Vol. 11-2

Summer 2002

The Holdrege Area Genealogy Club

P.O. Box 164

Holdrege, Nebraska 68949

Meetings held at the

Phelps County Historical Museum

on the first Monday of the month at 2:00 PM.

The public is welcome!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Given by Ben and Dixie Boell

The Original Scotts Colonists of Early America 1612-1783


Peddley, Park, Jelly Bean and ME

Wade and Laura - Our Story

The Longest Road to Kansas, Charlotte Newton Brown's Diary 1857-1878

Given by Dick and Majorie Dyas

Your Guide to Cemetery Research by Sharon DeBartolo Carmack

Given by Clyde Runion

200 years of American History in Ryhme

Given by Sally Massey

Community Survey of Holdrege, NE

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Holdrege Area Genealogy Club has voted to spend $500 to purchase some early newspaper of some of the small towns surrounding Phelps County. Each microfilm will cost $60 each. Donations may be sent to Holdrege Area Genealogy Club, Box 164, Holdrege, NE 68949 if anyone wishes to assist in enlarging our microfilm library collection.  We have ordered the following microfilms.

The Ragan News 1895-1902

The Wilcox Herald starting 1895

The Wilcox Post 1893-1894

Elm Creek Beason starting with 1898

Congratulations to Renate Emken for receiving the appreciation certificate from the State Genealogical Society.

Also congratulations to Dick and Majorie Dyas for receiving certificates from the Nebraska State Genealogical Society for being charter members of the society for twenty-five years.

Your President, Sandra Slater

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


1.  Would like to share information with anyone researching these Phelps and Harlan County, Nebraska families: SKOOG, BERGSTROM, NCNIEL, LENEY, POWELL, LINDSTROM, MAGNUSSON, AND HAINEY.

Looking for descendants of John August Johnson (1834 Sweden 1915 NE), Mar.. 1st. ?; son: Carl Alfred Johnson.  Mar.. 2nd. 1880 NE Sophia Abraham; dau.: Adla, Adla's half brother was Emil Nelson, Associated surnames: BORG, MENIEL, LENEY.

Sara Firehammer

17108 Mayfair Ct.

Granger, IN 46530-7488

2.         I am trying to locate members of my father's family in Nebraska. I am looking for any family of Oliver F. A. Fink, born 1888 in Orleans, Nebraska to Otto Fick and Minnie Sasse-Fink.  Oliver died on October 1939 in Williams, Ore. At age 51 years.  His Obituary lists: His mother - Minnie Sasse/Fink/Romine Williams, Ore. A Sister Ella Jansen of Oxford, NE. A daughter Thelma Wickett of Las Vegas, NV. A daughter Bettie Strong of Inglewood, CA His wife Katherine Fink of Williams, Ore. Oliver F.A. Fink and wife Katherine were married in 1936 in Iowa and moved to Williams, Ore. shortly after they were married.  They had two sons, Oliver Fink born Jan 1938 and Frank Fink, born in March of 1939. I was 8 months old when our father died. Most of the information I have is from some Masonic records and old correspondence we found in our mother's papers.  I would appreciate hearing from any member of the family.

Frank Fink

2600 Eastman Lane

Yreka CA 96079-9570

(530) 842-5337

Email buddyfic@inreach.com

3.         Searching for information on William D. Hurd born 5 June 1822 and died 2 Aug. 1897 and his wife Lucinda C. born 26 Jan. 1825 and died 2 Aug. 1897.  Their children include Mrs. Elizabeth "Lizzie" (Charles) Rodebaugh (1854-1932); Mrs. Agnes I. (William) Wagner (1859-1932) and Mrs. Harriett "Hattie:" (Richard) Larson 1866-1948.  All the above family members are buried in Highland Cemetery, Bertrand, NE.

Judy Hilleman

23978 Hilleman Ln.

(yes her street number is the same as her last name)

Richland Center, WI 53581

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *




We, the members of the Holdrege Area Genealogy Club, want to thank Renate Emken for her outstanding contribution to our organization and to the community.

Renate has donated many hours of her time to organize the Camp Atlanta Prisoner of War archives at the Nebraska Prairie Museum at Holdrege, NE.  She has translated many letters, documents and newspaper articles from German into English.  She has created a card file of all German POWs; all American soldiers who were stationed at Camp Atlanta and all known employers of the POWS. She has also created a subject matter list involving Camp Atlanta, it's branch Camps and other camps in the United States.  She is currently cataloging the Camp Atlanta Photograph archives.

The organizing of these files will be of benefit to those individuals interested in Camp Atlanta archives.

She has also assisted other genealogists in the community by translating documents and letters for them.

Renate is also actively involved in researching her German and Czech ancestors. Some of the Names she is researching are EMKEN (Germany and USA); VOIT (Bohemia and Italy; VIETH (Bohemia and Germany). We wish her success.



* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *



By Bernice Brown

(Exact date of article unknown but some time before June of 1960.  Mrs. Ida Kiplinger lived to be 109 years old. She is buried at Prairie Home Cemetery near Holdrege, Nebraska and died in 1976.)

There's nothing dull about history.  Particularly if it's related by a group of octogenarians who have witnessed most of the happenings of the last century.

For Example, Ida May (Mrs. Fred) Kiplinger.  She's nearly 93 and to give you an idea of the blithe spirit which remains undaunted through the years, she still keeps a critical eye on her figure and she's been known to interrupt an after-lunch rest period to get out and inspect a certain hat she may want to wear later in the week.

As regards years, Mrs. Kiplinger is senior member of the guests at Christian Homes of Holdrege.  She came to the home in 1958 after living in California for a time with her daughter.  Mrs. Ruth Harmon.

From Wisconsin

Mrs. Kiplinger was a girl of 18 when she came to Holdrege, Nebraska from Wisconsin; and her carpenter father, William S. Morgan, built one of the first homes in Holdrege.  A brother Charles B. Morgan has been a

Holdrege Optometrist since 1901.

"Kip" as most of her friends have called her through the years, met Fred Kiplinger in the German Evangelical Church Free Church in Holdrege with Fred's father was serving as pastor.  A daughter of a family of Methodists, Ida May was present in the capacity of organ player (she had formerly played in a Congregational church back in Wisconsin), and Fred was singing bass in a male quartet.

Fred's father, Rev. E. L. Kiplinger, performed the service which made Ida May Fred's wife, as well as a member of the father's congregation. In later years he baptized their children; read the marriage service for their son Ralph, when he married Miss Mabel Roach of Arapahoe; and in time baptized their children.

Ralph Kiplinger, now president of Guarantee Mutual Life insurance Co. in Omaha, was a recent Holdrege visitor as speaker at a meeting of the area's University of Nebraska Alumni group.  It was in anticipation of his arrival that "Kip" was choosing a hat.

Loomis-Holdrege Resident

Ida May Kiplinger's residence in Phelps County was continuous from 1885 when the Morgan family arrived until 1923, when she and her husband moved to Colorado.  The Kiplingers were Loomis bankers from 1888 until 1908, and they built the structure that now houses the First State Bank in Loomis.  They also built a residence two blocks south of the bank.

They were living in Loomis in 1902, time of the disastrous prairie fire which threatened to wipe out the town.  Mrs. Kiplinger had come to Holdrege for a few days to get medical care for the Kiplinger's child, Neeld, who later died.  The two older children and their father had stayed in Loomis, and Mrs. Kiplinger had some bad moments before she was reunited with her family the following day.

Paintings and Potatoes

"They thought the town would go," Mrs. Kiplinger recalled, "and Fred worked frantically, hauling people away in his surrey.  The fire was stopped near the railroad tracks, and after it was all over, we found that the girl who worked for me had tried to save what she considered valuable In our house, and in the bottom of the surrey were all our paintings nearly covered by a bushel of seed potatoes, which the girl thought worth saving too."

The paintings referred to were the work of Fred's brother, Ernest Kiplinger, who had studied in Chicago and showed great artistic promise before his death from typhoid fever at an early age.

In 1908 the Kiplingers moved to Holdrege, where Mr. Kiplinger continued in the banking business.  They built a home here, since converted into the Regal Steak House.  The building has been remodeled extensively, and plans are underway for more changes; but still it was quite a house In it's original state, with five bedrooms, upstairs, and reception room, library, living room, dining room, kitchen, dressing room and sun room down stairs.  The sun room had 11 windows.


Mrs. Kiplinger has a knack of remembering piquant turns in events such as an incident about the house. "After serving as superintendent of his father's church for many years, my husband decided it was time to resign; and the congregation had a party in his honor at our house.  I was upstairs when the guests began arriving and as I started down the stairs I stumbled, fell the length of the stairs, and came to rest at the feet of my guests.  It was the most impressive entrance I have ever made.

Later, the house was sold and in 1923, the Kiplingers moved to Colorado where Mr. Kiplinger died in 1935.  Mrs. Kiplinger lived for a time with another daughter, Mrs. Aline Schrick, now deceased.  Now she is back in Holdrege, the scene of her participation in some of the events which made it an exciting century: The advent of electricity, replacing candles; the coming of the automobile, and the decline of the horse; the first steam threshing machine in the vicinity which brought out great crowds in people to see it pass; and then the telephone.

Tin Cans on a String

"This salesman came to Holdrege selling telephones," Mrs. Kiplinger said. "They were made of wood and when you wanted to talk to the party at the other end you tapped on the telephone.  It was a lot like talking over a tin can with a string, like the boys rig up."

The invention of the camera meant a new hobby for the family.  They became  "shutter hounds": and Mr. Kiplinger developed the prints in his own dark room.  Some of them taken in 1900 have weathered the intervening years remarkably well.

Many recollections Mrs. Kiplinger has put down on paper for the benefit of future generations.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *



Ezra Reed an enterprising young hardware merchant of Loomis, Phelps County, Nebraska, was born in Iowa, September 29th 1850. He is a son of John and Ann Sturmm) Read both natives of England.  The emigrated to American in 1850, and came west as far as Madison County, Iowa.  The senior was a carpenter by trade but followed farming largely.  He was born February 8, 1812, and died August 23, 1888.  Ezra Reed the subject of this sketch, worked with his father in the milling business till he became of age, when he started out for himself, continuing in the milling and lumber business till September, 1878, when he came to Nebraska.  He was one of the first settlers in Industry Township, Phelps County.  Taking a homestead there, he made a hole in the ground and lived in it all winter.  He had to haul water over two miles.  The prairie had been burnt and there was no grass or feed to be had.  When he got settled on his claim, he had only $2.80 left to live on during the long winter.  He lost his team after he had been there about two months, and had to go into debt for another spring.  There were times when he did not know where his next meal was to come from, but he managed some way to get along.

Mr. Read was married June 29th, 1972 to Barbara Lukecart.  She was of German Descent and was born in Iowa, August 14, 1855.  Four children grace their happy home: Annie born May 14th 1873; William O. born December 19th 1874 (deceased); Lester born August 17th, 1876 and Benjamin F. born November 15th, 1888.

Mr. Read sold his homestead November 1889, and moved to Loomis where he opened a hardware store December 1st. that year.  He carries a splendid stock, comprising a general line of hardware including a stock of harness.  Mr. Read is a careful businessman and enjoys the confidence of his community, and although he had only been in business a few months he is succeeding beyond his expectations.

Both he and wife are zealous members of the United Brethren Church and are always found at their post when any religious duty is to be performed.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *



(Biographical Souvenir of the Counties of Buffalo, Kearney, Phelps, Harlan and Franklin County, Nebraska, 1890)

Hon. Eric Johnson was born in Sweden July 15, 1838.  In 1846 he moved with his parents, to America, settling in Henry County, Ill.  September 14th 1861, he enlisted as a private in Company D. Fifty-seventh Illinois regiment volunteers. At the organization of the company a month later in Camp Bureau, near Princeton, Ill. He was elected first lieutenant. The first battle engaged in was the capture of Fort Donelson and after the battle of Shiloh, he was promoted to captain.  He resigned in September 1862, upon the recommendation of regimental surgeon, on account of sickness.

Captain Johnson married December 21, 1863, taking for a wife companion Miss Mary O. Troil, who died April 23 1890.  This union was blessed with eight children, five of who are now living viz.---Axel T., Sadie O, Julia C, Eric Sixtus and Earnest G. aged respectively 21, 19, 16,13 and 10.

Captain Johnson entered the journalistic field in 1864 as editor and proprietor of the Galva Illinois Union, launching upon the sea of journalism in 1869. The Illinois Swede, which was afterwards changed to Nya Verlden, and moved to Chicago in 1871, and is today the leading Swedish paper in America, being now published under the name of Svenska Tribunen.

Captain Johnson never had the advantage of any high grades of education than a few winters in the pioneer district schools of Illinois from 1849 to 1854.  He cast his first presidential vote in 1860, for Abraham Lincoln and voted for him again in 1864.  In 1868 he voted for U. S. Grant; in 1862, he voted for Horace Greeley; in 1876, he lost his vote for president by a short residence in Kansas; In 1880, he voted for Garfield, renewing his allegiance to the Republican party, but he has never been a strong party man since 1872.

In 1871 he was journal clerk of the Illinois House of Representatives.

In July 1885, he became a resident of Nebraska and for one year edited the Stromsburg Republican. Moving to Holdrege in July 1886, he started the Holdrege Citizen, remaining on that paper until December 1887.  In April 1888, he took charge of the Holdrege Progress of which he has been the editor and business manager up to date.

The Progress has for several years been the official paper of the county.  And has an actual circulation of 1,100.  It is now published by Eric Johnson and Son.  The same firm commenced April 16, 1890, the publication of Nykterhetsabasunen, a paper printed in the Swedish language devoted to prohibition, and has a circulation of five thousand.

In the fall of 1888, Captain Johnson was elected to the legislature from Phelps County.  T. M. Hopwood was the regular Republican nominee and James J. Rhea the Democratic nominee, the county giving President Harrison, a majority over all the 625 votes.  Johnson's career in the legislature was so acceptable to the people of Phelps County, irrespective of party, that upon his return he was given a surprise of his residence by a large number of his constituents, many of whom had worked and voted against him when a candidate, and presented him with a purse of money and an elegant gold watch, bearing the following inscription: "From the people of Phelps County to Captain Eric Johnson for honest and faithful work as legislator in 1889.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *





Phelps County was organized in 1878.  The records of this county have suffered losses by the burning of the Public Buildings at three different times viz. 1876/ 1880 and 1882, hence official information in the compilation of the following Roster is not obtainable.  Population from Secretary of States Report: 1975, estimated 110; 1880, 9,487. Estimated on Presidential vote 1884, 5,320.



R. M. Hindman 1873-1877

C. Jensen 1878-1879

P. O. Hedlund 1880-1881

P. Peerson 1882-1884

County Clerk

F. H. Young 1873

W. A. Dilworth 1974-1879

L. Halgren 1880-1881

P. O. Hedlund 1882-1884


W. P. Miller 1873-1875

James Sweizey 1876-1879

A. A. Wyatt 1880-1881

L. A. Newman 1882-1884

County Judge

John Schaffer 1873-1875

F. G. Wilke 1876-1879

D. H. K. Whitcomb 1880-1883

C. J. Beckman


C. J. Dilworth, E. L Barnes, J. D. Musgrove 1973

No Record - 1874

A. S. Baldwin, T. Downing 1875

A. S. Baldwin, T. Downing, P. A. Brodin 1876-1877

P. A. Brodin, T. M. Hopwood, A. B. Baldwin 1878

P. A. Brodin, D. M. Case, T. M. Hopwood 1879-1881

E. M. Palmer, D. m. Case, P. A. Brodin 1882

D. M. Case, Peterson Anderson, E. M. Palmer 1883

D. H. K. Whitcomb, Chairman, Township organization 1884

Superintendent of Public Schools



A. C. Christiansen 1878-1879

C. S. Bradley 1880-1881

Mrs. Mina Hopwood 1882-1884

County Surveyor

Hugh Dequine 1876-1877

P. O. Hedlund 1878-1879

B. E. Bremzell 1880- 1883

E. Soderman 1884


John T. Barr 1876-1879

L. C. Barr 1880-1881

William Wilcox 1882-1883

S. F. Hunter

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *





P. O. Hedlund - County Clerk, Native of Sweden in 1876, Dealer in Real Estate and Loans.  Vice-President of First national Bank. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

Peter Peerson - County Treasurer. Native of Sweden, Settled in 1877. Director and Stock Holder of First National Bank., P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

Charles J. Beckman - County Judge. Native of Sweden. Settled in 1879. Attorney of Counselor at Law, P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

J. H. Einsel - Commercial State Bank; J. H. Einsel, Vice President; E. D. Einsel Cashier and State Senator. Paid up Capital, $40,000, P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

J. M. Harbaugh - Attorney-at-law. Native of Pennsylvania. Settled in 1884. Of firm of Harbaugh and Brigham.  Real Estate and Loans. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

H. O. Barber - Grain and Stock.  Native of Canada. Settled in 1878. Of firm of Wint and Barber. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

T & J. Ormond & Co. - Holdrege House. Native of South Wales. Settled in 1884. Hotle and furniture new.  Good Sample Rooms.  Commercial trade solicited. Livery in connection. P. O Holdrege, Nebraska.

E. B. Guild - Secretary of School District No. 44. Graded School. Established in 1884. L. Banta President; J. M. Olmstead treasurer. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

Nebraska Lumber Co. - All Kinds of Lumber. R. D. Jones President; F. E. Gable, secretary. P.O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

Ruby and Latta - Livery, Feed and Sale Stable, Natives of Ohio. Settled in 1883. Good Terms, with or without Drivers. Commercial traded solicited.  General Stock Dealers. P.O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

W. E. Hymer - Native of Illinois, Settled in 1878. Dealer in Shelf and Heavy Hardware.  All kinds of farm machinery, Wagons, Buggies and Steam Threshers. Agents for J. I. Case Engines. P. O. Box,  Holdrege, Nebraska.

Morton, Johnson & Co. - Natives of Denmark. Settled in 1878. Manufactures of all kinds of brick. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

John Smith - Real Estate. Native of Virginia. Settled in 1883, P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *




J. H. AND E. D. Einsel -- Section 5, Township 5, Range 18, 18, 360 acres; Section 15, 16, Township 6, Range 20; 480 acres; Section 16, Township 6, Range 19; 329 acres; Section 25, township 7, Range 18; 320 acres; Section 19, 29, township 7, range 17, 320 acres; section ___ Township 6, Range 18; 160 acres; total, 1960 acres, purchased in 1883; est. value $20,000. Grain and Stock Farm. P. O., Holdrege, Nebraska.

William E. Hymer - Section 34, Township 6, Range 18; 3 city lots; Section 29, 32, Township 5, Range 17;Section 5,7, Township 6, Range 18; Total 1280 acres, purchased in 1878; Estimated value $42,000. Owns 5,880 acres of land in Cheyenne County, Nebraska. Breeder of Hambletonian Horses.  Proprietor of town sites of Phelps, Sacramento and Holdrege. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

S. Latta - Section 24, Township 6, Range 18; 160 acres, purchased in 1876; Estimated Value $3,000. Grain and Stock Farm. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska

Morton, Johnson & Co. - Section 21, Township 5, Range 17; 160 acres, purchased in 1879, estimated value, $2000. Grain and Hay farm. P. O. Holdrege, Nebraska.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

~Harlan County Nebraska~

Orleans Progress Newspaper

Friday, June 28, 1895

Max Biscoff, proprietor of the Orleans Meat Market, was united in marriage to Miss Anna Mentzmeir, the wedding occurring last Saturday evening at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Miller of this city, Rev. Benj. S. Haywood officiating. The happy couple have been the recipients of congratulations from many friends during the week.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


16 July 1885

Alma, Nebraska Weekly News Items

Bainbridge News: 

Crops are fine. Some are cutting their rye and fall wheat.

Mr. Elkins has finished cutting his rye and is waiting for his spring wheat, which is putting on a gold hue and soon be ready for the harvester.

Mr. Aldons and wife started a few days ago to their new home in Kansas.

Mr. Willie has his new sod house plastered and is now ready to move in it.  He says he has a hitching strap running at large with a wolf tied to one end of it.  He captured the wolf and had it tied and it got loose.

The are eleven headers and harvesters in this neighborhood and they have all they can do.  Mr. Harris, C. F. Farris and John Cowardin, had when they commenced 500 of their own grain to cut.  After cutting 40 acres of rye, they commenced to cut for Mr. James Garrison.

A herd of ponies past through Bainbridge Saturday evening going south, we presume if the parties who had the ponies in charge had known we have a town here, they would have stopped and tried to sell some of them.

We heard quite a noise, one night last week, in the direction of Alma. We could not imagine what was up; but the next day we learned all about it.  Hurrah! For Alma, let her boom.

Mr. Zerbe was out here the fore part of last week, to buy some fat cattle.  He had with him a young Almaite.  Now this young man who we will call Banty, for short, was out here about a year ago, and "sorter" fell in love, with one of our many charming girls, and of course he called around, to get a drink of water. Dinner just being over, he was asked to dine, of course he couldn't well refuse.  Just as he finished his repast, he finding himself alone, with the exception of but one person began to inquire about the adored one.  When told that they were marred.  Ho--well he did not faint, but his informant thought he could see suspicious moisture in the corner of his eye.  When the girl returned to the room he cast a longing glance at her, and thanking her for her hospitality went on his way lamenting.

Bainbridge is becoming somewhat spicy as it has received a supply of cinnamon; that being the names of parties who lately moved among us.         WANDERER

Alma, Nebraska

Weekly Tribune, 2 July 1885


On last Sunday evening, the coroner, Dr. J. J. Hall of this place, was notified that the man was found dead near Orleans.  The Dr. and C. C. Flansburg immediately started for the place, getting there about dark. He was lying in the oat field belonging to Judge Kent, adjoining town, and evidently was in a bad state of decomposition.  The corner immediately impaneled a jury who made the following finding:

We the undersigned jurors impaneled and sworn to inquire how, and in what manner, and by whom and what the dead body came to its death, do find upon examination of the said body, and find name of dead man was William T. St. Clair, and that he came to his death from the effect of a gun-shot wound from the hand of an unknown party, and the estate of the deceased is not sufficient to defray the expenses of the inquest and his funeral.

G. A. Webb     E. F. Dobbins

Andrew Ewing  L. B. Farrell

Calvin Bowman            J. W. Calrothers

A few letters and soap receipts were found on his body, by which they identified his name.  A letter, evidently from his wife in Indiana, was found on his person to whom letters were sent notifying her of the sad news.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Alma Weekly Tribune

September 11, 1884

Harlan County is twenty-four miles square, and is situated about the center of the Republican Valley, in the southern tier of counties of the State.  The soil is as good as that of any portion of the United States.  Farmers in this county raise corn, wheat, rye, barley, broom corn, millet, potatoes and all kinds of vegetables as successfully as in any country.  To verify this fact all any one has to do is to take a drive through the country.  Farmers are threshing twenty or thirty bushels of wheat to the acre, oats rye and barley are yielding the same portion.  The corn crop is simply immense.  The average will be from forty to seventy five bushels per acre.  This crop is now pretty well matured and out of danger from frost.  The average amount of hay has been harvested so that there will be an abundance of feed for all kinds of stock.  One of the special advantages of this country over many other localities is the west, is that it is watered.  The Republican River runs through the country from east to west affording not only water for stock but abundant power for running mills and machinery.  It has numerous tributaries, which furnish living water for stock.  There is timber along the river and small streams, which adds largely to the advantages of the county.  Our rail road facilities are good.  The B. & M from Chicago to Denver and from Kansas City to Denver runs along the north bank of the Republican through the county.  School facilities are very good for a new country.  Some sixty-five districts have public school six months in the year.  At Alma the high school has nine months school, while Republican City and Orleans, the school are about the same length.

Land in this county has advanced fully fifty per cent during the past year but are comparatively cheap yet.  Good improved farms are selling at from six to fifteen dollars per acre, while a few very desirable places may be bought for even less than these figures.  These prices will not continue long as lands must necessarily steadily advance for some time to come.  Farms may be rented at a rental of from 1/4 to 1/2 of the amount raised.  Mechanics and laborers get work readily at good wages.

The building materials used here are brick, stone and lumber.  Brick are burned here.  The lumber comes from the pineries.  Coal and wood are used for fuel.  The wood is from the native groves of the rivers and streams.  The coal is shipped from Colorado and is of superior quality. Water upon the up lands is secured from wells that do not fail in dry weather.  The roads are almost always in excellent condition. Cattle, hogs, horses and sheep are raised here successfully.

(This article is written to answer questions propounded in something over twenty letters received at the office lately.)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Editorial from Holdrege Daily Citizen

December 23, 1967

A recent article in the Citizen about Grand Old Army of the Republic, mentioning that some of the Civil War soldiers were as young as 12, drew the attention Mrs. E. W. Price, 90, of Hastings, a former Citizen news correspondent while residing at Methodist Memorial Homes here. Interested in the Civil War, she saved a clipping about the war.  Which the veteran's administration in Washington D.C. told her was probably written in 1916.  The clipping on the "Boys of '61" is as follows.

Surprise is often expressed that there are so many veterans of the Civil war still living.  The fact is that the war was fought, at least on the northern side, by boys.  Of the 2,159,798 enlisted, there were only 46,626 who were over 25 years old.  The official figures of the age at enlistment in the Civil war were read in the House of Representatives the other day by Joseph C. Cannon and they are as follows:

Those 10 years and under         25

Those 11 years and under         38

Those 12 years and under         225

Those 13 years and under         300

Those 14 years and under         1,523

Those 15 years and under         104,987

Those 16 years and under         231,051

Those 17 years and under         844,891

Those 18 years and under         1,151,438

Those 19 and 20 and under (These two classes make the total number of enlistment's 2,159,798)

Those 22 years and over.  (These two classes make the total number of enlistment's 618,511.)

Those 25 years and over 46,626

It will be noticed from this statement that the greatest number of enlistments were of boys 18 and under.  In a great number of cases these boys became officers before they were 20, some of them even reaching the rank of captain.  The methods of war have so changed that in future armies there must be a greater number who can handle the intricate, complex and death-dealing machinery and engines of destruction. But as far as the Civil War was concerned fighting was done by boys, and praise, "Boys of ‘61" is a literal expression of the truth and not metaphorical.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *