Atwell's Cazenovia, Past & Present, Chapter IV, pages 27-38
Atwell's 1928 Cazenovia, Past & Present
A Descriptive and Historical Record of the Village
Chapter IV      Industries & Institutions
pages 27 to 38
Daniel H. Weiskotten
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Atwell, Christine O., 1928, Cazenovia, Past & Present, A Descriptive and Historical Record of the Village. Florida Press, Inc., Orlando, FL
Some spelling corrections have been made and a few notes to update or clarify the text are added in square [  ] parentheses.  Atwell's Footnotes and my Comments and Notes follow at the end of the text.

            I Founding & Settlement
            II Roadways
            III Waterways
            IV Industries and Institutions 
            V Religion
            VI Education
            VII Culture

Chapter IV      Industries & Institutions

pages 27 to 38

        <:27> Various manufacturing industries which depended largely on the splendid water power of Chittenango Creek were early established.  Cazenovia was noted for manufactures at a day when other towns were only making slow progress in agriculture.
        In the summer of 1794 the first grist mill was built by the Land Company (Comment).  Wheat was bought in Whitestown and other places, ground, and the flour sold so low as only to cover cost and charges for the benefit of the settlers.  This mill and a nearby brewery were burned down some years later.  Before the first saw mill was built one mile south of the settlement, the boards to finish the log cabins were brought from Capt. Jackson's saw mill in Manlius.  The road from Cazenovia to Manlius was first opened for the purpose of carting the boards.
        Other industries (Comment) were the tanning of hides, making of potash, gathering of ginseng and making of nails.  Then followed two cloth-dressing establishments, two carding machines, a brewery and distillery; trip-hammer works, a woolen mill, a hat and chair factory, an oil mill, a fulling mill, a shoe manufactory and a lock manufactory.  A paper mill was established in 1801 and there was then a great demand for potash kettles.  A sash, door and blind factory, a mower and reaper foundry, a morocco factory, other saw and grist mills were conducted.  Still later, the manufacture of glass-ball traps, cabinet ware, butter, cheese, wagons, cider and gunpowder was carried on.  The merchants of the thirties, forties and fifties did a large business.  There was then a home market for every pound of wool, butter and cheese and every bushel of grain.  Factories lined the outlet of the lake and Cazenovia was a live business town.  Railway communications with the outside world instead of lumbering stage coach and the advent of steam and electricity as motive powers in place of water took away the factories.  Since then, manufacturing in Cazenovia has been discouraged with the idea of keeping the village strictly residential.  Agriculture has been encouraged and developed to a high degree.  Smooth meadows, well cultivated fields, cleanly kept woodlands, first class farm buildings and the evidences of wealth everywhere, on the hills as well as in the valleys, proclaim skilled training in agriculture.  Cazenovia is one of the largest dairy towns in Madison County.
        Today finds an electric light plant, a canning factory and a telephone system; a machine shop which makes a milk bottle capping machine and special machinery, and a diepress company, which turns out milk bottle caps, milk tickets, tea-tags and tea package ends.  Three blacksmith's shops, <:28> handed down from one family to another, are still doing a little business although the advent of the automobiles and tractors leaves few horses to be shod.  The first blacksmith shop was built of logs.  No tongs could be found amongst the smith's tools so Elnathan Andrews, the first blacksmith employed, had to go to Morehouse's Flats [NY 173 about a mile east of Jamesville], twelve miles off, to borrow a pair.
        The village [in 1928] also boasts a Post Office, a National Bank, five churches, a library, several fraternal organizations, a town hall, three hotels, a union school, and the far-famed Cazenovia Seminary; a weekly newspaper, a fire department, a "Village Green" [actually a Public Square and a Village Green], three cemeteries, a golf course, two railroad connections, improved roads, beautiful trees and an air of culture and social distinction found in few small communities.
 The first Post Office in Cazenovia was established by Mr. Habersham, then Postmaster General.  The country was so little known that he would not establish an office without security that it should not become a charge upon the general Post-Office.  Col. Lincklaen and Mr. Forman gave the required security so Mr. Forman was appointed postmaster and the office was kept in his store.  The office now requires, besides the postmaster, an assistant and three clerks.
        The first bank was the Madison County Bank, organized under the safety fund act, March 14, 1831.  Today it is the Cazenovia National Bank, with a million and a half dollars on deposit.
        The village supports an excellent public library containing over eighteen thousand volumes.  The library undoubtedly had its beginning in the "Free Reading Room Association," formed in 1873 by a small group of people who secured a room, free of charge, in the Burr block, and drew up regulations to the effect that the use of the reading room should be free to any person, resident or stranger, without any fee, who would conform to the regulations as published.  As the association was designed to be free to all, it depended on the contributions of the citizens who felt an interest in whatever served to promote the intelligence and good morals of the community.  Contributions of newspapers, periodicals and the loan of pictures were acceptable.  There was to be an annual membership fee of one dollar (Footnote IV-1).  Five months later the rooms were closed for the summer, due to lack of funds and attendance.  The next month, Mr. Krumbhaar gave his sail-boat to be sold for the benefit of the Reading Room, thereby insuring the reopening of the rooms for the winter.  There appears no further record of the existence of the association.  During the next summer, the Seminary Reading Room was opened to the public.
        In January, 1886, an organization formed and incorporated for the <:29> purpose of having a circulating library, free to all, where, by a small payment, people could have the use of the books at home and in the library rooms.  It was started without any capital, depending on friends to assist by money or books.  One hundred volumes were soon pledged and several persons became life patrons by the payment of $10.  The same room that had been offered the Free Reading Room Association was again offered free of charge.  Mr. R.J. Hubbard gave a deed to the present library property to the trustees of the Library on November 30, 1892.  There is no record stating when the Library was transferred to the present building, but it is presumed it was moved from the Burr block at that time.  Subscriptions and benefits have helped maintain the expenses.  The village appropriated $100 to the Library in 1898.  Since 1899, $200 have been given each year, but being insufficient to meet the requirements of the present needs, the village voted in March, 1927, to raise by tax $1,000 yearly for the support of the library.  A portrait of Theophilus de Cazenove, presented to the village by his great-grandson, hangs in the Library.
        The Masonic order closely follows in the footsteps of the pioneers in every part of the country.  During the fall of 1798, eight Masonic brethren of this section conferred with each other and arranged for the organization of United Brethren Lodge No. 78, which charter was granted January 5, 1799.  Robert R. Livingston, one of the signers of the warrant, was one of the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence, and after-wards administered the oath of office to George Washington as the first President of the United States.  The Lodge convened May 9,1799, it being the first lodge in the county [then Chenango County].  The nearest lodge west of here was at Canandaigua.  The early meetings of the lodge were commenced in the afternoon and continued during the evening, each member present contributing to the evening's entertainment.  Supper was twenty-five cents.  The charter of U.B. Lodge was surrendered in 1839.  The anti-Masonic agitation had begun at this time, bringing days of storm and stress; political parties were divided, life-long friendships sundered by reason of it.  Lodges were closed, charters surrendered; the order seemed to be ruined.  But an order that had survived through centuries of time, an order which was spread throughout the world, was not to be destroyed by a local combination of politicians and fanatics.  A chapter of Royal Arch Masons was organized in Cazenovia in 1825.  The questions of Masonry and Slavery were rocks on which nearly every Northern church split.  In 1828, three Baptist brethren were tried for being Masons.  Two were acquitted after having given satisfactory promises not to further affiliate with the order.  The church passed a resolution not to admit any more Masons to membership.  In 1866 the works of Masonry were resumed in this place; in that year a dispensation was granted and in 1867 a warrant was granted to Cazenovia Lodge 616.
        Owahgena Lodge, I.O.O.F. was organized in 1845.  The lodge went <:30> down in 1860 when everything belonging to it was destroyed by fire.  Owahgena Lodge No. 450 was instituted and chartered in 1876; Lincklaen Lodge No. 900 was instituted in 1906.  The Daughters of the American Revolution organized in 1896; the Knights of Columbus in 1906.  The Eastern Stars organized in 1908; Rebecca Lodge, I.O.O.F. in 1910 and the American Legion in 1920.
        The sum of $4,000 was voted in 1854 for building a hall for village meetings.  The village was to have right of perpetual use of the basement for the fire department.  The Free Church building [on the site of the present Cazenovia College Theater on Lincklaen Street], was bought, enlarged and refurnished.  The plan of the hall called for an ample stage, adjacent retiring rooms, a hall with comfortable seats for 500 persons on the second floor.  This was to be used for fairs, concerts, elections, political meetings and public assemblies of all kinds.  The first floor was to be occupied by a room for justices' courts, a jury room, supper room, etc.  This was called the Concert Hall.  The Casa Nova (New Hall) was rebuilt from the Concert Hall in 1885-1886 and burned down in 1895.  Cazenovia Hall, or Town Hall [the present Theater], was built in 1897 by a stock company at a cost of $12,000.  The village corporation leases from the association a commodious office for its business and records. The hall is used for public entertainments.
        The record of possible tavern keepers (Comment) in the first quarter of the century is not complete, but it is known that one Ebenezer Johnson kept a hotel in 1799, which was located on the south side of the "Green," and in 1803, Hiram Roberts, a blacksmith, added to his trade the keeping of a tavern.  The Cazenovia House has a history going back to about 1810.  It was known for forty years or more as the "Drover's Hotel," it being the stopping place of many cattle drivers passing back and forth along the Cherry Valley Turnpike.  Cattle were then taken on foot down the turnpike to Madison and thence on to [Albany and thence on to] New York.  The hotel was known in every quarter and ranked high among country hotels.  Simon C. Hitchcock kept the hotel in 1824 and was regarded a first rate landlord.  He was also a Seminary trustee.  Lemuel White kept a hotel on the south side of the square.  He was a very agreeable man and kept a very good house.
        The Lincklaen House (Footnote IV-2) was built in 1835 by a stock company.  It was operated from 1853 to 1877 by a Mr. [Oliver] Jewell and was the stopping place of the stage-coach.  It was purchased in 1916 by Mr. Henry Burden who remodeled and modernized it.  Many noted guests have been entertained by the hotel.  What was formerly the Lake House, now a furniture store and undertaking establishment, was in operation in 1865.  This may be [no it is not] the same hotel as that kept by Samuel White in 1824 and the Madison County Hotel which was on the south side of the square in 1879.  The hotel kept by Mr. <:31> Hitchcock on the north side of the square in 1824 doubtless is the same as the "Hickok's Tavern" spoken of elsewhere, now the Cazenovia House.  Shoreacres, on the east side of the lake, was converted from a private residence to a popular hotel in 1923. There are three or four attractive tea rooms.
        The first newspaper in the village was "The Pilot," started in 1808.  Since then there have been numerous publications, some short and some long lived.  The Whigs, Tories, Republicans and Democrats have all had their say.  The present Cazenovia Republican was established in 1854.
        Cazenovia has always had an efficient fire department and has not suffered as have many villages from the destructive element (Comment).  At the first meeting of the village corporation in May, 1810, $100 were voted for the purchase of a fire engine, and a month later, it was ordered that twelve certain men be firemen, and that they be called out and exercised in using and examining the engine at least once a month, which should be on the last Saturday in each and every month; the time of meeting on said Saturday to be at sun two hours high in the afternoon until sunset.  Non-attendance at the meetings without satisfactory excuse made the person so absenting himself liable to a fine of 50¢ and expulsion from the company.  It was ordered "that within 90 days, every merchant and tavern-keeper in the village furnish himself with five leather fire buckets holding eight quarts and every other owner or occupant of any other house or building furnish himself with one bucket and that the owner of a bucket procure his name to be put on the same and that each and every owner of a bucket or buckets keep the same hung up near the outer door of the house or store and be appropriated to no other use except in case of fire and that every person neglecting or refusing to comply with this ordinance within the time limited shall be subject to a fine of twenty-five cents for each week thereafter for such neglect or refusal, to be collected as the law directs."
        In 1812 the first engine house was built at a cost of $55.  Four years later the fire company disbanded and the engine was sold for $15.  In 1822, residents of the village were ordered to provide ladders long enough in each case to reach the roof of the dwelling; [and] the engine house was sold at auction.  In 1827, the first hooks and ladders were provided for at a cost of $20.  In 1829 a new fire company was organized with thirteen members and a new engine.  When this company disbanded in 1831, a new one was formed of eighteen members and in 1834 a $700 engine was purchased.  In 1835, three sufficient reservoirs holding about 10,000 gallons each were constructed, as was an engine house at a cost of $92.  Then a hook and ladder company was organized.  In 1844 a second engine at a cost of $550 was purchased with hose and other appurtenances.  In 1855 a school house [situated on the corner of Sullivan and Seminary Streets] was purchased for an engine house at a cost of $400.  The Owahgena Fire Co. was first organized in 1862.  Deluge Fire Co. was formed on the same date <:32> and a new engine purchased for $1,150.  A steel fire bell costing $60 was mounted on the cupola of the engine house in 1863.  Such a bell was not a matter of necessity, there being few fires, but it would serve many purposes.  Alarms were also affixed to the bells of the Presbyterian and Methodist churches, with cord attachment.  The present alarm is a horn blown by compressed air [and this system is still in use in 1999!].  Two additional reservoirs were constructed in 1873 near the Methodist church.
        In 1874 it was "voted that active firemen shall henceforth be exempt from the poll tax."  The next year, the fire, hook and ladder and hose companies disbanded and three new companies organized with a total membership of 86 members.  Then the Owahgena Engine Co. No. 1 and Deluge Engine Co. No. 2 organized in 1877.  Ledyard Hose Co. No. 1 organized in 1879.  The equipment consisted of two hand engines, two hose carts and 1,000 feet of leather hose.  The introduction of the village waterworks system in 1890 rendered the fire engines practically useless.  The first chemical engine was purchased in 1920 at a cost of $2,500.  This was found to be too small to be of much use in the country, so during the summer of 1925 a larger combination chemical engine and pump was purchased at a cost of nearly $6,000 raised mostly by public subscription.  The fire department now consists of the Owahgena Hose Company and the Cazenovia Hook and Ladder Company [both of which are still active in 1999].
        Concerning military service, Mr. Forman wrote; "In the autumn of 1793 we were enrolled in Major Moses DeWitt's Battalion.  He resided near James Ville (Jamesville) in Manlius.  We had orders to meet and choose officers for a company and to make our returns to him in order to obtain the military commissions.  The following winter we went to Pompey Hill to receive our commissions.  The first military duty by the Cazenovia Company was performed in the White Oak Grove at the foot of the lake.  The next summer we were "warned to appear on lot No. 33 in Pompey Hollow, armed and equipped as the law directs for a Battalion training." (Comment)  Accordingly we met in the oaks at the appointed place well armed and equipped with good hickory clubs and a very few muskets.  We formed and marched in military order as far as the swamp at the foot of the lake - this was the end of any road - where we halted and orders were given for every man to make the best of his way through the woods to the appointed ground and report himself to his Captain if he did not get lost in the woods.  Some man observed that their little captain would get lost.  The next training we were ordered to appear armed and equipped as the law directs for a general review and inspection at Morehouse's Flat in Manlius."  Gen. Van Horne was then the adjutant general of the state.  This training closed all military connection with Onondaga County.
        "The ensuing season, our population was so much augmented that we formed a separate Battalion in Cazenovia, John Lincklaen, Esq., Major <:33> Commandant.  I brought up from New York 112 complete stand of arms, and cartouch boxes; 77 light infantry hats, with silver eagles and L.I. Cyphers, all completely trimmed, and sold them at cost and charges.  So we soon gained great laurels for our military prowess and received the applause of Adj. Gen. Van Horne.  In due time as the population increased, a new brigade was formed in Madison County, Gen. Jonathan Forman, commanding - he was an old Revolutionary officer.  This battalion now formed a regiment under Col. Lincklaen."
        The military brigade was one of the great institutions of the early days.  For the use of the militia when their headquarters were made in Cazenovia, a fine parade ground was laid out about 1810.  This parade ground now "The Green" at the head of Hurd street, was much in the public eye and mind in those days and for many succeeding years.  It was on this ground
that the general training was held each year.  Here they used to gather from all the contiguous country, the "Floodwood Militia," they were called, and there devote the day to military training under command of General Jabish Hurd.  In early times, the Indians, it is said, were accustomed to gather in considerable numbers and with much interest watch the maneuvers of the men on the Green.  On some occasions, it is said also, the Indians requested permission to join in the general training.
        We were an important place in the War of 1812.  War meetings were held; a company was raised here for the frontier.  When several sturdy and patriotic Cazenovia citizens were called into active service, the Green was a school of military acting, and more, it was a school of military tragedy, for it trained men for war.  On one occasion during this time a large troop of armed and equipped Indians passed through Cazenovia on their way to Sackett's Harbor to join the army in defense of their country.  They camped for a little time on the old Green and then departed singing war Songs as they went.  Along in these days, too, the out-door shows that visited Cazenovia pitched their tents on the Green; many plays were staged.  There was a certain character in town who had a most pronounced antipathy to all enterprises of this nature.  This character was a colored woman who had positive notions on social economy, and she never hesitated to voice them.  So when these show people gathered on the Green, she would go into their midst and there harangue them for a half hour at a time on the wickedness of their coming to town to take money from poor people.  Not unlike those days, we now have the Redpath Chautauqua "show" which takes considerable money out of town but gives a fair educational return.
        May 1861 saw the departure of twenty-four volunteers for the war.  They were of Capt. Todd's Company.  The inhabitants of the village gathered at the Lincklaen House corner to see the leave taking and bid farewell.  When on the second of July, 1862, the President of the United States <:34> issued a call for three hundred thousand men to serve for three years, or during the war, the young men of the village and in the Seminary at once formed companies, and went through the manual of arms, drilling in the intervals of their work and studies.  A war meeting was held on the night of July 26 for the purpose of providing suitable bounty and filling the quota of men from the town.  The Free Church was crowded.  Sufficient sums were subscribed to furnish a bounty of $25 to each recruit.  Eleven volunteers enrolled their names that evening, and these formed the nucleus of Company K of the 114th Regiment.  New Woodstock then added several hundred dollars to the bounty fund.  Thursday, August 14, 1862, was a day to be remembered.  The inhabitants again gathered at the Lincklaen House corner while the company of 101 young men formed into line; prayer was offered, congratulations and leave taking of friends followed, and the procession moved off, amid the firing of guns and the ringing of bells to join the regiment at Norwich, where they were mustered into the United States' service.  During the war, Cazenovia furnished 371 soldiers and 2 seamen.  During the World War, 179 men from the town of Cazenovia answered the call to the colors.  On Armistice Day, November 11, 1926, Cazenovia Post No. 88 of the American Legion, formally presented to the village a captured German 150 mm Howitzer, secured from the War Department as a war trophy.  It is mounted on a concrete base on the south side of the public square, opposite the intersection of Sullivan with Albany street, pointing north.  The artillery piece bears a bronze tablet placed on the base by the Legion, which reads:

"Presented to the Village of Cazenovia
Cazenovia Post No. 88
In commemoration of those
who served from this community
In the Wars of The
United States."

        There were three early burying-grounds - one over the hill from the West Shore Station, past the old golf links; one on the Burr farm on the west side of the lake, and one at the west end of the Green, either side of the First Presbyterian Church.  The three present cemeteries are the Evergreen, or Protestant; the Catholic and the South Cemetery (Comment).
        A nine hole golf course, "the sportiest and most scenic in the state," was opened in the spring of 1925 on the west side of the lake.  The course on the Fairchild property, which had been in use many years, was abandoned at that time.
        The citizens of the town were requested to meet at the Lincklaen <:35> House in March, 1864, to take into consideration the propriety of taking measures for the construction of a horse railroad from the village to Chittenango Depot.  "Such a road would be an advantage to the town - all kinds of business would be benefitted, real estate would advance in value; manufacturers would use the valuable water power now going to waste and the beautiful village would become a summer resort to many."  However, the advantages of a horse railroad were not considered sufficient to pay for the outlay.  A subscription paper was circulated and nearly funds enough pledged to defray the expense of the survey for a steam power road.  In 1870 the Lehigh Valley R.R. was built to Canastota.  It now runs between Elmira and Canastota.  In 1872 the so-called Chenango Valley R.R., now a part of the New York Central property, was built to Syracuse.  It runs between Earlville and Syracuse.  Electric trains were put on the Lehigh the latter part of 1926.  Auto bus service between Syracuse and points south and east of Cazenovia was inaugurated two or three years previously (Comment).
        When Cazenovia was first settled, it belonged to the town of Whitestown.  The way this singular occurrence happened, Whitestown once included all the county west to the military lands, and all new towns when set off, had their boundaries, so town meetings and elections had to be attended at Whitestown.  In 1795 Cazenovia was erected into a Town - it comprised an area nearly equal to that of the whole of Madison County.
        The first town meeting was held in April, 1795.  Among the "rules and regulations" adopted on the occasion, was one - "that no man shall bring cattle into this town that does not belong to him to run at large on the commons, except working oxen and milk cows, on penalty of five pounds to the use of the town."  One would suppose that a town of such dimensions, and only two years from the hand of nature, would have "commons" enough for all the cattle that could be brought on, unless their neighbors up the Missouri should drive on their buffaloes.  Cazenovia was the first village incorporated in Madison County, the date of the act being February 7, 1810.  The first corporation meeting was held in May, 1810.
        From the time of the formation of the county to this date, Cazenovia had been looked upon as a suitable location for the county seat of the Courts of Justice, and had become so temporarily; consequently, the first criminal punished for murder in Madison County, was executed here.  This was a wife poisoner, [Alpheus Hitchcock, of now Town of Madison, hung September 11, 1807] who had been confined in Whitestown jail, tried at a court held in a barn in the town of Sullivan, whence he was brought to Cazenovia and hung, the gallows being erected about half a mile east of the village [in the field opposite the Town & Country Plaza on NY 20 East].  The county seat proper was located here in 1810, not, however, without some opposition from rival towns.  A brick court-house was erected at a cost of upwards of $4,000 on the site where the Seminary Chapel now <:36> stands.  The first courts were held here in 1812.  The county seat was moved to Morrisville in 1817.
        A "United States Telegraph" line was constructed between Chittenango and Cazenovia in October, 1865.  Soon after, the Western Union brought a line in, and in a short time the two loops consolidated, in favor of the Western Union.
        Previous to 1868, street lamps were installed, being kerosene lamps in a lantern-like arrangement on top of a post, at alternate corners.  A note in the village paper says: "We are often met with the inquiry why our street lamps are not lighted on dark nights.  We are informed that the wages of a person for lighting them are so comparatively high that the village fathers do not feel authorized to make the expense."  A petition from the Chenango Street residents for light resulted in the lighting of the lamps again.  The lamp-lighter was the delight and the target of the children, who pelted him with snow-balls in the winter and tipped his cart over in the summer.  Even grown-ups were known to "borrow" his chimneys.  The electric light system was installed in 1898.
        The village, feeling the necessity of a place nearer than Morrisville for the safe-keeping of those who imbibed too freely, voted $600 in 1869 for a lock-up.
        The Cazenovia Band was organized in 1852.  A band stand was erected in the square in front of the Cazenovia House in 1873.  Succeeding years produced bands of more or less merit until about 1926 when the bandstand was torn down.
        The first telephones were installed in 1895.
        In 1803, the census of the village was 100 inhabitants.  The state census of 1925 recorded 1686 inhabitants.
 Last, but not least, the town clock marks time with the historian.  It is one of those things which is taken for granted, its origin never questioned.  The clock in the Seminary tower and in the Presbyterian Church tower gave up the struggle long ago, but the town clock [in the Methodist Church] goes on forever.
        The earliest record of the clock (Comment) is contained in an editorial of the Cazenovia Republican of November 5, 1862, which reads; "The old town clock, which for so many years has graced the spire of the Methodist church, is a wreck.  It is so badly damaged that repairs are impossible and it is better to put up a new and reliable clock than to attempt to patch up an old and worthless one.  The old clock is the first iron town clock (and the only one of that pattern) built by Mr. Jehiel Clark.  It was never a very good one, but by the expenditure of a good deal of money and trouble it has been made to do useful service for about twenty years.  The question of replacing it by another will be voted on at the coming charter election.  Our people have too long enjoyed the benefits and conveniences <:37> of a town clock to consent to be without one now.  It is certain that it will be voted to buy one, but the question is, what one?  Mr. J.W. Marshall has one of the handsomest clocks ever made, built on a contract for a thousand dollar clock.  It is jeweled throughout and well worth the thousand dollars originally asked for it.  This splendid clock Mr. Marshall offers put up and keep in running order one year for $500.  It is not likely that we shall ever have another opportunity to get such a clock for so little money.  It was built by Mr. Marshall for the late Mr. A.W. Van Riper, who had so much confidence in its accuracy as a time- keeper that he offered to give it to the village if on trial it should vary fifteen minutes within a year.  Mr. Marshall will do the same if it is preferred to his other offer[.]  Town clocks can be bought more cheaply than this.  Mr. Marshall has them for sale, but they are much dearer at the price charged for them than to the large clock.  The cheap ones will not last so long and will not keep so good time while they do last.  Mr. Marshall's clock can be seen by those interested at his shop, and we have a large engraving of it which we shall be happy to show.  Voters within the corporate limits of Cazenovia ought to inform themselves on this subject, as it will come up for decision at the charter election to be held next month."
        Two weeks later the paper carried this editorial: "Citizens of this corporation should be making up their minds as to how they will vote on the town clock question.  Mr. Marshall's clock is up and noting the time accurately.  It is a beautiful piece of workmanship, of brass, highly finished, the pivot-holes and verge pallets jeweled, and, in brief, the clock is provided with every improvement that experience and ingenuity can suggest.  There is some opposition to the purchase of this clock, because an iron one can be bought for less money.  Undoubtedly an iron clock might be bought that would keep time well for a few years, but it is unreasonable to suppose that an iron or steel surface will withstand friction as long as a jeweled one.  The result with the iron clock would be that within a few years we should have just such an unreliable time-keeper as the old clock was, and after expending two or three hundred dollars for repairs and attendance, we should have to throw away the iron machine and pay a thousand dollars to replace it with just such a clock as we have now offered to us for $500.  It is always bad policy to buy an inferior article because it is cheap!"
        At the election on December 2, 1862, by a resolution, the trustees were authorized to hire the clock for a year and to call a special meeting to purchase it during the year if deemed by them proper.  Records show that $50 rent for the clock was paid in 1866 and again in 1868.  It is possible that $50 a year was paid from 1862 until 1870 when the clock was bought for $400. It had been placed in the tower of the First Methodist church.  When the new church was built, a meeting of the electors was <:38> called to vote on the proposition that $1,000 be raised by tax to be paid for the permanent use of a tower in which to place the clock, and that $250 be raised to pay for necessary fixtures and the expense of placing the clock in the tower.  Both of these propositions were defeated.  Then at a meeting of the Trustees of the Methodist church, the following preamble and resolution were adopted, viz: "Whereas, All negotiations between this Board and the citizens and trustees of the village in relation to the town clock have failed to secure to us any aid in erecting a suitable tower for the clock, therefore, Resolved, That we do hereby grant permission to the trustees of the village to place the town clock in the tower of our new church without compensation."  At a meeting two weeks later of the Board of Trustees of the village, on motion of G.H. Atwell, it was unanimously resolved that the offer made by the Trustees of the First M.E. Church tendering to the village the use of the tower of said Church in which to place the village clock, without compensation, be gratefully accepted.  Two hundred and thirty dollars was to he raised by tax to pay the expenses incurred in placing the clock in the tower of the M.E. Church where it has been since 1874.  The face of the clock, on the outside of the tower, is above the bell which in turn is above the clock machinery.  The pendulum of the clock hangs 18 feet long; it is a wooden stick with a lead disc about 1 foot in diameter on the end.  The striking weight weighs 2400 pounds and is hung by a cable; the weight that runs the clock weighs 1400 pounds and is hung by a rope.  The hands are turned by a wooden stick about an inch square and about 30 feet long.  The clock is wound once a week but would run two or three days longer.  The bell which was in the first church, was put in the new church and has served as church bell and to strike the hours of the clock.  "The town clock regulates the sun."


Footnote IV-1
Among the names of the twenty-eight men who joined the Association is that of G.H. Atwell, the writer's grandfather.

Footnote IV-2
The bricks used in the construction of the Lincklaen House were made in Pompey Hollow by Abraham Tillotson, great-great-grandfather of the writer.

Comments and Notes by Daniel H. Weiskotten
November 1999
IV Industries and Institutions, page 27 IV Industries and Institutions, page 27 IV Industries and Institutions, pages 30 to 31 IV Industries and Institutions, page 31 IV Industries and Institutions, page 32 IV Industries and Institutions, page 34 IV Industries and Institutions, page 35 IV Industries and Institutions, pages 37 to 38
Proceed on to Chapter V    Religion