History of St. Charles County, Missouri
Early Indian Troubles. -- Outrages During the War of 1812 -- Forts Built by the Settlers -- The "Rangers" Organized -- The Expedition to Prairie Du Chien -- Capt. James Callaway -- His Company of Rangers -- His Expedition to Rock Island -- His Subsequent Pursuit of a Band of Indian Raiders in the Vicinity of Loutre Island -- His Ambuscade and Tragic Death -- His Burial Place.
The Black Hawk War -- The Primary Cause of the Trouble -- Keokuk Made Chief of the Sacs and Foxes -- Two Parties Among the Sacs and Foxes -- Black Hawk's Removal Across the Mississippi -- His Dissatisfaction and Return, and Outbreak of the Black Hawk War -- His Defeat of Maj. Stillman and Col. Posey -- His Overthrow at the Battle of Bad Ax -- Gen. Richard Gentry -- His Expedition to Ft. Pike and Return -- Capt. Nathan Boone's Company of Rangers and Whom They Were -- Present Survivors -- Hardships and Privations -- Return of the Rangers to Ft. Gibson and Their Discharge.
The Florida War.. -- Whom the Volunteers now Remembered Were -- The Cause of the War -- Gov. Boggs' Call for Volunteers -- A Regiment formed, Commanded by Col. Richard Gentry -- Knott's Volunteers Consolidated with Capt. Jackson's Company -- Gentry's Regiment Ordered to New Orleans, thence to Tampa Bay, Florida -- The Battle of Okeechobee and Vanquishment -- Col. Gentry Dies on the Field, Bravely Leading His Men, Just as the Battle is Won -- The Return of the Missourians and the Interment of the Remains of Col. Gentry at St. Louis with Military Honors -- Col. Taylor's Jealousy and Criticism of the Brave Missourians -- The Missourians Vindicated by an Investigation.
The Slicker Troubles. -- Slickers and Anti-Slickers -- Origins of the Slickers -- Rise of the Anti-Slickers -- Divers Whippings, Murders, Depredations and Criminal Trials.
The Mexican War. -- Plan of Operations of the Americans -- The Missourians under Col. Doniphan -- Capt. McCausland's Company of Volunteers from this County and Whom they Were -- The Oregon Battalion Organized -- Dr. Ludwell E. Powell of this County Elected Colonel -- Threatened Outbreak of the Indians on the Upper Missouri -- The March to Old Ft. Kentucky -- Expedition against the Sioux to Ft. Vermillion -- New Ft. Kearney Built and Garrisoned -- Close of the Mexican War.
The Civil War. -- Attributed to the Slavery Agitation -- Election of Mr. Lincoln -- The Secession of the Southern States -- Ft. Sumpter Fired Upon -- Gov. Jackson's Call for State Militia and Companies of the State Guard Organized -- Under President Lincoln's Call Union Volunteers are Enlisted -- The Capture of Camp Jackson -- Condition of Affairs in St. Charles County -- Capt. Richard Overall Organizes an Artillery Company Under Gov. Jackson's Call -- Prompt Organization of German Companies of Union Home Guards -- Anti-Slavery Views of the Germans and Their Unanimity for the Union Cause -- Judge Krekel the Leader of the Union Element in this County -- Twelve Companies of Home Guards Organized -- Judge Krekel Elected Colonel of the Regiment -- The United States Reserve Corps for Home Service Formed of Home Guard Volunteers -- This and the Home Guards, with other Volunteers, Afterwards Merged into a Regiment of Missouri State Militia and a Regiment of Enrolled Militia -- Other Companies of Union Volunteers Enrolled in the County -- Total Number of Union Volunteers from the County -- Dr. Johnson's Company -- A Fight at Mt. Zion, in Boone County -- His Capture -- Other Southern Volunteers from the County -- The Restoration of Peace
pages 148 - 185
Although there was never a great Indian war in Missouri, there were frequent Indian outbreaks in the early settlement of the State, and many revolting outrages were committed. As the first white settlements north of the river were made in St. Charles county, this county was the scene of some of the first Indian outrages in North Missouri.
Prior to the transfer of the country to the United States, we have little or no information of the condition of affairs between the Indians and the French and Spanish settlers. Their relations, however, were nominally friendly, as the relations afterwards were between the Americans and Indians, and until about the time of the outbreak of the War of 1812. There was a large number of Indians in the country, representatives of different tribes, and although they were on terms of nominal peace with the whites, with characteristic Indian perfidy they were guilty of a number of outrages -- murders, and robberies and other depredations.
Between the years 1805 and 1808 no less than ten white settlers of the county were murdered. They were: Joseph Price, M. Lewis, Malachi Baldridge, Abraham Keithley, James Callaway, Hutchins McDearmon, ____ McMillan, ____ Gilmore, ____ Duff, and a colonist at Portage des Sioux, whose name is not recalled. Price, Lewis and Baldridge were killed while on a bear hunt. They, with George and Michael Price, had gone up the river as far as Callaway county, and in the vicinity of Nine Mile Prairie had killed a bear which they were skinning when they were fired upon. Joseph Price was killed instantly and Lewis was mortally wounded. George and Michael Price and Baldridge, the latter of whom was slightly wounded, fled. After running some miles, believing they were out of the reach of the Indians, they stopped at a small stream to get a drink of water. But to provide against danger, Baldridge stood guard while the other two went down the stream a short distance to drink, and after their return they stood guard for Baldridge. He was fired upon and killed while drinking, and his body was never recovered. His companions fled for their lives and reached home in safety.
From this time the condition of affairs continued to grow worse, and resulted finally in open hostilities, about the time of the outbreak of the War of 1812. In anticipation of trouble between Great Britain and the United States, the authorities of the latter and of Missouri and Illinois made frequent efforts to conciliate the Indians and to induce them to at least take a position of neutrality in the approaching war. With that object in view, early in May, 1812, a grand convocation of Indian chiefs was called to meet at St. Louis, and thence to send representatives to Washington for the purpose of concluding a definite and permanent peace. At this meeting the Little Osages, the Sacs, the Foxes, the Shawnees and the Delawares were represented. But there had been trouble between the Indian tribes themselves, and they were not disposed to act in harmony with each other. However, the chiefs of several of the above nations accompanied Gen. Clark to Washington City, where a sort of peace was patched up, but it amounted to but very little. The Sacs and Foxes refused to come to any terms at all.
Meanwhile Tecumseh, one of the ablest chiefs between the Ohio and the Mississippi, had for several years been carrying on a desperate war against the American settlers in the Wabash region. He was easily influenced to identify himself with the British. Enlisting himself in their service, together with a large following of warriors from different tribes, he not only became a formidable enemy as a fighter, but exerted himself with great address and success to the work of uniting the tribes further west, including those of the Mississippi and Missouri river regions, against the Americans. They it was, he argued, who had driven the Indians from their homes and hunting grounds on this side of the lakes, and not the British; that the British had promised him not to molest his race south of the lakes; and that if the Americans succeeded, the Indians would be driven out, and on across the plains to the shores of the Pacific sea. The Sacs and Foxes, who combined, constituted one of the strongest forces of warriors in the Mississippi and Missouri river country, as once made common cause with him and the British against the Americans. Large numbers of warriors from other tribes, and, indeed, several whole tribes combined with the Sacs and Foxes under the leadership of Black Hawk. His base of operations was on the Upper Mississippi near the mouth of Rock river, in Illinois. From there bands of warriors were sent out against the Americans, both south and east.
The settlers of Missouri, principally in St. Louis and St. Charles counties, appreciating the danger of their situation, lost no time in preparing themselves for the protection of their homes. Gov. Howard resigned his office and took the field against the Indians and co-operated with Gov. Edwards of Illinois in guarding the Mississippi and protecting the left flank of Gen. Harrison on the lakes. St. Louis organized a force of 500 mounted rangers, and established a cordon of block houses on the Mississippi from the Kaskaskia to the mouth of the Illinois. In St. Charles county a number of forts were built, and from time to time several companies of rangers were formed for defensive and offensive operations. The principal forts erected here were Daniel M. Boone's fort, in Darst's Bottom, which was the largest and strongest one in the county; Howell's fort, on Howell's Prairie; Pond's fort, on the Dardenne Prairie, a short distance south-east of the present town of Wentzville; White's fort, on Dog Prairie; Kountz' fort, on the Boone's Lick road, eight miles west of St. Charles; Zumwalt's fort, near the present town of O'Fallon; and Castlio's fort, near Howell's Prairie. Kennedy's fort was located in the same vicinity, but across in Warren county, near Wright City; and Callaway's fort was near Marthasville, at the French village of Charette.
The first year or two of the war, so far as this county was concerned, produced nothing of general importance. True, there were a number of murders and depredations committed by straggling Indians, but aside from these the people were unmolested. Offensive operations, however, were begun early in 1814. A garrison was established at Prairie du Chien, up the Mississippi, in Crawford county, Wis., in order to prevent Indian raids down in the settlements along the river below. But most of the men composing the garrison there were enlisted for only sixty days, and when their time expired they returned home, leaving only a small force of about 100 men to guard the fort.
As this point was too important to be abandoned, and it being threatened by the British and Indians, it was decided to send re-enforcements to the garrison in which, by the way, there were a number of volunteers from St. Charles county. Accordingly, Lieut. Campbell was dispatched with 42 regulars and 65 rangers in three keel-boats, accompanied by a fourth boat belonging to the sutler and contractor which was loaded with provisions and clothing for the garrison. The rangers were commanded by Lieuts. Rector and Riggs. The fleet preceded without accident or incident worthy of mention until it entered the rapids, near the mouth of Rock river, about 200 miles from its destination, when it was visited by a large number of Sacs and Foxes, who pretended to be peaceably inclined. The officers, deceived by the friendly overtures of the Indians were thus led, unsuspectingly, into the catastrophe which followed.
The boat belonging to the sutler and contractor had arrived near the head of the rapids, and was proceeding on its course, having on board, besides provisions and clothing, a large store of ammunition for the garrison and the usual sergeant's guard. The boats of the rangers followed next and then came the boat of Lieut. Campbell with the regulars.
On account of a high wind, Lieut. Campbell's boat became unmanageable and finally grounded within a few yards of a high bank, which was covered with a thick growth of grass and willows. Seeing that it was useless to attempt to make headway while the wind continued high, he decided to remain were he was until it abated. Sentinels were sent to shore and stationed at proper intervals, whilst several of the men began to prepare breakfast. In a few moments they were startled by the report of guns, and at the first fire all the sentinels were killed. The rest of the men on shore started for the boat where their guns were, but before they could reach it 15 of the 30 were killed or wounded. In a few minutes, from 500 to 700 warriors were among the willows on the bank and within a few yards of the boat. With load yells and whoops they commenced a tremendous fire. The men on the boat, undaunted by the loss of their companions, the overpowering number of their foe, and the suddenness of the attack, cheered lustily and returned fire from their rifles and a small swivel, which they had on board. At this juncture Lieuts. Rector and Riggs, seeing the smoke and judging that an attack had been made, pulled down the streams as rapidly as possible to the relief of their comrades. Riggs' boat ran aground about a hundred yards below Campbell's, and Rector, to avoid a similar misfortune and save himself from raking fire, anchored above. A brisk fire from both boats was immediately opened upon the Indians, but as the latter were under cover, but little execution was done.
The unequal contest lasted for more than an hour, when Campbell's boat was discovered to be on fire, and in order to save the men, Rector, cutting his cable, pulled down along the side of the burning boat and took the men on board. A retreat was then ordered and the boats fell away from the shore to a safe distance. The Americans lost 12 killed, and between 20 and 30 wounded. The expedition was abandoned, and about the time the garrison at Prairie du Chien surrendered to the British.
The Indians were under the command of Black Hawk, and the following is his account of the affair: --
"Sometime afterwards [after his return from the expedition North] five or six boats arrived, loaded with soldiers going to Prairie du Chien to re-enforce the garrison. They appeared friendly, and were well received. We held a council with the war chief. We had no intention of hurting him, or any of his party, or we could easily have defeated them. They remained with us all day, and gave us plenty of whisky. During the night a party arrived and brought us six kegs of powder. They told us that the British had gone to Prairie du Chien and taken the fort, and wished us to join them again in the war, which we agreed to. I collected my warriors, and determined to pursue the boats, which has sailed with a fair wind. If we had known the day before, we could easily have taken them all, as the war chief used no precautions to prevent it. I immediately started in pursuit by land with my party, thinking that some of their boats might get aground, or that the Great Spirit might put them in our power, if He wished them taken and their people killed.
"About half-way up the rapids I had a full view of the boats, all sailing with a strong wind. I soon discovered that one boat was badly managed, and was suffered to be driven ashore by the wind. They landed by running hard aground, and lowered their sail. The others passed on. This boat the Great Spirit gave us. We approached it cautiously, and fired upon the men on shore. All that could, hurried aboard, but they were unable to push off, being fast aground. We advanced to the river's bank, under cover, and commenced firing at the boat. Our balls passed through the plank and did execution, as I could hear them screaming in the boat. I encouraged my braves to continue firing. Several guns were fired from the boat without effect. I prepared my bow and arrows to throw fire into the sail, which was lying on the boat, and after two or three attempts, succeeded in setting the sail on fire. The boat was soon in flames.
"About this time one of the boats that had passed returned, and dropping anchor, swung in close to the boat on fire and took off all the people, except those killed and badly wounded. We could distincly see them passing from one boat to the other, and fired on them with good aim. We wounded the war chief in this way. Another boat now came down, dropped her anchor, which did not take hold, and was drifted ashore. The other boat cut her cable and drifted down the river, leaving their comrades without attempting to assist them. We then commenced and attack upon the boat, and fired several rounds. They did not return fire. We thought they were afraid, or had but a small number on board. I therefore ordered a rush to the boat. When we got near they fired and killed two of our men, these being all we lost in the engagement. Some of their men jumped out and pushed off the boat, thus getting away without losing a man. I had a good opinion of their war chief who managed so much better than the others. It would give me pleasure to shake him by the hand. We now put out the fire on the captured boat to save the cargo, when a skiff was discovered coming down the river. Some of our people cried out, 'Here come an express from Prairie du Chien!' We hoisted the British flag, but they would not land. They turned their boat around and road up the river. We directed a few shots at them in order to bring them to, but they were so far off that we could not hurt them."
An interesting incident of the relief expedition to Prairie du Chien is related in the account of it, handed down by William Keithley, one of the pioneers of the county, and a member of the expedition. They reached Rock river on the 12th of June, 1814, as stated in his account, and the next day met a party of Indians, under Black Hawk, who pretended to be friendly and proposed a treaty. While the terms of the treaty were being discussed, and all, apparently, was progressing smoothly, the Indians challenged the whites for a foot race. The latter, desiring to manifest the utmost spirit of good humor and sociability, accepted the challenge, and on both sides wagers were put up, consisting principally of articles of wearing apparell and blankets. The whites selected for their champion a little man named Peter Harpool, who was so small that the Indians laughed at him and thought they would have an easy victory. But he was remarkably fleet of foot, and when the race came off he beat the Indian matched against him by all odds. There were greatly surprised at this, and not a little chagrined. Gathering around Harpool, they pointed at him in astonishment, and talked excitedly in their native tongue, accompanying their remarks with gestures and signs which indicated anything but kindness and friendship. Early the next morning the attack was made on the whites, and Harpool was one of the first killed. It is believed their defeat in the race of the day before contributed much to influence them for the murderous work resolved upon by Black Hawk.
Lieut. Riggs, who, with Lieut. Rector, had command of the rangers of the expedition, had previously served under Capt. James Callaway, of this county, who organized the first company of rangers in the county after the outbreak of the War of 1812, or the Indian war, as it was known here. Lieut. Riggs was also with Capt. Callaway at the time of the latter's death in the unfortunate Indian ambuscade on Loutre creek, an account of which is given below. Capt. Callaway's first company was organized in 1813, and though made up principally of volunteers from St. Charles county, it contained several from neighboring settlements in Lincoln and Warren. The following names are found on its muster rolls, which are still preserved: Captain, James Callaway; first lieutenant, Prospect K. Robbins; second lieutenant, John B. Stone; first sergeant, Wm. Smith; cornet, Jonathan Riggs; trumpeter, Thos. Powell. Privates -- Frank McDermid, John Stewart, John Atkinson, Robert Truitt, Francis Howell, Joseph Hinds, Richard Baldridge, Lewis Crow, Benjamin Howell, Anthony C. Palmer, Daniel Hays, Boone Hays, Adams Zumwalt, Jr., John Howell and James Kerr. It was this company, or a part of it, together with other volunteer rangers, who wsa with Lieut. Riggs in the affair at the rapids above Rock river, the term of the enlistment of the men under Callaway having expired a short time before.
After the return of the relief expedition, Capt. Callaway immediately organized another company and marched against the British and Indians at Rock Island. This company was composed of the following volunteers: Captain, James Callaway; first lieutenant, David Bailey; second lieutenant, Jonathan Riggs. Privates -- James McMullin, Hiram Scott, Frank McDermid, William Keithley, Thomas Bowman, Robert Baldridge, James Kennedy, Thomas Chambers, Jacob Groom, Parker Hutchings, ____ Wolf, Thomas Gilmore, John Baldridge, Joshua Deason, James Murdock, William Kent and John E. Berry. On reaching Rock Island, they found a greatly superior force of the enemy entrenched there, but Capt. Callaway, nevertheless, ordered an attack, which was made with great gallantry and impetuosity. The British and Indians outnumbered the rangers ten to one, but a spirited fight was kept up for nearly an hour, when, at last, being at every disadvantage, and after the loss of a number of men, the gallant assailants were compelled to retire, seeing that it was a physical impossibility to carry the works of the enemy. They fell back to Cap-au-Gris, and shortly afterwards returned home.
Some time after the fight at Rock Island a party of Indians pushed down into the settlements of Missouri along the Loutre. Early on the morning of the 7th of March, 1815, Capt. Callaway, with Lieut. Riggs and 14 men -- McMullen, Scott, McDermid, Robert and John Baldridge, Hutchings, Kennedy, Chambers, Wolf, Gilmore, Deason, Murdock, Kent and Berry -- left Fort Clemson, on Loutre island, in pursuit of the Indians, who had been committing numerous depredations in the vicinity. They swam the Loutre on their horses and followed the Indian trail, which led them up the west bank of the river. Reaching Prairie fork, a branch of the Loutre, they also swam it, some 75 yards above its mouth; and from this on they advanced with great caution, as they felt certain that they were only a short distance in the rear of the Indians and might possibly be ambuscaded. At about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, when some 12 miles from where they had crossed Prairie fork, they came upon some stolen horses secreted in a bend of Loutre creek and guarded by only a few squaws. The squaws fled on the approach of the rangers and the latter secured the horses. Proceeding further in their pursuit, no other Indians were overtaken, although the trail showed that there were between 75 and 100 in the party. At last, failing to overtake the Indians, or rather losing the trail altogether, for it disapppeared as if the party had scattered, Capt. Callaway decided to return.
Lieut. Riggs, who was an old Indian fighter and a man of great caution and good judgment, as well as dauntless courage, had his suspicions aroused by the disappearance of the trail of the Indians, and told Capt. Callaway that he believed they had scattered to throw their pursuers off the track and to form an ambuscade for the rangers on the return of the latter home. But Capt. Callaway believed that the Indians had left the settlements and that no more of them would be seen. He accordingly dismissed the well grounded suspicions of Lieut. Riggs and proceeded with his men back by the same route they had come. A short time before reaching Prairie fork they stopped to let their horses rest and to refresh themselves with a lunch. Riggs anticipated an attack, if the Indians were in the vicinity at all, at the crossing of Prairie fork, which was peculiarly favorable for an ambuscade; and he expostulated with Capt. Callaway not to think of crossing the creek at that point, for he was satisfied the Indians would be found in ambush there. His suspicions, however, were again dismissed by Capt. Callaway, and soon all were on the march home. Hutchings and McDermid were in advance and were leading the horses recovered from the Indians, whilst Callaway, Riggs and the rest of the company were some 50 yards behind. On reaching the creek the three in advance plunged into the water with their horses, and were swimming across when a volley of deadly shots rang out and all three fell dead from their saddles on the opposite shore.
Hearing the firing in advance, Callaway and his men dashed bravely forward to the assistance of their comrades, but they in turn also received a raking fire. Capt. Callaway's horse was instantly killed and he received a slight wound in the left arm, barely escaping death by the ball striking his watch in his left breast pocket which was completely shattered. He sprang from his horse and gained the opposite bank, but as a perfect storm of balls was falling around him he plunged into the water again as the best protection from their deadly effect. He was swimming rapidly down the creek when a ball struck him in the head from the rear, which passed through and lodged in his fore head. He sank immediately, but his body was afterwards taken out and mutilated by the Indians, and his scalp taken.
In the meantime Lieut. Riggs and the rest of the men were hotly engaged and were forced to retreat, fighting as they fell back. Scott and Wolf became separated from their comrades, and the former was killed. Wolf escaped to the fort and was the first to bring the news of the disaster. Riggs and the others fell back about a mile, and, turning to the right, crossed Prairie fork about the same distance above its mouth, making a wide circuit thence for the fort, which they succeeded in reaching without further molestation. The following day the company returned to the scene of the massacre for the purpose of burying the dead. The bodies of Hutchings, McDermid and McMullin had been cut to pieces and hung on surrounding bushes. The remains were gathered up and buried in one grave, near the spot where the unfortunate men were killed. Capt. Callaway's body was not found until several days afterwards. It was taken and wrapped in blankets and buried on the side of an abrupt hill overlooking Loutre creek. Several months afterwards the grave was walled in with rough stones and a flat slab was laid across the head on which was engraved: "Capt. James Callaway, March 7, 1815." Thus ended the so-called Indian war, as far as the people of St. Charles county were interested in it, and a most unfortunate ending it was.
Capt. Callaway was a man of great bravery and a leader whom the sturdy, resolute pioneers of that day delighted to follow. He knew no such feeling as fear, and his disregard of danger was so great that it amounted to a fault. Like many brave men, he was not as cautious and cool-headed as ought to have been for a safe and successful officer. Whatever courage would do he would accomplish, and where fighting was to be done face to face and hand to hand, he was without a superior. The Indians knew him and feared him above all others; and if with his splendid courage he had united reasonable caution and a discriminating, calculating judgment, he would have been a leader worthy a place among the first Indian fighters of the country. Even as it was he performed services of inestimable value to the early settlers; and such was the confidence reposed in him by them that they were ready to follow him in preference to all others, wherever he saw fit to lead, and such the fear his name inspired among the Indians thta this alone prevented many raids upon the settlements which would have otherwise been made. They knew that when they came within reach of him they must fight to the death or fly the country without ceremony.
Lieut. Riggs was a man of cooler judgment than Capt. Callaway and not less courageous. But the fact that he often advised caution when an attack was to be made or resisted, prevented him from receiving the credit for the dauntless bravery he invariably showed. Nevertheless, he had the confidence of all, and stood only second to Capt. Callaway in the admiration of their men. Whilst Capt. Callaway was, perhaps, better suited to command where desperate fighting was to be done and regardless of consequences, Lieut. Riggs was unquestionably his superior as a general officer -- to plan movements, calculate results and conduct successful operations. He afterwards became a prominent citizen of Lincoln county and served as judge of the county court and in the office of sheriff for a number of years. In the Black Hawk War he rose to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, and afterwards held a similar command in the State militia.
Before passing from the events of these early Indian troubles, it should be noticed that the volunteers mentioned in the two companies of Capt. Callaway were by no means all in the county who did valuable service in the defense of the settlements. Capt. Callaway, himself, from time to time, had other companies, and Capt. Nathan Boone had a company which bore an honorable part in the Indian troubles of the times. Volunteers from this county also served in companies in other counties, including the companies of Capts. Craig and Musik. Several St. Charles volunteers were of the party that pursued and defeated the Indians who murdered the Ramsey family, the day after the massacre occurred. That, however, and similar events in other counties, belong more properly to the histories of those counties.
What is known as the Black Hawk War grew out, primarily, of a factional fight for the chiefship among the united Sacs and Fox Indians, between Black Hawk and Keokuk. During the War of 1812, or rather during the Indian troubles on the Upper Mississippi and Lower Missouri between 1811 and 1815, Black Hawk had unquestionably been recognized as the war chief of the combined tribes; and he also had under his command a large following of Winnebagoes and volunteers from other tribes. Early identifying himself with the British, in 1812, he went to join their forces at Green Bay with a large number of warriors. While absent on this expedition, his people, fearing an attack from the Americans, held a council and chose Keokuk to act as chief in their defense. On Black Hawk's return he found Keokuk installed as chief of his people, and that the latter had so ingratiated himself with them, that he had a strong following. Black Hawk, however, continued to act as principal war chief, and matters moved along thus until the close of the War of 1812.
In July, 1815, the war having closed, the Indians of the different tribes which had been in hostility to the Americans, were invited to assemble in council at Portage des Sioux, in St. Charles county, to treat for peace. The commissioners on the part of the United States were Gov. Clark, of Missouri, Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, and Auguste Chouteau, of St. Louis, Robert Walsh, of Baltimore, being secretary of the commission. Treaties were made between the Pottawatamies, Piankeshaws, Sioux, Omahas, Kickapoos, Osages, Iowas, Kansas, and the party of the Sacs and Foxes recognized Keokuk as chief. But the Black Hawk party refused to attend the council or to be governed by the treaty which Keokuk had signed. They claimed that he had always been the secret friend of the Americans. By this treaty Keokuk ceded, or confirmed a former cession of an immense territory on both sides of the Mississippi north of the Missouri and Illinois rivers. This grant Black Hawk claimed was a fraud and had never been made by any proper authority on the part of the Indians. The territory so ceded included the home of the Sacs and Foxes, east of the Mississippi, above Rock river. The Indians, however, continued to reside there unmolested until 1823, when, as white settlers began to pour in and trouble became imminent, Keokuk with his party, on the advice of the Indian agent at Fort Armstrong, withdrew to the western side of the Mississippi, where he received a present of forty square miles of land. Black Hawk and his followers refused to abandon their hunting grounds, but declared they would remain and defend their homes against all comers. As they refused to recognize the treaty, or the authority of the Americans, they were regarded as enemies of the white settlers and became known as the "British band" throughout all the settlements. Of course collisions between the Indians and whites became almost every day occurrences, and much bad feeling was engendered. Stock was driven off, fields destroyed, houses burned, women and children terrified and abused, and practically a state of war inaugurated. At last the government sold the land on which Black Hawk's village was situated and he was ordered to leave.
Black Hawk put forth every exertion in his power to secure allies for the defense of his home among the other neighboring Indian tribes, and especially to win over the Keokuk party to his cause, but all was without avail. The majority of Keokuk's men sympathized with Black Hawk, and were anxious to be led on the war path by him, but through the influence of Keokuk were restrained from doing so by the assurance that if they went to war again with the Americans, they would lose even the homes they had on the western side of the river. Thus left to rely only on the few hundred braves he had in his own party, Black Hawk, on the approach of the Illinois militia and some regulars, retired across the river and consented to recognize Keokuk as sole chief. But he and his band were greatly dissatisfied and frequently his warriors crossed the river "to steal roasting-ears out of their own corn fields," as he put it. Finally, in April, 1832, Black Hawk and his whole band formally crossed the river "to settle down," as they said, "and plant corn and live in peace." He was a second time ordered out, but refused to go, and the "Black Hawk War" was inaugurated.
Gov. Reynolds, of Illinois, ordered out the militia of that State and a fight occurred at Stillman's Run, so-called from the fact that at the first fire the militia, under Maj. Stillman, numbering nearly 300, or two to one more than the Indians, fled precipitately. This and subsequent successes brought Black Hawk a large number of volunteers from Keokuk's band and the Winnebagoes, and a sharp and spirited struggle followed. Black Hawk attacked the fort at Buffalo Grove, but retired without reducing it. On his retreat, however, he met a detachment of volunteers under Col. Posey, whom he defeated. On the Wisconsin 40 Indians were killed and about 300 more at Bad Axe.
Meanwhile the proximity of these hostilities to the Missouri frontier cause Gov. Miller to adopt precautionary measures to avert the calamaties of an invasion which seemed imminent. In May, 1832, he ordered Maj.-Gen. Richard Gentry to enlist a thousand volunteers without delay. Gen. Gentry issued orders to Brig.-Gen. James Miens, commanding the Seventh brigade, Jonathan Riggs, commanding the Eighth, Jesse T. Wood, commanding the Ninth, all of the Third Missouri division, to furnish the required quota. Accordingly, companies were formed in Boone, Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Ralls, Clay and Monroe counties. The company organized in this county was not formed, however, as early as those organized in some of the other counties, nor in time to take part in the expedition to Ft. Pike. That expedition was made by a detachment composed of the companies of Capt. John Jamison, of Callaway county, and Capt. David N. Hickman, of Boone county, under Maj. Thomas W. Conyers, accompanied by Gen. Gentry in person.
They proceeded at once tot he northern frontier of the State, arriving at Palmyra July 10, and at Ft. Pike, ten miles from the mouth of the Des Moines river, five days later. Finding no Indians on the war path there, Gen. Gentry shortly returned to Columbia, but left Maj. Conyers in command of the two companies garrisoned at Ft. Pike. About a month after this the companies of Capt's. Jamison and Hickman were relieved by those of Capts. Kirtly, of Boone county, and Ewing, of Callaway county, Maj. Conyers still continuing in command of the fort.
In September, following, no Indian troubles occurring in the vicinity of Ft. Pike and there being little danger of an Indian raid in that locality, the detachment was ordered back and honorably mustered out of the service. This, however, was before the actual close of the war, which was not concluded until after the decisive battle at Bad Axe, where Black Hawk was defeated, mainly by Illinois troops, under Gen. Atkinson. Shortly afterwards Black Hawk was captured by a couple of Winnebagoes, who betrayed him and brought him into Gen. Atkinson's camp at Prairie du Chien. The remainder of the old chief's days were spent principally in one of the villages of his tribe and under the chiefship of Keokuk, whom the whites uniformly recognized and treated with as chief.
Meanwhile, a short time prior to the battle of Bad Axe, Capt. Nathan Boone had completed the organization of his company in the county, which was enlisted for twelve months, and known as the St. Charles Mounted Rangers. The company numbered a hundred volunteers besides the officers, but only the names of the following are now remembered by Mr. Lorenzo Cottle, one of the few survivors of the company and who has kindly furnished us these facts: Nathan Boone, captain; James Hamilton, first lieutenant (a West Point graduate); ____ Butler, second lieutenant; George Abby, orderly sergeant; Taylor McCutcheon, E. Overall, John B. Allen, Evan Johnson, Randle Smith, Abraham Roundtree and brother, Noah and Gabriel Zumwalt, Pizaro Howell, David Finch, David Rue, Lorenzo Cottle and Irvin Johnson. The only survivors are Ezra Overall, Irvin Johnson, John B. Allen, Taylor McCutcheon and Lorenzo Cottle.
Capt. Boone received orders to proceed at once to Rock Island, where the main body of the forces of the whites (militia and regulars) were stationed. On the way there he fell in with the company of Capt. Ford of Indiana, consisting of a hundred mounted rangers. When they reached Rock Island Black Hawk had just been defeated at Bad Axe. They remained there, however, for about a month and were reviewed by Gen. Scott. While there the cholera became epidemic among the soldiers and was very fatal.
The outbreak of the Black Hawk War had caused a general rise among the Indians further West and South, particularly of the Commanches, who threatened a raid into the southern frontier settlements. To provide against this a force was sent west, consisting principally of mounted rangers, including Capt. Boone and his company. There were also companies from Indiana and Arkansas. Their first stop was at Ft. Gibson, in the Indian Territory, where they wintered, remaining there five months. In the spring of the following year, 1833, there were ordered still further west, their course being a little south of west, and were given rations for thirty days, it being expected that they would reach a fort on the Upper Red river, about a hundred miles above what was known as the wreck on the river, where troops were stationed and further supplies could be had. After they reached Red river they camped for a time to refresh themselves and rest their horses. There, for the first time, they came upon the Indians, a band of Comanches, who had evidently been following them for some distance for the purpose of getting an opportunity to take them by surprise and exterminate them, as had been done with numerous former expeditions.
One of Capt. Boone's company, Orderly Sergeant Abby, going out of camp for the purpose of hunting, unconscious of the presence of the Indians, was surrounded by them and doubtless murdered, for he was never heard of afterwards. The detachment that went in search of him found where he had been surrounded, as was shown by the grass being beaten down. They had evidently carried him off with them on their retreat. The whole force of the expedition then went in pursuit of the Indians, who fled after they had taken Abby, finding their presence was known to the troops. Their trail was followed a number of days, until finally it was impossible to recover Abby and fearing an ambuscade, for the Indian settlements had been reached, the command now started on their return to Ft. Gibson.
Meanwhile, their rations had given out long prior to this. But, fortunately, they were in a country where buffalo were in abundance, and there was also considerable game, principally turkeys, which were found in the timber of creek bottoms. The prairies were literally covered with herds of buffalo and wild horses. The former were killed in abundance, and buffalo meat was the main reliance of the troops for subsistence. The buffalo, however, were extremely poor, and the meat was such as even the average butcher of these days would not think of offering for sale, tough as his conscience might be. They endured great hardships and privations on the expedition and were out in the wilds of the far West for more than three months, finally reaching Ft. Gibson, almost completely exhausted.
While on this expedition Mr. Cottle narrowly escaped being hopelessly separated from the command and losing his life, either by starvation or by falling into the hands of the Indians. He went out from the command a short distance to hunt, and becoming separated from them further than he expected, lost his "bearing," or the direction to take to reach them. He was not aware of his perilous situation until after he had killed a turkey and had started back to the command. After traveling quite as far as he thought was necessary, he still found no trace of his comrades, and it was impossible to rely on following their trail, for the whole country was checked with tht trails of wild horses, Indian bands, and buffalo. Finally, giving up all hope of reaching them, he directed his course toward Ft. Gibson and expected to make the journey alone, if not prevented by starvation or overtaken by the Indians. Coming down to a creek bottom on the way, he saw a cluster of saddled horses in the brush which he felt almost certain belonged to the Indians. At this sight his heart beat so fast and loud that he was almost afraid it would betray his presence to them. Slipping up stealthily to see, gun in hand, prepared to fight to the death rather than be taken alive, as soon as he got in full view, lo! he found they were his own comrades, and he jumped so with joy that he almost split his boots. It is needless to say that he went on no more hunting excursions while on that expedition, and never afterwards has he had the fondness for hunting he had prior to his experience on the plains.
Soon after the return of the expedition to Ft. Gibson all the Ranger companies were honorably discharged and came home, after an absence of nearly a year.
The Florida War followed a few years after the close after the Indian or Black Hawk War, and some of the same volunteers from St. Charles county, who served in the latter served also in the former. The names of the volunteers from this county, as far as remembered by Mr. Cottle, are the following: William Knott, captain; William Fitch, Joseph Bozart, Joseph Welot, William Cordell, and Lorenzo Cottle.
In 1819 Florida was ceded to the United States by Spain, but possession was not taken by this country until the summer of 1821, when a territorial government was established. The peninsula was mainly inhabited by Seminole Indians, though there were a number of colonists from Spain and France and not a few fugitive slaves from the neighboring States of Alabama and Georgia. Treaties were made with the Seminoles, by which they relinguished their title to the country and grants of land were made to them west of the Mississippi. But when the time came for them to quit Florida a large body of them, most of them in fact, refused to go. In 1835 an attempt was made to remove them to the West, but they resisted and took up arms, rallying under the leadership of their great chief, Osceola, and open war followed. In May, 1836, the Creeks joined the Seminoles and the war spread into Georgia. The Creeks, however, were soon overpowered and removed to the West. The Seminoles were not so easily subdued. When defeated in open battle they invariably took refuge in the swamps and everglades, where it seemed impossible for white troops to follow them. In October, 1837, Osceola was captured by Gen. Jessup, and sent a prisoner to Ft. Moultrie, South Carolina, where he died shortly afterwards. Nevertheless, the war continued for several years, and Missouri was called upon to furnish a quota of men for the service.
In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on Gov. Boggs, of Missouri, for 600 volunteers. The first regiment enlisted under the authority of the proclamation of the Governor was composed principally of volunteers from Boone, Howard, Callaway, St. Charles and one or two other counties. A second regiment was enlisted consisting of four companies, two of which were composed of Delaware and Osage Indians. The second regiment was consolidated with the first, all under the command of Col. Gentry, who, by the way, had commanded the Missouri volunteers in the Black Hawk War.
In October the regiment left for the scene of action, but before departing was presented with a beautiful silk flag at Columbia, by Miss Wales, of the Female College of that place, and her lady friends. This was borne with honor to Missouri by her brave volunteers throughout the war, and Col. Gentry, who fell at the battle of Okeechobee, gallantly leading his men, with almost his last breath gave them the command to stand by their flag. It was brought back in triumph at the close of the war, and presented to Col. Gentry's wife, but the brave leader who carried it to victory fell upon the field where his triump was won.
After leaving Columbia the regiment marched to Jefferson Barracks below St. Louis, and was there regularly mustered into the service. Capt. Knott, from this county, joined the regiment with his company at St. Louis, but it not being a full company he was consolidated with Capt. Jackson's company from further up the river, and Jackson having the larger number of men was made captain. Capt. Knott returned to St. Charles county, but his men remained under Capt. Jackson.
From St. Louis they proceeded to New Orleans by river, and thence by brigs across the gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. Being cavalrymen, their horses were also sent across the bay, but in a separate vessel from the one in which the troops shipped. On the gulf they were overtaken by a storm and their vessels separated, but all ultimately reached their destination in safety, the vessel bearing the horses several days after the men. Finally, taking up the line of march to the interior, they traveled about 135 miles to Okeechobee lake, their route laying almost entirely through swamps, everglades, and small lakes. Their progress was very slow on account of the difficulties they encountered, for they were in water almost continuously, and frequently bayous, sloughs, and so forth, had to be bridged.
In the vicinity of Okeechobee they came upon the whole force of the Seminoles under their most redoubtable leaders, Mycanopee, Alligator, Tiger Tail and Sam Jones. Several Indians were captured before the main body was reached, and from them the troops learned the situation of the Indians. The latter were apprised of the approach of the troops and were prepared for an attack. They had stationed themselves on a somewhat elevated piece of ground which was covered with a growth of cypress, live oak, etc., and was just beyond a long swamp. In making the attack the troops approached the Indians through this swamp, which was partially covered with water from shoe-mouth to hip deep. Only a knoll of ground now and then above the water and covered with grass was perceptible. The troops were dismounted and made the attack on foot, the Missourians, under Col. Gentry, being in front and supported on either flank by the regulars. Through the entire swamp they were under a constant show of balls from the Indians; but undaunted they pushed bravely forward to the attack, reserving their own fire until they could get into a position to make it effective. At first the Indians shot too high, but soon their aim became lower. As the fire of the enemy became lower and lower the troops first fell to their knees and were finally compelled to crawl on their hands and feet through the mud and water. Finally the rendezvous of the Indians was reached and with a yell of triumph and a continuous fire the troops rushed upon them. Col. Gentry leading his men with conspicuous bravery, far in advance and regardless of all thought of danger. The battle was short, sharp and decisive. The Indians were completely routed and the war virtually put to an end. But unfortunately for the brave Missourians, though they had closed one of the most important Indian wars of the country by their gallantry and intrepidity, their heroic commander, the valiant and chivalrous Gentry, who fought in the forefront of the battle as another Henry of Navarre, and won victory where defeat seemed inevitable, fell bleeding on the field mortally wounded. He lived but a short time and his body was carried off the field by his devoted comrades. He lived to hear the shouts of triumph of his gallant men as they planted the silken and victorious banner of Missouri high above the Flowery Peninsula of the South. Col. Gentry died the death of a soldier and hero, and a number of his brave men fell gallantly fighting by his side. A number, too, were wounded. Among the wounded from this county was Mr. Cottle, already referred to as a a member of Jackson's company. Twenty Missourians lost their lives in this engagement and a number of regulars. Col. Gentry's remains, together with those of Capt. Van Swearingen and Lieuts. Brooks and Centre, of the Sixth regular United States Infantry, were brought to Jefferson Barracks and buried, the government erecting above them a suitable monument. The county of Gentry was named in honor of Col. Gentry's memory and the gallant part he took in the Florida War.
Col. Taylor, of the Regular service, in his report of the battle to the War Department, through jealousy of Col. Gentry and prejudice against the Missouri volunteers, as it is believed, criticised rather severely the conduct of the Missourians in the engagement. This called forth an investigation by the Missouri Legislature which revealed the utter groundlessness of Col. Taylor's criticisms. The resolutions adopted by the two houses contained among other just and well merited expressions the following language: That "Col. Gentry fell at the head of his troop in a manner worthy of the commander of Volunteers; and that the conduct of the Volunteer officers and soldiers, generally, was such as ought to have elicited praise and commendation, instead of censure and reproach."
Though hardly worthy of the designation of a war, the Slicker troubles of 1841-45 rose to such importance in the affairs of this county that mention of them could hardly with propriety be omitted. They are therefore referred to in the present connection, as following in chronological order the Florida War.
The Slicker organization originated in Benton county, this State, in about 1841. The name came from the mode of inflicting punishment by the Slickers, which was to tie the culprit to a tree and "slick" or whip him with hickory withes. He was then given notice to leave the country within a stated time. They were organized for the purpose of breaking up a band of horse thieves and counterfeiters who had their headquarters among the hills and fastnesses of Benton county. Similar organizations were formed in various parts of the State and were known by the general name of "Slickers." In some instances bad men and even the very thieves and counterfeiters against whom they were warring, contrived to become members of these societies and through their evil influence and false and malicious representations innocent and unoffending persons were severely and cruelly punished. This led to the organization of the anti-Slicker companies, and in some parts of the State actual war raged between the opposing factions, and many persons were killed, wounded, and maltreated.
During the high water in June, 1844, several small steamers ascended the Cuivre river to Chain of Rocks, in Lincoln county, where there was a small village consisting of several stores, a mill, one or two shops, etc. One of these boats, called the Bee, made several trips between St. Louis and that place, and on one of her trips landed a man at the Chain of Rocks who gave his name as Hall Grammar, and who proved to be a counterfeiter, horse thief, and bad character generally.
The next time the Bee came up she brought a peddler, who landed from the boat and proceeded to the hotel to get his dinner. He left his pack in the office of the hotel and passed into the dining-room, and while engaged in eating his dinner Hal Grammar and his confederates, who at that time were unknown, stole the goods and left. Grammar was captured soon after, but had disposed of the goods, which were never found. He escaped from his captors, and it soon became evident to the citizens that there was a regular organization of thieves and counterfeiters in their county, and that Grammar was doubtless the originator and chief of the band.
The county became flooded with counterfeit money; horses, cattle and hogs were stolen and run out of the country; and the thieves finally became so bold that they butchered beef cattle on the farms of their owners, and shipped the meat to St. Louis in boats prepared for the purpose.
The evil having become unendurable, the citizens organized a company of Slickers for the purpose of ridding themselves of their grievance. Many of the best men of the county joined the organization, and Mr. James Stallard, of Hurricane township, was elected captain. In the company were such men as Ira T. Nelson, Rolla Mayes, Abraham and Joshua King, Rufus Gibson, Mitchell Bosman, John and Malachi Davis, Washington Noel, Lewis G. Martin, Sebran Wallace, Littleton Dryden, William and Benjamin Cooper, William Wilson, Thomas Wallace, James Bedows, Abraham Barkhead, Dr. William Wise, James Day, John Argent, George Smith, John W. McKee, John Dalton, Joseph Wright, James Oliver, James and John Lindsay, Kinchen Robinson, Jacob Boone, Levi Bailey, Jacob Groshong, George Pollard, Elihu Jones, Taylor Crumes, Willis Hutton, Samuel and James Alexander, Andrew Hill, Jacob Conn, John Loving, Charles McIntosh, Charles W. Martin, Lawrence B. Sitten, Tandy K. Nichols, James Blademore, Harrison Anderson, Joseph Woodson, Carroll Sitten, Zoar Perkins, M. Martin, Vincent Shields, and others, among whom, as was afterward ascertained, were several of the counterfeiters and thieves. All of those whose names were given were good, honest, law-abiding citizens, who went into the organization from the best of motives. Only seven of the entire number are now living.
The thieves and counterfeiters were hunted out and tried, and most of them were whipped and ordered to leave the country, which they were glad to do; but a few of the ringleaders were executed.
These vigorous measures soon restored peace and security to the honest people of the county, and the Slickers ought then to have disbanded, but they kept up their organization, and, as usual with such bodies, soon began to punish some that were innocent together with the guilty.
In the spring of 1845 reports came to the Slickers that the sons of Mr. James Trumbull were in sympathy with counterfeiters, and were encouraging and abetting them in their unlawful business. They reports were not true, but were made by malicious and evil minded persons, and led to a serious and deadly affray. The boys were ordered to leave the country, which they positively refused to do. The Slickers therefore determined to enforce their order, and one day about the middle of April, 1845, a party of them went to Trumbull's house for that purpose. They arrived about noon, and found the family, who had expected an attack, armed and barricaded in their house. Mr. Trumbull and his daughter Sarah came out to expostulate with the Slickers and entreat them to go away, declaring that they and their relatives were entirely innocent of the charges made against them. But their appeals were unavailing, and they were told that they must immediately leave the country.
The Slickers at once attacked the house, and John and Malachi Davis endeavored to enter together. The former was wounded on the head by a corn knife in the hands of one of the Trumbull girls, and the latter received two gunshot wounds from one of the boys, named Squire, from the effects of which he died next day. John Davis, though suffering severely from his wound, shot both Squire Trumbull and his brother James, shattering the thigh bone of the former with a rifle ball, from the effects of which he died several weeks later. James Trumbull was shot through the mouth and neck, and fell apparently dead, but finally recovered from his wounds, though he remained paralyzed the rest of his life. He died several years afterward, in Arkansas. Several Slickers were wounded, but not seriously, and they finally withdrew without having accomplished their purpose.
Among the Slickers engaged in this affair was Kinchen Robinson who was a great "blower," and who styled himself the "lamp-lighter of the twelve apostles." When the fight was over he retreated with considerable haste, and just as he sprang over the yard fence one of the Trumbull girls cut the tail off with a corn knife. His acquaintance enjoyed a good deal of fun at his expense after that adventure.
This unfortunate affair became noised oveer the entire country, and opposition at began to manifest itself against the Slickers. Many who had previously been in full sympathy with them now denounced them without stint, and demanded that their organization should be broken up, as they had accomplished their object and were now going beyond the bounds of reason, and even becoming outlaws themselves.
A company of anti-Slickers was organized in St. Charles county, in the vicinity of Flint Hill, with the avowed determination of dispersing the Slickers of Lincoln county. They stationed a guard at Trumbull's house to prevent further bloodshed, and warned the Slickers not to cause any more trouble. Mr. James Shelton was elected captain of this company, and among his men were David McFarlane, Robert Sheley, Bob Woolfork, Joseph Allen, Perry Custer, George W. Wright, Sam Carter, Scott Evans, Sam Newland, Benjamin and Oliver Pitts, George M. Coats, Jeff Dyer, George McGregor, Archibald M. Wade, John T. Daniels, Elliot Lusby, Lewis and Peter Daniels, Dr. William Coleman, S. L. Barker, Thomas, Amos and Joseph Dyer, William A. Abington, John P. Allen, and many other leading men of the part of the county. They were all citizens of St. Charles county, while the Slickers were all citizens of Lincoln, and on that account considerable enmity arose between the people of the two counties. Both organizations were composed of good men, actuated by honest motives, but through misrepresentations and the excitement of the times they were brought into antagonism, and several fights and skirmishes ensued, in which a number were wounded, others were whipped and one or two lives were lost. But the excitement finally died away, and both companies were eventually disbanded.
About two years afterward Captain Shelton, while crossing the Cuivre river in a skiff, was fired upon by some person concealed in the brush of the Lincoln county side, and his arm was broken. One Jacob Boone, who had been a Slicker during the late trouble, was accused of the crime, arrested, and taken to Troy for trial. When his trial came off he was acquitted, as there was no direct evidence against him, but the friends of Shelton, a few of whom had attended the trial. declared he had escaped justice through the connivance and influence of his friends in Lincoln county, who had been his companions in the Slicker War; and an angry discussion arose in regard to the matter during which the old Slicker and anti-Slicker difficulties were revived and much bitterness was manifested on both sides. That night as Shelton's friends were returning home, several of them were waylaid and fired upon, but fortunately none of them were hurt. The same evening about dusk, two young men, nephews of Mr. Levi Bailey, who had expressed anti-Slicker sentiments, were fired upon by parties in ambush just as they were entering the outer gate that led to their uncle's house, where they were going on a visit. One of their horses was shot through the jaw, and several buckshot passed through a shawl that one of the boys wore. These events again aroused the old excitement, which ran high for some time; and several years elapsed before the matter was forgotten and friendly feelings restored.
And such was the great Slicker War, which threatened for some time to array the citizens of two populous counties in deadly hostility against each other -- to bathe their hearthstones in blood and lay waste their famrs and homes. It teaches a practical lesson that should not be forgotten, viz.: that good, men, with the best intentions, may be led into the commission of unjust, unlawful and cruel deeds when they take the law into their own hands and attempt to punish criminals and allay crime by summary proceedings.
On the 27th of February, 1845, the authorities of the Republic of Texas, having formally notified the government at Washington of their desire for the admission of Texas into the Union, the Congress of the United States, by a joint resolution, made provision for the admission of the new State. The terms of the admission were assented to by the Texas authorities, and on the 4th of July, 1845, the Lone Star Republic became one of the family of States of the American Union.
Though Texas had asserted and maintained her independence from Mexico for some years, the latter country had given up all hope of coercing the rebellious young Republic back into the Mexican Union -- leastwise had the question of boundary between Mexico and Texas been settled. Immediately following the admission of Texas the United States authorities occupied her territory with troops for its protection against Mexican aggression and the support of her civil authorities. The Republic of Mexico accepted this as an act of war, claiming Texas as Mexican territory, and at once took steps to maintain her authority in that State. But the authorities of the United States were quick to meet the issue, and in a short time two opposing armies were encamped on the Rio Grande, the American army under Zachary Taylor and the army of Mexico under Gen. Arista.
A comprehensive plan of operations had been determined upon by the Americans. One squadron of the navy was ordered to join the fleet already in the Pacific for an attack upon the Mexican ports in California; another was to operate in the Gulf of Mexico. An army of the West assembled at Ft. Leavenworth, Kas., under Gen. Stephen W. Kearney for the invasion of New Mexico, and proceeding thence westward, to co-operate with the Pacific fleet. Gen. Wool collected at San Antonio another force which constituted the Army of the Center, and was to invade Mexico from that quarter. Heavy re-enforcements were sent to the army under Gen. Taylor at Point Isabel, known as the Army of Occupation. Space here, however, can not be given to enter into the deaths of the general events of the war. Nor is it necessary or proper, for on these pages only the history of the war in so far as it was participated in or affected by the volunteers from this county is expected to be given. Suffice it, therefore, to say that so far as the general events of the war are concerned, the Americans were almost invariably victorious, and that it was finally brought to a triumphant close on the 2d of February, 1848, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which surrendered to the United States the vast territory west of the Rio Grande from El Paso and northward, aside from recognizing the Rio Grande below El Paso as the boundary between Texas and Mexico.
The volunteers from St. Charles county were intended to become a part of the command of Gen. Kearny, known as the Army of the West, but owing to unavoidable delay the expedition for the West, of which Col. Doniphan afterwards became the distinguished leader, had left Ft. Leavenworth, Kas., before the company from this county reached that point, so that by this circumstance their service was reserved for another field of activity. Doniphan's men came principally from the counties of Cooper, Howard, Boone, Saline, Callaway, Cole, Osage, Warren, Gasconade, Montgomery and Chariton, and were enlisted under the order of Adj.-Gen. Parsons, directing the enrollment of from 50 to 150 men in each of those counties.
The company of volunteers from this county number about ninety men, not including the officers, and was organized principally by Dr. Ludwell E. Powell and David McCausland, both prominent citizens of the county, the latter of whom became captain of the company and the former colonel of the regiment of which the company was a part. The names of the other members of the company, or those whose names are remembered by Judge Hollrah, one of its three surviving members, are as follows: Antoine LaFaivre, first lieutenant; ____ Jones, second lieutenant; Samuel Muchatt, third lieutenant; Charles Kenna, orderly sergeant; Thomas B. Reynolds, who succeeded Kenna as orderly sergeant after the latter's death; Oliver Pitts, second sergeant; Barton Audrain, first corporal; John Janis, second corporal; ____ Reed, third corporal; ____ Murphy, fourth corporal. Privates: John H. Hollrah, Dietrich Mollan, David Mullan, John Norris (the last preceding two buglers), Thomas Amos, George Hunt, Thomas Carter, Thomas Geiger, Chapley Geiger, ____ Pratt, ____ Pringle, James Simms, ____ Chapman, ____ Kirks, ____ Kluester, Fritz Beller, Antoine Lubring, Benjamin Oldham, August Betholdes, Wilhelm Mittog, ____ Zimmerman, Nelson Boyer, Ed. Saucier, Henry LeFaivre, John Carpenter, St. Amie Des Lachou, John Barnum, John Watson, Timothy Hayes, Jacob Taylor, ____ Watts, Jacob Diehr, ____ Avis, and ____ Moss.
Before leaving the county for the war the company met in St. Charles for drill and final leave-taking. They were there presented with a handsome silk flag made by the ladies of St. Charles, the formal presentation being made by Miss Lee, a young lady of the county of fine accomplishments, and justly popular with all who knew her, not less for her amiable disposition than for her accomplishments and personal charms. The presentation speech was replied to by Capt. McCausland in one of his happiest efforts, and the brave-hearted volunteers then marched off to the war, buoyant with hope, nobly enthusiastic for the cause of their country, and ambitious to distinguish themselves on the field of action.
Arriving at St. Louis, they were duly sworn into the service and received their arms and uniforms. After a week spent in quarters at what is known as the "Old Prairie House," on the Rock road, in Elleardsville, they then proceeded, under orders to Ft. Leavenworth, Kas. On reaching that place, as stated above, they found that Col. Doniphan had already started for the plains. Nevertheless, they met a number of other Missouri companies at Ft. Leavenworth, five in all, which were organized into a battalion, known as the Oregon battalion. The companies were respectively commanded by Capt. Craig; Capt. Stewart, of Buchanan county, afterwards Gov. Stewart, Capt. ____, of ____, and Capt. McCausland, of this county. Sublett, of St. Louis, and Dr. Powell was elected by a huge majority. The major of the battalion was a West Point graduate, and a member of the regular army.
After the organization of the battalion all remained at Ft. Leavenworth for a time, engaged in drilling and garrisoning the fort. But the Indians on the Upper Missouri, principally the Sioux, taking advantage of the absence of troops, were preparing to go on the war path, and were seriously threatening the upper white settlements. A part of the Oregon battalion was therefore sent up the river to prevent them from carrying out their designs. Sixty men from each of the five companies were detailed for this service, and Capt. McCausland was placed in command of the detachment. They proceeded at once to Old Ft. Kearny, on the Upper Missouri, near the Missouri and Nebraska line.
Shortly after arriving there, on account of the hostile and threatening attitude of the Sioux, who were still further up the river, Capt. McCausland went on an expedition with his men against them. They went up the river as far as Ft. Vermilion, a distance of about 300 miles. The Indians steadily fell back before them, and seeing that on account of the troops it would be impossible to accomplish anything by attempting to raid the white settlements, they gave up all hostile designs and gave little or no further trouble.
Returning to Ft. Kearny, Capt. McCausland and his men remained there until May, 1848, and then started for the present site of New Ft. Kearny, on the Platte river, out of Nebraska. There they built the present fort, which is located about 150 miles from Omaha, and the land site of which Col. Powell bought for the government from the Pawnees. This fort was established to protect the Western settlements from the Indians beyond, in Nebraska and the surrounding regions of the country. They remained at Ft. Kearny until the fall of 1848, and, in the meantime, peace having been declared between the United States and Mexico, they returned to Ft. Leavenworth, leaving Ft. Kearny in charge of a detachment of regulars, and were there-upon honorably mustered out of the service. The battalion took part in no engagement during the service, being principally employed in garrison duty and for the protection of the Western frontiers against the Indians. Several men, however, died of sickness contracted in the army, including O'Brian, Kenna, and one or two others.
Capt. McCausland had been sheriff of the county prior to the organizing his company, and was a man of much personal popularity. He was an old citizen of the county and a man of high standing. In the service he was greatly beloved by his men, who were glad to follow wherever he chose to lead. If he had been called to the scene of war he would doubtless have made an enviable record for his company in the history of that struggle. As it was, he and they did their duty faithfully and without fear of danger or hardships, and are not less entitled to gratitude for the manner in which they acquitted themselves than if they had fought the battles of their country beyond the Rio Grande.
Col. Powell was one of the leading men of the county at that day. He was a physician by profession and a man of culture and large property. He was a man of large physique, of sandy complexion, steel blue eyes, and always clean shaven, and was a man of fine presence and personal appearance. He had been county and circuit clerk and recorder of deeds (all three) for a number of years, and was afterwards a judge of the county court. His address was always pleasant and he made a favorable impression on all whom he met. No man in the county stood higher than he in general esteem. The fact of his election for the colonelcy of his battalion when he was a total stranger to all except those of his own company, and by such men as Gen. Craig, Gov. Stewart and others, shows that he was a man of mark among men of prominence and ability. His name justly holds a place in the history of the county among the names of its most honorable and useful citizens.
There are several old Mexican veterans living in this county, who, however, enlisted from other counties or States. The names of the following are now recalled: Atho Kissinger, who enlisted from Virginia; Conrad Gruenkorn, who enlisted from St. Charles; John A. Schwartke, who enlisted from St. Louis, and Capt. H. Evers, who also enlisted from that city.
Few people in Missouri or elsewhere appreciated the nature of the conflict between the two sections or its scope and magnitude until after the clash of arms had resounded throughout the Union. Who was right or who wrong is not here to be discussed. Good men on either side honestly believed they were right and devotedly offered up their lives upon the altar of their convictions. The faith that men die for, whatever it may be, is not to be derided and lightly put aside.
Unfortunately the Civil War grew out of the agitation of slavery. But for that no conflict would have occurred, and half a million of as brave men as ever kept step to martial music, who now sleep beneath the sod victims to that unhappy strife, would have been spared to their country and homes, millions and hundreds of millions of treasure wasted, or worse than wasted -- devoted to the destruction of life and property would have been saved; a vast debt upon the country, piled up a century deep would not have been incurred; and the time and energy of more than two millions and a half of soldiers would have been usefully employed in the pursuits of peace. For every slave emancipated ten times his or her value in actual expenditures were required by the war, to say nothing of other losses; and the life of a soldier was taken for every eight slaves liberated. But freedom and human rights are, of course, not to be estimated by the measure of blood and treasure required to secure and maintain them. Still, howw much better it would have been if reason had prevailed instead of passion, and emancipation had been brought about by peaceful means.
In the days of the Colonies and in the early years of the Republic negro slavery was an institution generally recognized, and the present constitution was formed with that as one of the property interests of the country. Gradually slavery, more from physical causes than from anything else, became confined to the Southern and Southwestern States, and naturally when the agitation arose for its abolition they bitterly opposed the threatened revolution in their labor system, and exerted themselves to their utmost for the protection of their slave property. They held that the Union was instituted for the protection of the rights and property of the people of all the States forming it, and that when those of one section sought to destroy the property interests of another section, they were working to defeat one of the principal objects for which the government was established; that the North had no more right to interfere with slavery in the South than the South had to prohibit manufactures in New England, or the working of white employes at starving rates of wages; that all knew that slavery was one of the recognized institutions of most of the States when the Union was formed, and that if any ahd conscientious scruples against it, they ought not to have entered into association with slave States, much less afterwards have attempted to abolish it in other States.
The North, however, disclaimed any intention to interfere with slavery in the States where it was already established, but asserted that it ought to be prohited in the territories and not allowed in any of the new States to be formed. Still, there was no mistaking the tendency of the anti-slave movement -- that it would ultimately result in the abolition of slavery throughout the Union. This the Southern people saw and very well understood, and now that it is an accomplished fact, it is one of the proudest boasts of the party which brought it about.
The election of Mr. Lincoln in 1860 was brought about by the anti-slavery agitation and through a division of the Democratic party. Elected, as he was, by the exreme men of the North on this question, the South felt satisfied that he would be controlled by anti-slavery influences, and that the further continuance of the Southern States in the Union would be at the peril of their slave property. They therefore took steps immediately to secede from the Union by the same methods and authority by which they had acceded to its terms and entered ti; and ordinances of secession were passed by most of the slave States. Efforts for a compromise were made but without any substantial results; and in a short time a provisional Confederate government was established, including and representing most of the slave States.
However, after the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln, it was decided by his administration not to recognize the acts of secession of the slave States and to continue the enforcement of the Federal revenue and other national laws in the territory of those States. This, of course, could not but bring about a conflict, and both sides began to prepare for the struggle. The authorities at Washington took steps to re-enforce the different Federal forts in the Southern States. Speaking of this in his first annual message, President Lincoln said: "It was believed, howsoever, that to abandon that position to hold the forts in the South, under the circumstances, would be utterly ruinous; that the necessity under which it (their temporary evacuation) was to be done would not be fully understood; that by many it would be construed as a voluntary policy; that at home it would discourage the friends of the Union and embolden its adversaries, and go far to insure to the latter a recognition abroad, that in fact it would be our national destruction consummated. This could not be allowed. Starvation was not yet upon the garrison (Ft. Sumpter) and ere it would be reached Ft. Pickens might be re-enforced. This last would be a clear indication of policy that the Union was to be preserved at all hazards, and would better enable the country to accept the temporary evacuation of Ft. Sumpter as a military necessity. An order was at once directed (early in April, 1861) to be sent for the landing of the troops from the steamship Brooklyn into Ft. Pickens." The Governor of South Carolina was informed by a special messenger from Mr. Lincoln of what had been done.
There was no mistaking what this meant. It meant war, for South Carolina had seceded months before, and claimed to be independent of the Federal government. Hence, that State construed the sending of re-enforcements into her territory by the authorities at Washington as an belligerent act, an overt, open act of war, and accordingly, having nothing now to do but to fight or back down, she at once opened fire on Ft. Sumpter. Thus the great Civil War was inaugurated.
Missouri, being a slave State, was of course largely identified in interest and sympathy with her sister States of the South. Many of her people, however, undoubtedly a majority of them, were opposed to secession, except as a last resort. They were even more unanimously opposed to coercion. The sentiment of the State may be judged, approximately, from the following figures: In 1860 Mr. Lincoln received 17,028 votes; Stephen A. Douglas, 58,801; John C. Breckinridge, 31,317; and John Bell (largely the Whig vote of the State), 58,372. In the Senate of the State Legislature, a resolution introduced by Mr. John Hyer, of Dent, directing the Senators in Congress from this State, and requesting her Representatives to oppose the passage of all bills and acts granting supplies of men or money to coerce the seceded States, and if such acts should be passed, calling on her Senators and Representatives to resign, was passed by an almost unanimous vote -- 16 to 2. In the House, a resolution denouncing the act of Capt. Lyon, in moving upon and capturing the State militia at Camp Jackson, as an outrage upon the sovereignty of the State adn to be resisted by armed force, was adopted unanimously. In the State Convention, authorized by an act of the Legislature passed on the recommendation of Gov. Jackson, which met for the purpose of considering the relations of this State to the Federal Union and adopting such measures as the exigencies of the times demanded, Gen. Sterling Price, shortly afterwards major-general of the Confederate service, was elected President.
But it is unquestionably true, as has been stated, that until the war had been actually begun the majority of the people of the State were in favor of Missouri taking a neutral position between the seceded States and the administration at Washington. Yet they were in favor of this only in the hope that a compromise might be brought about, at least this was the position of most of the advocates of neutrality. But when all hope of compromise had failed, a very large majority of the people favored the Southern cause, and either openly identified themselves with it or gave it their warmest sympathy. This is further proved by the statistics of the armies of the two sections. Though occupied almost continuously by the Federal forces, this State furnished to the Southern army volunteers, even in the face of the great difficulties and dangers they had to encounter to reach the forces of the South, and notwithstanding the many inducements that were held out to enter the Union service. On the other hand 109,111 entered the Federal army. These are the truths of history and must be given, however they may be looked upon from the one side or the other.
The first volunteers from St. Charles county were for the Southern service. The Legislature of the State, in extra session, having passed a series of acts early in 1861, authorizing the enlistment and arming of the State militia, volunteers were accordingly called for, and what was known as the "Missouri State Guard" was organized. Steps were at once taken to enlist a company in this county, under Gov. Jackson's first call. A company, in fact, was recruited, composed of some of the best men of the county. Richard Overall was made captain and David Shultz, first-lieutenant. The second-lieutenant was Chap. Luckett, and the company numbered about fifty men. It was sworn in by Col. Benjamin Emmons, present circuit clerk of the county, and one or two drill exercises were had at the court-house. The company was organized for artillery service, and parties were sent to Jefferson City to obtain cannon from the State armory, under Gov. Jackson. Before their arrival, however, all the ordnance of the State had been distributed, so that none could be had for the St. Charles company. This proved a serious disappointment, and placed matters at a standstill, so far as this company was concerned, until after the surrender of Camp Jackson, when the Federal forces soon took possession of St. Charles and rendered further organization of Southern volunteers at this place impossible.
The prompt action of Gen. Lyon at St. Louis in the capture of Camp Jackson placed that city in the hands of the Federal authorities, and on account of the proximity of St. Charles county to St. Louis, it, too, shortly fell under the control of the Union forces. Another circumstances contributed very materially to this. The population of St. Charles county was about equally divided between the Americans and those of German birth or descent. The Germans were always unalterably opposed to slavery, though up to the time of the Lincoln campaign they had voted and acted with the Democratic party, more on the account of the attitude of that party on the Know Nothing or Native American question than for any other reason. But when that was settled by the defeat of the Know Nothing party and the question of slavery became the uppermost issue in politics, they took a positive stand against slavery. Democrats have always thought a little hard of this, inasmuch as it was they who saved the Germans from outlawry and stood up for the protection of all their rights, including their full and equal citizenship; and that the Germans should then turn on them in the South and assist to take their slave property from them without compensation -- moreover even put their slaves to rule over them in many of the States, seemed a little ungrateful. But the Germans were friends of liberty and equal rights, regardless of party interests or affiliations. Having secured their own rights they were for securing the rights of all other men, regardless of race or color, and were therefore friends of negro emancipation and enfranchisement.
The Germans of the county were not less active in organizing for the Union than the Americans were for the South. Judge Arnold Krekel, now of the United States District Court, was their leader in preparing them for holding St. Charles county to the Union cause. About the time Col. Emmons was swearing in the Southern company of artillery, or shortly afterwards, a company of Home Guards for the Union service was formed, composed almost exclusively of Germans. This was organized soon after the fall of Camp Jackson, and those principally instrumental in organizing it were Gustave Bruere, then editor of the St. Charles Democrat, John Bruere, Judge Gatzweiler, E. F. Gut, Henry Machens, G. Hoover, and one or two other prominent Germans of St. Charles, including Judge Krekel. Mr. Hoover was elected captain of the company. A week later another company was organized in the county and afterwards, aggregation over 1,300 men. Judge Arnold Krekel was elected colonel of the regiment; F. W. Gatzweiler, major, and Edward F. Gut, quartermaster.
The regiment went into camp near Cottleville, at what was named Camp Krekel, where they remained for some time engaged in drilling, and doing home guard duty. It was known as the St. Charles County Regiment of Home Guards, and was armed from the government arsenal at St. Louis by order of Gen. Lyon. It was not regularly accepted into service, however, until July, 1861. At that time the following were the three principal officers of the respective companies: Co. A -- Captain, Jacob New; first-lieutenant, Henry Damann; second-lieutenant, Richard Vogt.   Co. B -- Captain, Stephen Jeude; first-lieutenant, Adam Schweizer; second-lieutenant, Frederick Lotte.   Co. D -- Captain, John Fuchs; first-lieutenant, John Holtman; second-lieutenant, Herman Weinshagen.   Co. E -- Captain, Henry Schemmer; first-lieutenant, Jobst Paso; second-lieutenant, Herman Schemmer.   Co. F -- Captain, Henry Stratman; first-lieutenant, Charles Schlootman; second-lieutenant, Casper Deiman.   Co. G -- Captain, Charles Lumber; first-lieutenant, Lisfer Nicklaus; second-lieutenant, Roth Nicklaus.   Co. H -- Captain, Moritz Neustaetter; first-lieutenant, Franz Ruster; second-lieutenant, Joseph Boecker.   Co. I -- Captain, Robert Bailey, Jr.; first-lieutenant, Mathew Zimmermann; second-lieutenant, John E. Dirkee.   Co. K -- Captain, Henry Windmuller; first-lieutenant, Herman Wilke; second-lieutenant, Jobst Broecker.   Co. M -- Captain, John D. Holrah; first-lieutenant, Frederick Wolf; second-lieutenant, J. C. Kuhlhoff.   Co. N -- Captain, Gustave Heven; first-lieutenant, Gottfried Muke; second-lieutenant, Henry Denker.   Co. O -- Captain, Franz Martin; first-lieutenant, Herman Kuhlman; second-lieutenant, Franz Kaferkamp.
This regiment did valuable service for the Union cause in the early part of the war by holding St. Charles county and not only preventing the enlistment of Southern volunteers here, but keeping down Southern organizations and enlistments further north. "Krekel's Dutch," as they were called, stood a dreaded menace to the active Southern element in all this part of the country, and gave loyal men the assurance of protection and encouragement.
From this regiment of Home Guards, after the necessity for their active service in the county had passed, other organizations were formed, though many of the older men, and other not eligible for regular military duty, continued for some time afterwards to perform Home Guard service, and were very valuable in this line of duty. The volunteers in the St. Charles County United States Reserve Corps were principally from the old Home Guard regiment. There were six companies of volunteers in this county for the Reserve Corps. They were organized in August, 1861, and continued to serve until January, 1862. Capt. G. Hoover was captain of Co. A, Capt. Gatzweiler of Co. B, and Capt. Schmalzinger of Co. C. The names of the captains of the other three companies are not now recalled. Their duty was mainly local, consisting of guarding the railroad bridges, preventing raids into the country, and so forth. They were succeeded by four companies of Missouri State militia, which were organized early in 1862, the time of the latter had served in the companies of the Reserve Corps, which had been organized under the authority of the general government for home service, and were paid by the government.
The four companies of the Missouri State militia were formed into the First Battalion, M.S.M., and served as members of that battalion until December, 1862, or for about a year. Altogether they numbered about 400 men, and were commanded by Lieut.-Col. Arnold Krekel. Ferdinand Hess was adjutant of the battalion, and Dr. John Bruere, surgeon. The four companies were commanded, respectively, as follows: Co. A -- Captain, Henry Windmuller; first-lieutenant, Theodore Hegeman; second-lieutenant, Charles Growe.   Co. B -- Captain, Adolph Hufschmidt; first-lieutenant, George Struben; second-lieutenant, Charles Bruere.   Co. C -- Captain, George Muller; first-lieutenant, Fred. Graberherst; second-lieutenant, Frederick August.   Co. D -- Captain, Frederick Heign; first-lieutenant, Joseph Linkogel; second-lieutenant, August Hildeberndt. Three of the above companies were cavalry and one infantry, the latter being Co. B, under Capt. Hufschmidt. In November, 1862, the cavalry companies were honorably discharged from the service at Fulton, Missouri. but the infantry company was ordered to St. Louis, and there attached to the First Missouri State militia infantry, in which it served for three years. The latter regiment was principally engaged in guard service at the St. Louis and on the Iron Mountain Railroad. Before the First battalion was dissolved, however, they participated in one or two fights in this section of the state -- one at Box Springs, which was sharp and hotly contested. The enemy was driven out of the country tributary to Mexico, which he had been infesting for some time previous.
About the time of the organization of the First battalion, a number of companies were formed in this county under the Enrolled Militia Law, and afterwards did home duty during the remainder of the war. Nearly all of the member of the Home Guards who had not entered some other branch of the service, became members of one or another of the companies of the Enrolled militia, and many other citizens of the county also entered the new organization. They continued in the county during the entire war, except on one or two occasions when they were called into other parts of North Missouri to resist the raids of the enemy. In 1863 they wer for a time under Gen. Merrill, up in North Missouri, to oppose a Southern raid in that section of the State.
Besides the companies and organizations above referred to, two companies of volunteers from the county were furnished to Col. Dyer's regiment, and accompanied that regiment South. There were also a number of volunteers from this county in other regiments, organized elsewhere, and in the regular army; and a number went to St. Louis to join Gen. Lyon at the very outbreak of the war, before even the first company was formed here. St. Charles county perhaps furnished not less than 2,000 volunteers for the Union service, including Home Guards, Enrolled militia, and so forth.
The county was never under the control of the Southern authorities after the affair at Camp Jackson, nro were any Southern troops afterwards ever in the county, except a few scouts who generally went out considerably faster than they came in. Southern enlistments were therefore very difficult here, if not impossible, and the result was that but few Southern men, even those who desired to, succeeded in joining the Southern army. However, in 1861, Dr. Johnson, now of Johnson and Bruere, physicians at St. Charles, organized a company of young men in the upper part of the county near Pauldingsville for the Southern service. This company was organized in December, 1861, and was composed of about 100 young men, mainly from the best families in the county.
Captain Johnson at once started to join Price's army with his company, and went as far as Mount Zion, in Boone county, where he fell in with Col. Dorsey, also of the Southern service; or, rather, he had met Dorsey a short time before. He was with Dorsey at the fight at Mount Zion, where they were defeated, and Capt. Johnson and several of his men were captured. The loss of the Southern side was 4 men killed, 20 wounded and 25 prisoners. Young McDonald of this county was among those mortally wounded. William McClenney was also wounded, being shot through the stomach, but nevertheless recovered. Capt. Johnson was paroled and came home. Afterwards he served in the Southern army east of the Mississippi. Among those in his company at Mount Zion, the names of only the following are now remembered: --
C. M. Johnson, captain; B. F. Moore, first-lieutenant; John Ball, second-lieutenant; Swan, drill sergeant; J. B. Hays, county; Charles Krugar, county; James Allen, Dallas, Texas; John Silvey, Manchester, Mo.; Isaac N. Howell, county; H. A. Callaway, Tombstone, Arizona; William B. Callaway, Louisiana; William McClenney, county; John McClenney, Wright county, Mo.; Henry Elliot, James Elliot, Dallas, Texas; William Phillips; Mathew Fitts, Louisiana, Mo.; William B. Edwards, David L. Edwards, county; John Sanders; Richard Krugar, High Hill, Mo.; Eli McConnell; Robert Bowman, Oliver Steele, Can. Jacobs, John Cunningham, Coley Kent, William E. Coleman; Thomas Breckinridge, transferred Sidnor's company; William Ferrel, Robert Ferrel, Albin McDonald, William Dugan, Dennis Muschaney, Samuel Muschaney, county; John M. Gaty, Pettis county, Mo.; Gustave Smith, Charles Vanberkelow, Henry Painter, county; John Bowles (deserter), Henry King, Daniel Prime, William Duff, ____ Sherman, L. A. Johnson, Visalia, Cal.; Thomas Johnson, Charles Cunningham, county; Adam Garland, Joseph Garland, Waco, Texas; John Sargent, Ben Maples, Thomas Carroll, George Logan, Findley Logan, Palestine, Texas; William Spiers, Warren county; James Devine, Andrew McConnell, William Silvey, Andrew J. Silvey, Dr. C. M. Pringle, regiment surgeon, Doc. Turpin, county; Douglass Luckett, Walter Sheets, Thomas Creach, Benjamin Herrington, A. J. Coshow, Lud. Watts, Tyler Painter, William Hill, county; Doc. Givens, Tobias Givens, George Painter, Daniel Dyer, Samuel Sherman, Gyp Dyer, Daniel Sherman, Wesley Dyer, Martin Carter, Ben Carter, Taylor Travis, Robert Travis, John Clowers, Capt. Clowers, Hugh Stultz, David Stultz, Joseph Sherman, Warner Briscoe and John Rector. The company consisted of 112 men, only the names of 87 appearing above.
After Dr. Johnson's effort to organize Southern troops in this county, there was no further attempt made here in that direction during the remainder of the war. A large number of volunteers, however, left the county from time to time, singly or in squads of two, three, or more, and joined different commands, some east of the Mississippi and some in the Trans-Mississippi department. Some who proved to be as gallant soldiers served under the three-barred banner of the South, enlisted from St. Charles county. It would be invidious to mention any without naming all, for none proved themselves unworthy the profession of arms or the county that gave them birth.
But the war is over and has been closed for nearly 20 years. The issues involved in that unhappy strife are settled beyond all further question. Brave men and true fought on either side, men loyal and patriotic to what they believed to be their duty to their country. Those who survived the struggle returned to their homes after it was over, and almost without exception have made good and useful citizens. The past if forgiven if not forgotten, and all are re-united in bonds of fraternal union not less enduring than the United States, and with patriotic hearts striving for a future for the Republic more happy than the past has been and far more spendid of achievements.
To close the account of the Civil War closes the account of the war record of the county; and it is to be hoped that he who comes to write its events of the future, will have no occasion to speak of any further war experiences. Citizens of this county had no part in the Mormon War so far as we have been able to learn, nor in the Kansas Troubles, just preceding the Civil War.
Transcribed July 2003 by Deborah Heimann -- Co-ordinator for the St. Charles County, Missouri USGenWeb pages.