Metis 1818 - 1820


1818 - 1820


that the Metis are a Distinct Tribe of Red River and have been

for a considerable time into the past

William McGillivary proclaimed

that the Metis are an independent People entitled to:

Rights to property in the soil.

Protection from the British.

A flag of their own.


(I)-John Bell (1799-1868) arrived in Canada and joined the North West Company. In 1824 he is transferred to the Mackenzie District by the Hudson Bay Company. He was a modest, unassuming man; a fur trader and explorer of the Canadian far North West.

Dakota, birth 1818/25 Gabriel Renville adopted son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) is working for the N.W.C at Post St. Croix Valley & Lac Coutereille Districts. He joined the American Fur Company this year, becoming a nationalized American citizen employed at the Folle Avoine Dept.

James Kipp (1788-1865+) of Montreal arrived at the Upper Missouri River at Fort Mandan, being employed by the Columbia Fur Company. Kipp married 1st Medicine Bird Mandan, 2nd Four Bears (Earth Woman) also Mandan and he was reported to also been married to the daughter of Alexander Culbertson son Joseph Culbertson and Mary Finley and Natawischicksina (Blackfoot).

Marguerite Lagimodiere b-1808 daughter of Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere and Marie Anne is married to de Meuron, the first Catholic marriage by a priest in Red River. The claim is that both parents are white and Marguerite is the first born white child and the first married by a priest. This appears to be a quest for firsts, rather than facts. If true, she married at age 10. Not likely.

Jean Baptiste Lesage, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1818 to 1846.

Brothers Joseph Lizotte and Francois Lizotte are employed by the American Fur Company at Fond du Lac (Lake Superior) district.

The American Fur Company employs Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) this year.

Alexis Beaudoin is employed by the American Fur Company at Lac du Flambeau.

Mary Campbell, Metis born about 1818, died1844 Upper Mississippi District daughter Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Charles Sweet

Prairie du Chien, birth Caritine Brisbois, Metis daughter Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein.

Donald MacKenzie explored southern Idaho for trading potential.

Jean Baptiste Roy is employed by the American Fur Company in the department of Fond Du Lac, Lake Superior.

Henry Sayer, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the north bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1818 to 1846.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) was tried this year, having been arrested at Fort William by Selkirk's people and charged with complicity in the 1816 Seven Oaks incident. All were acquitted. He would later participate in the 1837 rebellion, where he sustained a crippling knee injury.

Louis Labonte, Joseph Gervais, Etienne Lucier, Louis Kanota and Louis Pichette dit Dupre are free trading in Oregon Territory.

A British map of this period still refers to the Rocky Mountains as the Stony Mountains.

Indians are not welcome in the St. Boniface Settlement. St Boniface Church is built in recognition of the German Catholic Swiss mercenaries in the employ of (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820). Money-Master, alias (I)-Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, is convicted in Sandwich, under Canadian law, for breaking and entering and for resisting arrest at Fort William, a serious crime in the North West. The Money-Master, Fifth Earl of Selkirk, requested and financed the first Catholic priests entry into the Red River region. This ploy was to ensure his illegal land acquisition, and it receives support from the Roman Catholic Church. Some would question what part the Roman Catholic Church played in the whole infamous Selkirk affair in order to secure a toe hold in this New Metis Nation.

Father Severe Dumbulin of Red River worked among the Pembina natives and Metis in their colony of 300 people until 1823. William Edge, a school teacher, worked with Father Dubulin. Father Joseph Provencher (1783-1853) also arrived at Red River this summer. On July 16, the missionaries J.N. Provencher, who would become bishop, and S.G. Dumoulin arrived at Fort Douglas (St. Boniface). He settled at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, among the Metis. Father Dumoulin, during the period 1818 to 1823, attempted to civilize the Chippewa by persuading them to live in permanent villages. This failed, as the good father could not persuade the Metis to permanently settle in villages. The Metis knew both ways of life, and the Natives said, why should the Indians do what their brothers would not do? Provencher's notion of civilization was, to the Natives, enslavement.

The Astor Fur Company, operated by (I)-John Johnson (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), worked Lake Superior. The traders included William Morrison, Roussain, Cotte and others.

The American Fur Company outfits covered most of the Chippewa country south and west of Lake Superior.

They reported that the Pembina area was populated with Metis. Truman Abraham Warren and Lymann Marcus

Warren began free trading on the south shore of Lake Superior. Their competition was from the American Fur Company, which is represented by Lac Court Oreille, Lac du Flambeau and the St. Croix outfits. The Company is under Astorian (IV)-Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) of La Pointe. Cadotte is supervisor of the whole region (Northern Outfit). The Americans establish Pembina as a territory of Minnesota, as distinct from the Red Lake, Red River District. The Red Lake District has its name from the many battles between the Sioux and the Ojibwa.

The Hudson Bay Company pulled down Fort Daer in Pembina and floated the timber down to Fort Douglas.

They believed that the division of settlers between Red River and Pembina weakened the colony. Some of the Metis moved to St. Boniface and the rest to White Horse Plain, some 16 miles west of Fort Douglas. Father Dumoulin thereby lost his mission and returned to Quebec. Some 350 Metis remained in the area until 1823, when the place is basically deserted.

Locusts destroyed the Red River crop this year and again in 1819.

Selkirk tried to entice Metis settlers, that were supportive of the the English position, into the Selkirk Town on the Red River . Robert Dickson spread the word among the Coureurs des Bois, Indians and Metis in the Minnesota and Michigan Territories. Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) was one of the first to respond, and wrote in August that he would move to Selkirk Town on the Red River if Selkirk would provide financial assistance to set up a trading post as well as a sizable discount on trade goods. They would need a village house as close to the church as possible, with room for a garden, stable and other buildings. Selkirk agreed to the terms in general and wrote to James Bird, outlining in detail how the Nolin family is to be encouraged and helped. He is to be an example of the new settlement plans. He is hoping Nolin's daughters will fix to the soil more Metis, who will be more disposed to the English intrusion into Red River.

The Hudson Bay Company is expanding its western operations and cutting into North West Company business.

Colin Robertson of the Hudson Bay took an army of more than 180 officers and men in twenty-seven canoes to the Athabasca region. This large force, however, did not stop the Canadians; as Robertson was again arrested.

Williams of the Hudson Bay Company gathered a force of men at Grand Rapids on the Saskatchewan River, near it's mouth, and supported his men with a small cannon which was mounted on a barge. The small cannon and two swivel guns were put ashore and commanded the foot of the rapids. The Nor'Westers made their appearance, bringing the winter's collection of furs from their posts. Threatened with cannon and knowing that Williams enjoyed a fight, they accepted arrest to avoid bloodshed; most likely their own. The Iroquois, when their contracts expire with the N.W.C., have no problems trading with the H.B.C.

Colin Robertson noted, with malicious delight, that the majority of wintering partners of the North West Company were not on the best of terms with their Montreal agents whom they considered the authors of their misfortunes.

The Metis were very upset that Robertson and Dougla's army had been allowed to winter and pass through Montreal to cause trouble in the North West Metis Nation.

March 18: William McGillivary, a Nor'Wester, finally had had to admit about the Metis: "They one and all look upon themselves as members of an independent tribe of natives; entitled to a property in the soil, to a flag of their own, and to protection from the British Government". Further it has been proven that the half-breeds under the denominations of bois brûlé and metifs have formed a separate and distinct tribe of Indians for a considerable time back in the Red River region. This year McGillivary put aside his Cree wife and she lived out her days at Fort William.

May 10: Michael Dousman at Green Bay, Wisconsin sends his regards to Portlier, (IV)-Augustin Grignon, Powell, (Louis) Gournoe and Jacob at Mackinac. Isabel Garneau- the half-breed, is born about 1818 La Pointe, Wisconsin daughter Louis Gurnoe born 1790 and Se-Ranze born 1800. She would marry September 9, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin a Henry Cotte the half-breed. Truman Abraham Warren (married (V)-Mary Cadotte (1805-1887) and Lyman Marcus Warren (married (V)-Mary Cadotte (1800-1848) free traders arrived La Pointe to trade in the area. In 1821 they married into the Cadotte family and by 1823 acquired (IV)-Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) interest in the La Pointe post.

March 15: Louis Genereux, a half breed, witnessed a baptism at Mackinac. He had a trading post on Grand River not far from Ionia.

July 6: Francois Generoux married in the Hamilton area a Mary Smith (1795-1878) daughter Benjamin Smith (1773-1851) and Nancy Gordon.

July 16: Three priests arrived at Red River: Joseph Norbert Provencher, Sevre Joseph Nicolas Dumoulin and Guillaume Etienne Edge. It is reported that they were reluctant to come west. They received 20 square miles on the east side of Red River and 20 acres on the west side of the river. It is noteworthy that the inhabitants didn't have proof of land ownership. Provencher wrote that the Metis' commerce with the whites (Europeans), instead of advancing them towards civilization, has served only to drive them away there- from. The population was about 1,000 people including 65 of the Swiss mercenary regiment. Only 225 Scottish Protestant settlers occupied this area. He considered the Metis as mostly pagan.

August 14: Francois Ermatinger (1797-1858) and brother Edward Ermatinger arrived at York Factory in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company. Francois had three marriages, 1st marriage before 1825 a Cree Woman, one daughter born 1825 Severn District whom he abandoned and she married 1841 David Bird, 2nd marriage 1827 Cleopatra an Okanogan woman, son Lawrence born August 23, 1828 Fort Kamloops, 3rd marriage 1835 Mary Three Dresses a Pend d'Oreille woman, children Mary April 1838 western Montana, died October 14, 1940, son Pierre died November 23, 1902.

August 24: Sioux, Mo, birth Barbie Chapard married (II)-Francois Jordan born July 12, 1763 St. Philippe son (I)-Andre Jordan.

December: York Factory Chief Factor (I)-James Swain was short of provisions so he sent his wife and daughter out in the bitter cold for a fortnight to fish and hunt rabbits. They returned with only a few rabbits.


The western interior received a double setback this year with a dual epidemic of measles and Chincough (whooping cough) which played havoc on the native populations- proving fatal. The Ojibwa suffered fewer losses than other tribes, likely because of the higher levels of Metis blood in their numbers. It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa could move into an area rejected by the Cree and Assiniboine, which was reported exhausted of fur, and with intensive trapping, secure furs. This is believed to be how they replaced the Cree and Assiniboine in many areas; with peaceful incursions. The Ojibwa are living at Fort Pelly (Swan River), but are not indigenous to the area.

Eustache Bellecourt born 1819 died White Earth, Minnesota 1894 married to Josette Turpin (1824-1915) source Jay Holmen re 1850 census Benton County, Minnesota.

William Brown estimates that 100 Ojibwa males are living in the Manitoba Lake District this season.

The Journey to the Polar Sea (1819-22), made by John Flanklin, departed Fort Chipewyan with 15 Metis, one Italian (Fontano), one Englishman, a Norwegian, two interpretors, an Iroquois (Michel) and two Indian woman.

Some of the names were: W. F. Wentzel, George Back, Hood, Joseph Peltier, Matthew Pelonquin, alias Credit, Solomon Belanger, Joseph Beniot, Joseph Gagne, Pierre Dumas, Joseph Forcier, Ignace Perrault, Francois Samandre, Gabriel Beauparlant, Registe Vaillant, Jean Baptiste Parent, Jean Baptiste Belanger, Jean Baptiste Belleau and Emanuel Cournoyee. Most would perish during this expedition.

A party of Iroquois traders working for the Hudson Bay Company pushed up the Peace River and across the Rocky Mountains into New Caledonia which, until then, was the sole preserve of the North West Company.

This season they conducted Ignace Giasson into New Caledonia. George Simpson wrote that the Iroquois must be engaged without delay: "I shall not limit you to terms, we absolutely need their services, and you will therefore make the best bargain you can."

James Tanner of Kentucky passed through Mackinac on his way to Hudson Bay, searching for his brother John Tanner who was kidnapped by the Indians a number of years ago. On his return trip he came via Red River and discovered his brother living among the Ojibwa at Red River. John Tanner married Pier La Sauteuse, an Indian woman, and had two children, Martha Tanner and James Tanner. James wanted John to return with him to Kentucky to see the rest of his family. John said he was having a great life and didn't want his son living like a white man and learning to tell lies. He finally agreed to visit Kentucky next year. It is noteworthy that in one season, James Tanner had traveled to Mackinac, Hudson Bay, Red River and, via the Mississippi River system, back to Kentucky, having spent 2-3 months in Red River.

A.N. McLeod and George Feith of Fort William, North West Company, on Lake Superior, instructed Julian Tavurnur of Fort Wedderburn, Athabasca to bully and beat the employees of the British Hudson Bay Company.

They promised a handsome reward. In Athabasca John Clark of British Hudson Bay Company, known for his hate for the Nor'wester, is recklessly short of provisions and faced with the hostility of the dominant Nor'wester.

He lost sixteen men through starvation before heading back to the safety of York Factory.

Edward Biddle married his Indian girl at Mackinac.

Upper Mississippi District, Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851), who married a Dakota woman, is trading above Prairie du Chien for James Lockwood.

H.B.C. established Harrison's House on Fond du Lac (Lake Athabasca) with George P. Andries, a former N.W.C. clerk in charge. The N.W.C. built a post nearby called Fond du Lac and dominated the trade. The H.B.C. suffered.

Humphrey Favel was set free on account of his bad behavior towards John McLeod at Red River in 1815.

Tom Favel was released from Company service because of his refusal to go with Fidler to Jack River at the Northern end of Lake Winnepeg.

Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) sold his home, buildings and property at Sault Ste Marie to (II)-Charles Oaks

Ermatinger (1776-1853), his renter, and set off for the Red River of the north. Selkirk had promised free land and discounted trade goods if he would relocate. Nolin was given three choice pieces of land in Assiniboia; his son, Augustin Nolin, received one and his son Louis was on the payroll as interpreter.

The first church established in the Metis Nation by Father Joseph Norbert Provencher; a young French Canadian who attempted to civilize the Metis until 1848. Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845), a Nor'wester who spent twenty years in the trade and who took Elizabeth Duval, a Metis, as his country wife, retired from the company and could not abandon his wife as was the growing English custom. He was not alone as George Nelson, James Hughes and Joseph Dugald Cameron all took country wives out of the wilderness country. Many more that married Native and Metis took them out upon retirement. A larger number, however, chose to remain with their 'Country Wives' in the Metis Nation at Red River. James Hughes refused to submit to a formal marriage with his wife Nan-Touche when they settled in Eastern Canada, saying his 'Country Marriage' was as valid as a church wedding. He believed marriage is between a man, a woman and God. The Church, at this time, believed he was living in sin.

A grass hopper plague destroyed the Red River crop this year and again in 1819. Andrew McDermott (1790 - 1881), resident of Red River, a free trader, claimed to be a descendant from the Kings of Ireland. A convention this year established the forty-ninety parallel boundary to the Stony (Rocky) Mountains, and the Oregon Territory was to remain in joint administration between Canada and the United States.

Joseph D Gurnoe is born 1812 or more likely 1819 at La Pointe, Wisconsin, died 1910, Bayfield, Wisconsin. He is the son Louis Gurnoe born 1790 and Se-Ranze (Say Shaw Ne Nie) born 1800 Canada.

The village of Birsay (Orkney Town), Red River is said to only contain a total of twenty-three persons. Magnus Spense, in the service of the Company since 1783, became free in 1815 and appears to be the leader and eldest of this group. Birsay was the home parish of Magnus Spence. This group moved from Brandon house to the Assiniboine, just 3 miles north of the White Horse Plains, during the winter of 1817-1818 to adopt a more sedentary way of life. Peter Fidler, in the spring, had counted eight males, two females and thirteen children: six boys and seven girls. Only Magnus Spence and James Monkman had a wife and family listed against their names. The other wives and children are likely with the Indian side of the family at this time. Later, the freeman came in from the buffalo, having laid up a good stock, and some of them are moving to the spots they intend to build at. Whooping cough and measles hit Orkney Town, and James Sandison lost two children on August 4.

Owman Norquay lost one child, and Oman Norquay died. To add to their misery, swarms of grasshoppers destroyed their crops. Orkney Town was abandoned by mid-September, 1819. The 1827 census suggests they were absorbed into the main Red River Colony. The French Canadian Freeman and Metis of Pembina quickly back filled Orkney Town.

The United States Army (others say Josiah Snelling of the American Fur Company) established Fort Snelling (a.k.a. Fort St. Anthony) near St. Paul, Minnesota, which is a major Metis trading center. Fort St. Anthony was renamed in 1825 to Fort Snelling. The Fort is located at the mouth of the Minnesota River, entering the Mississippi River; an ancient Dakota trading location. The original name is Iminijaska; meaning white rock. It is noteworthy that over time many settlements were located in the St. Paul region, Little Canada, Mendota, Pig's Eye, and Fountain Cove. It would not be known as St Paul until 1841. Some of the settlers relocated below the Fort, calling their settlement Mendota. Metis and Selkirk settlers have been arriving in the region since before 1815.

Guillaume Beaumette, a stone mason, is helping to build a stone fort at Red River.

The Blue Book of Papers, relating to the Red River Settlement 1815-1819, was presented to the Canadian Parliament. There is no evidence that the government was much concerned with the rights or wrongs of this distant trade war between the English and Scots.

May 19: Peter Fidler made a map of the Red River District, recording the settlement of Birsay village west of Fort Douglas on the Assiniboine River which was built by a group of freemen, some of whom had previously lived in the Brandon House area. Birsay Village is midway between Lyon Island Kettle Plain. The vast majority of the freeman were Metis Canadians who worked for the French trading companies. Many of the freemen had lived long enough in the North West, free of the companies, to be regarded as permanent inhabitants of the region. Some had been in the North West trade since 1770. The Hudson Bay Company freemen were far fewer as the company policy was to return servants to Europe when their contract expired. A few former H.B.C. servants, however, had settled in the vicinity of Brandon House, living with the Cree nearly in the same manner as the free Canadians of Red River did with the Ojibwa. Not surprising, most of the Hudson Bay freemen are natives of Orkney Island which supplied the Bay with 75 percent of the servants by 1800. Peter Fidler suggested that these Orkney freemen were servants who had been dismissed for various misdemeanors and acts of insubordination, rather than servants whose contracts had expired.

John Lyons was set free in August 1816 for refusing to accompany James Inkster on a trip to Indian Elbow on the upper Assiniboine.

On June 18 John Clark teamed up with William of the British to blockade the Saskatchewan River at the Grand Rapids where it enters Lake Winnipeg. John Duncan Campbell and Benjamin Frobisher junior of the Canadians were the first to arrive at the rapids. York Factory on the Hudson Bay became the internment camp of the Canadians prisoner of war who were taken during portage.

June 23: Angus Shaw (McGillivray's brother in law), John George McTavish the bastardize and William McIntosh (1784-1842) fell into the English ambush. The Canadians demanded to know under what right did William act. Did he not know of the proclamation issued by the British Prince Regent, ordering all parties to cease from violence in the Indian Territories (Metis Nation Territories)? William, the British Government representative, responded that he didn't care a curse for the proclamation. He had sufficient authority and will do as he thinks 'proper', and that legal proceedings are all damn nonsense in the North West Territories. He would act independently (like a rebel) from the rascally Government of Canada. He would use every power to drive out of the country every dammed Canadian it contained, or 'perish in the attempt.' Angus Shaw announced he would return in forty days and spread carnage and bloodshed throughout the country. McIntosh pretended illness, feigned suicide and eventually escaped down to Red River. William, the British rebel, took his prisoners down to York Factory- the English stronghold. William McIntosh (1784-1842) would serve the Hudson Bay Company for 16 years after the merger in 1821, but he, during this English and Canadian war, was summarized by Sir George Simpson as "a revengeful cold blooded black hearted Man whom I consider capable of anything bad: possessing no abilities beyond such as qualify him to cheat an unfortunate Indian and to be guilty of a mean dirty trick: Suspicious, Cruel, and Tyrannical without honour or integrity". This is noteworthy, as he kept McIntosh as Chief Trader then promoted him to Chief Factor of Nelson House (1829-29), Cumberland house (1829-32) and Dunvegan (1832-34). It would appear that Sir George Simpson is looking in a mirror.

July 27: Marie Janette Piquette, widow of (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818), is supporting the family at Sault Ste Marie by sewing; as recorded by (I)-John Johnson (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman, who noted a payment for making pantaloons.

August 24: Fort William, birth John Harmon Metis died September 22, 1858 Brooklyn, New York son Daniel Williams Harmon born February 19, 1778 Bennington, Vermont died April 1843 Sault au Recollets, Quebec and Lizzette Laval (Duval) Metis born 1790 Rocky Mountain House died February 12, 1861 Sault au Recollet, Quebec.

August 30: Captain F. Matthey, a de Meuron settler, informed Selkirk of the new Orkneyman element in the population of the colony. He wrote: We had the other day an arrival of settlers, Orkneymen, their wives brown and white and their children. They have chosen their lots on the Assiniboine River at Plain du Cheval Blanc and laid the foundation of Orkney Town. There are more expected.

September 15: Orkney Town is nearly deserted owing to the fact that crops were being destroyed by grasshoppers and several persons were dying of the Chincough (whooping cough) and Measles. James Sandison lost two children on August 4, Oman Norquay lost one child about the same time and Oman Norquay, himself, one of the elders of the settlement, died shortly afterwards. It would appear that eventually most Orkney freeman joined the main Red River Settlement. Magnus Spense, James Spence and James Sandison appear in the Red River census of 1827.

In October Benjamin Frobisher, who received a brutal head wound from the English, and two other Canadians escaped. Frobisher died of exposure on the shore of Cedar Lake, only two days from a Canadian North West Company Post. (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and his partners took strong, stern steps to release their fellow Canadians from the English, but the prisoners of war are already in London. To make things worse, the English rebels attacked Canadian Fort William in force, arresting some sixteen partners including McGillivray himself. The British took steps to replace the aggressive rebel William with a more balanced George Simpson, knowing the Canadians would return in force the next season.


This is the first year of a normal wheat harvest in Red River. Alexis Bailly, Metis, drove a herd of cattle from Prairie du Chien, Minnesota to the Metis Red River settlement.

Peter Fidler filed his report on the Dauphin District, saying the Ojibwa traded largely for cloth, blankets, guns, kettles and capots, whereas the the Cree took mostly rum. It is noted that all traders got free ammunition and tobacco. For every ten animal skins, they received a quart of high wines plus some gifts for their wives such as beads, knives, awls, fire steel and gartering. It is reported that 572 Ojibwa are in the Dauphin (Manitoba) District this year.

Stephen Long went up the Platte River and came back through Oklahoma on the Canadian River. He agreed with Zebulon Pike (1806) that the Great Plains would serve as a barrier to keep American people from wandering too far and stretching the nation too thin, otherwise most of it is worthless. It is almost entirely unfit for cultivation and, of course, uninhabitable by people who depend on agriculture for their subsistence. It was he who labeled the Great Plains as "The Great American Desert", and the name stuck.

Duncan Campbell born ?, baptised 1802? died December 5, 1847 Mendota who married Penichon a Dakota/French Metis woman. He is trading on the Minnesota River and acting as interpreter for Taliaferro until 1825. His daughter married Alexander Faribault, Oliver Cratte, Joseph Buisson and James Wells. Mark Dulac ggggr grandson James Wells suggests this was: (I)-Duncan Graham, (not Campbell) b-1772 Scotland, died December 5, 1847.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Sophia Hudon Metis born about 1820 daughter Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married George M. Henderson.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Paul H.. Hudon (1820-1897) Metis son Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Mariah.

Archibald McDonald married a woman he called Princess Raven and they had at least four children.

Xavier Perrault, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1820 to 1846.

Ambrose Surette, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1820 to 1846.

A brass trading coin is minted this year by the North West Company to represent the value of one beaver pelt. A hole was drilled in the top so that the Indians could wear it as an ornament until they redeemed it at a Company Store.

St. Boniface Cathedral is under construction. The Cathedral is one hundred feet in length, forty five in breath and forty feet high, with two towers, one hundred feet high, being made entirely of wood.

Francois Gourneau is born 1800 son of Monsieur Garneau born about 1769 and Mother Sioux Se Gaunaux So-Way-Guay, Red Lake Band. Francois married about 1820 Pembina a Marguerite Martineau born 1805-1809 and on annuity roll #1166 1893 Red Lake. One child is recorded, Marion Gourneau born 1831 role #1167.

Henry Schoolcraft is reported to have visited Mackinac Island for the first time.

Dr. Charles W.W. Borup traded Michigan this decade.

The American Mountain Men discovered that the Spanish wanted horses and Indian slaves. James P. Beckwourth recorded one Indian raid that netted 59 wives, mothers and young single girls for the slave trade. The older women were released.

A treaty between Spain and U.S.A. establishes the Idaho (Oregon) Territory at the 42nd parallel.

April 8: (I)-Thomas Douglas of Selkirk (1771-1820) died in France of tuberculosis, and his grave site slipped into obscurity until recently. Thomas believed to the end that Selkirk Town on the Red River was a success in settling needy Europeans and in providing a haven of refuge for a great body of vagabond Canadians. Others suggest that the number of settlers in Red River as a result of (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), was very minor when compared to those from the North West Company and to the overwhelming majority called Metis, Bois Brules, Half Breeds or just Gens Libre (Freemen).

August 20: Mackinac, baptism, Lucy Tanner born August 4th on trip from Red River to Kentucky via Mackinac daughter John Tanner born Kentucky and Pier La Sauteuse both living Red River. Their two other children Martha and James Tanner are likely also baptized at this time. John was living as an Indian, having been stolen by the Indians many years earlier. Pier La Sauteuse refused to go on to Kentucky saying she didn't want to live like a white person. John Tanner and his Metis kids, Martha and James, went on to be reunited with his family in Kentucky. Martha Tanner died in Kentucky and John and son James returned to Mackinac. The ending of this story is very tragic. Pier La Sauteuse Tanner was subjected to intense religious indoctrination, and was convinced that an Indian marriage was not valid and that she is living in sin; subject to the fires of hell. John refused to join the religion. They had an off and on marriage and two more kids until Pier La Sauteuse (Ojibwa) refused to live as his wife; as their Country Marriage before the Roman God was not recognized by her Church.

John Tanner was believed to have returned to Red River to trade, making enough to retire, then returned to live Sault Ste Marie a broken man. This was a common theme among the religious zealots of this era. They had no idea of the evil they were spreading among the people.

September 8: The marriage of John Bunn (1785-1853) of London and Phoebe Indian (?-1848) at Rock Depot near York Factory is believed the first marriage conducted in Western Canada by an Anglican Clergyman- the Rev. John West.

The Church of England had dispatched Chaplain John West to Red River to serve the Scottish community. His objective is to bring civilization, Christianity, education and agriculture to the west. He declared that Country marriages between a man, a woman and God was immoral and debased. This philosophy allowed the Scottish men to cast off their Country wives and to treat women as objects for temporary sexual gratification. John West represented Christian racism. He would not baptize Country Wives before they married, and would not marry them before they were baptized. He obviously considered them all heathens beyond redemption. He was dismissed in 1823 for his tactless comments on the foibles of the Red River society. His successor, Reverend David Jones, and William Cockran are hard shell divine.