Yellowstone County MTGenWeb

Yellowstone County History


(1875 to Present)


NPR moves away from Congressional Member’s management, and Frederick Billings was named “Managing Director”, through which started the beginning of NPR as a private enterprise. The line would come out its financial slump, and completion was in sight. The track route through Montana still hadn’t been decided, although most mapping projects showed the track essentially following the extensive1871-1873 route surveys. It was pure conjecture on the residents as to where it might be. No one was caught more unawares than the residents of Coulson. They had presumed that their wee town would be a major shipping point. However, the managing directors of the line had other ideas, and made plans to capture a wider market share of travel/freighting than was originally conceived in 1864. Anxious settlers (squatters – formally called pre-emptive settlers) started entering the southern regions of the Yellowstone Valley areas. Wagon trains started to arrive from both the east and the west. The Fisk Trains were predominant in eastern travel, and followed the NPR survey routes from Minnesota westward. Wagon trains from Salt Lake City went to the Missouri River, then up to Bismarck, and the across the land to the Yellowstone River. Thomas McGirl, in early 1877 established a trading post at what is now called Huntley, and people were starting to populate the Coulson area. Perry McAdow constructed a sturdy ferry for transporting people and wagons across the Yellowstone just north of where NPR would in 1882 construct their bridge. To garner more trade for McGirl, he placed a directional sign for travelers from the east that directed them his river crossing. When arriving there the hopeful people discovered that his ferry was merely a few planks tied together. Many of the travelers were headed for the gold fields in the west, but a few stayed on. As the valley area started to fill with settlers (all before the land surveys) NPR’s management team realized that a great opportunity existed for them, and they had to act fast to take advantage of the influx of farmers and ranchers. The original land grant was still linked to the northern route, although they had been surveying a southern route through Montana Territory. Apparently no one re-linked it to the new route, and the grant land was only being applied when the centerline of the track was surveyed as per the original grant. As a result, there was a great deal more ‘in-lieu’ land to be exchanged than originally conceived, so the corridor was opened up to 60-miles on each side of the track. The Indian reservations lands were essentially excluded, making for an even greater demand on the exchanges. This opened up a great advantage to NPR as they swapped the corridor lands lost to settlers and mineral rights for forest land in the northwest.



1876-1877 Congressional & NPR Actions

The Supreme Court considered the earlier NPR breaches of original land grant specification requirements, and ruled in favor of the new management team, which does not require NPR to return corridor land to the GLO! General Custer, who guarded the NPR construction & surveys for several years, was killed in 1876 at the Little Big Horn, and with the suppression of the Sioux Nation, a heavy influx of settlers started. Dr. Hough convinces Congress to fund money for examination of timber use, and successfully establishes the National Forest Service. NPR’s previously bad treatment of workers, under the thumb of President Charles Wright Barstow, erupts in riots, and was called: “The Year of Violence.” Dissention was rampant among the workers and construction was at a virtual standstill.


1878-1880 NPR Actions & Land Surveys

Charles Barstow finally initiated Frederick Billings’ operational plan and construction re-started after the riots were stopped. Frederick Billings ousted Barstow and became President on May 24, 1879. The line from Bismarck extended 100-miles to the west, and the land grant corridor finally caught up with the railroad’s line. Many homesteaders were caught up in battles for entitlement of their homesteads; and in most all cases lost their land to NPR’s corridor claims. Homesteaders continued flowing into the grant land areas in ever increasing numbers, and recently created Indian boundary changes precipitated a need to re-examine the rail route which currently directed the line to be on the west side of the Yellowstone River from Glendive Creek south. Adna Anderson, (Chief Engineer 1879-1880), decided to see if better RR Track location existed in the Yellowstone area, where many of the settlers were putting down roots.


Settlers filled the local area in 1875-1878, mainly concentrating into separate areas: Columbus, Park City, Canyon Creek, Coulson, and Huntley. Walter W. DeLacy, surveyed the land sections centering about the Prime Meridian. In May-June of 1877 McGirl settled in ‘Huntley’ and started a trading post. He contracted the Coulson Line to deliver some merchandise to him. Captain Grant Marsh delivered the supplies to him at the end of May, picked up some furs to carry back, and then continued upstream to where Joseph MV Cochran had settled (Riverfront Park). Perry McAdow had acquired his Desert Land directly across from Belle Butte (Sacrifice Cliff), but hadn’t as of yet moved any belongings onto the land. Only Cochran’s tent was erected. Neither man was in the area when the steamer arrived. This is when Captain Marsh carved June 7, 1877 into a cottonwood tree that was a few yards distant from Cochran’s tent. A marker is erected in the park to commemorate the event. This date has no relationship to Captain Marsh’s earlier trip upstream to Duck Creek on June 7th 1875. Seems that the two dates are always getting mixed up! By 1878, the GLO had blocked off the odd-numbered sections of land north of the Yellowstone River from new homesteading. Many of the persons who were squatting (pre-emptive) on the NPR land were evicted, simply left, or in other ways removed. John Dover, a later resident on the Yellowstone River north of Billings, successfully defended his claim against NPR (MMLIC) land grant claim. It took several years of fighting to clear the title.


NPR 1879 -1889 Construction Loans

Frederick Billings initiates a series of financial plans during this time period to garner construction loans by mortgaging the corridor land (which was now entitled directly to NPR, along with all rights prior to formal survey). The initial listings of finances are noted below, NPR received a lot of money during the next decade of operations: (Details of the transactions are available in YGF Files regarding Title Abstracts)

§Farmer’s Loan and Trust Company, Trustee (May 1, 1879 Filed Vol 2, Land Grant Records, pg 255)

§Conveyed $2,500,000.00 for the main line of the railroad (Missouri Division) in Dakota and Montana

§Central Trust Company of New York, Trustee (January 1, 1881 Filed Vol 2, Land Grant Records, pg 31)

§Conveyed $43,393,000.00 (Construction costs not to exceed $25,000.00 per mile) for main line and Cascade branch, telegraph line and all lands.

§Farmer’s Loan and Trust Company, Trustee (November 30, 1883 – 2nd Mortgage)

§Conveyed $20,000,000.00 subject to prior liens, except for lands situated in Minnesota and Dakota east of Missouri River.

§Farmer’s Loan and Trust Company, Trustee (December 1, 1887 – General 2nd  Mortgage)

§Conveyed $12,000,000.00 subject to prior liens, except for lands east of Missouri River in Minnesota and Dakota.

§Farmer’s Loan and Trust Company, Trustee (December 2, 1889 – Consolidated Mortgage)

§Secured $62,442,000 or an amount not to exceed $160,000,000, except for lands previously granted to NPR by Congress, and except for lands in Minnesota and Dakota east of Missouri River. The General 1st Mortgage, General 2nd and General 3rd Mortgage were considered prior liens.


NPR’s Plan to Create ‘Billings Townsite’

NPR’s Chief Engineer, Adna Anderson, establishes an engineering/survey team  in 1880 (headquartered at Cabin Creek – on the Yellowstone) to secretly place track south of Yellowstone River & issues grading contract in November 1880 after he reviews the site plans. The team consisted of:


Henry Ward Rowley (age 22) hired April 1879 by NPR for engineering services

Jules Breuchard hired spring 1880 (Alphonse Fteley’s step-son)

Fred Foster hired 1879 (Robert Foster’s son.) Robert is co-founded of Foster’s Sub-division w/Kurtz

SP Panton (previously employed by NPR)

NPR Cook – not identified


 Billings Secretly Created – 1880

The townsite of Billings appears to follow the same pattern as used earlier by the Union Pacific when the town of Caldwell, ID was established[1]. A great deal of secrecy was needed to prevent others from gaining ‘insider-trading’ knowledge. The Surveyor General of Montana had initiated a land survey of the eastern parts of Montana, starting with the Yellowstone Valley areas in 1878. These surveys continued on for several years. Settlers’ homesteads apparently were placed into ‘box’ portions of land to represent their holdings near as possible to the actual survey grids without overlapping the section lines. This survey was formally platted by the GLO survey office and plat books, then these plats, along with the registers were issued to Montana’s land office at Bozeman in the spring of 1879. (Actual date seems to be elusive; but the records indicate that Perry McAdow filed in March.) These original plats, along with the attendant homesteader’s names and locations, are stored in the BLM office at Billings. The homesteaders, who were caught up in the struggle for land ownership with NPR or the prevailing rules for ownership, such as Joseph MV Cochran, do not appear in these platted records. Those people are listed and filed in separate entries. Refer to earlier discussions about homesteads. There are various tales about how Billings was selected; but Rowley gets the nod; others are conjectures, including Fred Foster’s later interpretation.


Rowley received new survey plat map copies from the GLO in 1879 before the team was created. He examined the territory and located overlapping odd-numbered sections on the Prime Meridian (near Coulson), and this looked like a good site for a city. It also was the center of various roads leading in and out of the area. Coulson was there, but not incorporated as such. The land east (south) of the Yellowstone River was also found by the team to be an excellent route for the railroad, and obviously more so than the central route surveyed in 1872-1873.


John Issaei – NPR engineer who was headquartered in Miles City’s home office, created a plat of the proposed site of Billings in November 1880 for Rowley. He also selects a lot for his future use, but later discovers it’s on marshy land. After having made his selection, he was allowed to change the site.


Rowley shows the plat plan created by the team to the NPR management in Minnesota & [apparently] was directed to file the plat with the ‘Secretary of Interior’ in DC. On Jan 1, 1881 – it was reportedly filed as “Sec 33 Tp 1N, R26E, & Sec 3, Tp 1S, R26E”). Co-existing with the filing were all companion water rights, ditches, etc., extracted from NPR’s land grant. [Note: there are no separate fillings of RIGHTS for the town, area, ditches or related accesses and activities. None were needed.


Using the platted concept, NPR offers business lots to banks & investors in the east, and investors in Europe. About 400 lots were sold to them before offering such to local residents.


MT population was clearly not to be informed of the Billings site.


Billings Secretly Created - 1881

Col Pike (NPR Manager) had SF Panton (an NPR engineer) create a Stadia map of the planned Billings site in September.

The Plat map showed detailed city lots, and it integrated with Coulson. This was created in NPR’s St Paul’s offices. (The Plat has not been located)


The Stadia Map & city lot-plat maps were first presented to investors in MN for business opportunities. Many lots were acquired.


Coulson Town plat was filed in October by John Alderson in hopes of getting his wee town selected as the NPR shipping point for Montana. This effort had no effect upon the decision to create Billings.


Billings Townsite Survey

The City center was established by two monument markers; one being at the center of 25th Street North and Montana Avenue, the other on 25th Street South and the south edge of First Street South. Theodore F. Branch was the surveyor who attested to the location. Future residents knocked the markers down as they were in their way! These survey marker locations are denoted on some of the Sanborn Fire Maps.


Creation of Minnesota & Montana Land & Improvement Company

1882, March 23 Articles of Incorporation


Realizing that a great opportunity existed, Heman Clark, John B. Westbrook and Thomas C. Kurtz[2] created the Minnesota and Montana Land and Improvement Company [called “the Company”, MMLIC] in Ramsey County, Minnesota*. This firm became effective as of March 15, 1882, and continued for thirty years. Release of incorporation was withheld until March 26, 1896. It was originally filed in Minnesota, with capital stock of $200,000, of which, $100,000 directed for indebtedness liability


*Filed in the State of Minnesota, Book G, Incorporations, on pages 111-113. Re-recorded in Montana Territory, Book B, Incorporations, and Certificate of Transcript from James H. Mills, filed with the Secretary of the State of Montana. All filings accomplished much later on March 26, 1896. Apparently they tried hiding their true identity and intent.


MMLIC Garners Land Acquisition

On April 1, 1882, NPR sold 29,394.22 acres of prime land in Clark’s Fork Valley west of the future site of Billings to MMLIC. MMLIC paid $113,558.86 for the land which amounted to: $3.86/acre. Plans were already underway to irrigate the soil.


Certified Billings Plat Map 

A series of filings were initiated, the first was reportedly filed January 1, 1881with the Secretary of Interior in Washington City. (This filing hasn’t been located). It was apparently part of the original plan for secrecy. On June 1, 1882 a copy was filed in Custer County, followed by a filing on September 1, 1884 in Yellowstone County and then refilled on June 3, 1909 in Yellowstone County (eg., 2nd Filing.) Don’t know why? However, at this time, Coulson was fully integrated into the Billings City plat.


MMLIC formally Meets with Coulson People

Heman Clark arrived in Coulson in April, 1882 & spoke to residents about creation of Billings & their irrigation plans for the entire Yellowstone Valley area around Billings. This was a shock to them, as they all expected that Coulson would be the town to exceed all others. Heman proposed locating three booms for water extraction from the Yellowstone River,  each placed about ten miles apart; Coulson, Laurel, Park City, plus at each extraction point placement of a sawmill would be established. Concurrently with this announcement, Clark released an order for several million bricks to be used in construction of the NPR hotel, roundhouse, machine shop and other buildings needed for their operation and to benefit the residents.


NPR Missouri Bridge-Sketch at Bismarck


Note: for three years, NPR didn’t have financial resources to construct this bridge, and during the ensuing winter months they laid track across the river. During the intervening years, the foundation supports are virtually located as they were – attesting to superb engineering.


NPR Missouri Bridge after Construction


NPR Big Horn Bridge & Tunnel


This tunnel still exists, and can be viewed today. It is about 1,100 feet in length. Before 1925, NPR created a bypass around the cliffs (to the left of the tunnel location), closing down the site. The insert shows a sketch of the original bridge across the Big Horn River. In the 1920’s NPR relocated the bridge a short distance to the north, and elevated the road bed by about ten feet. This was to provide clearance for flooding potential during the winter months, should the Big Horn be blocked with ice floes. During this later construction earth was moved from locations near the Yellowstone, and used for fill. This created some marshy areas, still visible today. On this site was the original location of the Manuel Lisa Yellowstone Fort, constructed in 1807, for trading with the local Indian tribes. There currently is a fishing access & small park to honor the event.


NPR Yellowstone Bridge - 1882

This is an early wooden construction photo of the bridge. At the upper right, is Perry McAdow’s ferry he built. John Shook operated it.


NPR Roundhouse – 1909 in Billings


c1886 – through c1947 (34th Street & alongside the NPR Tracks), are now long gone. During winter months in the 1930’s, NPR cleared their rail tracks with steam. The map section shown above also defines the incorporation of Coulson into Billings. (City of Billings, Engineers – 1909)



MMLIC Actions April 14, 1882

The Coulson Post reported that Heman Clark was planning to start construction of the first irrigation ditch in June, and that it would be completed within a month. It was to be tied into Perry McAdow’s desert land’s irrigation ditch for water & power use in Billings. This took place, and was used for supplying water and electricity. It wasn’t the Big Ditch.


A colony of 450 residents from Ripon, WI were expected to arrive and take up land at the western end of the settlement, and MMLIC made an offer to fence, break their land, build each settler a home and furnish them with either 100 head of sheep or cattle.


As a result of the advertising and the rich-irrigated farmland had people coming so rapidly and in such great numbers that by April 22 MMLIC was swamped satisfying potential buyers.


Billings Townsite Company

On March 20, 1883, NPR conveyed the Billings Site (Section 3-1S-26E and Section 33-1N26E) to a newly formed townsite company created by MMLIC within its shell and named it the “Billings Townsite Company” to manage sales. Heman Clark was appointed president and managed all the land sales & related business operations therein.


Billings Power Plant Built 1886


Water was extracted from the Yellowstone about where Bitter Creek enters. This was the approximate start of the rapids that existed until the 1920’s. The rapid was called Hellgate, Hell Roaring, or Ramsey’s. It had a 13- foot drop before leaving Section 2 (Perry McAdow’s homestead). This location is near the future site of Josephine Park. Excess water exited from the Tail Race ditch. The equipment in the building is identified on the Sanborn Fire Map. Some of the water mains leading to Billings were constructed of wood, and are identified on the Sanborn maps..













Henry Ward Rowley - Engineer

Henry Ward Rowley was born 1 October 1858 in Newport, Oneida County, NY, son of Nelson Burr Rowley (NY) and Abigail Coffin (NY). He lived there until age nine, when his parents moved to Minnesota and settled into the Farmington area, near St. Paul. There he attended the public schools, and later attended and graduated with an engineering degree from the Minnesota University. At age 22, in 1879, he was employed by the Northern Pacific Railroad to assist in the construction of line passing through the Dakota Territory. He quickly rose to the position of Chief Engineer and for two years successfully managed the construction of the line. Seeing an opportunity for great personal achievement, he left the railroad in the spring of 1882 to become an engineer for the newly formed Minnesota and Montana Land and Improvement Company MMLIC), which established the townsite of Billings while controlling nearly all the land in the valley west of Billings. He had a remarkably successful life while still less than 30 years of age. He was a civic leader, owner of important real estate, and engineer of some of the most extensive irrigation projects in the area, a banker, city official, school trustee, sportsman and social leader. He possessed a strong personality, gracious and aristocratic bearing, and when he stepped off in Billings he immediately became one of its leading citizens. The building of Billings was not by accident or happen chance, but by well managed design.

In 1876 the general land surveys for the local region had finally reached Clark’s Fork Valley (Yellowstone County area), and a plat map for future homesteaders was created. This early plat was made available to the settlers by April 1877 [March?][3][1]. When the Indian wars were essentially concluded in 1878, the Northern Pacific Railroad started to lay track after a few years delay. The railroad was placed under closely guarded financial controls, and construction cost was limited to $25,000 per mile. At that time, when Rowley was in charge, the planned route was clearly established and shown to be from Bismarck essentially due west to the Yellowstone River, crossing the river near Miles City, and following the river on the north side into the west leading towards Fort Benton. Rowley started to examine the route again, or else it was pointed out to him, that it might be better if they stayed on the east side of the river, and crossed in the Clark’s Fork valley area, just north of the rim bluffs bordering both sides of the river (Belle Butte – Sacrifice Cliff). The roadbed appeared to be equally flat from previous detailed surveys, but in doing so he realized that it would give him an opportunity to establish a town and freighting center of significant size at the river where there were two adjoining odd-numbered sections of land that centered about the recently completed Montana Prime Survey Meridian. What happened next is partially conjectured, but mostly fact. Henry examined the land soon after joining the railroad, finding that he could indeed place a town there. This would be a major undertaking, and it would be necessary to keep the concept and location secret until he was ready to make the announcement. He presented his plan to the railroad’s financial eastern bankers, and it was probably the best news they had received ever since construction began. It looked like a sure winner. To make this work three things would be required: 1) The land plat or its counterpart would be created in secrecy at Miles City, and presented to the banks soon as possible, probably in late 1880, and they would remain silent about the transaction. 2) A director would be needed to manage the creation of the town, sell lots, advertise and otherwise manage the whole activity. For this, Rowley would step down as Chief Engineer and take over the operation at the appropriate time. Thus was formed the Minnesota and Montana Land and Development Company, established in Minnesota.  3) Financial backing for the town creation would be needed, and additional land had to be acquired in secrecy so that its ultimate purpose of providing potential financial growth to his companions would go undetected. To accomplish this Rowley apparently solicited Frederick Billings as the major financial backer, Austin North and close friend Fred H. Foster to acquire additional land to be made available for town expansion. Fred Foster, being young and without resources, solicited his parents, Robert & Lucinda (creators of Foster’s Addition) to bankroll the activity. Their trade of real estate and transfer of property rights were uniquely accomplished before construction started. There are no written documents describing the actual insider’s activity effort, but the facts disclosed in property title transfers of both North and Foster confirm the action. The land acquisitions simply could not have been a random chance of good luck. When the Billings’ land area officially went on sale, many persons who were first in line expecting to receive choice lots felt cheated when they discovered that these were already sold to eastern investors and others. Before 1881 had ended, many of the town’s lots were already sold or committed, and the residents of Coulson who were hoping to make an investment harvest were never really in the financial loop, and that town subsequently vanished. The first land plat for the city was created in Miles City’s NPR offices, and publicly filed in Minnesota. Frederick Billings graciously offered to accept the naming of the town after him.  Austin and Robert helped secure the open land to the west before the general public was made aware of the town’s identity and the revised route of the rail track. [Details of some transactions are noted in the Foster and North bios files.]

On May 8, 1883 he married his schoolmate, Harriet Maria Meeker, in Billings. Harriet’s parents were: Lewis Meeker (NY), and Marion Welsh (NY). Harriet was born September 26, 1860 in Fort Ann, NY, and died in Billings June 26, 1943. One of the major undertakings was to construct sufficient water supply to the town and local area. This was known as the Big Ditch. In 1885 he organized the Billings Water Power Company, and conducted the initial work to construct the improved water works and electric plant centered in the former town of Coulson. He was the electric plant manager until its sale in 1908. In 1915 the waterworks were sold to the city. To start the electric system he initially procured a large crane with a shovel and dug a canal leading from the Yellowstone River northward for about two miles to the plant’s location on Perry McAdow’s land (Josephine Park area). The canal’s headrace was 70 feet wide and 15 feet deep (depicted on the 1903 Billings’ City map). At the end of the race way he had a pond, and placed a large float about 30 feet square onto it, and placed a coal-fired steam engine there to run a dynamo turbine to produce electricity. Soon afterwards he merged his interests with AL Babcock and Herman Mund and constructed a brick pump house on the site. In this new housing structure he placed the equipment needed to produce both water and electricity for the city. All trenches for the various ditches had to be dug by hand[4][2].


 He was also a promoter and organizer of the Billings Land and Irrigation Company. He held interests in the Northern Hotel, Mercantile National Bank, and other interests in both Montana and Seattle. He held large parcels of land within the area, and was associated with the development of the Sugar Factory, Chamber of Commerce, the Street Car Company, Civic Club, and Country Club. He was a major influence in getting important civic projects accomplished.

[5][1] Perry McAdow filed on March 8, 1877.

[6][2] Along the Zimmerman Trail, 1977 by Charles Zimmerman


Billings Water Power Company     

From 1882 – c1885 residents had water delivered from the Yellowstone River by a water cart or barrels, sometimes they complained about the fish that were in their drinking water. Construction of the first Water-Power Plant was completed in 1886 (the ditch headwaters was in SE Sec 2S-Rn26E). Rowley managed the plant until 1909 when Yegen Construction Company built a new facility on he former Coulson site.


MMLIC Land Acquisition Actions


1883, March 20 Warranty Deed & Release for Land that Created City of Billings from NPR & Central Trust Company to the Company from Range 26E. All of Section 3, T1S and all of Section 33, T1N [1,102.25 acres] less a 400-foot wide strip of easement for the NPR railway & telegraph was sold to MMLIC for $40,000. This was in accordance with the original intent to construct a town on the premises as identified in a January 1, 1881 filing with the Secretary of the Interior in Washington DC[1].

[1] Recorded in Volume A, page 4, Filed May 17, 1883, Commissioner of Deeds for Montana Territory, NY


NPR Forest Land Sales (Recap)

NPR established four of the largest lumber mills in the nation through sales of some of their timbered land in the northwest; all with no restrictions for foreign sales or logging permits.  In 1923 the Grant Land sales reach $100,000,000. The current sale of timber is approximately $2 Billion annually.


§1887… ST Paul & Tacoma Lumber Co (Hill & Weyerhaeuser)  - 80,000 acres in WA

§1890 … Weyerhaeuser 212,722 acres in MN

§1899 … Weyerhaeuser 900,000 acres in WA

§1907 …Anaconda Copper 1,000,000 acres in MT; sold 670,000 acres to Champion which were resold to Plum Creek in 1993.


NPR 1883 Completed Route in Montana


After the rail was completed, four section maps were created that depicted the actual route & the deeded land grant townships containing odd-sections of land owned by them: Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, and Washington. These were released much later, but are the only ones depicting the final details. (Map pictured is ct001237.jp2, published 1890). (ND is rr002760.sid, 1892 & 3131001.sid 1895), (OR-WA 5392001.sid, 1888). MN N/A.


NPR 1883 Final Meridian-Guide Allotments (Billings Area Land)


The bulk of the corridor land is located north of the river. Each square represents a township of land, 36-sections, 18 of which belong to NPR. For the land grant areas, NPR created a series of plat maps depicting the ownerships of settlers. They resemble the GLO maps in style, held in the BLM files at Billings. These maps are virtually non-existent today, with only one of the local area north of the rims having been located. The shaded area extends about 55-60 miles north of the track.


Creation of Lumber Giants


The three largest corporations have over-lapping board of directorships. That provides for strong control over the production of wood products and the harvesting of longs. Primarily these firms remove all vegetation from their allotted sections (clear-cutting).

Your Typical Log Shipments


Logs waiting for shipment to the far east.

[Thanks for Watching]





Cleve Kimmel – ([email protected])

Original Release Date: January 1, 2010.

Referenced documents that contain current copy rights cannot be copied and submitted in their entirety – only granted excerpts. No file that is downloaded to a recipient can be utilized in multiple-mailing lists; or for a fee or profit. Files downloaded are for the expressed usage by the recipient in pursuit of historical information or genealogical background.


[1] Fifteen Thousand Miles by Stage, Strahorn, Volume 2, 1911

[2] Partner of Robert Foster





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Katy Hestand
Yellowstone County Coordinator

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