hundred. The old road required <:199> an aggregate
ascent of 1,600 feet The plank road rendered available a water- power
hitherto useless; its entire fall is 750 feet. From Cazenovia to
Chittenango this road has been recently macadamized.
Limestone Creek flows across
the south part of the town. On this stream, near the southwest border of
the town, are two beautiful cascades, called Delphi Falls, one of which
is ninety feet in height, the other between sixty and seventy. Hydraulic
and common limestone are quarried near Chittenango Falls, in the northern
and central parts; the soil is a gravelly loam. In the southern part
of the town a clayey loam soil prevails, underlaid with hard pan.
As we turn our attention
to the history of this region, we are enabled to go beyond the day when
it was called Cazenovia, into the ancient time when it was a part of the
broad territory of Whitestown. The far-reaching trails of the Iroquois
had pointed the way of emigration into northern Madison County. A
sort of semi-civilization was accomplished through the intercourse of the
Indians and whites, in their days of war and of peace, as far back as the
sixteenth century, so that the savage had learned many of the useful arts,
with, probably, some additional viciousness; and the Englishman and Frenchman,
more often the latter, bad mingled his blood with the race of the red man;
for the white man desired this beautiful country, and rather than not dwell
in it, he willingly took up his abode with the aboriginal possessors.
When peace succeeded the troublous times of the Revolution, the controllers
of the public welfare, knowing well the value of these lands, and knowing,
also, that the time had come when peaceable arrangements could be made
with the Indians, effected amicable treaties with them, by which large
tracts were obtained for settlement. In 1788, treaties were made,
through which the "Military Tract" of Onondaga, the Chenango "Twenty Towns,"
and the "Gore," lying between them, were obtained. The Military Tract
was appropriated to "Soldiers' Rights;" and while the Twenty Towns were
sold to different purchasers, <:200> the Gore, or its proceeds, were
to be appropriated to the laying out of new roads. Therefore it was
named "Road Township." It was a tract about thirty- five miles long,
from north to south, four and a half miles wide at the northern extremity,
and about four miles at the southern containing about 100,000 acres of
land. The project of opening the great Genesee, as well as a road
from the salt springs in Onondaga County, which should traverse Road Township
to Chenango, in the Twenty Towns, was in contemplation, but nothing was
done until after the sale of this tract to the Holland Land Company.
Previous to the treaties
of 1788, this town was in the domain of the Oneidas, and was considered
as their reserve hunting ground; and the lake, so well stored with fish,
was their especial property. Though their village lay at the northward
(at Canaseraga), yet they kept a well- defined path to and up the Chittenango
Creek to the lake, where they built their temporary cabins, reduced the
timber, constructed apparatus for fishing, and otherwise betook them-selves
to the pursuits of their race. At the head of the lake they evidently,
at some time, established themselves with some degree of permanency, and
cultivated small fields of corn. There some of their number have
been buried. In 1861, when the citizens of this School District (No. 5)
were sinking a hole to set their liberty pole, near the school house, a
large skeleton of an Indian was found buried in a sitting posture, with
hatchets, pipes, beads and other articles which the Indian was supposed
to need on his journey to the Spirit land. The circumstance of the
remains of a breast- work-like fortification, which could be seen for many
years after the settlement by white people, just east of this school house,
and the frequent bringing to light as the soil was cultivated, of various
implements of domestic use, such as heavy stone mallets or pestles, worn
smooth by friction, - apparently of the kind used in pounding corn, - of
stone hatchets, (sometimes broken,) of rather ingenious make, <:201>
and other peculiarly-formed implements - the use of which is unknown at
the present day - curious beads, &c (Footnote
Caz1872#2) all would indicate something like a permanent residence,
where their Indian arts flourished for a season, where they found abundant
sport as well as sustenance in fishing, and also in hunting, - for bears
and deer were plenty, and otter and beaver were not scarce, - and where
their little fields of corn grew thriftily. They were undoubtedly
one of the families of the great Confederacy, established here for a season;
not at all isolated, as evidences of about equal antiquity of the proximity
of neighbors are found on what was called the "Fort Lot," two miles to
the westward, near Oran, Onondaga County. This family may have been
driven from here at last by some invading foe (Footnote
Caz1872#3) or perhaps they abandoned their fortifications (which
the Indians invariably erected around their villages,) for some more congenial
The antiquities of Fort
Lot are graphically described in a letter written in 1845, by J.V.H. Clark
of Manlius, N.Y., to Mr. Schoolcraft, and published in "Schoolcraft's Notes
on the Iroquois," from which the following extract is made:
"A locality in the town of Cazenovia, Madison Co., N.Y., near the County
line, and on Lot 33, township of Pompey, Onondaga Co., is called the "Indian
Fort." * * * * It is about four miles southeasterly from Manlius
village, situated on a slight <:202> eminence, which is nearly surrounded
by a deep ravine, the banks of which are quite steep and somewhat rocky.
The ravine is in shape like an ox bow, made by two streams which pass nearly
around it and unite. Across this bow at the opening was an earthen
wall running southeast and northwest, and when first noticed by the early
settlers was four or five feet high, straight, with something of a ditch
in front, from two to three feet deep. Within this inclosure may
be about ten or twelve acres of land. A part of this land when first
occupied in these latter times was called ‘the Prairie,' and is noted now
among the old men as the place where the first battalion training was held
in the County of Onondaga. But that portion near the wall and in
front of it, has recently, say five years ago (1840), been cleared of a
heavy growth of black oak timber. Many of the trees were large, and
were probably 150 or 200 years old. Some were standing in the ditch and
others on the top of the embankment. There is a considerable
burying place within the enclosure. The plow has already done much toward
leveling the wall and ditch, still they can easily be traced the whole
extent. A few more plowings and harrowings and no vestige of them
Mr. Clark picked up specimens
of dark brown pottery. He adds that "every variety of Indian relic
has been found there." One fact which has come to the knowledge of
the author may be mentioned. Two cannon balls, of about three pounds
each, were found in this vicinity, apparently long imbedded in the earth,
indicating that light cannon may have been used, either for defense or
in the reduction of this fortification, or both. Mr. Clark says further:
"There is a large rock in the ravine on the south, on which are inscribed
the following characters-thus : IIIIIX, cut three-fourths of an inch broad,
nine inches long, three-fourths of an inch deep, perfectly regular, lines
straight. Whether this is a work of fancy, or of significance, is not known.
* * * * There is a singular coincidence in the location of these fortifications.
* * * * They are nearly if not quite all situated on land rather elevated
above that which is immediately contiguous, and surrounded, or partly so,
by deep ravines, so that these form a part of the fortifications themselves.
At one of these, on the farm of David Williams, in Pompey, the banks on
either side are found to contain bullets of lead, as if shot across at
opposing forces. The space between them may be three or four rods,
and the natural cutting twenty or twenty-five feet deep."
However the facts may be, concerning
these Indian settlements, <:203> the last of the race who were dwellers
of these localities had disappeared before the advent of the white settlers
in 1792, and all outward marks of their presence have since gradually faded;
and did not the earth, as it is occasionally turned to the light by the
furrow of the husbandman, yield a memento, oblivion would utterly cover
every vestige of their past history.
By the time the Government
of New York State had become possessed of the lands of the Iroquois, the
fame of their wonderful excellencies had winged its way to the crowded
cities of Europe, and men of wealth and high standing caught the spirit
of emigration. As soon as they were offered for sale, companies were
formed to invest in these lands. In Amsterdam, Holland, one was formed
called the "Holland Land Company," its object being to make establishments
in the wilds of America. The names of the individuals forming this
company were: Peter Stadnitski, Nicholas Van Staphorst, Peter Van Eeghen,
Hendrick Vallenhoven, Aernout Van Beeftingh, Wolrave Van Heukelom, and
who afterwards, with Jacob Van Staphorst, Christian Van Eeghen, Isaac Ten
Cate, Christiana Coster, widow of Peter Stadnitski, and Jan Stadnitski,
citizens of Netherlands, were the original Holland land owners. Theophilus
Cazenove was their first general agent to America. He took up his
residence in Philadelphia, and through him the celebrated "Holland Purchase"
of the Genesee country was obtained.
Under the patronage of Peter
Stadnitski, who while living was the President of the Holland Company,
John Lincklaen of Amsterdam, was sent into the United States to explore
the new countries, and to make a purchase of a tract of land if he should
find an advantageous situation. Accordingly he arrived in Philadelphia
in the year 1790, bearing letters of instruction to Theophilus Cazenove.
Inspired with zeal for his mission, Mr. Lincklaen, in the month of September,
1792, having completed his preparations <:204> for a tour in the wilderness,
employed two hardy woodsmen to accompany him, and immediately set out,
directing his course by the southern route through Schoharie to the Chenango
Twenty Towns; his object being to explore them and the Gore, - contemplating
the purchase of the latter and some one of the Twenty Towns.
During his journey, Mr.
Lincklaen kept a journal, which has been preserved by his family (having
been translated from the French in which it was originally written), in
which we trace his journeyings through the pathless forest, and note in
his progress his stopping at Hovey's (Footnote
Caz1872#4), at Oxford, from whence the road was being opened
to Cayuga Lake. He states that the "surveyors employed by Hovey are
Nathaniel Locke, of Westchester County, and Walter Sabin, who lives on
the Susquehanna, near Mercereau's. Each surveyor has with him five
men, viz: two chainmen, two markmen, and one to carry provisions.
The surveyor, when running the outlines, has $2 per day, and when telling
out, $2.50. Each man that goes in the woods, carries provisions for
a fortnight or twenty days. Sabin runs commonly five or six miles
a day, Locke eight or ten miles a day. Locke's hands have $10 a month,
Sabin's only $8." Here Mr. Lincklaen employed one of Hovey's men,
when the party of four started on their westerly route. During the
few subsequent days, the party, by zigzag marches, traversed several of
the southern-most of the Twenty Townships, Mr. Lincklaen making his observations
of the soil, its productions, and the climate as far as indications could
aid him, with discrimination, noting particular locations with accuracy,
entering in his journal the names of the original purchasers of tracts
in the sections he passed through which were already sold, and adding thereto
many statements which to the seeker after historical facts are regarded
as especially interesting. On Monday, the 8th of October, the east
line of the Gore was reached, from whence Mr. <:205> Lincklaen's course
was mainly directed to the northward, exploring thoroughly this, and the
townships bordering on the east. With Road Township (the Gore), its
handsome valleys and streams, its land of excellent quality, its noble
timber, he pronounced himself well pleased.
Mr. Lincklaen's journal
tells us that on the afternoon of Thursday, October 11, 1792, he arrived
at the foot of the beautiful lake in Cazenovia, where the party encamped
for the night. As the result of a reconnoiter he wrote: "The situation
is superb, and the lands are beautiful." The record continues:
"Friday the 12th. - We journeyed from the lake north and east to the Genesee
road, through lands both good and bad, the timber chiefly oak and poplar.
We came to Canaseraga Creek, where five German families are settled; they
are poor. On the other side of the creek is the Indian settlement.
We went to the house of John Denny; there was no bread, no meat" (Footnote
Caz1872#5). John Denny was a tavern keeper among the Oneidas.
Directing his next course
through the northern tier of the Twenty Towns, he passed through Sherburne,
Chenango County, where he found one Mr. Guthrie, who had been there three
or four months; thence passed through a corner of Otsego County, and there
tarried a season with Louis DeVilliers (Footnote
Caz1872#6), on Aldrich Creek, town of Morris. From this
place he set out upon his return journey to Philadelphia via New York,
where he arrived after a month's absence, the object of his tour satisfactorily
accomplished. Mr. Cazenove was well pleased with his report, and
greatly admired the spirit of his enterprising young friend, and the perseverance
which enabled one accustomed to the elegancies and luxuries of life to
endure a protracted tour in the wilderness, with the tent for his lodging
place, and bread and pork for his fare. As a result of Mr. Lincklaen's
<:206> explorations, the Holland Company purchased Road Township and
No. I of the Twenty towns, (Nelson) the latter containing 20,000 acres
of land, which, added to the former, comprised a territory of 120,000 acres,
and extended over the present towns of German, Pitcher and Lincklaen, in
Chenango County, and DeRuyter, Nelson, and the southern part of Cazenovia
in Madison County. Mr. Lincklaen was appointed agent, with
an interest in the purchase, to settle these lands. The northern
part of Cazenovia was then a part of the Oneida Reservation, and subsequently
a portion of Peter Smith's tract (Footnote
During the winter of
1793, Mr. Samuel S. Forman, to whose narrative we are indebted for much
of the material for this portion of Cazenovia's history, became acquainted
with Mr. Cazenove and Mr. Lincklaen in Philadelphia, and by them was appointed
clerk to accompany the latter into the backwoods, to commence the new settlement.
By appointment, Mr. Forman met Mr. Lincklaen in New York, in April, 1793,
where a large assortment of goods, comprising all articles necessary for
a settlement, were purchased. From here the merchandise was taken
up the North River and the Mohawk to Old Fort Schuyler (Utica), and left
in the care of John Post, the only merchant then in that place; Mr. Forman
forwarding only one load to Cazenovia on the first journey out. From
here, with the three Jerseymen, - John Wilson, carpenter, Michael Day,
mason, James Smith, teamster, - whom Mr. Lincklaen brought with him, having
engaged their services for a year, and two waiters, Philip Jacob Swartz,
and a large German whose name is forgotten, together with seven more employed
for the expedition, whose names were: James Green, David Fay, Stephen F.
Blackstone, Philemon Tuttle, David Freeborn, Gideon Freeborn and Asa C.
<:207> Towns, all started to the westward on the newly opened Genesee
Road. A few days' provisions were in each knapsack, each axeman with
his axe on his shoulder, and a yoke of oxen and a cart loaded with provisions
for both man and beast, together with all implements of husbandry and for
domestic use which their primitive beginning would require, made up the
The first day they proceeded
as far as Wemple's tavern, Oneida Castle; the next day reached Canaseraga
and put up at the tavern of John Denny, a half-breed Indian, who had been
a Captain in the Revolution, and spoke good English. The third day
the company continued on the Genesee Road as far as Chittenango, where
they left it, turning to the south and following the Indian path up the
crooked course of the creek, the axemen being obliged to widen the way
for the passage of the cart. It was ascertained, through the difficulty
of ascending the hills, that another yoke of oxen was needed, and forthwith
a man was dispatched to Utica to obtain them. With perseverance,
however, the next hill top was gained with the one pair by the time night
set in, and preparations were speedily entered upon for an encampment.
A huge fire was soon kindled, and the group of stalwart men, cheerful and
respectful in the presence of their leader, though sadly wearied, presented
what would now seem in that place an unique spectacle, as they moved about
in the wavering glow of the camp fire. Forth from the knapsacks now
came the pork and beans; and slicing away with their jack knives, a majority
of the men proceeded to make a meal. A few, appreciating the Indian
mode of cooking meat for the more delicate appetite, placed their pork
upon the nicely-sharpened end of a long stick, and stood patiently roasting
it in the fire, while others ate heartily of raw pork and bread sandwiched;
all enjoyed their repast with zest. Tired and sleepy, at last the
men arranged their blanket couch upon the earth, the fire at their feet,
the trunk of a fallen <:208> tree at their head, and, it may be inferred,
soon sank into profound sleep - dreamless, possibly, unless the bright
eyes and rosy lips of some buxom German lass, seen during the journey,
may have haunted the slumbers of some one of them; or, quite as likely,
the faint outlines of an unrolled panorama of the land they were just now
entering to take possession, exhibiting the wondrous destiny of its future,
to be consummated through the instrumentality of those unconscious sleepers,
may have lingered in the oblivious moments of that portion of them whose
aspiring natures, when in full consciousness, were prone to part asunder
the mists, and behold the possibilities of the far future. However,
with the night, fled dreams, if they had them, and all were soon wide awake
for the yet to-be-surmounted obstacles of the present. After a breakfast
of bread and pork, Mr. Lincklaen and Mr. Forman, anxious to complete
the journey, started on ahead, leaving the men to follow as soon as they
were ready. They kept the Indian path with their one horse (the other
being taken by the man who went for the extra pair of oxen), following
the custom of "ride and tie," - that is, one rides a distance, and when
considerably in advance of his comrade, dismounts and fastens the horse
to a sapling, leaving it for the other to mount when he reaches it, while
the former walks on and is overtaken and passed by the latter, who in turn
dismounts and walks on; thus alternating to the end of a journey.
On arriving at the outlet
of the lake, they discovered a bark cabin, and some signs of the proximity
of white men. There was here a little prairie, called in those days an
"Indian opening," upon which Mr. Lincklaen turned loose his faithful horse,
"Captain," placed his saddle, bridle, and portmanteau in the hut, and then
with his companion strolled about to view the location. He was delighted
with the prospect; waking visions of a brilliant future he surely beheld
now. "Here," he says, "I pitch my tent; here I build my village."
As night drew nigh, three strangers approached the <:209> cabin, who,
after the usual salutations were passed, were found to be Joseph Atwell,
Charles Roe and ______ Bartholomew, from Pompey Hollow. They were
here improving the advantages of a fishing weir, which the Indians had
constructed at the outlet of the lake. When these new comers displayed
their supper, discovering that our pioneers could not follow suit, they
kindly invited them to join in the repast, which consisted of the inevitable
bread and pork, and most cordially was the offer accepted.
There were many misgivings
as to the delay of the men with the supply cart, for, whom they had been
anxiously looking some hours; but not arriving, the two prepared for a
less auspicious repose than even that of the preceding night. In
the weather-beaten hut, with one saddle between them for a pillow, and
guarded by their watchful mastiff "Lion." - "Captain" still feeding on
the prairie near by, - John Lincklaen and Samuel S. Forman slept that night
in the future village of Cazenovia. When morning came, no tidings
of the men had reached them, and Mr. Lincklaen started back early in quest
of the party. About ten o'clock Mr. Forman concluded to follow, and
accordingly saddled the horse and placed the portmanteau thereon, which,
though it contained $500 in silver, could not procure him the wherewith
to satisfy his hunger. On his way he met Jedediah Jackson and Joseph
Yaw, two commissioners sent by a Company in Vermont, to "spy out the land"
in Township No. 1. They had met Mr. Lincklaen, who referred them
to Mr. Forman to direct them to Nelson. This service rendered, he
passed on, and at two o'clock he met Swartz with a budget of food, which
greatly rejoiced his physical man. From Swartz he learned that the
cart had broken down not far from where they had been left the morning
before. Repairs had been made, and with slow progress the party were
on their way. With care and painstaking they moved down the uneven
slope to the lake; and on the afternoon of the 8th day of May, <:210>
1793, this little company stopped and pitched their tents a little west
of a small ravine, nearly opposite the residence of the late Ledyard Lincklaen,
at the south end of the lake.
One of the two tents was
fitted up for the convenience of Messrs. Lincklaen and Forman, the other
appropriated to the use of the hired men; and then plans were laid for
the construction of houses. Two log structures were soon built; one
for a dwelling house and store, the other for the hired people. They
stood on the south shore of the lake, in what was then the white oak grove,
but now one no longer. The aged trees have fallen one by one, till
only a single tree is standing, and that bears the marks of decay, sadly
reminding us of the grandeur of its fellows. For their noble beauty
and lofty bearing; for their grateful shade in summer heat; for the many
memories clustering about them, these oaks were held in sacred reverence
by the members of Mr. Lincklaen's household, and by them have their broken
limbs and shattered trunks been fashioned into various artistically finished
articles for use and adornment, which grace their long cherished home.
"During the two or three weeks subsequent to their arrival, the company
managed admirably in household matters without feminine assistance, by
having their washing and baking done at Jacob Schuyler's, a German living
at Chittenango; nevertheless, one evening about sunset, on being told that
a woman on horseback was approaching the settlement, all ran out with haste
to witness the strange sight; and pleasanter indeed the rough cabins looked
when afterwards graced by the presence of woman. This lady was a
Mrs. Dumont, who with her husband came to view the place, and then passed
on to Cayuga Lake.
Road Township was now divided,
forming four towns, which Mr. Lincklaen named as follows: First, Road Township,
to perpetuate the original name. This town extended from the north
line of the reservation (center of Seminary street), southward a distance,
to include four tiers of lots in the present town of DeRuyter; Second,
Tromp Township; after Admiral Von Tromp, renowned in the history of the
Dutch Navy, for whom this loyal lover of noble men entertained a profound
Veneration. This Township embraced the remainder of the present town
of DeRuyter and six and a half tiers of lots in Lincklaen; Third, DeRuyter,
named in honor of another famous Dutch Naval officer, Admiral DeRuyter
This township embraced the south six tiers of lots in Lincklaen, and the
town of Pitcher minus the south three tiers of lots. Fourth,
Brackel Township, named from Admiral Brackel, - also of the Dutch Navy,
- which embraced the southern three tiers of lots in Pitcher and all of
the present town of German. As an Act of the Legislature required
<:212> a certain amount of population to organize a new town, Cazenovia
required a wide territory, to embrace a sufficient number, when it was
formed in 1795; consequently these first names, given by the proprietor,
were dropped after a time, for the first town of Cazenovia included all
their territory. In the subsequent division of towns, Cazenovia embraced
Road Township; the name of DeRuyter was transferred to Tromp Township;
Lincklaen to the original DeRuyter, and German was substituted for Brackel.
Mr. Lincklaen had advertised extensively by hand-bills, that he opened
the lands for sale on a credit of ten years, with only $10 down on each
lot, and interest on the balance to be paid annually, with a further condition
of clearing ten acres and building a log dwelling on each lot. Nathaniel
Locke was employed to survey these lands, which were to be laid out in
lots of one hundred acres each. Mr. Lincklaen also advertised that
the first ten families should have one hundred acres at $1 per acre.
This proposal brought on that number quite unexpectedly, from between <:211>
Utica and Cazenovia. Some enterprising young people it was said,
abbreviated their courtship in order to avail themselves of this offer.
The first families came without having first viewed the land or prepared
a residence, and the workmen who occupied the large tent generously vacated
it for their use in common, and went themselves to live in a log house
partly finished. The names of the heads of some of these families
were: Archibald Bates, Noah Taylor, Benjamin Pierson, Anson Deane, William
Gillett and Isaac Nichols. Mrs. Noah Taylor was the first white woman
who came to live in Cazenovia. The first birth was a child of Isaac
Nichols, - his eldest daughter, Milison, - born at his house on the east
bank of Cazenovia Lake, August 8th, 1793. The second child (born
in 1794,) was a child of Noah Taylor.
As the settlers increased, many desiring large farms, represented to Mr.
Lincklaen that a hundred acres was not enough for a farm, and wished he
would run out the land into one hundred and fifty acre lots. This
was complied with after reserving two miles across the north end of Road
Township. This reservation was afterwards run out into smaller lots
of from ten to fifty or sixty acres, for the benefit of the future village."
first ten families had received their lands, the price was established
at $1.50 per acre. So rapid were the sales, settlers even followed
the surveyors. As soon as two sides of a lot were ascertained, they
would take down the number and hasten to the office to have it booked;
and often a person had to name several lots before he could get one that
had not been engaged a few moments before him. At last the press
became so great, that it became necessary to suspend the sales for a few
days, for fear of mistakes.
The lake also was named, and
in honor of John Lincklaen. On all the early maps the lake bore no
other name than "Lincklaen's Lake." In later years, when the village
had grown into some importance, it gradually came to be known as "Cazenovia
Lake," and more recently the aboriginal name, "Owahgena," has become quite
generally adopted by use.
A road was opened the whole extent of the purchase,
which passed through New Woodstock, Sheds Corners, DeRuyter and the southern
towns, to facilitate the opening of the whole for settlement. A branch
office was opened in connection with a store, twenty-six miles south of
Cazenovia, under the care of Adonijah Schuyler, one of the Cazenovia clerks,
and Mr. Lincklaen caused the first mills in that section to be built on
the Otselic Creek.
of the location for the future village lay, as we have seen, in the New
Petersburgh tract. In negotiations with Peter Smith, the desired
amount of land to complete the village site was obtained; and at the north
end of Road Township on the east side of the lake, on a point of land bounded
on three sides by the lake and its outlet (which soon after its disemboguement
[point of outflow] takes a northerly direction and runs parallel with the
east shore of the lake), the village of Cazenovia was laid out. This
was in the summer of 1794. Calvin Guiteau was the person employed
to make the survey.
sales of village lots were at $5 per acre, with certain conditions to improve
by building. The Company built a large, elegant frame house, about
fifty feet square and two stories high, and covered the roof with sheet
lead; but after a few years this was taken off, probably because it could
not be made tight. This house took fire twice. The second time
it was destroyed,<:213> with a large quantity of elegant furniture.
The site was afterwards purchased by Perry G. Childs, Esq., who built upon
it. It is now the location of the residence of Sidney T. Fairchild.
part of this summer, 1794, a number of Hollanders came to the settlement
on their way to the Holland Purchase. They were Mr. Rossetta (a brother-in-law
of Mr. Cazenove), Col. Mappa, Mr. Boon, Mr. Heudekooper, and perhaps some
others, Mr. Lincklaen accompanied them on their journey. While they
were absent Mr. William Morris came, on his return from the Holland Company's
purchase in the western part of the State. While he was staying to
rest himself at the Road Township, he was taken sick with what was termed
the ‘lake fever,' and was for a few days very ill. The country did
not afford very skillful physicians at that time, but by the aid of ‘Buchan's
Family Physician' and good nursing, he recovered. While in a state
of convalescence the subject of the name of the contemplated village was
canvassed; Mr. Lincklaen had wished to call it Hamilton, as he was a great
admirer of Gen. Alexander Hamilton's character; but the settlers in one
of the adjoining townships adopted that name for their settlement before
a decision was arrived at, so it was dropped. On Mr. Lincklaen's
return, Mr. Morris told him they had found a good name for the village;
that they called it Cazenovia, in honor of their respected mutual friend,
Theophilus Cazenove. This was cordially approved, and so it was established."
The first ten acre job,
of clearing the heavy timbered land, was taken by James Green and David
Fay, next to the Cazenove lot on the west side of the lake, on the original
Tillotson farm, now owned by Mr. A. Blodgett. The price was $10 per
acre with board, and six cents per bushel for ashes cribbed on the job.
Wages were then $8 per month and board.
In speaking of the settlers
of this purchase, Maj. Forman says: "be it said to their credit, I believe
there was <:214> but one person who took up a lot of land during the
first four years, while I continued in office, who could not write his
The Vermonters had made
arrangements to take up their farms in township No. 1, (Nelson) before
that town should be offered for sale, as their company was large and they
wished to settle near each other. By the time the Vermont Company
had arrived, however, the whole township was surveyed into lots of one
hundred and fifty acres each, Mr. Lincklaen having pushed forward the work.
Jackson and Yaw, the committee sent out to explore, and some of the hired
men of Mr. Lincklaen's company, were a part of the settlers of this township.
At this period game was
plenty; small droves of deer were frequently seen; there were a few otters
and an occasional beaver, and bears were often met with. To these
pioneers from long established and cultivated homes in town and city, the
sports of the chase were exciting; hut an encounter with a veritable black
bear was an adventure to move one deeper. The following is related
in Forman's narrative:
"One winter a Mr. Walthers (a respectable European German
in the Company's service,) and myself were viewing a lot of land which
we had bought on the west side of the lake, afterwards called Cazenove
lot. As we walked along, our dogs gave alarm of game. We hurried
to the spot, and coming up to a very large hollow tree, we encouraged the
dogs to attack whatsoever was concealed within it. Presently a little
terrier dog was drawn almost within the body of the tree, in a small hole
near the ground. In order to rescue him we thrust a stick in through
another hole, which the animal seized and held fast till we pulled his
nose out of the tree; but what creature it was we knew not. The dog
ran home bleeding. We got a large pole and run the butt end into
the hole, and Walthers held fast the other end as a lever, while I ran
to the farm house to get a gun and some hands with axes to engage in the
combat. When I returned with the reinforcements, I found Mr. Walthers
as I had left him, grasping the lever, and anxious to be relieved from
his state of incertitude. Our first business was to secure the hole
by driving down large stakes interlocked with logs; then cut <:215>
three windows in the body of the tree about four feet high and seven or
eight inches in diameter, so that we could have a fair view of the animal;
and we now discovered it to be what we had expected, a large bear.
A discharge from the gun wounded it, when it became raving mad. It
raised its huge paws upon its prison wall, put its nose out, gnashed its
teeth and frothed at the mouth, and its eyes bespoke retaliation if it
was set at liberty. The gun was loaded and fired a second time, producing
only a wound. As we were perfectly safe we paused awhile to view
how awful its angry looks and actions were. A third discharge from
the gun proved fatal and poor Bruin fell lifeless. Our next business was
to cut one of those windows large enough to get it out of the tree.
We had three or four men from the farm, and after being satisfied that
life was extinct, some of them entered the winter quarters of the animal,
and after some heavy lifting, our game was landed out of its stronghold.
It was conveyed to the village on a hand sled, across the lake, and when
dressed, the four quarters were found to weigh (if I recollect right) four
hundred pounds. It was a female with young of two cubs. The
skin was very black and finely covered. The meat I gave to the men,
and four dollars for the skin. This afforded them fine feasting and
Wolves were more prevalent than
bears, and to rid the country of these enemies of the flocks, the town
in 1804, voted to give a bounty of twenty dollars for each wolf killed
the ensuing year by any inhabitant of the town.
"Another time, when the jobbers set fire to their clearing by the swamp,
near where Mr. Lincklaen built his last house, the fire drove a large bear
out, which passed through the village and cleared himself, as no one was
prepared to follow. At another time a man passed a large bear and
her cub, about half a mile up the lake road. He came to the store
and gave information, and we mustered a dozen men and went in pursuit.
They had ascended a large leaning oak. We had but one gun and no balls,
nothing but slug and shot; but such as we had we gave mistress Bruin, and
perhaps hurt her some, as, after receiving several charges, she all at
once descended to a crotch in the tree, about twelve or fifteen feet from
the ground, and putting her head between her fore legs, threw herself off.
As soon as she touched the ground, as many as could stand around fell upon
her with clubs and other weapons, so that she never rose to her feet.
Having disposed of the dam, our next move was to get little Bruin, who
by this time had ascended as high as he could get, where the limbs would
bear him. We commenced firing shot at the little creature; every
time it was fired at, it would wipe its face with its paws; at last one
shot proved fatal, and brought it to the ground. It was about half
as large as a middling-sized dog.
"At another time, on Togwattle Hill, [Tog Hill] as it was called, in Nelson,
about 5 miles from Cazenovia, east, a woman <:216> was washing out of
doors by her house, her husband being off at work, and her child sitting
near by her, a bear came close up to her and reared upon his hinder feet.
She, as may well be conjectured, not liking his appearance, caught up her
child, ran into the house, and instead of inviting her guest in, fastened
the door against him. These brutes are so bold, that they have been
known to come in the night and try to get into the hog-pens, built near
the log dwellings, the inmates of which, having been alarmed by the noise,
have got up and made war upon them. These little incidents seem small
to an indifferent person; but they created great interest at the time,
and relieved the monotony of backwood's life. The recital of them
serves to show that the settlement of a wilderness is attended with difficulties
and dangers in various ways."
Among the earliest settlers
of the town in 1793, besides those already named, were Archibald
Bates, William Mills, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb, Shubal Brooks, and others
named Tyler and Augur. David and Jonathan Smith and Charleville Webber,
came about the same time and were the first settlers of New Woodstock.
William Sims and Isaac Moss [Isaac Morse] came soon after.
The first saw mill and grist
mill were built by John Lincklaen in 1794. The grist mill was located
on the Chittenango Creek, perhaps a quarter of a mile above where it unites
with the outlet of the lake, - just below the steep bank at the corner
of the garden, contiguous to the residence of General J.D. Ledyard; the
mill pond overflowed all that low meadow south of his house. This
mill the company sold to Dr. Jonas Fay, and it was, not long after, burned
down, together with a distillery and brewery. Afterwards a better
site was discovered below the junction just named, where the present mills
(in 1870,) owned by Parsons & Chaphe now stand.
Judutha Perkins came to
Cazenovia before 1800, and settled south of the village in what was called,
from him, <:217> the "Perkins District." Near him the well remembered
Perkins school house was built, in which the early religious meetings of
the Baptist Church of Cazenovia village were held. Mr. Perkins and
his family were prominent and influential people, and did much towards
building up good society.
A Mr. Stanley was one of
the pioneers of 1794; he came in with his family from Hartford, Conn.
His son Lewis Stanley, who came with him, was a farmer, and located near
the village, where he lived till his death in 1857, aged 76 years.
The latter was prominent in the M.E. Church he did much towards founding
it and promoting its growth and prosperity. He was also deeply interested
in the success of the Seminary.
Walter Childs, from Woodstock,
Conn., came in 1798 he was one of the substantial farmers of this locality,
and reared a family, members of which still reside in town.
Among the first inhabitants
of the town after 1800, was Caleb Van Riper, who arrived in 1801, and settled
at the bead of the lake. He built perhaps the second tannery in town,
on the stream that crosses lot No.34, now owned by William B. Downer; it
stood about forty rods from the lake. A saw mill was also built here
at a later date, but both tannery and mill have disappeared, except perhaps
some ruins of the foundation and dyke of the saw mill.
Phineas Southwell came,
in 1802, from Boonville, Oneida County, but formerly from Massachusetts.
Edward Parker came the same year; both settled at the head of the lake,
and bought large farms. The land purchased by Southwell was, apparently,
that which had been tilled by the Indians, as some fifteen acres of it
bore evidences of having been cultivated but a few years previous.
The large timber had been removed, and a low undergrowth encumbered the
ground; the soil was black, quite likely from annual burnings. Upon
this farm - Lot No.32, School District No.5 - were found many relics referred
to in preceding pages; <:218> and G.R. Southwell, son of Phineas, who
now owns the farm, has many of these curiosities in his possession.
During the elder Southwell's first years of residence here, the Indians
frequently came over the lake in their birch-bark canoes to fish, and perhaps
hunt deer, which, as has been seen, were plenty.
Christopher Webb moved from
Canterbury, Windham County, Conn., in 1805, and settled on Lot No.29.
Martin L. Webb, son of Christopher, came at the same time, and settled
here also, and for many years was a teacher in Cazenovia.
Edward Parker built the
first frame house in this vicinity (head of the lake,) about 1802.
It was with difficulty that he could obtain sawed lumber, but so great
was his repugnance to living in a log house, he mastered all difficulties,
so that when he commenced housekeeping, it was as he desired, in a framed
and boarded house, instead of a log one.
The first town meeting in
Cazenovia was held in April, 1795, at John Lincklaen's house. At
this meeting John Lincklaen was chosen supervisor, and Elijah Risley town
clerk (Footnote Caz1872#9).
In 1798, when Chenango County
was formed, the town of DeRuyter, which embraced all the southern part
of the original Road Township, was taken off. In 1800 the town, still
embracing Sullivan, Lenox, Smithfield, Nelson and Fenner, had a population
In 1803, the census of Cazenovia village was taken, with the
names of the heads of families, their occupations, and number of persons
in each household, as follows: -
The population of the whole
of the original Road Township at the same date, including the village,
J.N.M. Hurd, store keeper and postmaster
S.S. Breese, lawyer
Hiram Roberts, blacksmith and tavern keeper
Isaac Lyman, doctor
Wm. Whipple, carpenter and constable
Moses Phillips, brickmaker
Roberts & Hill, carpenters
Elisha Farnham, tanner and shoemaker
Eliakim Roberts, store keeper
Horace Paddock, blacksmith
Ebenezer Johnson, tavern keeper
William Kyte, clerk
Jonathan Forman, storekeeper
Samuel Ashard, miller
Several of the heads of
families just named, as well as some of those mentioned as the pioneers
of ‘93, were men of ability and influence in the councils, and at other
important posts in the new country.
Samuel Sidney Breese was
the first clerk of Chenango County, 1798, and was a member of the Convention
of 1821. Jonathan Forman was elected Member of Assembly from Chenango
County, in 1800 and 1801. J.N.M. Hurd was county clerk in 1815, and
served till 1821. James Green, one of the pioneers of ‘93, was at
one time a member of the Legislature. Stephen F. Blackstone, another
of that company, was a member of the Legislature in 1814.
Jeremiah Whipple, also an
early settler, and for many years a first-class hotel keeper in the village,
was the first sheriff of Madison County, appointed in 1806, continuing
in office till 1810, and was called to act again in the same capacity in
1811, serving till 1814.
William Sims was a pioneer
of 1793; he took up a farm south of Cazenovia village, where he spent three
score and ten years of his life. He possessed wealth, was a man of
influence, and contributed largely to the enterprises of his adopted town.
<:220> Henrick DeClercq,
a native of Amsterdam, Holland, came to Cazenovia in 1800. His wife,
Mary, whose maiden family name was Ledyard, came to this town on horseback,
from Connecticut, in the year 1798. Her father, G.S. Ledyard, with
his relative and namesake, Col. Ledyard, was killed at Groton, in the massacre
of Fort Griswold, in the Revolution. The DeClercqs became an established
and permanent family of Cazenovia.
Capt. E.S. Jackson was an
early settler and wealthy. In all that pertained to the interests
and welfare of the new country, Capt. Jackson's good judgment was solicited,
and his ever ready generosity assisted.
Perry G. Childs located
in Cazenovia before 1806. His name is closely identified with the
several interests of the town, as will be seen in the current history of
her earlier enterprises. His wealth was generously used for the public
good. He was repeatedly honored with official positions in town,
County and State.
Charles Stebbins settled
here before 1810. He and his family after him have worthily held
a commanding influence through all the changes from the early days to the
present time. Town, County and State official honors have descended
from father to sons; their names are often and honorably recorded.
Elihu Severance also came
to this town previous to 1810. Members of his family still reside here.
Jacob Ten Eyck came about
1800. He acquired wealth and used it generously to forward the enterprises
of Cazenovia, not a little of it being devoted to perfecting the beauty
of the village environs. The same spirit of generosity, in the aid
of progress generally, animates the different members of his family.
B.T. Clarke came to Cazenovia
in 1812, being a soldier in the war at that time. Mr. Clarke has
been and still is one of the active men of the village in improvements
and enterprises. He has retired from the mercantile business, <:221>
which he pursued for many years at the corner of Albany and Mill streets.
William M. Burr came prior
to 1810. His, became another of the prominent and substantial families
of the village. At an early day Cazenovia gained a high reputation
as a mercantile center, and to such men as the Burrs, Ten Eycks, Clarkes
and others, this reputation is due.
J.D. Ledyard, youngest brother
of Mrs. John Lincklaen and adopted son of Mr. Lincklaen, was reared in
Cazenovia and has spent the most of the years of his long life, (aged seventy-eight
in 1871,) in this town. Mr. Ledyard has been identified with nearly
all the progressive changes of this town. As will be seen, his name
and the names of his sons are not to be separated from Cazenovia's history.
Having charge of the Holland Land Company's office, as successor of Mr.
Lincklaen, since 1820, his business was large and his influence extensive.
He still resides near the foot of the Lake in a dwelling built by himself
in 1825, which, with the homes of his sons, all commanding fine views of
fair Owahgena, render attractive that part of the village which was first
occupied by civilization.
The wealth of Cazenovia,
generously yet judiciously invested, has brought its legitimate and ample
returns; it has been and still is used, not for selfish ends, but to beautify
and adorn, to elevate and purify country life.
In the year 1803, February 22d,
a Legislative act was passed, in which the broad territory of Cazenovia
was again made less by the organization of the town of Sullivan, a most
expansive township, including the present towns of Sullivan, Lenox; and
a part of Stockbridge.
After this last change in
the town limits, the next town meeting in Cazenovia of which a record has
been kept, was held at the house of Capt. Ebenezer Johnson, in the village,
in the year 1804. Luther Waterman was Moderator. James Green
was elected Supervisor; Eliphalet Jackson, <:222> Town Clerk and
Elisha Williams, Collector. Among other enactments, the meeting voted
to refund to Lemuel Kingsbury the sum of $6. 18 for "bad taxes."
The following was also voted: "That members of this meeting may wear their
hats while attending said meeting;" - and to give value to this permission,
and for the accommodation of the people, the meeting then adjourned to
the Common. The constables were directed to procure sufficient bail,
and seven pound masters were elected to enforce the following resolution,
viz: "That hogs shall be shut up." Twenty dollars of town fund was
delivered to the town clerk to procure books for the use of the town, and
he was instructed to "draft off such of the old books as he shall think
necessary." It does not appear that this officer deemed it
"necessary" to copy any part, as it was not done, and the loss of the
first book is irreparable. The town was divided into sixty-eight
To unite the inhabitants
of the more northern portions of the county, which were earliest settled,
to make easy their communication with eastern friends, and to facilitate
their market journeyings, the "Cazenovia and Oneida Turnpike" was laid
out at an early day; it extended from Cazenovia through Peterboro to Vernon.
The necessities of the other towns, however, required for them a more direct
communication with the outer world; and the "Third Great Western Turnpike,"
or the more familiar name of "Cherry Valley Turnpike," was the result of
these needs. The enterprising prime movers in this grand scheme of
constructing a good wagon road from Cherry Valley to Manlius, Onondaga
County, through towns and counties of dense forests, over the most hilly
country known outside of veritable mountainous districts, with no rich
towns along the route to bond, or even to aid them by subscription, formed
a company, went courageously into the work, obtained a charter and completed
the grand enterprise by 1806. Cazenovia men were foremost in the
great work, devoting their time <:223> and investing their capital without
prospect of full compensation.
This village was laid out
in a regular, methodical manner. The public square was handsomely located
in full view of the lake, and through it passed Albany street, laid broad
and with mathematical regularity, with a view to the future needs of a
large village. In the Vicinity of the square were erected some of
the earliest and most prominent buildings, and upon its four corners were
located the four stores of the early days, viz: the Roberts store, the
Forman store, that of J.N.M. Hurd, and the store of Jackson & Lyman,
the latter on the northeast corner. The Robert's store on the southeast
corner, now the "Lake House," was originally built of wood, but at a later
date Mr. Roberts removed that, and rebuilt of brick, where for a time he
transacted mercantile business. In 1810, it was purchased by Jos.
& Wm. M. Burr, who, like Jacob Ten Eyck, their neighbor and relative,
established a large business. A few years since this building was
converted into a hotel. The Forman store, located on the southwest
corner, was stocked by the Holland Company, and the first postoffice was
kept there, at the private expense of Mr. Lincklaen, till its own revenue
was sufficient to sustain it as a government office, when S.S. Breese was
appointed postmaster by the P.O. Department. At the northwest corner
was the well known store of J.N.M. Hurd, where in 1803, the postoffice
was kept by him, and who held the commission for many years after.
The first tavern of the
village was situated on the location of Mrs. Roberts' present residence,
and was kept by Ebenezer Johnson.
Some really fine residences,
and also the Presbyterian meeting house, were built previous to 1810, at
which date the census gave Cazenovia village a population of 500 inhabitants,
sixty- nine houses, five stores, one grain <:224> mill, one saw
mill, two cloth-dressing establishments, two carding machines, two trip
hammeries, two potasheries, two tanneries, one brewery and distillery,
and a post-office (Footnote Caz1872#10).
To this statement may be added one printing office. "The Pilot,"
established in 1808, by Oran E. Baker, was one of the popular and successful
institutions of the village. From its time-honored pages may be learned,
not so much by its local items, but in a great degree from its ancient
advertisements, that manufacturers, mechanics and artisans were successfully
pursuing their several trades. A woolen factory, where custom work
of wool-carding and cloth-dressing was done, became the property of Matthew
Chandler, having been purchased by him of its original proprietors, Elisha
Starr & Co. The new tannery of Thomas Williams & Son, promises
much prosperity to the importers of hemlock bark from the farming districts.
There is a hat factory belonging to John Brevoort & Jere Allis; A.
Hitchcock adds to his newly-opened store a stock of drugs and medicines;
S. Forman opens a book store; J. Gillett advertises as clock and watch
maker; J. Kilborn as tailor; W. Brown as painter and glazier; Mr. White's
chair factory receives some notice, while Luther Burnell's trip hammeries
are known to be conducted with superior skill and enterprise. Thus
is given in this old-time journal a glimpse of the industries of the village
at and about 1810.
One of the great institutions
of this period was the military brigade, which had been formed in Madison
County under the command of Gen. Jonathan Forman, a former Colonel in the
War of the Revolution; and for the use of the militia when their headquarters
were made in Cazenovia, a fine parade ground was laid out about 1810, in
the northern part of the village.
The Cherry Valley Turnpike
brought Cazenovia into special notice, and placed it on an equal footing
with towns of established reputation further east; and no village in the
<:225> county had greater consequence and influence than this.
From the time of the formation of the county to this date, (1810,) it had
been looked upon as a suitable location for the county seat of the Courts
of Justice, and had become so temporarily; consequently, the first criminal
punished for murder in Madison County, was executed here. This one
was Hitchcock, the wife poisoner, who bad been confined in Whitestown jail,
and was tried (in 1807) at a court held in Judge Smalley's barn, in the
town of Sullivan, whence he was taken to Cazenovia and hung. The
gallows was erected about a half mile east of the village, on the farm
now owned by Cyrus Parsons, near where his dwelling now stands. Jeremiah
Whipple was sheriff.
The county seat proper,
was located here in 1810, not, however, without some opposition from rival
towns. Col. John Lincklaen and Capt. Eliphalet Jackson were appointed
to superintend the building of the court house. A fine brick building
was erected at a cost of upwards of $4,000, on the site where the seminary
is located, and is now a part of the latter edifice, having been, on the
removal of the county seat to Morrisville, purchased by the Methodist Society
for a church, and finally used by the Oneida Conference as their seminary.
The characteristic style of architecture belonging to the old court house,
readily distinguishes that part of the structure as it now stands, but
it is in no wise inferior in appearance to that which has been added to
it. The first courts were held here in 1812.
Cazenovia was the first
village incorporated in Madison County, the date of the act, giving it
a corporate identity, being February 7th, 1810. The first village
officers, elected the May following, were - Jonas Fay, President; Perry
G. Childs, Elisha Farnham, Eliphalet S. Jackson and Samuel Thomas, Trustees.
With her industries all flourishing and her prosperity promoted in every
direction, Cazenovia village gradually increased. The Baptist and
Methodist Churches were soon established; and although <:226> the county
seat was removed in 1817 to Morrisville, an institution of learning grew
up in its place, which exerted a beneficent influence upon the interests
From 1830 to ‘35, here,
as in all sections of Central New York, there seemed to have been given
a new impetus to all departments of business; the manufacturers and merchants
invested heavier and expanded their trade; many farmers, having relieved
themselves from debt and accumulated snug competencies for declining years,
yielding to the impulse for improvement, now came forward and invested
in village homes. During this period, several of the old and substantial
blocks, now to be seen on Albany street, were built. All those handsome
cut stone buildings, then the style in the eastern cities, were erected
at this period, which gave Cazenovia an enviable reputation for its beauty.
In 1840, the census states
that this village contained 1,600 inhabitants, 250 dwelling houses, one
Presbyterian, one Baptist, one Congregational and one Methodist Church,
three taverns, ten stores, two printing offices, one bank, the Oneida Conference
Seminary, one woolen factory, one grist mill, one saw mill, one machine
shop and iron foundry, one distillery, and one paper mill.
The manufacturing facilities
of the Chittenango, developed a new growth to the village along the course
of the stream, where new streets were laid out and were rapidly built up.
At all periods the village seems to have been making progress in some direction.
Since 1850, large blocks have risen, and some of the most beautiful residences
have been built. Within a few years marked progress has been made
in building. Among the many changes, we designate the fair proportions
of the Ten Eyck Block, built in 1871. An "item" clipped from the
"Oneida Dispatch," of Aug. 16, 1872, tells us that "the Reymon store is
almost complete. It will be an ornament to the place. The Burr
block is approaching completion;" it is a building "that <:227> will
not only be useful, but ornamental and beautifying to the locality."
It also adds that a small steamboat named "Lottie," which is about thirty
feet long, and will carry thirty or forty passengers, built by Mr. Charles
Parmelee, has been launched upon the lake.
The enterprise of Cazenovia
in perfecting the beauty of her natural scenery, in developing the agricultural
resources of the town, and in facilitating the means of commerce, is characteristic
of its leading men. Its fair, sunny lake, with convenient boats for
pleasure and for the sport of angling, for Owahgena is yet stored with
her native yellow perch, and other families of the finny tribe, perhaps
beyond what it was in the pristine days of the Iroquois (Footnote
Caz1872#11) the delightful rives and beautiful walks among groves
around the lake; the romantic road where the Chittenango rushes and splashes
around great fragments of rock, and wild looking, precipitous ledges overhang
the swift flowing stream; where the atmosphere is aromatic with the breath
of cedars, and where an adamantine road bed leads to the wild gorge of
the Chittenango Falls; - these attractions, and many others, have made
this village a delightful summer resort for the nature loving, pavement-weary
dwellers of large cities, who, coming here, find the luxury of refined
homes and cultivated society superadded to the attractions of nature.
Agriculture has been encouraged
and developed to a high degree; a tour through the town will corroborate
this statement. Smooth meadows, well cultivated fields, cleanly
kept woodlands, first-class farm buildings, and the evidences of wealth
everywhere, on the hills as well as in the valleys, proclaim skilled
training in agriculture. <:228> Machinery has superseded
hand labor almost invariably now, the farmer's refined daughter, pining
for an out- door frolic, or what is more in her praise, ready and willing
to assist in a pressure of farm work, may don her sun hat and gloves, take
her seat upon the "mower," and in a few hours perform the same work, which
in the days "lang syne," required half a dozen strong men to do in the
same time, bowed to the tedious labor of the scythe, with garments saturated
with sweat, and backs blistering under the July sun. A comparison
between ancient and modern farming, is frequently indulged in by those
who can remember when the first furrow was turned in town with a Mohawk
wheel-plow, on the lot belonging to David Schuyler, near the outlet of
In reviewing works of enterprise
for the public welfare, we find there are many instances of individual
munificence which, we much regret, we are compelled to pass over.
One instance, however, we record: - Those stone fountains by the road side,
- one in Dist. No. 9, on the road to New Woodstock, one in Nelson, and
one at the foot of the lake, - bearing the simple inscription "L.L." (Footnote
Caz1872#12) carved on each, will perpetuate the memory of one
who, having wealth, expended it in this and many another noble benefaction.
Cazenovia was noted for manufactures
at a day when other towns were only making slow progress in agriculture.
Madison County Bank was
organized in Cazenovia, the <:232> date of its charter being March 14th,
1831, with a capital of $100,000. Its first President was Perry G.
Childs. It performed a successful business during the years of its
existence, up to the expiration of its charter, January 1st, 1858.
About 1810, Luther Burnell's
trip-hammeries did an extensive business, employing a number of workmen.
Nehemiah White built a chair shop at a very early day, which was bought
out by Ebenezer Knowlton, who also built an oil mill about 1815.
Both of these were operated by Mr. Knowlton many years, had a good reputation,
and drew trade from a wide circuit round about. Mr. Lincklaen and
Mr. Starr built the first woolen mill in 1813. Starr was unsuccessful
<:229>, owing to changes brought about by peace between the United States
and Great Britain, and sold to Matthew Chandler & Son (Footnote
Caz1872#13). This was the first woolen factory in Madison
County. John Williams & Son purchased of Chandler in 1828, and
manufactured woolen goods on a large scale for that day. This firm
continued to increase and improve till about 1834, when the mill was burned.
Mr. Williams was regarded as a model manufacturer. As a business
man his character was above reproach. He subsequently, with others,
built the Shelter Valley Mills.
The Cazenovia Paper Mill
was built by Zadock Sweetland about 1810, on the Chittenango, within the
limits of the corporation. For forty years Mr. Sweetland was gradually
increasing his capital and enlarging his business. It eventually
passed into the hands of his sons, under the firm name of "Sweetland Bros.,"
who at one period manufactured a ton per day of all kinds of paper.
It was burned in 1859 or ‘60, and was rebuilt by them. The dam, furnishing
the power, was carried away in the great spring flood of 1865, which also
swept off almost every bridge and dam between Erieville and Oneida Lake.
The property was then purchased by Henry Munroe, who rebuilt the dam and
put all in good order. It was afterwards partially destroyed by fire,
then rebuilt; then again overwhelmed by a conflagration which left little.
It remains now (1871,) a ruin, but will probably ere long be again restored.
The tannery of Dardis &
Flanagan was built before 1830, by Rufus & R. G. Allen. For two
score years, while the hemlock forests of the surrounding towns were melting
away, this firm, with a large corps of employees, transacted business on
an extensive scale. From the beginning to the present time it has
been a prosperous concern, and valuable to the country around as a marketing
point for the several <:230> raw materials it most required. It
is situated on the Chittenango, some distance from the corporation.
Before 1810, there was a
small tannery in the east part of the village which was for many years
owned by John Williams. Rufus Allen, before building his works in
the Chittenango Valley, purchased this of Mr. Williams and carried on the
Cedar Grove Woolen Mill was built about 1837, by E.S. Jackson &
Son. It was purchased by Henry Ten Eyck in 1850. Mr. Ten Eyck
manufactured woolen tweeds. The mill had five sets of machinery,
run by eighty hands. There were a number of dwelling houses, all
occupied. The works were in fine order and paying well, when in 1852,
the establishment was burned. Mr. Ten Eyck lost heavily and many
people were thrown out of employment.
Seven or eight years ago
(in 1863 or ‘64), L.E. Swan built, on the grounds of the Cedar Grove Mill,
a manufactory of binder's paper board, which is still in operation.
Shelter Valley Woolen Mill
was built in 1848, by the firm of Williams, Ledyard & Stebbins, of
a capacity for three sets of woolen machinery. Tweeds were mostly
manufactured here. With forty or fifty hands this mill turned off
2,500 yards per week. In 1869, the factory was burned. On the
same site, Messrs. Williams & Stebbins are (1871,) erecting a new mill
on an improved plan, at a considerable outlay of capital.
Fern Dell Sash, Blind and
Door Factory, was built by Ledyard Lincklaen in 1851. It is now (1871)
owned by 0.W. Sage & Co. The firm employ about forty-five hands
and six teams; use about 1,000,000 feet of pine lumber, twenty barrels
of glue, two tons of finishing nails, and fifty reams of sand paper annually.
They also turn out about 18,000 doors, 15,000 pairs of blinds, and 250,000
lights of sash each year.
All the foregoing manufactories
were and are situated on the Chittenango Creek, a short distance from each
other, <:231> in the following order: The old Williams factory
on Farnham street, between Albany and Williams streets; the Cazenovia Paper
Mill next down stream; the Cedar Grove Woolen Mill a short distance from
the last, just outside the corporation; next down stream the Tannery; next
the Sash and Blind factory; and still further down the Shelter Valley Mills.
On South street was situated the old Distillery and Brewery of John Hearsey,
an institution of the past, widely known and largely patronized in its
day (Footnote Caz1872#14).
The Eagle Foundry was built on Albany street, south side, east of the creek,
(Brewery Lane) by Elisha Allis, about 1842, but was subsequently moved
up stream. It passed through various hands, and is now (1871,) carried
on by Mr. James Dodge.
Among the manufactories
are, a Morocco Factory, located east of the village between Nelson and
Peterboro streets, established by Mr. Phinney about 1851, a fine General
Machine Works on Albany street, (where the oil mill stood) owned and successfully
conducted by Marshall & Card, and a Lock Factory, where the American
Lock Co., under the superintendence of Mr. Felter, make a variety of locks
of excellent quality, well secured by ingenious mechanism from the arts
Bingley Mills, about two
miles from the village, on Chittenango Creek, was one of the early flouring
mills of this section. It has been owned by Mr. William Atkinson
since September 12th, 1831 (Footnote
Caz1872#15). This is a longer time than any other mill
in town has been run by the same man. There is a saw mill near here,
and some mechanics have also located near by. Some sixteen houses
give Bingley quite the appearance of a hamlet
The Bank of Cazenovia
was incorporated February 21st, 1856, with a capital of $120,000, secured
by stocks and mortgages on real estate. The first board of directors
were: Charles Stebbins, Ledyard Lincklaen, Benj. F. Jarvis, John Hobbie,
David M. Pulford, Austin Van Riper, Lewis Raynor, Reuben Parsons and F.M.
Holmes. The first officers were: Charles Stebbins, President; B.F.
Jarvis, Cashier. It survived the panic of 1857, and well maintained
its reputation as a reliable institution. In 1865, it was changed
to the National Bank of Cazenovia, with a capital of $150,000.
Its present officers (1870) are: B.F. Jarvis, President; Cyrus Parsons,
Vice President; C.B. Crandall, Cashier.
CENTRAL NEW YORK CONFERENCE SEMINARY.
In 1824, the project was
originated to establish a Conference Seminary in Cazenovia. The proposition
was, to take the court house and remodel it suitably for school use, and
so release the Methodists - who had purchased it for a place of worship,
and were in debt - from their oppressive liability. The public mind
was, at the time, active in enterprises; various improvements were being
originated; literature was on the advance, and receiving encouragement
everywhere, and facilities, at this point, for higher grades in education,
seemed to be imperatively demanded. Rev. Charles Giles, one of the
most prominent ministers of the Conference, in his "Pioneer," writes: -
"At this favorable juncture, I was fully convinced that the time had come
for our Conference to engage in a public literary enterprise. Learning
being an auxiliary to religion in every department of the Church, we, therefore,
greatly needed a literary institution, under the supervision and patronage
of the Conference and Providence, at this time, was opening a way for us
to engage effectually in the undertaking."
It was incorporated as the "Seminary
of the Genesee Conference," in 1825; it was the first institution of that
grade established by the Methodists on the American continent. In
1829, the Oneida Conference was formed from a part of the territory belonging
to the Genesee, and the name of the seminary was changed to "Seminary of
Genesee and Oneida Conference." In 1835, it was changed to "Oneida
Conference Seminary," which name it retained until 1868, at which date
a new Conference was formed, embracing Oneida, Oswego, Madison, Onondaga,
Cayuga and Cortland counties, and named the "Central New York Conference,"
that of "Oneida Conference" being dropped. Subsequently, the seminary
has taken on the name of the Conference as last instituted.
A village meeting was called; much public spirit was manifested, <:233>
and the movement seemed to be indeed timely. It was embraced in the
plan that the institution was to be conducted upon liberal principles;
sectarianism was to form no branch of instruction; the students would be
left free to attend any church of their choice. Rev. George Gary,
Perry G. Childs, and John Williams, of Cazenovia, did all that could be
done to give form and tangibility to the design, and Rev. Charles Giles
carried it up to the next annual Conference to obtain official action upon
it. The project seemed visionary, but a resolution was passed which
gave sanction to the plan. Says the above writer "Still, some of
the members imagined that it would end there, and perish like Jonah's gourd;
but no; we were then provided with authority for action; hence we moved
onward, constitutionally and with zeal, to test the liberality of our friends
and the community around us. After struggling with opposition, and
enduring many cares and embarrassments, our efforts were crowned with success,
and the seminary finally became established."
The court house was a substantial
brick building, standing on a conspicuous and beautiful location; it formed
the nucleus of the present seminary buildings. In 1830, the court-house
building was remodeled and added to, and now the whole presents a pleasing
and noble appearance.
From an historical poem,
delivered by Rev. Dwight Williams before Conference in Cazenovia, April
19, 1868, the subjoined is extracted: -
"At the Conference call 
Rev. Nathaniel Porter was the
first Principal of the institution. How he labored to establish the
Seminary with a respectable reputation and give it a high standing; how
he toiled to elevate the M.E. Church in the vicinity; how he bore the heaviest
burdens and toiled unceasingly until his energies were exhausted, is vividly
remembered by many whose hearts were deeply in the cherished work. Dr.
Porter went from Cazenovia to New Jersey, in 1830, to recruit his broken
health. The anticipations of his friends failed, for he died in Newark,
in that State, August 11, 1831, in the 31st year of his age. He was
talented and successful, and in his death there passed beyond the constellation
of the M.E. Conference a bright star of light, distinguished for its brilliancy,
purity and warmth, growing all the more bright as it passed away.
The young Oneida, with beginnings small,
Musters her sons. Where now yon classic pile
Lifts up its towers to greet the sunlight's smile,
The first our infant Conference was called;
The Court-House building, old and yellow walled,
Was then both learning and religion's shrine,
And here our fathers met for work divine.
Ah, well! perhaps our Conference was nursed
Within our honored Alma Mater first;
Give her the double honors she hath earned
Since first the fires upon her alter burned.
These walls of stone (Footnote
Caz1872#16) within whose shadows we
Convene to-day, were resting silently
Within the deep primeval ledge,
Nor yet had known the touch of chisel's edge;
Our ark had but a transient resting-place,
And on yon Chapel fell the precious grace,
As once on Obed Edoms' house it fell,
And friend and stranger felt the charmed spell."
Rev. Augustus W. Smith succeeded
Dr. Porter as Principal. The subsequent Principals we name in their
order as follows: - W.C. Larrabee, George Peck, G.G. Hapgood, Henry Bannister,
(continued 15 years,) E.G. Andrews (Footnote
Caz1872#17), <:235> A.S. Graves, and W.S. Smyth, who is the
present incumbent. In 1840, the number of pupils was 327, in 1871,
555. The Seminary has ever maintained a high standing, numbering
among its pupils many who have from time to time gone forth to fill the
most honored stations in society. Our Legislative Chambers, our Judicial
Halls, have noble men who trace their fitting for usefulness back to the
kindly walls of Cazenovia Seminary. Our institutions of learning,
our missions in India, China and other quarters of the globe, are filled
with earnest laborers, talented men and women, who hold, with love and
reverence, memories of the careful guidance and wise training of this,
their Alma Mater.
In 1870, the Seminary buildings
were improved, and a large addition was put on. In every respect
the old buildings were made convenient by modern appliances, and beautified
by modern art. Its facilities for accommodating its increasing patronage
have been greatly enhanced. The trustees have secured a new charter
of incorporation, and a corporate seal.
THEOPHILUS CAZENOVE "was
the first General Agent of the Holland Company. When the Company made their
first purchase of lands in the interior of this State and Pennsylvania,
soon after 1790, he had arrived in this country and acted as their agent.
In all the negotiations and preliminary proceedings connected with the
large purchase of Robert Morris, of this region, the interests of the Company
were principally confided to him. His name is intimately blended
with the whole history of the title. When the purchase was perfected he
was made General Agent, and under his auspices the surveys were commenced.
The author can only judge of him from such manuscript records as came from
his hands. These exhibit good business qualifications and great integrity
of purpose. In all the embarrassments that attended the perfecting
of the title, he seems to have been actuated by honorable and praiseworthy
motives, and to have assisted, with a good deal of ability, the legal managers
of the Company's interests." (Footnote
He returned to Europe in
1799, ending then his connection <:236> with the Company.
He resided for a considerable time in London, after which he
went to Paris, and we believe it was in M. De Talleyrand's home that
Very much of Mr. Lincklaen's active part in the early history of this county,
will have been gathered from the history of the town of Cazenovia, and
it may lend to his name sufficient interest to justify a brief personal
mention of his life; one in which a bold and adventurous spirit was controlled
by a firm character, and one which, commencing in the gay life of European
capitols, ended peacefully in a home of his own making in the New World.
SAMUEL S. FORMAN came with John Lincklaen as a
merchant and remained in Cazenovia several years. Under <:240>
Mr. Lincklaen's patronage, he had at one time several stores established
in small villages in different sections of the county. He was an
energetic, public spirited man and possessed much influence. He subsequently
removed to Syracuse. The author is indebted to him for much of the
early history of Cazenovia.
JONATHAN FORMAN was an elder brother of
Samuel S. Forman. He was an officer in the Revolutionary war, enlisting
as ensign and rising by regular grades to Colonel. He held a General's
commission in the militia, was very energetic in forming the old Military
Brigade of Madison County, and was always prominent at parades, having
a true soldierly bearing. These brothers were relatives of Hon. Joshua
Forman, the founder of Syracuse. Miss Helen Ledyard, who became the
wife of John Lincklaen, was a niece of the Forman brothers.
NEW WOODSTOCK VILLAGE is situated in the south part
of the town of Cazenovia. David and Jonathan Smith, and Charleville
Webber were the first settlers in this locality. These men it is
said came in before Mr. Lincklaen's settling party, stopped awhile at the
shanty at the lake, and afterwards staked out their lots and settled near
the site of New Woodstock. Isaac Warren, Robert Fisher and John Savage
were also among the first settlers of this part of the town. Ralph
Knight, (who was living in 1869, and the oldest resident of the village,)
was born in New Woodstock, December 18th, 1796. Erastus Smith (also
living in 1869 [Footnote Caz1872#20])
was another of the early native born citizens of New Woodstock. Joseph
Holmes, a settler of 1801, was from Chesterfield County, New Hampshire
- his native place being Munson, Mass. Squire Letus Lathrop, and
Edmund Knowlton are other residents of the town who were among the earliest
natives of this place.
Jan von Lincklaen was born
in Amsterdam, Holland, December 24, 1768. His boyhood was principally
passed in Switzerland, where he was educated by a private tutor. At the
age of fourteen he entered the Dutch Navy, remaining in the service for
some years, and attaining promotion to the rank of Lieutenant under Admiral
De Winter. While in this service be visited the most important places
in Europe and Asia, and passed some considerable time at Smyrna and Ceylon.
In the year 1790, he came
to this country under the patronage of Mr. Stadnitski of Amsterdam, the
principal director of the Holland Land Company's affairs in America.
In the year 1792, he penetrated
the wilderness of Central New York, and surveyed the land subsequently
purchased by the Holland Land Company, and early in the following year
(1793), intrusted with the agency of the tract, he commenced the actual
settlement of Cazenovia, naming it after his friend Mr. Cazenove, an Italian.
Young, active, and persevering, he turned his attention to the needs of
his new settlement, and at once commenced laying out roads, building bridges,
erecting mills and warehouses, and all that a new home demanded, and he
soon found himself surrounded by a prosperous community, in <:237> the
place where his refined taste had induced him to make his new home.
In this active way he labored
for nearly thirty years, and won for himself a reputation for integrity
and accuracy, and proved himself in all ways a friend to the poor, and
a neighbor devoted to the welfare of his townsmen.
John Lincklaen's name was
also connected with the Holland Purchase in the Genesee Country.
According to the then existing laws of this State, those of the Holland
Company then in Holland, could not purchase and hold real estate, being
aliens. After several changes in the trustees, and transfers of portions
of the land, sanctioned by the Legislature, the whole tract of the celebrated
"Morris Reserve," containing about three and a quarter million acres, was
deeded to the individuals, in their own names, who represented the three
separate branches of the Holland Company. These were: - Herman Leroy,
John Lincklaen and Gerrit Boon. In conveyances of these vast estates
made subsequently, we find the names of Herman Leroy and Hannah his wife,
John Lincklaen and Helen his wife, Gerrit Boon, Paul Busti, William Bayard,
James McEvers, the Willinks, and others.
His acquaintance embraced
many learned and distinguished men, (among them Talleyrand, at the time
seeking in America a refuge from European disturbances;) and his reading,
as evinced by his library, was varied and extensive, in English, Dutch
and French. He rendered the English language with purity and ease,
for which we have the excellent authority of President Nott, of Union College,
who said that he knew of no foreigner who used our language so correctly
as Mr. Lincklaen. His tastes were scholarly and literary, which gave
to his graceful person, always elegant in dress and manner, an air of refinement,
and which marked him as one of nature's superior types of men. His
high sense of honor, his deep love of integrity, together with his fineness
of organization, <:238> placed him beyond the ordinary mind; hence there
seemed between himself and the mass a distance, perhaps affecting his general
popularity, which was not the offspring of pride, but was, rather, owing
to an awkwardness in adapting himself to the mass. Between himself
and Peter Smith there existed intimate business and friendly relations,
their friendliness being in a great measure cemented by harmonious views
in politics, both being Federalists. Frequent visits were interchanged
in which Gerrit Smith, then a youth, often participated. In those
days Gerrit Smith learned to admire and love Mr. Lincklaen, whose fine
and noble qualities, in all the years that have passed, he has cherished
and revered; and now he says - "in my eye Mr. Lincklaen was a beautiful
man, a lovely character."
Mr. Vanderkemp (Footnote
Caz1872#19) and Col. Mappa, two of his most intimate friends,
were Unitarians, and for a time he was influenced by this doctrine.
His pastor, Rev. Mr. Leonard, leaned toward these views, but during the
ministry of Rev. Mr. Brown, who succeeded Rev. Leonard about 1814, in a
revival of great power, Mr. Lincklaen devoted himself to a candid consideration
of religious views, which led to his adopting the Trinitarian belief and
devoting himself to a Christian life, and all his after life attested to
the earnestness and fullness of his convictions.
In forwarding the erection
of the "Old Church on the Green," he gave his time and means unsparingly,
and the noble frame and graceful spire raised at that time, are now the
just pride of a large congregation, who have made of the old landmark one
of the most beautiful churches in our county.
His first residence was
on the ground now covered by the house of Sidney T. Fairchild, Esq.
This building was destroyed by fire in 1806, and he then selected his place
at the foot of the Lake, on a site that commands a beautiful <:239>
view of the entire length of Owahgena. This house, built of brick,
is still standing, occupied by the family, and is evidence of his thorough
care in working soundly and well.
The original warehouse and
store was on the Lake, west of the outlet, among the venerable trees of
a white oak opening. The Land Office was for a time near his entrance
gate, and afterwards in a building erected for the purpose on land at the
foot of Albany street.
The agency passed on to
one, to whom he gave the position of an adopted son, J.D. Ledyard, whose
eldest sister, he married in 1797.
Mr. Ledyard eventually assumed
the entire remaining property from the Holland Land Company, and by him
the office was removed again (to open a full view of the Lake from the
village), and a third building was built in the business part of
Cazenovia, where it now (1870,) remains.
At this time the business
of the tract is comparatively small. A limited number of contracts
are yet unpaid, but the "settlers" are fast paying them up and taking their
deeds; and of the original one hundred and thirty thousand acres of this
Holland purchase, now only four or five hundred acres remain unsold; and
as railways are threading the valleys through which Mr. Lincklaen and his
men made their "blaze marks," these will soon be purchased and cleared,
and ere long the whole venture that brought an European Naval Officer to
settle on fair Owahgena, will be only a matter of local history.
Mr. Lincklaen's eventful
and active life was changed to that of a suffering invalid in 1820, by
paralysis, and his death resulted from the disease no skill or care could
avert, on the 9th of February, 1822, while he was yet at the age of many
hale men, fifty-four years.
<:241> This village being
on the well traveled road, from Cazenovia southward through Road Township,
was quite early a conspicuous settlement. The first Baptist Church
of Cazenovia was organized here as its history shows, and the first meeting
house of the town was built in this village in 1803. There was a
store, a tavern and some shops at that time. A Methodist class was
formed here, and Rev. Mr. Paddock and other Methodist ministers preached
at this place at stated periods, before 1820. A select school was
originated, which, after a few years of successful operation, was incorporated
by Legislature as "New Woodstock Academy." The date of the Act was
May 2nd, 1834. It is now extinct. At a later date the M.E.
Church was built. A fine school house has been erected at a recent
date, at a cost of about $3,000. In this a first-class graded school
is kept. There is an extensive Glove Manufactory in New Woodstock.
Its proprietors are (1869) Erastus Abbott, Joseph L. Hatch, James L. Savage,
Elijah B. Worlock and Thomas Worlock. The village has also two carriage
and wagon shops, several mechanic shops and mills, a hotel, four stores,
besides its two churches, and about 300 inhabitants.
A Good Templar's Lodge has
been in existence about five years. It has thus far proved to be
an institution, successful in sustaining itself, and in performing its
sacred mission. (Note d)
The Presbyterian Church
of Cazenovia Village, was formed in 1799, with eight members. Rev.
Joshua Leonard was first pastor. The first place of worship was a
school house, after the style of a chapel, situated on the west side of
Sullivan street, north of the Green. In 1807, the society erected
the first church edifice of the town. It was situated on the north
side of the Parade, Ground, facing Hurd street.
The First Baptist Church
of Cazenovia, was organized in <:242> New Woodstock, in 1799.
Elder Bacon was temporary pastor. In 1803, the society, with the
Presbyterians, built a meeting house. In 1820, the Cazenovia Village
Baptist Church was formed. This society had, however, existed as
a separate division since 1803, and had built their church about 1818.
This was burned in 1871, and a fine new one erected on its site the same
The M.E. Church of
Cazenovia Village. A class was formed in this village as early as
1816, which existed till 1824, when it was reorganized by Rev. Geo. Gary.
Rev. Fitch Reed first pastor. In 1830, they built the stone church.
This has been removed, and a fine new one is being erected on the spot.
The Congregational Church
of Cazenovia Village, was built about 1838. The society are mostly
removed. The building is now known as Concert Hall.
St. Peters Church, Episcopal
of Cazenovia Village, was organized in 1845. Edifice built in 1848.
First pastor, Rev. Mason Gallagher.
First Universalist Church
of Cazenovia, was organized in 1853. The church edifice was erected
in 1853-4. It is situated at the foot of William street.
St. James Church, Catholic,
located near the old Parade Ground, was built in 1848.
Two newspapers in Madison
County claim the precedence as being the first established; the Madison
Freeholder, published at Peterboro, and the Pilot at Cazenovia
- both originating in the year 1808.
(End of Chapter IV, Cazenovia)
The Pilot was started
in August, 1808, by Oran E. Baker, and continued till August, 1823.
The Republican Monitor
was instituted in Cazenovia, in September, 1823, by L.L. Rice. It
was published by John F. Fairchild from April, 1825, to January, 1832;
by J.F. Fairchild & Son, till July, 1840, and by J.F. Fairchild till
March 4th, 1841, when it was discontinued.
The Student's Miscellany,
semi-monthly, was published at Cazenovia in 1831, by A. Owen and L. Kidder.
The Union Herald
was commenced in May, 1835, by L. Myrick <:243> and E.W. Clark.
In 1836, Mr. Clark withdrew, and in 1840 the paper was discontinued.
The Cazenovia Democrat
was started in September, 1836, by J.W. Chubbuck & Co., edited by J.
Dwinnell. In February, 1837, it was discontinued.
The Madison County Eagle
was commenced in this village in February, 1840, by Cyrus 0. Pool.
In 1841, it was published by Thomas S. Myrick and W.H. Phillips.
In June, 1842, Myrick withdrew, and in May, 1845, it was changed to
The Madison County Whig.
In August, 1848, Phillips was succeeded by H.A. Cooledge, by whom the paper
was changed to
The Madison County News
in October, 1853. In May, 1854, it was again changed to
The Madison County Whig,
and in January, 1857, was discontinued.
was started in Cazenovia, in 1841, by Luther Myrick. and continued two
The Madison and Onondaga
Abolitionist was also published here, in 1843, by Luther Myrick and
The Madison Republic
was commenced in this village in January, 1850, by W.H. Phillips, and continued
about three months.
The Cazenovia Gazette
was published by Baker & Debnam, from October, 1851, to May, 1852.
The Progressive Christian
was established in April, 1853, by A. Pryne, and was continued two years.
The Cazenovia Republican
was started May 1st, 1854, by Seneca Lake. It was subsequently published
by Crandall Bros. afterwards by the Forte Bros., and now (1872) by E.B.
Crandall, Irving C. Forte, editor.
The Madison Observer
was first issued in Cazenovia, in January, 1821, by Rice & Hall.
It was removed to Morrisville in 1822.
The writer visited this spot at the close of a cloudy
October day, hence these impressions.
Found upon the farms of W.B. Downer and G.R. Southwell,
who have preserved many of these curiosities for the benefit of the antiquarian.
This supposition is strengthened by the following: In
September, 1861, a sunken canoe or "dug out," filled with stones, was discovered
in the lake by a party of three gentlemen fishing. They succeeded
in getting the canoe to the surface and towing it ashore. Its antique
appearance excited much interest among the Cazenovians, and thereupon was
kindled a flame of enthusiasm for the departed nobility of the race once
the unquestioned lords of Lake Owahgena, who had sunk their canoes that
the invading foe might not possess them. It was decided to return
the relic to its bed of aquatic weeds, where it had evidently long rested,
with ceremonials befitting the occasion. Accordingly, on the 12th
day of the succeeding October, all Cazenovia gathered at the Lake to witness
the unique proceedings, in which thirty-one persons from among the most
prominent citizens, dressed in aboriginal costume, took part. For
a description of the ceremonies the reader is referred to the Cazenovia
Republican, October 16th, 1861, and also to a photographic picture of the
scene, preserved among a choice collection of pictures at the office of
J.D. Ledyard, Cazenovia.
See N.Y. State Gazetteer, pages 229 and 655. (this is
not French's Gazetteer of 1860)
This was the year after the breaking up of the homes
of the pioneers of Sullivan, in the history of which town will be found
the cause of their destitution.
Ssee N.Y.S. Gazetteer, page 535. (this is not French's
Gazetteer of 1860)
About the time of the laying out of the village of Cazenovia,
Mr. Lincklaen purchased large portions of the New Petersburgh tract in
different sections of the four Allotments, to the amount of upwards of
50,000 acres, which added to the first purchase, constituted a tract of
130,000 acres at that time in his possession.
Admirals Von Tromp and DeRuyter were Generals of renown
about the middle of the seventeenth century.
Elijah Risley subsequently became justice of the peace.
At a very early day, an Indian couple came to Squire Risley's, and were
by him married. Soon after, becoming dissatisfied, owing to the reproaches
of their Indian friends, who disliked their conformity to the custom of
the whites, they called again to be unmarried. The minister being
present, they were persuaded to be re-married by him instead, when they
departed, appearing quite well pleased with the additional ceremony.
Gazetteer of 1812.
"About sixty-four years ago, Amasa and Ezra Leland took
forty-five pickerel from Leland's pond, in the town of Eaton, and put them
in our lake. For this service they received $40, this amount being
raised by subscription in our town. A law was then passed by the
Legislature, that no pickerel should be taken from Owahgena for ten years;
and thus our waters were stocked with the beautiful fish which have afforded
so much amusement to fishermen, and supplied our table with delicacies."
About 1820, Mr. Chandler originated the idea of wire
harness for weaving looms, and Ezra Brown invented machinery for making
wire harness, and the business was very prosperous for a time.
Many persons still living along the route, will remember
the long and toilsome winter trips of Hearsey's teams, performed as late
as 1833, from Cazenovia to Utica, each hauling the standard load of two
hogsheads of spirits.
Died in 1871 since the above was written.
Footnote = The Methodist Church.
Served twelve years , - he is now one of the Bishops
of the M.E. Church.
Turner's History of the Holland Purchase.
Mr. Vanderkemp was employed by the State to translate
the old Dutch records into English.
The date in which the author acquired this information.
Note c. - DEATH OF LEDYARD LINCKLAEN
- In Cazenovia, April 24th, 1864, Ledyard Lincklaen, Esq., in the 44th
year of his age. This sad announcement will awaken feelings in this
community and elsewhere which are seldom so stirred by an obituary notice.
Mr. Lincklaen was an extraordinary man, and his loss a public one of no
ordinary magnitude. But a few years since he came forward endowed with
a finished education, enlarged by foreign travel, and possessing a mind
peculiarly fitted for the investigation of the popular branches of natural
history, in which he soon made such progress as to challenge the attention
and acquire the respect of many of the foremost men of science in that
department. With ample leisure and means to prosecute his favorite
course of study and investigation, his friends indulged the reasonable
expectation that at the proper time of life, and, indeed, much earlier
than usually happens, he was quite sure to take his place among the leading
scientific men of the land. But these fondly cherished hopes were
doomed to be crushed by the prostration of his hitherto vigorous health,
which commenced a few years since and has finally stricken him down in
the prime of life and in a manner almost if not entirely inscrutable to
the best medical minds of the country. But what are the blighted
prospects of public usefulness to the more deadly blight with which this
bereavement falls upon his family connection, and a whole community of
Mr. Lincklaen was born,
and has always lived in this place and it may be said with truth that he
has lived an unblemished life in all the relations of the family, the neighborhood
and of <:756> society. He was a rigidly just man, a strict conscientious
man, and a habitually kind and benevolent man. These leading characteristics
never bent to outward circumstances, and were never influenced by considerations
of a personal nature. Selfishness formed no part of his character,
and duty never was surrendered to fear, favor or partiality. Sincerity,
both of word and action, was one of his marked characteristics, and so
strong was its influence that he never became what the world terms a polite
man, though his intercourse with others was always kind, genial and inoffensive,
and his expressions heartfelt and friendly. He despised everything
which we denominate sham. It was loathsome to his uprightness
of disposition; and much of what is deemed policy in the business and intercourse
of the world, he looked upon with disgust. His habits of life were
simple and unostentatious, as befitting a refined, sincere, straightforward
man as he was, and his loss will be intensely felt by all classes of our
community, as well as by those to whom it is irreparable and enduring.
It would ill become the writer of this to speak of the religious character
of the deceased. Suffice is to say, that he was a regular attendant
at and a liberal supporter of the Episcopal church of this place, and is
confidently regarded as a man who did justice, loved mercy, and walked
humbly before God. - [From Cazenovia Republican, April 27, 1864.
END of Cazenovia in Hammond 1872
Note d. - LUCY DUTTON, or
"Crazy Luce," as she was called, the subject of a number of romantic love
tales, lived in Cazenovia seventy years ago. She was one of the daughters
of an honest and respectable farmer. She was "winningly rather than
strikingly beautiful. Under a manner observable for its seriousness,
and a nun-like serenity, were concealed an impassioned nature, and a heart
of the deepest capacity for loving. She was remarkable from her earliest
childhood for a voice of thrilling and haunting sweetness." So writes
"Grace Greenwood," who further tells us that Lucy's sister, Ellen, was
a "brilliant born beauty," petted and spoiled by her parents, and idolized
by her sister. Lucy possessed a fine intellect, and was far better
educated than other girls of her station in the new country, therefore
she left home about this period to take charge of a school some twenty
miles distant. There she was wooed and won by young man of excellent
family, Edwin W------, and her parents gave their approval to the union.
It was decided that Lucy
should come home to prepare for her marriage, and that her sister should
return to the school to take charge of it for the remainder of the term.
Lucy's lover brought her home, and on his return went with him the handsome
sister Ellen. He was a rather genteel young man, having <:757>
some pretensions to fashion, and quite satisfied Ellen's exacting fancy.
Utterly heartless as she was, she proceeded to deliberately win his love,
regardless of the destruction of the happiness of her sister.
Unconscious of the proceedings
being enacted in that distant town, Lucy, with a happy heart, perfected
the preparations for her marriage, which was to take place in two months
from the time she came home. At length the wedding day arrived -
Lucy's nineteenth birthday - and Ellen and the bridegroom were hourly expected.
But the day wore away, and neither the bride-groom, nor Ellen, the first
bridesmaid, had appeared.
This episode in the sad
story of her life is related affectingly in Grace Greenwood's "Lucy Dutton,"
which has been generally regarded as the correct version.
At evening the anxiously
looked for couple arrived. The manner of the bridegroom was somewhat
agitated as he tossed off a glass or two of wine, and when sufficiently
stimulated for the occasion, he announced that he was already married.
Turning to Mr. and Mrs. Dutton he said, "I found I had never loved until
I knew your second daughter." Says Grace Greenwood:
"And Lucy? She heard
all with a strange calmness, then walking steadily forward confronted her
betrayers! Terrible as pale Nemesis herself, she stood before them,
and her look pierced like a keen, cold blade into their false hearts.
As though to assure herself of the dread reality of the vision, she laid
her hand on Ellen's shoulder, and let it glide down her arm - but she touched
not Edwin. As those cold fingers met hers, the unhappy wife first
gazed full into her sister's face, the dilated nostrils, the quivering
lip and the intensely mournful eyes, she covered her own face with her
hands and burst into tears, while the young husband, awed by the terrible
silence of her he had wronged, gasped for breath, and staggered back against
the wall. Then Lucy, clasped her hands on her forehead, first gave
voice to her anguish and despair in one fearful cry, which could but ring
forever through the souls of the guilty pair, and fell in a deathlike swoon
at their feet."
On awaking from this swoon
her friends found that she was hopelessly insane. Her madness was
of a mild nature, but she seemed possessed by the spirit of unrest.
She would not be confined, and though her parents while they lived, in
some measure controlled this sad propensity, on their death she became
a hopeless wanderer, and constantly traversed the whole area of Madison
county and those adjoining. One informant states that Lucy in 1812,
appeared then to be about thirty or thirty-five years of age. Though
faded and worn, and sometimes ragged, the marks of beauty lingered about
her features and person. She was of scarcely medium height, straight,
with <:758> handsome rounded form, which expressed considerable ease
and grace in her carriage and movements. Her naturally fair and soft
complexion was browned by much exposure, for poor Lucy was always on the
tramp. A handsome mouth, lips neither thin nor too full, a delicate Grecian
nose, sad-looking hazel eyes, a forehead neither very high nor too low
- a perfect feminine forehead, we should judge - formed a face pleasing
to look upon, but sadly interesting because of the deeply-troubled expression
always there, overshadowing the light of reason. At all times, whether
in action or repose, her soft voice gave vent to a low mournful sound-intonations,
between the moaning of deep trouble and the audible sighs of abject weariness,
or something resembling the moaning of a child in a troubled dream.
Grace Greenwood says: "Her
appearance was very singular. Her gown was always patched with many colors,
and her shawl or mantle worn and torn, until it was all open work and fringe.
The remainder of her miserable wardrobe she carried in a bundle on her
arm, and sometimes she had a number of parcels of old rags, dried herbs,
"In the season of flowers
her tattered bonnet was profusely decorated with those which she gathered
in the woods, or by the way-side. Her love for these and her sweet
voice were all that was left her of the bloom and music of existence.
Yet no, - her meek and child-like piety still lingered. Her God had
not forsaken her. Down into the dim chaos of her spirit, the smile
of His love yet gleamed faintly - in the waste garden of her heart she
still heard His voice at eventide, and she was not ‘afraid.' Her Bible
went with her everywhere."
She had a great repugnance
to the society of men, and would climb fences in the - most tedious wintry
weather to avoid meeting them. Her friends, knowing this peculiarity,
humored her - the men by never appearing to notice her, when in her presence.
After wandering thirty years,
Lucy Dutton was taken suddenly ill, and was moved to one of her old friends
to die. A few hours before dissolution, reason returned, - she awoke,
as it were, from a long nightmare. Supposing she had been asleep, she related
to her attendant her terrible dream. It was soon revealed to her
that her dream had been the sad reality of her life; that she was now old
and dying. With a few old friends around her, the services of the
Christian religion were administered by a servant of Christ in a manner
peculiarly tender and sacred, befitting the occasion, and her lips, which
at first joined in prayer, grew still. The prayer began on earth
ended in a song of praise, over the other side of the dark valley.